Science.gov

Sample records for latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous

  1. Combined Use of the Latissimus Dorsi Musculocutaneous Flap and the Anterolateral Thigh Flap to Reconstruct an Extensive Shoulder Defect in an NF-1 Patient

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Masahide; Sakisaka, Masanobu; Kawai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Soft tissue coverage after the resection of a large malignant peripheral neural sheath tumor (MPNST) is a challenge. We report the successful reconstruction of an extensive shoulder defect after MPNST resection in a patient with a type 1 neurofibromatosis with a novel combination of flaps. A 70-year-old man with type 1 neurofibromatosis presented with a recurrent MPNST on his right shoulder. He underwent a wide excision of the tumor, which resulted in a huge soft tissue defect around the shoulder joint. The resultant defect was reconstructed with a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and a free anterolateral thigh flap. The flaps survived, and the wounds healed uneventfully. His affected arm was useful. The combination of a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and a free anterolateral thigh flap is a versatile option for the reconstruction of an extensive shoulder defect. PMID:27200231

  2. The evolving breast reconstruction: from latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap to a propeller thoracodorsal fasciocutaneous flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized for morbidity and complications. The TAP-flap does not seem to impair the function of the shoulder or arm and the morbidity appears to be scarce. However, an implant is often needed in combination with the TAP-flap, which results in implant related morbidity over time. The TAP-flap seems to be a promising tool for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods. PMID:25207206

  3. Modified free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in the reconstruction of extensive postoncologic defects in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiquan; Li, Chunhua; Chen, Jin; Cai, Yongcong; Li, Ling; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Oncological resection of advanced carcinoma in the head and neck region results in vast defects. The free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap (FLDMF) is one of the most commonly used flaps for the repair of complex head and neck defects. We tried to modify FLDMF to multiple segments or combine it with acellular dermis to fit through-and-through defects in the oral-facial region during the last decade. A retrospective review of patients with FLDMF reconstruction between 2004 and 2012 was undertaken. Demographics, histology, surgical management, disease control and overall survival, complications, radiotherapy, aesthetic outcome, as well as economic results were analyzed. The majority of the patients (66.7%) had recurrent tumors, and the rest of the patients had primary tumor with stage IV. Fourteen patients (38.9%) had a history of prior radiation therapy, whereas 27.8% of the patients had postoperative radiation therapy. The areas of the defects vary from 52 cm to 180 cm (mean, 86.4 cm). The flap failed in 1 of the 37 patients. The complications at the recipient site include hematoma (n = 6, 16.7%), venous insufficiency (n = 4, 11.1%), infection (n = 3, 8.3), and partial flap necrosis (n = 2, 5.5%). The donor-site complications include delayed healing, necrosis of skin graft, and limited shoulder function. The 5-year overall survival rate was 39.1%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 22.1%. In conclusion, the FLDMF could be modified to fit vast defects where voluminous tissue is needed to be transferred in the head and neck region. PMID:25723665

  4. A case of post-upper lobectomy empyema treated by serratus anterior muscle and pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps plombage via open-window thoracostomy.

    PubMed

    Kitami, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Shuichi; Noriyoshi, Sumiya

    2004-06-01

    A 62-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for operation for Aspergillus empyema with a fungus ball in the right upper lobe. We performed a right upper lobectomy and decortication of the middle and lower lobes through a standard posterolateral thoracotomy with dissection of the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles, in October 2000. Twenty-one days postoperatively (POD), he developed an empyema and a bronchopleural fistula. We performed open-window thoracostomy through the axilla with removal of the third and fourth ribs at 41 POD, and sterilized the open drainage cavity in the out-patient clinic 11 months after discharge. Although the condition of the bronchopleural fistulas was not improved, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in the purulent discharge, the discharge decreased. Finally, a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and serratus anterior muscle flap plombage was performed 11 months after initial operation. The patient is now well and works as a driver 21 months after discharge. We conclude that muscle flaps of the pedicled latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles can be useful for plombage of the cavity in cases of post-standard thoracotomy. PMID:15312015

  5. Reconstruction of severely infected gluteal osteoradionecrosis using negative-pressure wound therapy and latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Youn, Dong Geun; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is mandatory for aggressive cancer treatment. Unfortunately, the high-energy radiation used can lead to severe osteoradionecrosis. Radical debridement of devitalized bone and soft tissue coupled with reconstruction using well-vascularized tissues is the accepted treatment for this condition. However, osteoradionecrosis cannot be controlled easily or rapidly. The aim of this study was to present the results of the use of serial negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in combination with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for treatment of gluteal osteoradionecrosis in a consecutive series of patients. Between January 2003 and December 2012, nine patients underwent reconstruction using serial NPWT and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. We applied negative-pressure dressings for at least 8 weeks. Final reconstruction was performed after the infection was controlled. The superior gluteal artery and vein were used as recipient vessels in all the cases. The mean interval between operation and radiation therapy was 28.3 ± 8.3 years, and the mean number of debridement performed was 6.3 ± 1. NPWT dressings were applied for 8-12 weeks (mean, 9.3 ± 2 weeks). The defects ranged in size from 14 × 8 cm to 18 × 15 cm. The flap size ranged from 15 × 10 cm to 18 × 15 cm. All flaps survived uneventfully except in one patient who experienced chronic seroma and wound dehiscence. There were no recurrences of osteomyelitis during the follow-up periods (mean, 14 ± 6.1 months). Based on the results obtained from this consecutive series of patients, we suggest that this methodology may provide an alternative approach for the treatment of severe osteoradionecrosis of the gluteal region. PMID:25641653

  6. Early Management, With a Minimal Initial Hospitalization Length, of Major Self-inflicted Rifle Wounds to the Face by a Single Latissimus Dorsi Free Musculocutaneous Flap: A 10-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Danino, A. M.; Hariss, P. G.; Servant, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Severe ballistic injuries to the face create complex, composite defects of 2 facial subunits. These injuries have an extremely high economic impact for the Medicare system. The surgical goal with these patients is to restore basic functions of the face with a rapid morphological improvement. Our hypothesis is as follows: Early restoration of facial segments with a single free multiple island latissimus dorsi flap without primary bone reconstruction can significantly reduce hospitalization time and allow earlier psychiatric therapy with good morphological results. Surgical method: (1) Large debridement, bony stabilization with external fixation, and tracheotomy. (2) Definitive early reconstruction of soft tissue with composite free latissimus dorsi-scapular musculocutaneous flap. (3) Several refinements will optimize the results. Study design: Retrospective case series of lower- and middle-face composite facial close-range high-energy gunshot wound patients were evaluated. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, anatomic subsites involved, surgical procedures, flaps utilized, complications, functional outcomes, time of tracheotomy closure, hospitalization duration, and beginning of psychiatric treatment were analyzed. Results: Twelve defects were gunshot wounds, 12 free latissimus dorsi flaps, and no flap losses. Patients received psychiatric treatment after 22 days (7–29); the tracheotomy was removed in 10 patients with normal alimentation in all cases. Mean hospitalization duration was 21 days. Conclusions: Free tissue transfer techniques allow early reconstruction of the soft tissue framework of the face with a single multiple-island flap. Rapid restitution of facial compartments at a soft tissue level can dramatically reduce duration of hospitalization. PMID:19587777

  7. Development of a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap in cats.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, S A; Fowler, J D; Remedios, A M; Clapson, J B; George, D

    1996-01-01

    Anatomic and experimental evaluation of the feline latissimus dorsi muscle was performed to assess its potential use as a free muscle flap. In the anatomic study, nonselective angiography of the subscapular artery was performed in nine heparinized feline cadavers. The muscle dimensions and vascular anatomy of the dissected latissimus dorsi muscle were recorded. In the experimental study four cats underwent heterotopic transplantation of a partial latissimus dorsi flap, and three cats underwent orthotopic transplantation of a complete latissimus dorsi flap. The mean length and width of the latissimus dorsi muscle was 19.0 and 5.4 cm, respectively. The dominant vascular pedicle was the thoracodorsal artery and vein. The average length and diameter of the thoracodorsal artery was 2.7 cm and 0.6 mm, respectively. Minor vascular pedicles were provided by branches of the intercostal arteries. Numerous choke anastomoses existed between the two pedicle systems. Viability of muscle flaps based on subjective evaluation, angiography, and histopathology, was 66% and 100% in the heterotopic and orthotopic studies, respectively. Flap failure seemed to be caused by both arterial and venous thrombosis. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap met criteria required for application in microvascular reconstruction. The vascular pattern was appropriate and consistent. Donor site morbidity was low, whereas surgical accessibility was high. The muscle satisfied the physical criteria of a free flap. Long-term anastomotic patency and flap viability was shown. PMID:8719085

  8. Coverage of Amputation Stumps Using a Latissimus Dorsi Flap With a Serratus Anterior Muscle Flap: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Jeon, Seung Bae; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Amputation of the extremities is a definitive reconstructive option, and surgeons should aim to preserve maximum overall function. If the exposed bone cannot be adequately covered using local tissues, the stump can be reconstructed using a number of well-described free flap transfer techniques. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 31 patients with severe injuries to the lower extremities underwent above-the-knee, below-the-knee, and Chopart and Ray amputations. Bony stumps were covered using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps alone (group 1), or together with serratus anterior muscle flaps (group 2). The groups were compared with respect to age, flap survival, skin flap size, immediate complications, wound sloughing, deep ulceration, need for bone amputation, limb visual analog scale score, time to prosthesis, and follow-up duration. The mean area of the latissimus dorsi skin flap was 255.9 cm, and immediate complications occurred in 8 (25.8%) patients. In the double-padding group, there were fewer cases of deep ulceration than in the single-flap group, and prostheses could be worn sooner. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. Successful reconstruction of amputation stumps requires an adequate, durable, weight-bearing, and well-contoured soft tissue cover. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap together with a serratus anterior muscle flap provides well-vascularized muscle tissue and a durable skin paddle, leading to less ulceration than conventional flap techniques. PMID:25003415

  9. Latissimus dorsi pedicle flap for coverage of soft tissue defects about the elbow.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, M; Sharpe, F; Thommen, V D; Itamura, J M; Schnall, S B

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen consecutive patients who were treated with a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap for complex soft tissue defects about the elbow were reviewed. The average defect size was 100 cm2. Thirteen of the 16 patients achieved stable wound healing with a single procedure. Three patients had partial necrosis of the latissimus and required additional coverage procedures. We recommend that the latissimus dorsi flap should not be routinely used to cover defects more than 8 cm distal to the olecranon. The flap should be closely monitored in the first 48 hours, drains should be routinely used at the recipient and donor sites, and the elbow should be maintained in an extended position for the first 5 days after the procedure. The latissimus dorsi flap may also have a prophylactic role in selected patients with compromised soft tissue coverage about the elbow. The pedicled latissimus flap can be performed under loupe magnification and requires no microsurgical skills or equipment. PMID:10633903

  10. Latissimus dorsi free flap for coverage of sacral radiodermatitis in the ambulatory patient

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.; Tofield, J.J.; Terranova, W.; Hurley, D.; Kenney, J.

    1987-07-01

    Ambulatory patients with large sacral ulcers can represent extremely challenging coverage problems. Technical options become fewer when sacral ulcers are coupled with radiation dermatitis. Latissimus dorsi free flap transfer, with direct anastomoses to sacral vessels, is described in 2 patients.

  11. Fetal reconstructive surgery: experimental use of the latissimus dorsi flap to correct myelomeningocele in utero.

    PubMed

    Meuli-Simmen, C; Meuli, M; Hutchins, G M; Harrison, M R; Buncke, H J; Sullivan, K M; Adzick, N S

    1995-10-01

    A recent study in human fetuses with myelomeningocele produced evidence that nonclosure of the spine leads to progressive damage of the exposed spinal cord during pregnancy. Thus in utero coverage might spare function. We tested the use of the latissimus dorsi flap for fetal myelomeningocele repair. In seven sheep fetuses, a lumbar myelomeningocele type of lesion was created at 75 days' gestation and was covered with a "reversed" latissimus dorsi flap at 100 days. At term, the three survivors had healed cutaneous wounds and normal hindlimb function. The vascular pedicle of the latissimus dorsi flap was patent, the viable flap covered the entire lesion, and the underlying spinal cord was grossly intact. We conclude that the latissimus dorsi flap repair is suitable for fetal surgery and provides efficient coverage of the lesion. These results have clinical implications, since fetal myelomeningocele repair may be a compelling way to reduce the severe neurologic deficit in humans. PMID:7568473

  12. Activity of latissimus dorsi muscle during inspiratory threshold loads.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Monells, J; Aran, X; Aguar, M C; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    The ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) to participate as an accessory inspiratory muscle has been the subject of controversy. Electromyographic (EGM) activity of LD was evaluated in 11 healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 2 yrs; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 106 +/- 5% predicted; maximal inspiratory pressure (Pmax), 120 +/- 6 cmH2O) under different breathing conditions. The ipsilateral biceps brachii was chosen as the control muscle. The EMG was recorded from surface electrodes, but needle electrodes were also used for LD evaluation in a subset of three subjects. The EMG signal from both muscles was recorded simultaneously, rectified and integrated, with subtraction of the electrocardiographic signal. Situations evaluated were: 1) maximal voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) apnoea; and 3) breathing under progressive inspiratory threshold loads (20-100% Pmax, at 20% intervals). A close relationship was evident between LD recordings from surface and needle electrodes (r = 0.975). Activity of LD at baseline was 1.8 +/- 0.4% MVC, and showed a phasic increase during inspiration under loads. This change had a linear tendency and was significant for loads corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of Pmax when compared to the control muscle. At this latter level, LD activity was equivalent to 32 +/- 5% MVC (range 11-61%), whereas mean activity of the control muscle was less than 7.5% MVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7789491

  13. Activity Patterns in Latissimus Dorsi and Sternocleidomastoid in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Alan H.D.; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Methods Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. Results In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. Conclusions LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. PMID:21724365

  14. Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gerling, Michael E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2013-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi is primarily considered a muscle with actions at the shoulder, despite its widespread attachments at the spine. There is some dispute regarding the potential contribution of this muscle to lumbar spine function. The architectural design of a muscle is one of the most accurate predictors of muscle function; however, detailed architectural data on the latissimus dorsi muscle are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the architectural properties of the latissimus dorsi muscle and model mechanical function in light of these new data. One latissimus dorsi muscle was removed from each of 12 human cadavers, separated into regions, and micro-dissected for quantification of fascicle length, sarcomere length, and physiological cross-sectional area. From these data, sarcomere length operating ranges were modelled to determine the force–length characteristics of latissimus dorsi across the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. The physiological cross-sectional area of latissimus dorsi was 5.6 ± 0.5 cm2 and normalized fascicle length was 26.4 ± 1.0 cm, indicating that this muscle is designed to produce a moderate amount of force over a large range of lengths. Measured sarcomere length in the post-mortem neutral spine posture was nearly optimal at 2.69 ± 0.06 μm. Across spine range of motion, biomechanical modelling predicted latissimus dorsi acts across both the ascending and descending limbs of the force–length curve during lateral bend, and primarily at or near the plateau region (where maximum force generation is possible) during flexion/extension and axial twist. Across shoulder range of motion, latissimus dorsi acts primarily on the plateau region and descending limbs of the force length curve during both flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. These data provide novel insights into the ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle to generate force and change length throughout the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. In addition

  15. Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Michael E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2013-08-01

    The latissimus dorsi is primarily considered a muscle with actions at the shoulder, despite its widespread attachments at the spine. There is some dispute regarding the potential contribution of this muscle to lumbar spine function. The architectural design of a muscle is one of the most accurate predictors of muscle function; however, detailed architectural data on the latissimus dorsi muscle are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the architectural properties of the latissimus dorsi muscle and model mechanical function in light of these new data. One latissimus dorsi muscle was removed from each of 12 human cadavers, separated into regions, and micro-dissected for quantification of fascicle length, sarcomere length, and physiological cross-sectional area. From these data, sarcomere length operating ranges were modelled to determine the force-length characteristics of latissimus dorsi across the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. The physiological cross-sectional area of latissimus dorsi was 5.6±0.5 cm2 and normalized fascicle length was 26.4±1.0 cm, indicating that this muscle is designed to produce a moderate amount of force over a large range of lengths. Measured sarcomere length in the post-mortem neutral spine posture was nearly optimal at 2.69±0.06 μm. Across spine range of motion, biomechanical modelling predicted latissimus dorsi acts across both the ascending and descending limbs of the force-length curve during lateral bend, and primarily at or near the plateau region (where maximum force generation is possible) during flexion/extension and axial twist. Across shoulder range of motion, latissimus dorsi acts primarily on the plateau region and descending limbs of the force length curve during both flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. These data provide novel insights into the ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle to generate force and change length throughout the spine and shoulder ranges of motion. In addition, these

  16. The Scarless Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Lower Pole Prosthetic Coverage in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Miteff, Kirstin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evolution of surgical breast cancer treatment has led to the oncologically safe preservation of greater amounts of native skin, yet we are still often using flaps with large skin paddles, thereby resulting in significant donor-site scars. This explains the increasing appeal of acellular dermal matrix reconstructions. Acellular dermal matrices can, however, have significant problems, particularly if there is any vascular compromise of the mastectomy skin flaps. We have developed a method of raising the latissimus dorsi flap through the anterior mastectomy incisions without requiring special instruments or repositioning. This can provide autologous vascularized cover of the prosthesis. Methods: A clear surgical description of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap harvest is provided, and our results of a retrospective cohort review of 20 consecutive patients with 27 traditional latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions were compared with those of 20 consecutive patients with 30 scarless latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions. Results: Operative time, length of stay, and complication rates were reduced in the scarless group. Patients Breast-Q scores were equivalent in each group. The aesthetic assessment was good/excellent in 77% of both groups; however, subscale assessment was better in the scarless group. This was statistically significant (P = 0.0). Conclusions: Breast reconstruction using the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is time effective, requires no patient repositioning, and uses standard breast instrumentation. It is safe and versatile while reducing the risk of exposed prosthesis if native skin necrosis occurs. It is a vascularized alternative to acellular dermal matrices. PMID:25289340

  17. Structure of the latissimus dorsi muscle and respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Sauleda, J; Corominas, J M; Minguella, J; Aran, X; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether respiratory function influences the structure of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD). Twelve patients (58 +/- 10 yr) undergoing thoracotomy were studied. Lung and respiratory muscle function were evaluated before surgery. Patients showed a forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 67 +/- 16% of the reference value, an FEV1-forced vital capacity ratio of 69 +/- 9%, a maximal inspiratory pressure of 101 +/- 21% of the reference value, and a tension-time index of the diaphragm (TTdi) of 0.04 +/- 0.02. When patients were exposed to 8% CO2 breathing, TTdi increased to 0.06 +/- 0.03 (P < 0.05). The structural analysis of LD showed that 51 +/- 5% of the fibers were type I. The diameter was 56 +/- 9 microns for type I fibers and 61 +/- 9 microns for type II fibers, whereas the hypertrophy factor was 87 +/- 94 and 172 +/- 208 for type I and II fibers, respectively. Interestingly, the histogram distribution of the LD fibers was unimodal in two of the three individuals with normal lung function and bimodal (additional mode of hypertrophic fibers) in seven of the nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An inverse relationship was found between the %FEV1-forced vital capacity ratio and both the diameter of the fibers (type I: r = -0.773, P < 0.005; type II: r = -0.590, P < 0.05) and the hypertrophy factors (type I: r = -0.647, P < 0.05; type II: r = -0.575, P = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7775307

  18. Split latissimus dorsi muscle flap repair of acquired, nonmalignant, intrathoracic tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Gursel, Eti; Baciewicz, Frank A

    2015-06-01

    The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and oesophagus due to nonmalignant causes is uncommon. Division of the fistula with muscle flap interposition eliminates contact between the tracheobronchial segment and the oesophagus, theoretically decreasing the chance of recurrence as well as providing a robust blood supply to aid in healing. The split latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a well-suited flap for such repairs because of the ability to simultaneously cover two separate apertures (tracheobronchial and oesophageal). The authors describe the split latissimus dorsi muscle flap with step-by-step technique for repair of intrathoracic aerodigestive fistulas. PMID:25697381

  19. Acute Traumatic Tear of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle in an Elite Track Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Mehmet Mesut; Ergen, Emin; Üstüner, Evren

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively. PMID:24765503

  20. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for massive, irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Rabah; Romine, Lucas; Yao, David C; Duncan, Scott F M

    2014-09-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears remain a complex and challenging problem for both the patient and the surgeon. Although significant advancements in surgical techniques as well as technology for arthroscopic and mini-open rotator cuff repairs have been made, many massive tears result in failed repair with continued progressive tendon retraction and degeneration. In cases when primary tendon to bone healing is impractical, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer provides promising and reproducible clinical results. Herein, we present a latissimus tendon transfer surgical technique, a procedure we have used as a salvage operation for failed arthroscopic/mini-open primary rotator cuff repair. PMID:24854152

  1. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting. PMID:24402450

  2. [Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with implant in breast reconstruction: The technique of the dorsal bra].

    PubMed

    Bruant-Rodier, C; Chiriac, S; Baratte, A; Dissaux, C; Bodin, F

    2016-06-01

    The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with an implant is an effective breast reconstruction solution especially in irradiated patients. The authors describe the specific technical aspects that allow them to optimize the results of this intervention. In the back, the skin paddle is drawn in the shape of a horizontal spindle so as to conceal the residual scar under the bra. In breast area, a J-shaped contraincision barring the mastectomy scar ensures a harmonious positioning of the skin paddle to the inferolateral part of the breast. After a 180° rotation, the latissimus dorsi muscle envelops the implant like a bra. Its upper edge is attached at the bottom to define the new submammary fold. Under the pectoralis major muscle, its distal end comes to fill the décolleté above the implant. PMID:26117706

  3. The pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Shan; Ji, Tong; Zhang, Chen Ping

    2014-08-01

    The pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (PLDMF) is not the first-line reconstructive option for most clinicians; however, when treating salvage patients or those with depleted neck vessels, the PLDMF provides a valuable armamentarium. Unlike the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap or the lower island trapezius flap, the PLDMF has greater versatility in soft tissue design and a longer arc of rotation. These advantages are of great importance in managing advanced reconstructive cases. PMID:24958381

  4. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction: Case Report of a CrossFit-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Stensby, J Derek; Hillen, Travis J; Demertzis, Jennifer L; Keener, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a "muscle up." Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. PMID:26502450

  5. Treatment of the severely infected frontal sinus with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Youn, Seung Ki; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Sang Wha; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Chang Yeon

    2011-05-01

    In trauma patients with severe intracranial hemorrhaging, diagnosing facial bone fractures can be delayed. In frontal sinus fractures with nasofrontal duct obstruction, obliteration of the nasofrontal duct and the sinus is the current treatment of choice. But with inadequate management, ascending infections happen, and widely spread infections can involve the entire frontal soft tissues, which result in meningitis, encephalitis, and subcutaneous abscess pockets creating skin defects. In the treatment of these infections, radical debridement of all infected tissues including galea, pericranium, and surrounding soft tissues is obligatory; hence, available local vascularized flap options for obliteration of the postdebridement defect are scarce. In these situations, free-tissue transfer can be a treatment option. Although there have been numerous reports of using nonvascularized materials for obliteration of the frontal sinus, the material itself can serve as a nidus for infection, and it is generally accepted that well-vascularized tissues have greater ability to withstand local soft-tissue infection and osteomyelitis. Hence, we report 3 cases where we performed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps for severe frontal sinus infections after frontal cranioplasty for severe hemorrhaging. Large bulks of muscle obliterated the nasofrontal duct and the dead space surrounding the entire frontal sinus. The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is not a permanent solution for frontal sinus reconstruction, which requires a secondary bony reconstruction. However, when we face acute stages of intractable infections of the frontal sinus, it can control the infection and result in saving the patient's life. PMID:21558912

  6. Reconstruction of a Severely Crushed Leg with Interpositional Vessel Grafts and Latissimus Dorsi Flap

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a near total amputation at the distal tibial level, in which the patient emphatically wanted to save the leg. The anterior and posterior tibial nerves were intact, indicating a high possibility of sensory recovery after revascularization. The patient had open fractures at the tibia and fibula, but no bone shortening was performed. The posterior tibial vessels were reconstructed with an interposition saphenous vein graft from the contralateral side and a usable anterior tibial artery graft from the undamaged ipsilateral distal portions. The skin and soft tissue defects were covered using a subatmospheric pressure system for demarcating the wound, and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap for definite coverage of the wound. At 6 months after surgery, the patient was ambulatory without requiring additional procedures. Replantation without bone shortening, with use of vessel grafts and temporary coverage of the wound with subatmospheric pressure dressings before definite coverage, can shorten recovery time. PMID:22872848

  7. Reconstruction of the pelvis and perineum with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kieran, I; Nugent, N; Riordain, M Ó; Kelly, J

    2012-11-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum and pelvic cavity in continuity is an uncommon and difficult challenge. This case describes a 66-year-old man who presented following recurrence of a Dukes' B rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma that had been treated nine years previously by anterior resection, 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy. His recurrent disease was treated with radical pelvic exenteration with formation of an end colostomy and urinary ileal conduit. A post-operative pelvic collection necessitated incisional drainage via the perineum. This resulted in a perineal defect in continuity with the pelvic cavity, neither of which healed in spite of alternate day packing with antiseptic dressings. The perineum and cavity were reconstructed successfully with a microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi using the primary gracilis pedicle as recipient donor vessels. PMID:23131218

  8. Changes in Activation of Serratus Anterior, Trapezius and Latissimus Dorsi With Slouched Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok Tae; Moon, Jinkyoo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Cho, Kye Hee; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, MinYoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare quantitative muscle activation between erect and slouched sitting postures in the muscles around the scapula, and to investigate the correlation between the angle of thoracic kyphosis and the alteration of muscle activity depending on two different sitting postures. Methods Ten healthy males participated in the study. Unilateral surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed for serratus anterior, middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT), which are scapular stabilizer muscles, as well as latissimus dorsi. Participants elevated their shoulders for 3 seconds up to 90° abduction in the scapular plane, tilting 30° anterior in the coronal plane. They were told to hold the position for 10 seconds and voluntary isometric contractions were recorded by SEMG. These movement procedures were conducted for three times each for erect and slouched sitting postures and data were averaged. Results Activities of MT and LT increased significantly more in the slouched sitting posture than in the erect one. There was no significant correlation between kyphotic angle and the area under curve of each muscle. Conclusion Because MT and LT are known as prime movers of scapular rotation, the findings of this study support the notion that slouched sitting posture affects scapular movement. Such scapular dyskinesis during arm elevation leads to scapular stabilizers becoming overactive, and is relevant to muscle fatigue. Thus, slouched sitting posture could be one of the risk factors involved in musculoskeletal pain around scapulae. PMID:27152283

  9. Do surface electrode recordings validly represent latissimus dorsi activation patterns during shoulder tasks?

    PubMed

    Ginn, Karen A; Halaki, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Because of its superficial location surface electrodes are commonly used to record latissimus dorsi (LD) activity. Despite the fact that the recommended electrode placement is over the belly where LD is quite thin no studies have investigated the possibility of signal contamination from muscles lying deep to LD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of using surface electrodes to record activity from LD. Eight asymptomatic subjects performed ramped isometric (0-100% maximum load) and dynamic (70% maximum load) shoulder tasks. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted into LD and the adjacent erector spinae. Surface electrodes were placed over LD around the intramuscular electrodes. Results indicated that while there was no difference in activity level or activation pattern (ICC>0.94) recorded by the two electrode types during shoulder tasks in which LD would be expected to be active (extension and adduction), significantly lower (p<0.05) LD activity was recorded via intramuscular electrodes during the shoulder flexion and abduction tasks. Therefore, recordings of LD activity by surface electrodes overestimate LD activity during shoulder tasks when this muscle would be expected to be activated at minimum levels. Erector spinae immediately deep to LD was confirmed as a source of crosstalk contamination. PMID:25467544

  10. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  11. A computer simulation study of isometric contraction of latissimus dorsi muscle used for cardiac assistance.

    PubMed

    Minoura, T; Mizuhara, H; Tsutsumi, S; Nishimura, K; Ban, T

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of a skeletal muscle pump employing latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) for cardiac assistance. We developed and used a 2-dimensional mathematical model for LDM to investigate how the size of pneumatic balloons (30, 38, and 45 ml) and the three different locations (proximal, center, and distal) affect the pressure applied to the balloon by LDM. The computer simulation was performed by coding a visco-elastic and nonlinear 2-dimensional program that employed the finite element method (FEM). The muscle specific parameters of LDM were obtained from animal experiment results. The model is based on Hill's characteristic equation and composed of a contractile component and a passive element. The simulation results indicated that the intermediate and largest sized balloon lead to the highest and the lowest power (volume reduction per unit time interval), respectively. On the other hand, when the balloon is inserted in the distal LDM, the power is lower than in the other two positions, regardless of the balloon size. The above results suggest that the optimal size of the balloon should be selected depending on the muscle specific parameters of the actuator, and that the balloon should be inserted either in the proximal portion or center of the actuator. PMID:9360153

  12. Video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy preserves more latissimus dorsi muscle than conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Takahiro; Nakajima, Jun; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Fukami, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Kusakabe, Masashi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-03-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early lung cancer has become technically feasible. We sought to determine if VATS preserved chest wall muscle postoperatively better than thoracotomy. Consecutive patients who underwent lobectomy between 2004 and 2006 for clinical Stage IA non-small cell lung cancer through VATS (VATS group) or posterolateral thoracotomy (PLT group) at our institution were eligible for the study. The cross-sectional areas of bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) at the lower end of the scapula were obtained by computed tomography preoperatively and one year after surgery. These were quantified with image analysis by two researchers in a blinded manner. Fourteen patients in the VATS group (mean age, 68 years; 8 men, 6 women) and 24 patients in the PLT group (mean age, 62 years; 14 men, 10 women) were assessed. Postoperative/preoperative ratios of the LDM cross-section areas on the surgical side were 89+/-20% (Mean+/-S.D.) in the VATS group and 57+/-16% in the PLT group (P<0.001). Those on the non-surgical side were 89+/-23% in the VATS group and 97+/-16% in the PLT group (P=0.23). We conclude that VATS may prevent atrophy of LDM on the surgical side better than conventional thoracotomy. PMID:19059949

  13. Myosin Isoforms and Contractile Properties of Single Fibers of Human Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pacelli, Quirico F.; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Reggiani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females. PMID:23971027

  14. Two-Stage Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Implant for Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: Getting the Size Right

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiajun; Pardoe, Cleone I; Mota, Ashley Manuel; Chui, Christopher Hoe Kong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy is to craft a natural-looking breast with symmetry. The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap with implant is an established technique for this purpose. However, it is challenging to obtain adequate volume and satisfactory aesthetic results using a one-stage operation when considering factors such as muscle atrophy, wound dehiscence and excessive scarring. The two-stage reconstruction addresses these difficulties by using a tissue expander to gradually enlarge the skin pocket which eventually holds an appropriately sized implant. Methods We analyzed nine patients who underwent unilateral two-stage LD reconstruction. In the first stage, an expander was placed along with the LD flap to reconstruct the mastectomy defect, followed by gradual tissue expansion to achieve overexpansion of the skin pocket. The final implant volume was determined by measuring the residual expander volume after aspirating the excess saline. Finally, the expander was replaced with the chosen implant. Results The average volume of tissue expansion was 460 mL. The resultant expansion allowed an implant ranging in volume from 255 to 420 mL to be placed alongside the LD muscle. Seven patients scored less than six on the relative breast retraction assessment formula for breast symmetry, indicating excellent breast symmetry. The remaining two patients scored between six and eight, indicating good symmetry. Conclusions This approach allows the size of the eventual implant to be estimated after the skin pocket has healed completely and the LD muscle has undergone natural atrophy. Optimal reconstruction results were achieved using this approach. PMID:27018318

  15. Intraoperative hemodynamic evaluation of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Fulvio; Giordano, Salvatore; Tukiainen, Erkki

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess intraoperatively the hemodynamic changes in the donor vessel of free latissimus dorsi (LD) flap before and after denervation and to analyze flow changes after flap transfer. Twenty-seven patients underwent LD muscle microvascular reconstruction for lower-limb soft tissue defects. Measurements of blood flow were performed intraoperatively by using a 2- to 5-mm probe ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter around the dissected vessels. Registrations were made in the thoracodorsal artery before and after harvesting the flap, after compressing and cutting the motor nerve, and after anastomosis. Mean blood flow of in situ harvested thoracodorsal artery as measured intraoperatively by transit-time flowmeter was (mean ± standard deviation) 16.6 ± 11 mL/min and was significantly increased after raising the flap to 24.0 ± 22 mL/min (p <0.05); it was 25.6 ± 23 mL/min after compressing the motor nerve and was significantly increased after cutting the motor nerve to 32.5 ± 26 mL/min (p <0.05). A significant increase of blood flow to 28.1 ± 19 mL/min was also detected in the thoracodorsal artery after flap transplantation with end-to-side anastomosis (p <0.05). Vascular resistance in the thoracodorsal artery significantly decreased after flap raising and anastomosis (from 7.5 ± 3.4 to 4.0 ± 1.9 and to 4.5 ± 2.4, respectively, p <0.05). LD flap harvesting increases blood flow and decreases resistance in the thoracodorsal artery, especially after denervation. PMID:22492006

  16. Myofascial force transmission between the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus muscles: an in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Viviane Otoni do Carmo; Ocarino, Juliana de Melo; Araújo, Vanessa Lara; Souza, Thales Rezende; Silva, Paula Lanna Pereira; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2013-03-15

    There are extensive connections between the latissimus dorsi (LD) and gluteus maximus (GMax) muscles and the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF), which suggests a possible pathway for myofascial force transmission. The present study was designed to provide empirical evidence of myofascial force transmission from LD to contralateral GMax through TFL in vivo. To accomplish this goal, we evaluated whether active or passive tensioning of the LD results in increased passive tension of the contralateral GMax, indexed by changes in the hip resting position (RP) or passive stiffness. The hip RP was defined as the angular position in which the passive joint torque equals zero, and passive hip stiffness was calculated as the change in passive torque per change in joint angle. Thirty-seven subjects underwent an assessment of their passive hip torque against medial rotation by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. These measures were carried out under three test conditions: (1) control, (2) passive LD tensioning and (3) active LD tensioning. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the hip muscles and the LD under all conditions. Repeated measures analyses of variance demonstrated that passive LD tensioning shifted the hip RP towards lateral rotation (p=0.009) but did not change the passive hip stiffness (p>0.05). Active LD tensioning shifted the hip RP towards lateral rotation (p<0.001) and increased the passive hip stiffness (p≤0.004). The results demonstrated that manipulation of the LD tension modified the passive hip variables, providing evidence of myofascial force transmission in vivo. PMID:23394717

  17. [Evaluation of patients' satisfaction after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and immediate permanent breast implant].

    PubMed

    Bognár, Gábor; Gőgh, Bettina; Novák, András; István, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    Current surgical treatment modalities for breast reconstruction include latissimus dorsi mycotaneous flap with immediate permanent breast implant (LDI). The aim of the present study was to analyze reconstruction with LDI in terms of quality of life, cosmesis and patient satisfaction. A chart analysis was carried out with the first ten patients who underwent breast reconstruction with LDI. The patients were interviewed and self-assessment quality of life was administered. They also underwent assessment of satisfaction and cosmesis. The high satisfaction and cosmesis scores in the breast reconstruction group indicate the superior results that can be achieved with breast reconstruction. PMID:24747404

  18. Effects of high intensity canoeing training on fibre area and fibre type in the latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S J; Hardy, L

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity short duration exercise training programme was undertaken by nine subjects on three occasions each week for nine weeks. Muscle samples from the latissimus dorsi were taken by needle biopsy, at rest, before and after training. The results revealed that there was no change in either Type I or Type II muscle fibre distribution following training. Type I fibre area did not alter significantly as a result of the training stress. Mean cross-sectional area of Type II fibres was 82 per cent greater post-training than pre-training. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2730995

  19. Primary Combined Latissimus Dorsi and Serratus Anterior Flap Repair of Right-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Agenesis in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Madan; Parapurath, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Large diaphragmatic defects can be repaired with latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps. We report the first successful primary repair of complete congenital diaphragmatic agenesis using a combination of autologous living bio-tissue and synthetic mesh in a neonate born in the NMC Specialty Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in May 2014. Poor Apgar scores, a scaphoid abdomen and absent breath sounds over the right hemithorax were observed at birth. Chest and abdominal X-rays revealed a diaphragmatic hernia. The neonate was stabilised using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, nitric oxide and sildenafil. The right diaphragm was reconstructed using combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps reinforced by a flexible composite mesh. At 12 months old, the infant had normal respiratory function and the diaphragm was intact. No disabilities of the shoulder or scapula were observed. This case indicates that a combination of living tissue and synthetic mesh can be used to reconstruct a functional diaphragm with efficient pleuroperitoneal separation. PMID:26909223

  20. The outcome of Jarcho–Levin syndrome treated with a functional latissimus dorsi flap – A series of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Gangurde, Bipin A.; Raut, Binita; Mehta, Rujuta; Thatte, Mukund R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Jarcho-Levin syndrome is manifested by vertebral body and rib malformations. Large rib defects with paradoxical chest motion lead to early deathdue to progressive respiratory insufficiency, hence it is a lethal syndrome. The only means of improving survival is early stabilisation of the chest wall defect by containing the thoracic herniation. Nitcher et al. and Thatte et al. showed that reconstruction of the chest wall was life saving. Thatte et al. had postulated that early coverage of the lungs and thoracic contents with functional latissimus dorsi may prevent the visceral overgrowth and secondary pleural changes. Materials and Methods: Our three cases which had medium- and long-term follow-up help to support this postulation. Three patients were assessed retrospectively. Their ages at surgery were 6 months, 8 months and 1 year, respectively. All had laboured breathing and paradoxical respiration. All of them were operated with ipsilateral latissimus dorsi flap. Results: The results were evaluated clinically. The patients had reduced or no respiratory infections. The lung compliance improved and they had no tachypnoea on walking, running or playing. Conclusion: Hence, this can be used as a life-saving procedure for Jarcho-Levin syndrome on a long-term basis. PMID:22754151

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the heel with free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction: case report and technical note.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud; Barsoum, Adel K; Moneer, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer; however, it is relatively rare on the foot. Wide excision of SCC is the recommended surgical treatment. The extent of the excision may involve resection of muscles and bone in cases of deep lesions. The functional and anatomic properties and lack of sufficient locally available tissues make the reconstruction of post-oncosurgical defects of the foot a challenging process. Heel reconstruction poses the biggest challenge due to the unique weight-bearing requirements. We present a case of a Marjolin's ulcer on the heel in a 62-year-old woman complicating a chronic non-healing wound. The heel defect was reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with delayed secondary closure. The outcome was successful both functionally and cosmetically. No further procedures were needed. PMID:27161144

  2. Bronchopleural fistula after pneumonectomy: interdisciplinary surgical closure by an ipsilateral pedicled latissimus dorsi flap supported by video-assisted thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, A; Scholz, T; Diedrichson, J; Arens-Landwehr, A; Schroeder-Finckh, R; Liebau, J

    2013-11-01

    Post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula (BPF) remains a rare but often life-threatening complication and therapeutic challenge. Traditional surgical procedures include chronic open drainage, attempts at direct stump closure, thoracoplasty with or without chest wall muscle transposition and trans-sternal bronchial closure. We describe a case with successful closure of a chronic BPF after pneumonectomy by intrathoracic transposition of a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap circumferentially fixed on the surrounding pleural tissue under continuous video-assisted thoracoscopic overview. The postoperative course was without complications; no tumour, empyema or fistula re-occurred. In this article we want to present the potential advantages of video-assisted thoracoscopic support and interdisciplinary teamwork to improve the outcome of patients with BPFs after pneumonectomy. PMID:23587680

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the heel with free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction: case report and technical note

    PubMed Central

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud; Barsoum, Adel K.; Moneer, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer; however, it is relatively rare on the foot. Wide excision of SCC is the recommended surgical treatment. The extent of the excision may involve resection of muscles and bone in cases of deep lesions. The functional and anatomic properties and lack of sufficient locally available tissues make the reconstruction of post-oncosurgical defects of the foot a challenging process. Heel reconstruction poses the biggest challenge due to the unique weight-bearing requirements. We present a case of a Marjolin’s ulcer on the heel in a 62-year-old woman complicating a chronic non-healing wound. The heel defect was reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with delayed secondary closure. The outcome was successful both functionally and cosmetically. No further procedures were needed. PMID:27161144

  4. Bipolar Latissimus Dorsi Transfer through a Single Incision: First Key-Step in Poland Syndrome Chest Deformity.

    PubMed

    Watfa, William; di Summa, Pietro G; Raffoul, Wassim

    2016-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a unilateral congenital absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle. The absence of the pectoralis major does not only result in chest asymmetry but also in a missing anterior axillary fold, which is essential for natural anatomical appearance in both male and female patients. In Poland syndrome patients, we perform bipolar latissimus dorsi flap transfer, which can be associated with a sublatissimus implant in women. All procedures are performed through a single short midaxillary incision, and tendon translocation in this technique allows the creation of the anterior axillary fold and thus a natural chest appearance. Moreover, this technique can be performed by any plastic surgeon operating under a basic operating room setting. PMID:27622115

  5. Bipolar Latissimus Dorsi Transfer through a Single Incision: First Key–Step in Poland Syndrome Chest Deformity

    PubMed Central

    di Summa, Pietro G.; Raffoul, Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a unilateral congenital absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle. The absence of the pectoralis major does not only result in chest asymmetry but also in a missing anterior axillary fold, which is essential for natural anatomical appearance in both male and female patients. In Poland syndrome patients, we perform bipolar latissimus dorsi flap transfer, which can be associated with a sublatissimus implant in women. All procedures are performed through a single short midaxillary incision, and tendon translocation in this technique allows the creation of the anterior axillary fold and thus a natural chest appearance. Moreover, this technique can be performed by any plastic surgeon operating under a basic operating room setting. PMID:27622115

  6. An extensive defect on the tibia covered by a free cross flap using m. latissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Kletenský, J; Pros, Z; Stehlík, J

    1992-01-01

    Using a clinical case, the authors demonstrate the technique of covering an extensive tibial defect unmanageable, due to blood supply to the limb and extent of the defect, by conventional methods. The required amount of tissue was provided by a flap obtained from m. latissimus dorst transferred to the site of defect as a free cross flap. PMID:1284265

  7. Use of Latissimus Dorsi Pedicled Myocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction in the Chest Area of an 8-Month-Old Female Infant with Ectopia Cordis

    PubMed Central

    Dastagir, Khaled; Breymann, Thomas; Heckmann, Andreas; Horke, Alexander; Vogt, Peter Maria

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is characterized by a complete or partial malposition of the heart outside the thorax. Despite the interdisciplinary treatment, the repair of EC is still very difficult and offers new surgical challenges because of its complexity and various combinations with other anomalies. We report the successful outcome after using a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in reconstructive surgery in the setting of chronic wound dehiscence in an 8-month-old female infant born with a thoracic EC and omphalocele. PMID:25798359

  8. Recurrent cystosarcoma phylloides of breast: extensive full-thickness excision of chest wall with immediate repair using steel mesh and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Mindikoğlu, A N; Aktan, K

    1983-10-01

    The case of a young woman with a massive recurrent cystosarcoma phylloides of the breast is presented in whom a full thickness excision of the chest wall was carried out en bloc together with four ribs. The large full-thickness defect of the chest wall was reconstructed with stainless steel mesh and covered by a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. The management of post-operative paradoxical movement is also described. PMID:6313105

  9. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  10. Arthroscopic fixation with a minimally invasive axillary approach for latissimus dorsi transfer using an endobutton in massive and irreparable postero-superior cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Yariv; Grimberg, Jean; Valenti, Philippe; Chechik, Ofir; Drexler, Michael; Kany, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer is a viable option for treatment of patients in their 50s to 70s, without arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, who suffer from massive rotator cuff tears that are not amendable to primary repair due to fatty changes in the muscle tissue, or that have failed previous repair attempts. This procedure offers immediate and dramatic pain relief and is not as technically demanding as one might think. Understanding and respecting the principles of tendon transfer is a key to the success of this procedure. PMID:23960367

  11. Reconstruction of large defect of foot with extensive bone loss exclusively using a latissimus dorsi muscle free flap: a potential new indication for this flap.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Casal, Diogo

    2012-01-01

    In cases of extensive damage to the foot, with significant bone loss, it is generally accepted that reconstruction must include bone flaps or grafts either in the emergency setting or subsequently. In this report, we describe the case of an 18-year-old student with an avulsion injury of the dorsum of his right foot. Consequently, he lost most of the soft tissue over the dorsum of the foot and the cuboid, navicular, and cuneiform bones. A latissimus dorsi free flap was used to reconstruct the defect. A functional pseudoarthrosis developed between the remaining bones of the foot, and the patient experienced satisfactory foot function after rehabilitation. For this reason, no additional reconstructive procedure was undertaken. This case suggests that it might be adequate to use the latissimus dorsi muscle flap more liberally than previously reported in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the dorsum of the foot, including cases with significant bone loss. This option could avoid the morbidity and inconvenience of a second surgery and the need to harvest a bone flap or graft. PMID:21945400

  12. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction–Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  13. Immediate nipple reconstruction with thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Jinguang; Xu, Hua; Wang, Tao; Qiao, Yufei; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Loss of long-term projection is the major disadvantage of nipple reconstruction using local flaps. We report a technique of immediate perforator flap nipple reconstruction in breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome. From March 2007 to July 2012, 12 female patients (age range, 15-21 years) underwent breast reconstructions and immediate nipple reconstructions. A thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap was simultaneously raised on the LD muscle flap and folded by itself to form the nipple. Both the LD flap and TAP flaps survived postoperatively. The nipple projection was measured by a caliper, and the average loss was 29% by the 1-year follow-up. Eleven patients considered the aesthetic appearance of reconstructed breast and nipple to be very good or good. The immediate nipple reconstruction with TAP flap could be safely performed and results in considerable satisfaction in breast reconstruction by LD myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome. PMID:25752505

  14. [Reconstruction of the anterior chest wall by a sandwich-type combination of a synthetic support and a muscle flap from the latissimus dorsi. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Lanfrey, E; Grolleau, J L; Glock, Y; Chavoin, J P; Costagliola, M

    1996-04-01

    Reconstruction of the chest wall after balistic or other trauma requires good and muscle cover and creation of a new, stable and airtight wall. The authors present a case of balistic trauma of the right anterolateral chest wall which was urgently debrided and subsequently reconstructed by sandwich combination of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and synthetic material composed of a sheet of PTFE and creation of two methylmethylacrylate ribs. The advantage of this technique is that it avoids the use of autologous tissue from an already weakened chest wall and confers a new chest stability in several sites corresponding to the wall defect with easily available and easy-to-use materials. PMID:8761064

  15. [Myocutaneous latissimus dorsi sliding flap in reconstruction of the lower thoracic wall in chronic fistula caused by cystic echinococcosis of the liver].

    PubMed

    Mouton, W; Schweizer, W; Zuber, J C; Tschopp, H; Blumgart, L H

    1991-07-01

    We report the successful treatment of a 47-year-old man who had a 22-year history of chronic discharge from a hepatic echinococcal cyst. Before treatment in our unit there had been 8 previous attempts to control the fistula. By means of a right thoracoabdominal incision (with resection of the 7th and 8th ribs) it was possible to perform a cystectomy with subsequent marsupialisation of the residual cyst wall to the skin. However, after 2 weeks subsequent treatment with maximal Albendazol therapy there was still a big persistent cavity which required further débridement. This resulted in resolution of the infection and allowed a definitive closure of the big cavity and the thoracoabdominal wall using a myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap. The patient's subsequent course has been uneventful with no recurrence of the fistula. PMID:1938443

  16. Evaluation of elbow flexion following free muscle transfer from the medial gastrocnemius or transfer from the latissimus dorsi, in cases of traumatic injury of the brachial plexus☆

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Kwae, Mário Yoshihide; da Silva, Ricardo Pereira; Porto, Celmo Celeno; de Paiva Magalhães, Daniel; Paulino, Matheus Veloso

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the gain in elbow flexion in patients with traumatic injury of the brachial plexus following muscle transfer from latissimus dorsi with the gain following free muscle transfer from the medial belly of the gastrocnemius. Methods This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of a convenience sample of 13 patients operated between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Group 1 comprised seven patients who underwent transfers from the gastrocnemius and group 2 (controls) comprised six patients who underwent transfers from the latissimus dorsi. The following functions were evaluated: (1) range of motion (ROM) of elbow flexion, in degrees, using manual goniometry and (2) grade of elbow flexion strength, using a muscle strength scale. Satisfactory results were defined as: (1) elbow flexion ROM ≥ 80° and (2) elbow flexion strength ≥ M3. The Fisher exact and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used (p < 0.05). Results The patients’ mean age was 32 years (range: 17–56) and 72% had been involved in motorcycle accidents. Elbow flexion strength ≥ M3 was observed in seven patients (100%) in group 1 and in five patients (83.3%) in group 2 (p = 0.462). None of the patients presented M5, and one patient (16.7%) in group 2 had a poor result (M2). Elbow flexion ROM with a gain ≥ 80° (daily functions) was found in six patients (86%) in group 1 and in three patients (50%) in group 2 (p = 0.1). Conclusion The patients in group 1 had greater gains in strength and ROM than did those in group 2, but without statistical significance. Thus, transfers from the gastrocnemius become a new surgical option, if other techniques cannot be used. PMID:27218077

  17. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    PubMed Central

    Konarik, Marek; Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”). Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus. PMID:25428677

  18. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Caballero, Carlos; Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-08-01

    A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  19. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  20. Management of giant inferior triangle lumbar hernia (Petit's triangle hernia): A rare complication following delayed breast reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    PubMed Central

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis and delineated an 18 cm lumbar defect filled with lower and large bowel. At operation, the defect was exposed and the hernia sac reduced. In order to obtain stability, the remained local muscle and fascia flaps were mobilized into the defect. Additional strength was achieved with a two-layer closure of prosthetic mesh (intra/extra peritoneal). The patient is currently in the 10th postoperative year of hernia repair and satisfactory lumbar wall contour was achieved. Neither the recurrence of lumbar hernia nor symptoms compliance was noted. DISCUSSION Lumbar hernia is an uncommon complication of LDMF harvest. Although it is a rare disease, general and plastic surgeons must be on alert to avoid complications and misdiagnosis. Seroma differential diagnosis is important in order to avoid bowel perforation due to aspiration. Defect reconstruction is necessary with a muscular and fascia flaps mobilization and synthetic mesh in order to obtain a stable repair. CONCLUSION The knowledge of this rare post-operative complication following delayed breast reconstruction is crucial to its surgical management. Early surgical intervention is warranted in order to avoid severe complications. PMID:24794025

  1. What Is the Ideal Free Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction? A Ten-Year Experience of Microsurgical Reconstruction Using 334 Latissimus Dorsi Flaps From a Universal Donor Site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Sang Wha; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical free tissue transfer is regarded as the best available method of tissue reconstruction for intractable defects. The ideal soft tissue flap is thought to be the anterolateral thigh flap. On the basis of 334 procedures involving the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, we discuss the advantages of the LD flap over the current universal option, and we aimed to establish whether the LD could also gain universal status in all reconstructive fields.Three hundred thirty-four reconstructive procedures using the LD flap were performed in 322 patients between September 2002 and July 2012. In accordance with defect characteristics, we performed 334 procedures using flaps, which included the LD muscle flap with skin graft, the myocutaneous flap, the muscle-sparing flap, the perforator flap, the chimeric flap, and the 2-flap technique using the serratus anterior branch.Flap-related complications occurred in 21 patients (6.3%), including total and partial flap failure. In 253 cases, the donor site was closed primarily, and in the remaining cases, we used split-thickness skin grafts. Donor-site complications occurred in 20 cases (6%). In 11 of the 182 cases, no suitable perforators were identified during surgery.The advantages of the LD as a donor site include the possibility of various harvesting positions without position change, versatility of components, availability of muscle to fill extensive defects, and presence of thick fascia to enable full abdominal reconstruction. On the basis of our experience, we concluded that this flap has the potential to be used as widely as, or in preference to, the anterolateral thigh flap in most reconstructive areas. PMID:25785382

  2. Long-term results of oncoplastic breast surgery with latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction: a pilot study of the objective cosmetic results and patient reported outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong-Deok; Kim, Zisun; Kuk, Jung Cheol; Jeong, Jaehong; Choi, Kyu Sung; Hur, Sung Mo; Jeong, Gui Ae; Chung, Jun Chul; Cho, Gyu Seok; Shin, Eung Jin; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kang, Sang-Gue; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of oncoplastic breast surgery is to restore the appearance of the breast and improve patient satisfaction. Thus, the assessment of cosmetic results and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) using appropriately constructed and validated instruments is essential. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term objective cosmetic results and corresponding PROs after oncoplastic breast surgery. Methods Cosmetic results were assessed by the patients, a medical panel, and a computer program (BCCT.core). PROs were assessed using BREAST-Q, a questionnaire that measures the perception of patients having breast surgery. The cosmetic results and PROs were analyzed in patients who underwent quadrantectomy and partial breast reconstruction utilizing the latissimus dorsi flap. Results The mean duration of the follow-up period was 91.6 months (range, 33.3–171.0 months), and mean age of the patients was 51 years old (range, 33–72 years). The mean tumor size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.9–5.5 cm). There was fair agreement between the medical panel and BCCT.core score (K = 0.32, P < 0.001), and a statistically significant correlation between the BCCT.core score and medical panel cosmetic results was identified (r = 0.606, P < 0.001). A better BCCT.core result was related to a higher PRO of each BREAST-Q domain—satisfaction with breasts (R2 = 0.070, P = 0.039), satisfaction with outcome (R2 = 0.087, P = 0.021), psychosocial well-being (R2 = 0.085, P = 0.023), sexual well-being (R2 = 0.082, P = 0.029), and satisfaction with information (R2 = 0.064, P = 0.049). Conclusion Our long-term results of oncoplastic surgery achieved a high level of patient satisfaction with good cosmetic results. The medical panel and BCCT.core results correlated well with the PROs of the patients using valid, reliable, and procedure-specific measures. PMID:26942154

  3. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Neri, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Quadrelli, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP) or high protein diet (HP) (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)). One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001), whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024), and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05) of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005) and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift. PMID:27258300

  4. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F.; Cancellara, Pasqua; Toniolo, Luana; Moro, Tatiana; Canato, Marta; Miotti, Danilo; Neri, Marco; Morra, Aldo; Quadrelli, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP) or high protein diet (HP) (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg−1·day−1). One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001), whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024), and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05) of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005) and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift. PMID:27258300

  5. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: a case report of an uncommon and under-diagnosed tumor

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Stefanie; Richter, Matthias; Ernst, Tom; Flade, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor of the back, located between the latissimus dorsi and the rhomboid muscle. In most cases it is unilateral, but in up to 10% it occurs on both sides. The etiology is still in discussion. Here we report a case of a 51-year-old man with bilateral elastofibroma dorsi. The therapy of choice was surgical resection. No long-term complications were reported in a 6-month follow-up. PMID:26855655

  6. Muscular axillary arch accompanying variation of the musculocutaneous nerve: axillary arch

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soo-Jung; Lee, Hyunsu; Choi, In-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Continuous attention has been developed on the anatomical variations of the axilla in anatomist and surgeon due to their clinical importance. The axillary region is an anatomical space between the lateral part of the chest wall and the medial aspect of the upper limb. During the routine dissection of embalmed cadavers, we found variant muscular slip originating from the lateral border of tendinous part of the latissimus dorsi and continuing 9 cm more crossing the axilla. And then, it inserted into the superior margin of the insertion of the pectoralis major. We considered this muscular variation as axillary arch muscle. Correct identification of the relevant anatomy and subsequent simple surgical division is curative, paying special attention to anatomical variations in this region and its clinical importance due to its close relationship to the neurovascular elements of the axilla. PMID:27382519

  7. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:26390558

  8. Free microvascular transplantation of the trapezius musculocutaneous flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Philibert, D; Fowler, J D; Clapson, J B

    1992-01-01

    A musculocutaneous flap based on the prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery and including the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and overlying skin was transplanted over a defect created on the medial side of the contralateral tibia in four dogs by using microvascular technique. The donor and recipient sites in three dogs were examined clinically for 21 days, after which they were examined angiographically and histologically. All dogs were free of lameness by hour 48. Seromas formed at the donor site between days 7 and 15. One vascular pedicle was traumatized at hour 40, and the dog was euthanatized. Three flaps survived with minimal necrosis. Edema of the flaps was severe from days 5 to 11. Angiograms showed complete perfusion of the flaps, and survival was confirmed histologically. Esthetic appearance and function were good in one dog at month 7. PMID:1455645

  9. Cutaneous reinnervation of the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after chest wall reconstruction: development of herpes zoster in the transplanted musculocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Tomita, K; Inoue, K

    1998-08-01

    We report a patient in whom herpes zoster developed in the transplanted rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 14 months after a chest wall reconstruction for recurrent breast cancer. Based on the distribution of the varicella zoster virus spreading along the sensory nerve fibers, we concluded that the virus spread along the reinnervated sensory nerves from the dorsal ganglia, through the intercostal nerves, and into the flap skin. It is suggested that this finding demonstrates the pathway of reinnervation into the transferred musculocutaneous flap on the chest wall. PMID:9718154

  10. Tracheoesophageal puncture site closure with sternocleidomastoid musculocutaneous transposition flap

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Dushyant; Yadav, Prabha; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant; Gujjalanavar, Rajendra Suresh; Puranik, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis is highly effective in providing speech after total laryngectomy. Although it is a safe method, in certain cases dilatation or leakage occurs around the prosthesis that needs closure of tracheoesophageal fistula. Both non-surgical and surgical methods for closure have been described. Surgical methods are used when non-surgical methods fail. We present the use of the sternocleidomastoid musculocutaneous (SCMMC) transposition flap for the closure of tracheoesophageal fistula. Materials and Methods: An incision is made at the mucocutaneous junction circumferentially around the tracheostoma. Tracheoesophageal space is dissected down to and beyond the fistula. The tracheoesophageal tract is divided. The oesophageal mucosa is closed with simple sutures. Then SCMMC transposition flap is raised and transposed to cover sutured oesophagus and the defect between the oesophagus and the trachea. Results: This study was done prospectively over a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013. This technique was used in patients with pliable neck skin. In nine patients, this procedure was done (inferior based flap in nine cases) and it was successful in eight patients. In one case, there was dehiscence at the leading edge of flap with oesophageal dehiscence, which required a second procedure. In two cases, there was marginal necrosis of flap, which healed without any intervention. Nine patients in this series were post-radiation. Conclusion: This method of closure is simple and effective for patients with pliable neck skin, who require permanent closure of the tracheoesophageal fistula. PMID:26933281

  11. Reconstruction of posterior neck and skull with vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap

    SciTech Connect

    Mathes, S.J.; Stevenson, T.R.

    1988-10-01

    The vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap has been successfully utilized for reconstruction in 13 patients with complex posterior skull and neck defects. This flap based on its vascular pedicle, the descending branch of the transverse cervical artery, provides well-vascularized tissue for coverage of defects related to chronic osteomyelitis, tumor extirpation, osteoradionecrosis, and dehisced cervical laminectomy wounds. Emphasis on flap design, including the location of the skin island, allows adequate wound coverage, direct donor site closure, and muscle function preservation. With its large size and wide arc of rotation, the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap provides reliable coverage for posterior trunk, cervical, and skull defects.

  12. Free anterolateral thigh flap raised on musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Ehtesham-ul-Haq; Aslam, Ayesha; Hameed, Shahid; Ahmad, Rao Saood; Majid, Abdul; Waqas, Muhammad

    2011-08-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) has been in wide clinical use for the last two decades, its major disadvantage has been its variable anatomy. We are presenting a case in which no substantial perforators were found to be arising from either the lateral septum of thigh or Vastus Laterlis muscle. In this case, instead of raising another flap, we used the same skin paddle raised on the musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle. PMID:21798144

  13. Ghrelin protects musculocutaneous tissue from ischemic necrosis by improving microvascular perfusion.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, F; Wettstein, R; Scheuer, C; Bäumker, K; Bächle, A; Vollmar, B; Menger, M D; Harder, Y

    2012-02-01

    Persistent ischemia in musculocutaneous tissue may lead to wound breakdown and necrosis. The objective of this experimental study was to analyze, whether the gastric peptide ghrelin prevents musculocutaneous tissue from necrosis and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice equipped with a dorsal skinfold chamber containing ischemic musculocutaneous tissue were allocated to four groups: 1) ghrelin; 2) N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME); 3) ghrelin and l-NAME; and 4) control. Microcirculation, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue survival were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (iNOS I and eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin-treated animals showed an increased expression of iNOS and eNOS in critically perfused tissue compared with controls. This was associated with arteriolar dilation, increased arteriolar perfusion, and a sustained functional capillary density. Ghrelin further upregulated NF-κB and VEGF and induced angiogenesis. Finally, ghrelin reduced microvascular leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, apoptosis, and overall tissue necrosis (P < 0.05 vs. control). Inhibition of nitric oxide by l-NAME did not affect the anti-inflammatory and angiogenic action of ghrelin but completely blunted the ghrelin-induced tissue protection by abrogating the arteriolar dilation, the improved capillary perfusion, and the increased tissue survival. Ghrelin prevents critically perfused tissue from ischemic necrosis. Tissue protection is the result of a nitric oxide synthase-mediated improvement of the microcirculation but not due to induction of angiogenesis or attenuation of inflammation. This might represent a promising, noninvasive, and clinically applicable approach to protect musculocutaneous tissue from ischemia. PMID:22159999

  14. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE IN RELATION TO THE CORACOID PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Fabiano; Filho, Romulo Brasil; Filardis, Cantidio; Pereira, Renato Rodrigues; Cardoso, Alessandro Alvarenga

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors performed an anatomical study on the path of the musculocutaneous nerve by dissecting 20 shoulders from 10 fresh adult cadavers. Method: The distance from the lower edge of the coracoid process to the point of penetration of the most proximal branch of the musculocutaneous nerve in the coracobrachialis muscle was measured and named the base. Starting from the inferomedial edge of the coracoid process, a second measurement was made to the point at which the lateral fascicle of the brachial plexus crossed the subclavius muscle, and was named the height. The third measurement was of the triangular area formed by the two first measurements, and was named the area. Results: The mean base length was 3.42 cm, ranging from 2.38 cm to 4.40 cm. The mean height measurement was 2.74 cm, ranging from 1.03 cm to 3.80 cm. The mean area was 4.92 cm2, ranging from 1.22 cm2 to 7.99 cm2. Conclusion: These measurements are very important because of the risk of injury to the musculocutaneous nerve in surgical approaches to the shoulder. PMID:27022570

  15. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. )

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  16. Long-term survival after chest-wall reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, S.S.; Schusterman, M.A.; Larson, D.L.; Fender, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Reconstruction of chest-wall defects with musculocutaneous flaps permits resection of advanced chest-wall tumors and of tissues severely damaged by radiotherapy in patients who in a previous era were not surgically treatable. To determine the long-term outcome from this surgery, the records of 96 patients who had undergone chest-wall resection with musculocutaneous flap reconstruction were reviewed. Median survival for the entire group was 20.5 months, but a more accurate prediction of outcome could be obtained by dividing the patients into three groups. In group I, patients free of known malignancy and undergoing resection of radionecrotic tissues, median survival was 60.0 months. In group II, patients with resectable disease and free of tumor following surgery, median survival was 31.1 months. In group III, patients incompletely resected or known to have metastatic disease following surgery, median survival was only 12.5 months. Even in group III, however, some individuals achieved prolonged survival and lasting benefits from the surgery, so these data should not be used to exclude patients from undergoing necessary palliative procedures.

  17. A successful reconstruction using a frozen autograft and a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap after a S12345B shoulder girdle resection in a patient with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takamasa; Kido, Akira; Honoki, Kanya; Murata, Keiichi; Fujii, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Banryoku; Ishihara, Takashi; Takeshita, Yasufumi; Shima, Midori; Yajima, Hiroshi; Akahane, Manabu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-03-01

    We present a case of high-grade osteosarcoma in the proximal humerus in an 8-year-old boy. Massive tumor expansion required a S12345B shoulder girdle resection according to the system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society. After wide resection, only a small portion of the distal humerus and none of the rotator cuff muscles would be spared. Because the humeral portion would be too short to support the stem and the soft tissue would be insufficient to cover prosthetic components, we designed a composite reconstruction using a frozen autograft and a pedicled muscle flap. At 2 years postoperatively, our patient exhibited good adaptation and had acquired fine dexterity of the upper limb. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding a successful composite reconstruction after a S12345B shoulder girdle resection. PMID:22131107

  18. A Case of Congenital Bilateral Absence of Elbow Flexor Muscles: Review of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Samra, Saleh; Lewis, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy presented to us with congenital inability to flex his elbow. He had bilaterally absent biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, a rare condition. We performed pedicle latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps to the left and right volar upper arm at 21 and 24 months of age, respectively, to create elbow flexors. By 4 years of age, he had excellent elbow flexion bilaterally with strength grade in excess of 4.5. In addition to discussing our patient’s treatment options, we discuss other potential causes of weak elbow flexion when faced with this clinical dilemma. PMID:18780113

  19. Modified total thigh musculocutaneous flap: 'operation of last resort' for massive pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Paul Ting-Yuan; Adams, Brandon Michael; Chunilal, Ashwin

    2014-02-01

    Massive bilateral pressure ulcers of dependent areas may complicate spinal cord injuries. These may be life threatening to patients and challenging for reconstructive surgeons. In massive recurrent ulcers, local tissue is either inadequate or previously exhausted. The total thigh musculocutaneous flap is an operation of last resort; we present a new variation of this procedure and a case of life threatening pressure ulcers with underlying osteomyelitis. A paraplegic patient had recurrent, extensive, bilateral pressure areas with some preserved tissue bridges. The nature of the pressure areas and lack of local options in this patient required modification of previously described total thigh flaps. An extended total thigh flap was partially de-epithelialised to fill the extensive sacral defect and a tunnelled extension was fashioned to cover the contralateral trochanteric defect. The timing of surgery was determined by balancing pre-operative nutritional optimisation against life-threatening drug resistance of infective organisms. The total thigh flap can close massive bilateral pressure ulcers. Modifications are presented which preserve viable local tissue and demonstrate the versatility of this technique. It remains a 'last-resort' salvage procedure. PMID:23806262

  20. Abdominal wall competence after free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, S; Asko-Seljavaara, S; Kinnunen, J; Sainio, P; Alaranta, H

    1997-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to evaluate the possible changes in abdominal wall strength following free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were examined 1 day before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Trunk muscle strength was measured by the same physiotherapist using an isokinetic dynamometer (Lido Multi Joint II, Loredan Biomedical Inc., Davies, CA). The peak torque and average torque for both flexion and extension at 60 degrees per second angular velocity were recorded from the curves obtained. There was a significant reduction in trunk flexion strength at 3 months postoperatively (peak torque mean, 92% of the preoperative value; p = 0.04), but this was corrected by 6 months (mean, 96%), and improved to 98% by 12 months. The patient's ability to do curled trunk sit-ups was evaluated by the same physiotherapist and graded on a scale from 1 to 6. In 9 of 19 patients the operation had no effect on sit-up performance during follow-up. In 10 of 19 patients there was a reduction of one or two grades at 3 months that did not improve by 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal wall was performed on 9 patients. The mean area of the upper third of both rectus muscles was measured on the axial images. At 3 months postoperatively the mean area of the upper third of the donor muscle was significantly larger than the contralateral (p = 0.03). There was no difference in size at 6 months, and by 12 months the donor side was smaller. This prospective study shows that harvesting of a free TRAM flap can cause a subclinical reduction in abdominal strength, although this was not noticed by the patients themselves. PMID:9326701

  1. Differential impact of visual feedback on plantar- and dorsi-flexion maximal torque output.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Anis; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2016-05-01

    The effect of visual feedback on enhancing isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) was evaluated. Twelve adults performed plantar-flexion and dorsi-flexion MVCs in 3 conditions (no visual feedback, visual feedback, and visual feedback with target). There was no significant effect of visual conditions on dorsi-flexion MVC but there was an effect on plantar-flexion. Irrespective of whether a target was evident, visual feedback increased plantar-flexion MVC by ∼15%. This study highlights the importance of optimal feedback to enhance MVC. PMID:27031663

  2. Effects of quantitative trait loci on mineral content 1 of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle require dietary minerals to maintain their health, production and reproduction. Concentrations of minerals in tissues are at least partially genetically determined. Mapping genomic regions related to the mineral content of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle may help in the identificatio...

  3. The radix nasi island flap: a versatile musculocutaneous flap for defects of the eyelids, nose, and malar region.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Tamer

    2009-03-01

    A versatile musculocutan flap from the radix nasi region, the radix nasi island flap, is described. The flap has an axial blood supply derived from the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery which is anastomosed to the terminal branch of the facial artery. The flap includes the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and procerus muscle. Ten patients, aged 50 to 86 years, have been reconstructed with this flap for defects in the nose (in 4 cases), midface (in 4 cases) and lower eyelids (in 2 cases). The mean flap size was 17 x 23 mm (range: 15 x 20 to 20 x 27 mm). All flaps fully survived. Additional complications and morbidity were not observed. The donor sites were closed a primarily closure in all cases. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months (mean: 8.2 months). The radix nasi flap is a safe flap, has minimal donor site morbidity, and is especially suited for nasal and midface reconstruction in terms of attaining a suitable color and thickness. PMID:19305249

  4. Neurotization of free gracilis transfer with the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury: an anatomical study and case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zou, Xue-jun; Fu, Guo; Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Li, Xiang-Ming; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using free gracilis muscle transfer along with the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury according to an anatomical study and a case report. METHODS: Thirty formalin-fixed upper extremities from 15 adult cadavers were used in this study. The distance from the point at which the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originates to the midpoint of the humeral condylar was measured, as well as the length, diameter, course and branch type of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve. An 18-year-old male who sustained an injury to the left brachial plexus underwent free gracilis transfer using the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve as the donor nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion. Elbow flexion power and hand grip strength were recorded according to British Medical Research Council standards. Postoperative measures of the total active motion of the fingers were obtained monthly. RESULTS: The mean length and diameter of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were 52.66±6.45 and 1.39±0.09 mm, respectively, and three branching types were observed. For the patient, the first gracilis contraction occurred during the 4th month. A noticeable improvement was observed in digit flexion one year later; the muscle power was M4, and the total active motion of the fingers was 209°. CONCLUSIONS: Repairing injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by transferring the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to the anterior branch of the obturator nerve using a tension-free direct suture is technically feasible, and the clinical outcome was satisfactory in a single surgical patient. PMID:27166768

  5. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm(3)) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  6. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  7. Proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle during prolonged ageing.

    PubMed

    Polati, Rita; Menini, Michele; Robotti, Elisa; Millioni, Renato; Marengo, Emilio; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Cecconi, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    To study proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi four Charolaise heifers and four Charolaise bull's muscles were sampled at slaughter after early and long ageing (2-4°C for 12 and 26days respectively). Descriptive sensory evaluation of samples were performed and their tenderness evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear force test. Protein composition of fresh muscle and of meat aged was analysed by cartesian and polar 2-D electrophoresis. Student's t-test and Ranking-PCA analyses were performed to detect proteomic modulation, and the selected protein spots were identified by nano-HPLC-Chip MS/MS. This research has demonstrated that there are no differences between proteomic patterns of male and females Longissimus dorsi muscle, and that the extension of ageing beyond 12days, did not brings any concrete advantage in terms of sensory quality. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrated that meat maturation caused changes of the abundance of proteins involved in metabolic, structural, and stress related processes. PMID:22953957

  8. Face transplant: is it feasible in developing countries?

    PubMed

    González-García, Ignacio; Lyra-González, Iván; Medina-Preciado, David; Guerrero-Torres, Alejandro; Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on the case of a 28-year-old woman who was involved in a car accident, with diagnosis of polytrauma, loss of left eye, and second- and third-degree burns over the left midface, rendering an exposed area of 8 cm wide and 19 cm length, ranging from glabella to mandible, with skull exposure and loss of left eye.A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flap was transferred into the defect; left eye and nose prosthetics were necessary to restore normal appearance. Excellent results were obtained; reinsertion to patient's normal life and reinstatement of facial appearance were achieved with minimal costs and no postsurgical complications.Analysis of the current situation in developing countries demonstrates that technique and infrastructure do not represent a real challenge to carry on face transplants. However, socioeconomic reality in these societies makes it difficult to establish face transplant as a feasible therapeutic opportunity for the overwhelming majority of patients who are victims of severe facial damage.Therefore, strategies such as latissimus dorsi free flap remains as an excellent therapy to face off our complex facial reconstructive challenges in developing countries such as Mexico. PMID:23348307

  9. [Chest wall reconstruction after resection of malignant chest wall tumors].

    PubMed

    Ayabe, H; Oka, T; Akamine, S; Takahashi, T; Nagayasu, T

    1998-05-01

    Full-thickness chest wall resection is performed for complete removal of primary and secondary malignant chest wall tumors. Large defects of the chest wall after resection must be repaired to maintain adequate ventilation, to protect important intrathoracic structures, and to preserve cosmetic integrity. Various materials have been utilized over the years to replace the rigid chest wall. At present, Marlex mesh and a composite of Marlex mesh and methylmethacrylate are frequently used to reconstruct rigid chest wall defects. On the other hand, to replace the soft part of the chest wall and cover the rigid materials, pedicled muscle flaps, myocutaneous flaps, or omentum are used. Major pedicled flaps include the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and latissimus dorsi muscular, and musculocutaneous flaps. Techniques are now available to repair any chest wall site, and to restore chest continuity in patients whose tumors are curatively resected. PMID:9656244

  10. Lambeau musculocutané infra hyoidien à palette cutané horizontale pour un angiomyxome agressif de la face interne de la joue

    PubMed Central

    Kettani, Mounir; Touihem, Nabil; Attifi, Hicham; Hmidi, Mounir; Boukhari, Ali; Zalagh, Mohamed; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Décrit par Wang en 1986, le lambeau musculocutané infra hyoidien est vascularisé par l'artère thyroïdienne supérieure et comporte les muscles sternohyoïdien, sternothyroïdien et le chef supérieur du muscle Omo hyoïdien. Le prélèvement horizontal de la palette cutanée ne modifie pas la fiabilité du lambeau et permet d’éviter des cicatrices supplémentaires. L'angiomyxome agressif est une tumeur mésenchymateuse développée aux dépens du tissu conjonctif avec un site de prédilection pour les parties molles du périné féminin. Cette tumeur croit progressivement mais n'est pas métastatique. Le traitement indiqué actuellement est l'exérèse chirurgicale large. La tumeur a une tendance à la récidive locale, qui est fréquente, liée à la difficulté d'une exérèse initiale complète. Nous rapportons le cas d'un angiomyxome agressif de la joue chez un patient de 63 ans, qui a été traité par chirurgie avec reconstruction par un lambeau musculocutané infra hyoidien à palette cutanée horizontale. Les aspects cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de la tumeur ont été discutés. PMID:25469203

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle in immuno- and surgically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuebin; Li, Chunbao; Cao, Miaodan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-05-15

    We compared proteomic profiles of male pig muscles after active immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and surgical castration. Longissimus dorsi samples were collected from immunocastration (IC) and surgical castration (SC) groups (n=15 each). Muscle proteins were extracted and then identified by data-independent label-free nano LC-MS/MS. A total of 610 proteins were identified, 50 of which were differentially expressed (P<0.05) between immuno- and surgical castration. Twenty-two of 50 differentially expressed proteins were higher in abundance for IC group and 27 proteins with abundance change folds greater than 1.5 differed with castration methods. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton and immunity were abundant in IC group. Several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and laminins were abundant in SC group. PMID:26776048

  12. Unusual Presentation of Elastofibroma Dorsi on 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Tabouret Viaud, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 70-year-old male patient underwent an Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography for staging of a left parahilar lung neoplasm found during work-up for fatigue and asthenia. The scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic lung tumor, a hypermetabolic pleural effusion and 4 hypermetabolic bilateral soft tissue lesions of the chest wall corresponding to 4 elastofibroma dorsi. Initially, the oncologic disease was classified as stage IV because of the hypermetabolic pleural effusion. A transbronchial biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma and the cytology of the pleural effusion revealed no malignant cells. As the other 4 hypermetabolic thoracic wall lesions were correctly diagnosed as benign despite their unusual presentation, the patient underwent surgery by left pneumonectomy and mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The lymph node involvement required adjuvant chemotherapy. Diagnostic confidence of the benignity of the hypermetabolic chest wall lesions allowed a more aggressive treatment with a better outcome after a malignant pleural effusion was excluded. PMID:26886641

  13. Changes in meat quality of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle in response to repeated freeze and thaw.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Li, Chunbao; Chen, Yinji; Gao, Feifei; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2012-12-01

    Changes in eating and technological quality attributes of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle during repeated freeze and thaw were investigated. Shear force value, L* value, a* value and fiber diameter decreased (P<0.05) but lipid oxidation increased (P<0.05) with repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Sarcomere length and pH decreased (P<0.05) within the first 10 freeze-thaw cycles but increased (P<0.05) after 5 further cycles. Total and myofibrillar protein solubility, and intramuscular free fatty acids concentration decreased (P<0.05) after 1 cycle of freeze and thaw but then increased (P<0.05) gradually with further cycles. Hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and resilience of comminuted lamb products decreased (P<0.05) with increased freeze-thaw cycles. And therefore, repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of meat color for commercial value and water holding capacity for further processing. PMID:22749539

  14. Advances in breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Faulkner, Brent C; Bill, Timothy J; Lin, Kant Y

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, surgical reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy has become an important aspect of the cancer patient's rehabilitation process. While the surgical emphasis remains on a cure for the cancer, experience with breast reconstruction has not demonstrated any increased rate of cancer recurrence, even when reconstruction is performed immediately following tumor resection. Advances in surgical technique and biotechnology have made post-mastectomy reconstruction possible. The development of silicone gel and saline-filled implants as well as tissue expanders has revolutionized breast reconstruction. The elucidation of musculocutaneous flaps now provides the surgeon with the ability to transfer adequate quantities of vascularized tissue to reconstruct the surgical defects. The advent of microsurgical techniques has provided an additional reconstructive option, with free tissue transfer allowing the plastic surgeon to move musculocutaneous flaps from remote or distant sites to reconstruct the defect. The option of having the reconstruction immediately following the mastectomy procedure is now available to the patient. When reviewing the anatomy of the breast region, the surgeon must consider the mammary gland, its vascular supply, and its lymphatic system. The surgical techniques involved in reconstruction after mastectomy include the use of breast implants and tissue expansion, as well as reconstruction with autogenous tissues. Reconstruction with autogenous tissues includes the use of latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap, transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, free flap transfer, as well as nipple-areola reconstruction. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy should be undertaken by a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with considerable training and experience with these diversified procedures. PMID:15777171

  15. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  16. CT scanning carcases has no detrimental effect on the colour stability of M. longissimus dorsi from beef and sheep.

    PubMed

    Jose, C G; Pethick, D W; Jacob, R H; Gardner, G E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of computerised tomography imaging (CT scan), for carcase composition determination, on the oxy/metmyoglobin ratio, hue and L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) scores of M. longissimus dorsi from both beef and lamb. Beef and lamb M. longissimus dorsi were divided into four proportions and randomly allocated to one of the following treatments; CT 30 day aged; CT fresh; control 30 day aged; control fresh. Colour measurements were made over a 96h retail display period. CT scan had little effect on the colour of both lamb and beef across all colour parameters. There was a small negative affect observed in CT aged samples (P<0.05) for ratio, hue, a(∗) and b(∗) values, however these differences were so small that they are unlikely to impact upon the commercial shelf-life of the product. Other factors such as aging, species and vitamin E concentration play a much greater role in colour stability than CT. Aged M. longissimus dorsi clearly had a worse colour stability than the fresh packaged samples, while beef was a lot more colour stable than lamb. It appears that CT scan for the purpose of body composition determination will not have any commercially relevant impact on colour stability of both beef and lamb. PMID:22063980

  17. Expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle and their relationship with meat quality traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Qi, Y X; Zhang, X H; Wang, Y Q; Pang, Y Z; Zhang, Z B; Zhang, T L; Zhang, Z X

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the major macromolecule in skeletal muscle, which affects meat quality greatly. The remodeling of the ECM is mainly regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The expression patterns of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle were explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 decreased significantly from 135 days of pregnancy to postnatal 30 months. While the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 showed no significant relationships with intramuscular fat contents, MMP-1 and -2 showed significant negative correlations with the shearing force of the longissimus dorsi muscle in cattle. The expression of MMP-1 also showed a significant negative correlation with cooking loss and a positive correlation with water holding capacity. The expression levels of MMP-1 and -2 were usually higher in fat than in skeletal muscle tissue. The expression of MMP-8 was significantly higher in the mammary fat pad and the longissimus dorsi muscle than in all other tissues. This study indicates that the remodeling of the ECM has important effects both on the development of postnatal skeletal muscle and on meat quality. PMID:26985938

  18. Elastofibroma dorsi: a case report with an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Koseki, Rina; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Elastofibroma is a rare, benign, fibrous tumor formed by the proliferation of characteristic elastic fibers that commonly occurs between the lower margin of the scapula and the ribcage. We undertook a histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi beneath the right scapula of a 77-year-old woman. Tumor cells comprised collagen fiber bundles, numerous elastic fibers, and spindle cells resembling fibroblasts. The elastic and collagen fibers in the tumor were stained positively with Elastic van Gieson and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. Immunostaining showed that the fibroblasts were strongly positive for CD34, positive for vimentin, and weakly positive for α-smooth muscle actin. Ultrastructural observations revealed elastin and microfibrils between numerous irregularly arranged collagen fiber bundles. Signs suggestive of elastin deposition were also evident in the tangled collagen fibers themselves. The fibroblasts contained a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and were surrounded on the outside of cells by microfibrils and collagen fibers. Although fibroblasts may produce large quantities of elastin, microfibrils, and collagen, our findings suggested that the deposition of elastin on collagen fibers may be involved in the formation of abnormal elastic fibers. PMID:26040573

  19. Spectral absorption index in hyperspectral image analysis for predicting moisture contents in pork longissimus dorsi muscles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    Spectral absorption index was proposed to extract the morphological features of the spectral curves in pork meat samples (longissimus dorsi) under the conditions including fresh, frozen-thawed, heated-dehydrated and brined-dehydrated. Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used for calibrating both the spectral reflectance and absorbance values. The absorption values were better than the reflectance values and the calibrated spectra by MSC were better than the raw and SG smoothing corrected spectra in building moisture content predictive models. The optimized partial least square regression (PLSR) model attained good results with the MSC calibrated spectral absorption values based on the spectral absorption index features (R(2)P=0.952, RMSEP=1.396) and the optimal wavelengths selected by regression coefficients (R(2)P=0.966, RMSEP=0.855), respectively. The models proved spectral absorption index was promising in spectral analysis to predict moisture content in pork samples using HSI techniques for the first time. PMID:26617026

  20. Transcriptome profiling of Musculus longissimus dorsi in two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Elke; Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Gotoh, Takafumi; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition is a physiological process in cattle and is highly variable among breeds suggesting a large influence of genetic factors besides environmental factors. In order to elucidate molecular pathways underlying the genetic variation in this trait we compared transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) in steers of Japanese Black and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds fed a high energy diet typically applied in Japan to achieve maximum IMF content. We identified a total of 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with the majority (433) up-regulated in Japanese Black cattle. This breed is characterized by an extreme capacity for IMF deposition. Subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a gene network linking parameters of cell morphology and maintenance with lipid metabolism. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75348. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in fat deposition under high-energy nutrition. PMID:26981380

  1. Fatty Acid and Transcriptome Profiling of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles between Pig Breeds Differing in Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH45min, pH24h and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition. PMID:23355796

  2. Comparison of longissimus dorsi Fatty Acids Profiles in Gansu Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle Steers and Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. G.; Liu, T.; Brown, M. A.; Wu, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle were evaluated in 44 Black Yak and 41 Chinese Yellow Cattle of both genders. Interactions of species with gender were observed for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations, as well as PUFA/SFA ratio in the longissimus dorsi (p<0.05). The SFA percentage was greater in yellow cattle than yak in both genders but the species difference in heifers was greater than in steers (p<0.05). Yak had greater UFA, MUFA and PUFA percentages than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05) but the difference between yak and yellow cattle heifers was greater than yak and yellow cattle steers. The percentages of inolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; and PUFA/SFA were greater in yak than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05). In addition, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in yak was lesser than in yellow cattle (p<0.05). These results indicated that FA composition generally differed between yak and yellow cattle but the differences were not the same in heifers as compared to steers. Results also suggested that species differences in FA composition tended to favor Black Yak over Chinese Yellow Cattle, indicating that the longissimus dorsi of Black Yak may have a higher nutritive value than that of Chinese Yellow Cattle and potential for development as a desirable natural product. PMID:26761841

  3. Postmastectomy reconstruction: comparative analysis of the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap versus breast implant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cederna, P S; Yates, W R; Chang, P; Cram, A E; Ricciardelli, E J

    1995-11-01

    Over 40,000 postmastectomy breast reconstructions are performed annually. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap versus breast implant reconstruction. Thirty-three women who had undergone postmastectomy breast reconstruction were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-two women completed the self-assessment questionnaires regarding their quality of life, psychological symptoms, functional status, body image, and global satisfaction. The TRAM and implant groups contained 8 and 14 patients, respectively. The groups were well matched for age, employment status, marital status, race, religion, and severity of medical and surgical illnesses. The average follow-up was 36 months. Statistical analysis of the responses revealed that women who had undergone TRAM flap reconstruction were more satisfied with how their reconstructed breast felt to the touch (p = .01), and there was a trend toward greater satisfaction with the appearance of their reconstructed breast (p = .08). However, these same patients identified more difficulties as far as functioning at work or school, performing vigorous physical activities, participating in community or religious activities, visiting with relatives, and interacting with male friends (p < .04). There were no statistically significant differences in body image or overall satisfaction. In this small cohort study, both the TRAM flap group and the implant group were satisfied with the results of their breast reconstruction, but the TRAM flap group was more satisfied with how their breast felt and tended to be more satisfied with the cosmetic result. The TRAM flap group reported greater psychological, social, and physical impairments as a result of their reconstruction. PMID:8579262

  4. Extra and Intramuscular Distribution of the Thoracodorsal Nerve with Regard to Nerve Reconstruction Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Malalasekera, Ajith; Beneragama, Thushan; Kanesu, Sivasuganthan; Sahathevan, Vithoosan; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-06-01

    Background The lateral branch of the thoracodorsal nerve (LBTN) is used for nerve transfer in facial, musculocutaneous, axillary nerve injuries and for irreparable C5, C6 spinal nerve lesions and accessory nerve defects. For a successful surgical outcome, the nerve to be used in nerve transfer should be of adequate length and thickness for nerve coaptation. Aim Our objective was to evaluate the length of the LBTN that could be obtained as a donor nerve, externally and within the muscle. Method Eight (8) cadavers with intact upper limbs and thorax which could be positioned in the anatomical position were selected for the study. Cadavers with dissected axillae, brachial plexus or upper limbs were excluded. The thoracodorsal neurovascular bundle was dissected and the number of branches of the thoracodorsal nerve was identified along with its lateral branch. The lateral branch was dissected up to the latissimus dorsi muscle and further intramuscularly. All lengths were measured using a vernier caliper. Results The mean length of the LBTN, up to its first intramuscular branch, is 8.14 cm (range 5.99-12.29 cm). Beyond this, the intramuscular nerve branched further and was of very minute diameter. The mean unbranched intramuscular length of the nerve is 3.36 cm (range 1.3-7.71 cm) which is 41.28% of the total length of the LBTN. Conclusion A significant proportion of the LBTN is found within the latissimus dorsi muscle. This length could potentially be used for direct nerve coaptation by intrafascicular dissection. PMID:26890860

  5. The Expression of Carnosine and Its Effect on the Antioxidant Capacity of Longissimus dorsi Muscle in Finishing Pigs Exposed to Constant Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peige; Hao, Yue; Feng, Jinghai; Lin, Hai; Feng, Yuejin; Wu, Xin; Yang, Xin; Gu, Xianhong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of constant high ambient temperatures on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and carnosine expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing pigs. Castrated 24 male DLY (crossbreeds between Landrace×Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars) pigs were allocated to one of three treatments: constant ambient temperature at 22°C and ad libitum feeding (CON, n = 8); constant high ambient temperature at 30°C and ad libitum feeding (H30, n = 8); and constant ambient temperature at 22°C and pair-fed with H30 (PF, n = 8). Meat quality, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant capacity, carnosine content, and carnosine synthetase (CARNS1) mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after three weeks. The results revealed that H30 had lower pH24 h, redness at 45 min, and yellowness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.05), and higher drip loss at 48 h and lightness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.01). Constant heat stress disrupted the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in longissimus dorsi muscle with higher MDA content (p<0.01) and lower antioxidant capacity (p<0.01). Carnosine content and CARNS1 mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of H30 pigs were significantly decreased (p<0.01) after three weeks at 30°C. In conclusion, constant high ambient temperatures affect meat quality and antioxidant capacity negatively, and the reduction of muscle carnosine content is one of the probable reasons. PMID:25358371

  6. High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J C; Huang, J; Rentfrow, G

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned ( = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. The effect of production stage or tissue type on carcass and protein abundance was assessed by 1-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS, and Fisher's protected LSD procedure was used to separate data means. Neither GLAST1 nor EAAT4 mRNA or protein was detected. EAAC1, GLT-1, and GS mRNA were identified in all tissues, but GLT-1 and GS protein were not detected in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, and GS protein was not detected in longissimus dorsi. The EAAC1 content of subcutaneous ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.02) adipose was 2 times greater in B and F than W steers, whereas GS was 5 times greater ( < 0.07) in B than F steers (B = W > F). For longissimus dorsi, EAAC1 ( < 0.01) and GLT-1 ( < 0.04) content decreased with development (S > W > B = F, S = W > B = F, respectively). Within F steers, EAAC1 and GLT-1 mRNA was expressed by subcutaneous, kidney, omental, mesenchymal, and intramuscular adipose tissues, whereas GS mRNA was expressed by all except for intramuscular. Only EAAC1 protein was detected in any adipose tissue, with EAAC1 content being 104% and 112% greater ( < 0.01) in intramuscular than in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, respectively, and not

  7. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. PMID:22459498

  8. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi in Growing Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight) were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h) and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI), total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat. PMID:26104518

  9. Integrative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of longissimus dorsi muscles of Canadian double-muscled Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqin; Han, Wenpeng; Jiang, Shunyan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Changxin

    2016-02-10

    Canadian double-muscled Large White pigs are characterized by notable muscle mass, showing high daily gain and lean rate and good meat quality. In order to identify the major genes or proteins involved in muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy, three pairs of full-sib pigs with extreme muscle mass difference from Canadian Large White were selected as experimental animals at 3 months age. The phenotypic differences of longissimus dorsi muscles (LD) were investigated with microarray and proteomics (2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS), and results were verified by real-time PCR and western bolting respectively. The gene expressing profiling identified 57 and 260 and 147 differently expressed genes (DEGs) from the three pairs respectively with Bayesian statistics and significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) (p<0.05, q<0.05, fold>2). From the network of these DEGs, some major genes were displayed, such as EGF, PPARG, FN1, SERPINE1, MYC, JUN, involved in Wnt, MAPK and TGF-β signal pathway respectively, which mainly participated in cell differentiation and proliferation. In parallel, proteomics analyses revealed 50 differently expressed protein (DEP) spots with mass spectrum, and 33 spots of them were found annotated, which took part in energy metabolism and the structure and contraction of muscle fiber. In brief, our integrated study provides a good foundation for the further study on the genetic mechanism of the double muscle traits in pigs. PMID:26602029

  10. Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Processed Sulfur on Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability in Longissimus dorsi of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ha-Young; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of processed sulfur in pigs according to the level provided during the fattening phase were examined. The pigs were divided into three groups: control (CON), non-sulfur fed pigs; T1, 0.1% processed sulfur fed pigs; T2, 0.3% processed sulfur fed pigs. Physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as meat quality and oxidative stability of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were investigated. The feeding of processed sulfur did not affect moisture and protein contents (p>0.05). However, the crude fat content of T2 was significantly decreased compared to CON (p<0.05), while the pH value of T2 was significantly higher than those of both CON and T1 (p<0.05). Cooking loss and expressible drip of T2 were also significantly lower than that of CON (p<0.05). The redness of meat from T1 was significantly higher than both CON and T2 (p<0.01). During storage, lipid oxidation of the meat from sulfur fed pigs (T1 and T2) was inhibited compared to CON. Examination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids revealed T2 to have significantly higher content than CON (p<0.05). In the sensory test, the juiciness and overall acceptability of T2 recorded higher scores than CON. This study demonstrated that meat from 0.3% processed sulfur fed pigs had improved nutrition and quality, with extended shelf-life. PMID:26761847

  11. Identification of genes in longissimus dorsi muscle differentially expressed between Wannanhua and Yorkshire pigs using RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, X-J; Zhou, J; Liu, L-Q; Qian, K; Wang, C-L

    2016-06-01

    Western commercial pig breeds have been intensively selected, resulting in a sizeable, rapid and efficient accretion of muscle but a reduction in meat quality. When compared with Western commercial pig breeds, Chinese indigenous pig breeds exhibited slower growth rates and reduced lean meat content but superior perceived meat quality. To study the factors that determine meat quality, we examined piglets of one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire) and one Chinese indigenous breed (Wannanhua) and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We analyzed their transcriptomes, focusing on identifying candidate genes that may influence porcine muscle growth, meat quality and adipose deposition. Gene Ontology functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) primarily associated with glycolytic metabolism, biological processes of muscle development and signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism, growth and carcass traits. This finding suggests that the DEGs may play important roles in determining meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the differential expression of 12 selected DEG. This study identified a number of novel candidate genes for porcine meat quality and carcass traits that merit further investigation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle growth and fat deposition. PMID:27038141

  12. Study on Growth Curves of Longissimus dorsi Muscle Area, Backfat Thickness and Body Conformation for Hanwoo (Korean Native) Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Oh, S.-H.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Son, H. J.; Jeong, D. J.; Whitley, N. C.; Kim, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters of Gompertz growth curves with the measurements of body conformation, real-time ultrasound longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and backfat thickness (BFT) in Hanwoo cows. The Hanwoo cows (n = 3,373) were born in 97 Hanwoo commercial farms in the 17 cities or counties of Gyeongbuk province, Korea, between 2000 and 2007. A total of 5,504 ultrasound measurements were collected for the cows at the age of 13 to 165 months in 2007 and 2008. Wither height (HW), rump height (HR), the horizontal distance between the top of the hips (WH), and girth of chest (GC) were also measured. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate variables affecting LMA and BFT. The effect of farm nested in location was included in the statistical model, as well as the effects of HW, HR, WH, and GC as covariates. All of the effects were significant in the analysis of variance for LMA and BFT (p<0.01), except for the HR effect for LMA. The two ultrasound measures and the four body conformation traits were fitted to a Gompertz growth curve function to estimate parameters. Upper asymptotic weights were estimated as 54.0 cm2, 7.67 mm, 125.6 cm, 126.4 cm, 29.3 cm, and 184.1 cm, for LMA, BFT, HW, HR, WH, and GC, respectively. Results of ultrasound measurements showed that Hanwoo cows had smaller LMA and greater BFT than other western cattle breeds, suggesting that care must be taken to select for thick BFT rather than an increase of only beef yield. More ultrasound records per cow are needed to get accurate estimates of growth curve, which, thus, helps producers select animals with high accuracy. PMID:25178367

  13. Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Signaling in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dajeong; Chai, Han-Ha; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Yong-Min; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Nam-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue deposited within muscle fibers, known as intramuscular fat (IMF or marbling), is a major determinant of meat quality and thereby affects its economic value. The biological mechanisms that determine IMF content are therefore of interest. In this study, 48 genes involved in the bovine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, which is involved in lipid metabolism, were investigated to identify candidate genes associated with IMF in the longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Ten genes, retinoid X receptor alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), phospholipid transfer protein, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3, fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase long chain (ACADL), acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 2 branched chain, and fatty acid binding protein 4, showed significant effects with regard to IMF and were differentially expressed between the low- and high-marbled groups (p<0.05). Analysis of the gene co-expression network based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients identified 10 up-regulated genes in the high-marbled group that formed a major cluster. Among these genes, the PPARG-FABP4 gene pair exhibited the strongest correlation in the network. Glycerol kinase was found to play a role in mediating activation of the differentially expressed genes. We categorized the 10 significantly differentially expressed genes into the corresponding downstream pathways and investigated the direct interactive relationships among these genes. We suggest that fatty acid oxidation is the major downstream pathway affecting IMF content. The PPARG/RXRA complex triggers activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation resulting in increased triglyceride formation by ATP production. Our findings highlight candidate genes associated with the IMF content of the loin muscle of Korean cattle and provide insight into the

  14. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. Images Fig. 3A. Fig. 3C. Fig. 3D. Fig. 4A. Fig. 4C. Fig. 4D. Fig. 4E. Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 5D. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6C. Fig. 6D. Fig. 6E. Fig. 6F. Fig. 6G. Fig. 6H. PMID:3389939

  15. Extended thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    A total of 45 patients underwent partial or total autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy, skin-reducing mastectomy, and quadrantectomy using a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap. The detailed surgical technique with its variations is explained in this report. The propeller, flip-over, conventional perforator, and muscle-sparing flaps have been described and evaluated. The flaps were partially or completely de-epithelialized. The conventional TDAP can be enlarged or "extended" as the traditional latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LD-MC) flap by incorporating the superior and inferior fat compartments. It can be referred to as the "extended TDAP flap". This technique augments the flap volume. In addition, this flap can serve as a scaffold for lipofilling to obtain autologous breast reconstruction in medium to large cases. There were two complete failures due to technical errors during flap elevation. Distal partial tissue suffering was observed in four flaps. These flaps were longer than usual; they reached the midline of the back. It is advisable to discard the distal medial quarter of the flap when it is designed up to the midline to avoid steatonecrosis or fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of the 39 flaps that survived completely revealed a satisfactory result in 82% of the cases. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the final scar. The TDAP flap is a reliable and safe method for partial or total breast autologous reconstruction. PMID:26645006

  16. The Type of Breast Reconstruction May Not Influence Patient Satisfaction in the Chinese Population: A Single Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiaying; Chen, Ying; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Guangyu; Shen, Zhenzhou; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with four common types of breast reconstruction performed at our institution: latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap reconstruction with or without implants, pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction, and free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction. Methods A custom survey consisting of questions that assessed general and aesthetic satisfaction was sent to patients who had undergone breast reconstruction in the last 5 years. The clinical data and details of the surgery were also collected from the patients who returned the surveys. We compared satisfaction rates across the four breast reconstruction types and analyzed the effects of various factors on overall general and aesthetic satisfaction rates using a binary logistic regression model. Result A total of 207 (72%) patients completed the questionnaires. Overall, significant differences in general and aesthetic satisfaction among the four procedures were not observed. A multivariate analysis revealed that the factor “complications” (p = 0.001) played a significant role in general satisfaction and that the factors “> 2 years since reconstruction” (p = 0.043) and “age > 35 years” (p = 0.05) played significant roles in overall aesthetic satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the type of breast reconstruction might not influence satisfaction in Chinese patients. PMID:26562294

  17. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. PMID:3389939

  18. The inferior mesenteric vessels as recipients when performing free tissue transfer for pelvic defects following abdomino-perineal resection. A novel technique and review of intra-peritoneal recipient vessel options for microvascular transfer.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Nicola C; Chan, James K K; Chave, Helen; McGuiness, Caroline N

    2010-12-01

    Successful microvascular transfer of tissue is dependent upon suitable vessels not only of the donor tissue but also at the recipient site. Congenital deformities, previous surgery, infection or irradiation at the recipient site may render vessels less suitable for this purpose. Under such circumstances it becomes desirable to identify suitable recipient vessels remote to the compromised area. In cases where external beam radiotherapy has been delivered, the superficial surface area damaged can be rather extensive precluding the use of even the longest of flap pedicles--a problem potentially addressed by searching for recipient vessels deep to the tissue planes affected. We report one such case where the inferior mesenteric vessels were used as recipient vessels for the microvascular transfer of a free Latissimus Dorsi musculocutaneous flap to reconstruct an extensive perineal defect following abdomino-perineal resection where the vessels would otherwise serve no purpose. Whilst a limited number of intra-peritoneal vessels have previously been reported as recipient vessels for free flap surgery there has not been, to our knowledge, any report of utilising the inferior mesenteric artery (Inf Mes A). Whilst based on a single case report, this article examines the literature describing microvascular transfer of tissue to compromised recipient sites and it reviews previously reported recipient vessel options available when reconstructing the perineum, abdominal wall or trunk with particular emphasis on intra-peritoneal options. PMID:20378437

  19. Gene expression profile of Musculus longissimus dorsi in bulls of a Charolais × Holstein F2-cross with divergent intramuscular fat content

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Albrecht, Elke; Kühn, Christa; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) were compared between bulls from a F2-cross derived from Charolais and Holstein Friesian. Two groups of 10 bulls were selected which differed significantly in intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition despite standardized husbandry and feeding conditions and identical sires in both groups. Consequently, genetic factors underlying the different capability of IMF deposition should be identified. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found of which 11 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated in the high IMF group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified a gene network comprising DEGs with functions in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and molecular transport. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75347. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in IMF deposition in crossbred cattle with standardized genetic background. PMID:26981388

  20. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruijie; Adoligbe, Camus; Jiang, Bijie; Zhao, Xianlin; Gui, Linsheng; Qu, Kaixing; Wu, Sen; Zan, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W) in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method. PMID:25893432

  1. Colour, composition and quality of M. longissimus dorsi and M. extensor carpi radialis of steers housed on straw or concrete slats or accommodated outdoors on wood-chips.

    PubMed

    Dunne, P G; Rogalski, J; Moreno, T; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

    2008-08-01

    Forty-five Charolais crossbred steers were offered a common diet and accommodated either outside on wood-chips (OWP, 18m(2)/head) or in a naturally-ventilated building in slatted-floor pens (SLA, 2.5m(2)/500kg bodyweight) or in straw-bedded pens (STR, 4m(2)/head) for 132 days. Carcass weight averaged 351, 362, and 372 (sed 6.63)kg (P<0.05), for SLA, STR and OWP, respectively. Accommodation system did not affect the colour, drip loss, shear force or composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) or Musculus extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles or the sensory characteristics of LD. The ultimate pH of ECR was highest (P<0.05) for OWP steers, while their LD was darker at 2 days post-mortem than LD from STR steers. It is concluded that accommodating cattle on OWP had a minor transient effect on beef colour and no impact on beef composition or eating quality. PMID:22063032

  2. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196℃ (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycle), and 3) refrigeration (4℃) for 7 d after 7 d of freezing. The control was the fresh (non-frozen) LD. Freezing treatment at all temperatures significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of GSH-Px, AGP, and BNAG. The -196 ℃ freezing had similar effects to the -20℃ and -60℃ freezing. Higher (p<0.05) enzymes activities were sustained in frozen LD even after 4 freeze-thaw cycles and even for 7 d of refrigeration after freezing. These findings suggest that freezing has remarkable effects on the activities of antioxidant enzyme and lysosomal enzymes of Hanwoo beef in any condition. PMID:26761669

  3. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196℃ (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycle), and 3) refrigeration (4℃) for 7 d after 7 d of freezing. The control was the fresh (non-frozen) LD. Freezing treatment at all temperatures significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of GSH-Px, AGP, and BNAG. The -196 ℃ freezing had similar effects to the -20℃ and -60℃ freezing. Higher (p<0.05) enzymes activities were sustained in frozen LD even after 4 freeze-thaw cycles and even for 7 d of refrigeration after freezing. These findings suggest that freezing has remarkable effects on the activities of antioxidant enzyme and lysosomal enzymes of Hanwoo beef in any condition. PMID:26761669

  4. Comparisons of different myosin heavy chain types, AMPK, and PGC-1α gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y N; Ao, Q W; Jiang, Q Y; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs are the local fatty and lean breeds, respectively, in China. We compared differences in carcass traits, meat quality traits, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in the longissimus dorsi muscles between Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs. This was done in pigs of the same age, using real-time PCR, to investigate the relationship between MyHC fiber types and carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and the key factors regulating muscle fiber type. Bama Xiang pigs exhibited smaller size and slower growth than Landrace pigs (P < 0.01). We found that the superior meat quality, especially the high intramuscular fat (IMF) content in Bama Xiang pig, was related to elevated type I oxidative muscle fiber content (P < 0.01). In contrast, Landrace pig muscle had a higher glycolytic type IIb muscle fiber content (P < 0.01). MyHC I gene expression was significantly positively correlated with backfat thickness and IMF content (P < 0.01). MyHC IIb was significantly negatively correlated with IMF content (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with carcass yield (P < 0.05). AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1a are suggested to be the two key factors regulating muscle fiber type in pigs. Our results indicate that muscle fiber composition is one of the key differences leading to the differences of meat quality between Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs. These results may provide a theoretical basis for further studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the excellent meat quality of the Bama Xiang pig. PMID:27421023

  5. Association of DNA Methylation Levels with Tissue-specific Expression of Adipogenic and Lipogenic Genes in Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Baik, M.; Vu, T. T. T.; Piao, M. Y.; Kang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation status, may regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis, thus affecting intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of beef cattle. In Korean cattle steers, the LM consists mainly of muscle tissue. However, the LM tissue also contains IMF. We compared the gene expression levels between the IMF and muscle portions of the LM after tissue separation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of both adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1 (PPARG1) and lipogenic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were higher (p<0.01) in the IMF than in the muscle portion of the LM. We determined DNA methylation levels of regulatory regions of the PPARG1 and FABP4 genes by pyrosequencing of genomic DNA. DNA methylation levels of two of three CpG sites in the PPARG1 gene promoter region were lower (p<0.05) in the IMF than in the muscle portion of the LM. DNA methylation levels of all five CpG sites from the FABP4 gene promoter region were also lower (p<0.001) in the IMF than in the muscle portion. Thus, mRNA levels of both PPARG1 and FABP4 genes were inversely correlated with DNA methylation levels in regulatory regions of CpG sites of the corresponding gene. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation status regulates tissue-specific expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the IMF and muscle portions of LM tissue in Korean cattle. PMID:25178302

  6. Differential Expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shuang; Yang, Runjun; Lu, Chunyan; Qiu, Zhengyan; Yan, Changguo; Zhao, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM), which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05) in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle. PMID:25049920

  7. Fatty Acid Profiles and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Expression in Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Growing Lambs Influenced by Addition of Tea Saponins and Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Lin, J.; Liu, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of tea saponins (TS) and soybean oil (SO) on fatty acid profile and gene expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs. Thirty-two Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement with main effects of TS (0 or 3 g/d) and SO (0 or 30 g/kg of diet DM). The diet without additives was considered as NTNS (no TS or SO). After a feeding trial for 60 d, four lambs of each treatment were slaughtered to collect the samples of LD muscle. Percentage of trans-11 vaccenic acid was enhanced (p<0.05) in muscle of lambs fed TS and SO. The proportion of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) by SO, but decreased (p<0.05) by TS in LD muscle. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids in muscle was decreased (p<0.05) by addition of TS and SO, while addition of SO increased (p<0.05) the percentage of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ratio of cis-9, trans-11 CLA to tran-11 vaccenic acid was decreased (p<0.05) by TS, but increased (p<0.05) by SO. The same effects were observed in SCD mRNA expression. From these results it is indicated that including TS and SO in the diet of growing lambs affect the fatty acid profiles of LD muscle and that the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the muscle influenced by TS and SO may be related to the SCD gene expression. PMID:25049609

  8. Effects of live weight at slaughter on fatty acid composition of Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles of indigenous Lori goat.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Ali; Fallah, Rozbeh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine fatty acid (FA) composition of Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles of an Iranian indigenous goat (Lori goat) at two live weights at slaughter (LWS). Twenty male Lori goats (5 to 8 months) raised in nomadic system were slaughtered either at LWS less than 20 kg (light) or LWS more than 30 kg (heavy). Carcass dressing and FA composition of intramuscular fat of LD and BF muscles as well as cholesterol content of LD muscle were determined. Heavy goats had higher dressing percentage than light ones (42.7vs.39.3%, P < 0.01). The predominant n-6 FA were C18:2, and C20:4 while C22:5, C20:5, C18:3, C20:3, and C22:6 were the n-3 FA detected. Polyunsaturated and saturated FA contributed 22% and 36% of the total FA in both muscles, respectively. Palmitic acid (C16:0) of LD was higher in heavy compared to the light goats (P < 0.05). BF muscle had higher α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) as percentage than LD muscle (P < 0.05). The ratio of n-6/n-3 FA and polyunsaturated/saturated FA were 3.8 and 0.6, respectively. Cholesterol content of LD muscle of light and heavy goats were 71.2 ± 16 and 59.5 ± 14 mg per 100 g fresh meat respectively. In conclusion, desirable PUFA/SFA (0.6) and n-3/n-6 ratio (3.8) found in indigenous Lori goat propose healthy source of lean meat for the consumers. PMID:26431711

  9. Effects of supplementation of rumen-protected choline on growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of lambs.

    PubMed

    Li, Huawei; Wang, Hongrong; Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Mengzhi; Liu, Shimin; Sun, Lisha; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on growth performance, blood lipids, meat quality and expression of genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism in young lambs. A total of 24 Dorper × Hu lambs (about 20 kg body weight) were kept in individual pens and fed diets with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% RPC for 60 d. Supplementation of 0.25% RPC increased average daily gain of lambs, whereas treatments had no significant effect on feed intake. The pH values of meat were increased at 0.25% RPC and both, dripping loss and shear force of meat, were significantly decreased in RPC-supplemented lambs. No significant changes were observed for dressing percentage and intramuscular fat. RPC supplementations had no significant effect on the concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterols in serum, but the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was decreased at 0.50% RPC and that of low-density lipoprotein was increased at 0.75% RPC. In m. longissimus dorsi, the expressions of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes were increased at 0.25% RPC. Supplementation of 0.75% RPC increased the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and FASN genes, decreased the expression of ACC gene and had no effect on CD36 gene. The results of this study showed that supplementation of 0.25% RPC could promote growth performance of lambs and improve meat quality. This may be mediated by effects on blood lipid profiles and the metabolism of fatty acids in skeleton muscles. However, the beneficial effects of 0.25% RPC supplementation need to be validated with a larger number of animals. Higher doses, particularly 0.75% RPC, showed adverse effects on live weight gain and ACC expression. PMID:26305383

  10. Δ(9) desaturase protein expression and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle in lambs fed green herbage or concentrate with or without added tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Priolo, Alessandro; Scerra, Manuel; Hallett, Katharine G; Wood, Jeffrey D; Doran, Olena

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of feeding system and of supplementation of tannins (8.93% DM) on the relationship between intramuscular fat content, fatty acid composition and Δ(9)desaturase (Δ(9)d) protein expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of lamb. Twenty-eight Comisana lambs (age 45days) were fed either vetch (Vicia sativa) or concentrate. The herbage diet was (i) lower in saturated fatty acids (especially in C16:0), C18:1 n-9 and in C18:2 n-6; (ii) higher in C16:1 and C18:3 n-3 when compared to concentrate. Within each feeding system the lambs were divided into two sub-groups, one of which received the diet without tannins supplementation, and the other was fed the diets supplemented with the tannins from Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii). The animals were slaughtered at age 105days. The concentrate feeding system increased (p<0.01) the total intramuscular fat content and the amount of SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA and decreased the level of n-3 PUFA (p=0.05) when compared to the vetch-fed animals but did not affect Δ(9) desaturase protein expression. There was no correlation between Δ(9)d protein expression and total intramuscular fatty acids, CLA and MUFA level. It was suggested that in ruminants, in contrast to monogastric animals, Δ(9)d expression does not play the key role in intramuscular fatty acids formation. Tannins supplementation resulted in higher (p<0.05) muscle levels of transC18:1 and C18:2 n-6. It has also increased Δ(9)d expression in the case of herbage-based diet but not in the case of concentrate-based diet. The mechanism of tannins action on the enzyme expression needs to be elucidated. PMID:20416712

  11. Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for the treatment of established facial paralysis following ablative surgery in the parotid region.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Ueda, Kazuki; Yamada, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for facial reanimation was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure for 45 patients with facial paralysis resulting from ablative surgery in the parotid region. This intervention differs from neurovascular free-muscle transfer for treatment of established facial paralysis resulting from conditions such as congenital dysfunction, unresolved Bell palsy, Hunt syndrome, or intracranial morbidity, with difficulties including selection of recipient vessels and nerves, and requirements for soft-tissue augmentation. This article describes the authors' operative procedure for neurovascular free-muscle transfer after ablative surgery in the parotid region. Gracilis muscle (n = 24) or latissimus dorsi muscle (n = 21) was used for transfer. With gracilis transfer, recipient vessels comprised the superficial temporal vessels in 12 patients and the facial vessels in 12. For latissimus dorsi transfer, recipient vessels comprised the facial vessels in 16 patients and the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid or internal jugular vein in four. Facial vessels on the contralateral side were used with interpositional graft of radial vessels in the remaining patient with latissimus dorsi transfer. Cross-face nerve grafting was performed before muscle transfer in 22 patients undergoing gracilis transfer. In the remaining two gracilis patients, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the primary recipient nerve. Dermal fat flap overlying the gracilis muscle was used for cheek augmentation in one patient. In the other 23 patients, only the gracilis muscle was used. With latissimus dorsi transfer, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the recipient nerve in three patients, and a cross-face nerve graft was selected as the recipient nerve in six. The contralateral facial nerve was selected as the recipient nerve in 12 patients, and a thoracodorsal nerve from the latissimus dorsi muscle segment was crossed through the upper lip

  12. [Synovial cyst of chest wall; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Chujo, Masao; Anami, Kentaro; Miura, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    A 55-year-old male taxi driver visited our hospital because of a left dorsal tumor. The tumor was palpated at the inferior angle of the left scapula with tenderness. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a homogeneous 5-cm mass with capsule between the latissimus dorsi muscle and rib. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated the tumor with high intensity. The latissimus dorsi muscle was divided and separated off from the tumor and the lower layer;then, an applied wound retractor (Alexis) was placed under the lower layer of the latissimus dorsi muscle and the operative field was developed. Next, the anterior serratus and greater rhomboid muscles were separated off from the tumor and the lower layer, the Alexis was placed under the lower layer of those muscles. All muscles were preserved and the tumor was removed. The tumor was 56×32 mm in size. The histological diagnosis was synovial cyst. PMID:25434552

  13. Effects of Gas Composition in the Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Kim, Dong Soo; Song, Yeong Rae; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of gas composition in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred (KNP×D) during refrigerated storage. Muscle sample was obtained from the left side of carcass of seven months old of KNP×D barrow. The sample was sliced into 1 cm in thickness, placed on trays (two slices/tray) and filled with different gas composition, i.e. 0:20:80/O2:CO2:N2 (MAP1), 30:20:50/O2:CO2:N2 (MAP2) and 70:20:10/O2:CO2:N2 (MAP3). Other slices of sample were vacuum packed (VP) as a control. All packs were stored at 5±1°C. At 12 d of storage, pH value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and pH value of MAP1 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP. At 6 d of storage, redness (a*) value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of VP and MAP1 and, at 9 and 12 d of storage, redness value of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP, MAP1, and MAP2. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of MAP3 was higher than that of MAP2 and TBARS value of MAP2 was higher than that of VP and MAP1. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, volatile basic nitrogen values of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1. At 3 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1 and, at 6 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and MAP2. However, there was no significant different total aerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 at 9 and 12 d of storage. There was no significant different total anaerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 during storage. It is concluded that the MAP containing 30:20:50/O2:CO2:N2 gas composition (MAP2) might be ideal for better meat quality for KNP×D meat. PMID:25083110

  14. [Large abdominal wall reconstruction by free flap after recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans].

    PubMed

    Le Fourn, B; Lejeune, F; Sartre, J Y; Loirat, Y; Pannier, M

    1996-12-01

    Based on a case of recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the abdominal wall, the authors discuss the need for initial wide resection of this type of skin tumour and the possibilities of repair of extensive full thickness defects of the abdominal wall by means of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap. PMID:9768175

  15. The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21 days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21 days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process. PMID:23896147

  16. Pharmacologic manipulation of the microcirculation in cutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.C.; Nakatsuka, T.; Sasaki, G.H.

    1985-04-01

    The vascular effects of isoxsuprine, diazoxide, and isoproterenol were studied in arterial buttock flaps and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in pigs. Capillary blood flow to the skin and muscles of these flaps was measured by the radioactive microsphere (15-mu diameter) technique 6 hours postoperatively under pentobarbital anesthesia. It was observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was not effective in augmentation of skin blood flow in the arterial buttock flaps. However, isoproterenol significantly increased capillary blood flow to the arterialized portion of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps compared with controls. Isoxsuprine and diazoxide (vascular smooth muscle relaxants) significantly (p less than 0.05) increased total capillary blood flow to the skin of arterial buttock flaps and to the skin and muscles of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. However, the increase in capillary blood flow occurred mainly in the arterialized portion of these flaps. The capillary blood flow, which was supplied by the small arteries in the distal portion of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps, was not increased by treatment with isoxsuprine or diazoxide. Therefore, there was also no increase in the maximum distance of capillary blood flow from the pedicle to the distal end of the flaps. These observations led the authors to hypothesize that different sizes (diameters) of arteries in the skin and muscle have different reactivity (or sensitivity) to vasodilatory drugs. In the present experiment, the large dominant artery of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps responded to isoxsuprine or diazoxide (vascular smooth-muscle relaxants), resulting in an increase in blood supply to the capillaries in the proximal portion of the flaps.

  17. [The gracilis muscle as musculocutaneous flap. Evaluation of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Gholam, D; Trevidic, P; Kleimann, P; Hautefeuille, P; Nicoletis, C

    1991-01-01

    The use of gracilis as muscular or myocutaneous flap is very well-known. The authors report 20 cases of gracilis flap including 13 reconstructions of the vaginal cavity following extended abdomino-perineal resection. Some technical points concerning the localization of the cutaneous part of the flap and the pedicle dissection are discussed. The use of gracilis flap is still limited in surgical teams following extended abdomino-perineal resection, nevertheless it is a very useful flap because of its low morbidity, the shortening of patient hospitalization and the very satisfying aesthetic result of the neo-vaginal cavity. PMID:1726389

  18. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  19. Free tissue transfer in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease: functional outcome in reconstruction of chronic lower extremity defects.

    PubMed

    Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Hellmich, Susanne; Germann, Günter; Megerle, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Chronic wounds of the lower extremity are difficult to treat, especially in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This patient population frequently suffers from multiple comorbidities, which further impairs wound healing. Local flaps are often not available, or are insufficient to cover these defects, and limbs are frequently amputated, although they could possibly be salvaged by free tissue transplantation. Although there is a growing evidence that free tissue transfer may be feasible in these patients with otherwise doomed extremities, previous studies have mostly focused on short-term flap survival, but not long-term ambulatory status and independence. Therefore, we investigated the long-term results of limb salvage, ambulatory status, and social independence in patients with PAD who underwent free tissue transfer for chronic wounds of the lower extremities.In this study we retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who underwent free tissue transfer because of nontraumatic, chronic wounds of the lower extremities at our institution. All patients suffered from a nontraumatic occlusion of at least one major lower leg artery verified by angiography. After a mean time period of 34 months we assessed flap survival and limb preservation as well as pre- and postoperative ambulatory status and social independence. A subgroup of 14 patients with a "single-vessel-leg" was evaluated separately.It was observed that anterolateral thigh and latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps were most often used to cover the defects. Overall 29 out of the 38 flaps healed completely (9 flap failures) and 34 extremities were salvaged, including 12 out of 14 single-vessel-legs. One patient had to be amputated despite a vital free flap because of persistent calcaneal osteomyelitis. After failure of free tissue transfer, six extremities could still be salvaged by secondary procedures (two secondary free flaps, two local flaps, and two skin grafts). Total 22 out of 34 patients with

  20. Free Flap Reconstruction for Complex Scalp and Forehead Defects with Associated Full-Thickness Calvarial Bone Resections

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Juan; Rios, Alfredo; Franciosi, Edgardo; Mazzaro, Eduardo; Figari, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Extensive defects of the scalp and forehead associated with calvarial bone resections demand complex reconstructions. Free flaps offer vascularized tissue of excellent quality and quantity. We report six patients with extensive scalp and forehead defects associated with calvarial bone resections reconstructed with free flaps. Five patients also required a cranioplasty. The flaps used were two anterolateral thigh flaps, one vastus lateralis flap, one myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap, one latissimus dorsi flap, and one radial forearm flap. All flaps survived with no partial necrosis. There were no donor site complications. One patient presented an exposure of the alloplastic material used for cranioplasty. We strongly recommend the use of free flaps for this kind of reconstruction. PMID:24294403

  1. Treatment options for irreparable postero-superior cuff tears in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Galasso, Olimpio; Familiari, Filippo; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) occur more commonly with advanced age, with most rotator cuff abnormalities in patients less than 30 years old being painful tendinoses or partial-thickness RCTs. Irreparable postero-superior cuff tears has been reported as frequent as 7% to 10% in the general population, and the incidence of irreparable RCTs in young patients is still unknown. Several surgical procedures have been proposed for young patients with irreparable postero-superior RCTs, such as rotator cuff debridement, partial rotator cuff repair, biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, rotator cuff grafting, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. After being thoroughly investigated in open surgery, arthroscopic techniques for latissimus dorsi tendon transfer have been recently described. They have been shown to be an adequate option to open surgery for managing irreparable postero-superior RCTs refractory to conservative management. PMID:26601058

  2. Treatment options for irreparable postero-superior cuff tears in young patients.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Olimpio; Familiari, Filippo; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2015-11-18

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) occur more commonly with advanced age, with most rotator cuff abnormalities in patients less than 30 years old being painful tendinoses or partial-thickness RCTs. Irreparable postero-superior cuff tears has been reported as frequent as 7% to 10% in the general population, and the incidence of irreparable RCTs in young patients is still unknown. Several surgical procedures have been proposed for young patients with irreparable postero-superior RCTs, such as rotator cuff debridement, partial rotator cuff repair, biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, rotator cuff grafting, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. After being thoroughly investigated in open surgery, arthroscopic techniques for latissimus dorsi tendon transfer have been recently described. They have been shown to be an adequate option to open surgery for managing irreparable postero-superior RCTs refractory to conservative management. PMID:26601058

  3. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  4. A reliable approach to the closure of large acquired midline defects of the back

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, L.A.; Lewis, V.L. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    A systematic regionalized approach for the reconstruction of acquired thoracic and lumbar midline defects of the back is described. Twenty-three patients with wounds resulting from pressure necrosis, radiation injury, and postoperative wound infection and dehiscence were successfully reconstructed. The latissimus dorsi, trapezius, gluteus maximus, and paraspinous muscles are utilized individually or in combination as advancement, rotation, island, unipedicle, turnover, or bipedicle flaps. All flaps are designed so that their vascular pedicles are out of the field of injury. After thorough debridement, large, deep wounds are closed with two layers of muscle, while smaller, more superficial wounds are reconstructed with one layer. The trapezius muscle is utilized in the high thoracic area for the deep wound layer, while the paraspinous muscle is used for this layer in the thoracic and lumbar regions. Superficial layer and small wounds in the high thoracic area are reconstructed with either latissimus dorsi or trapezius muscle. Corresponding wounds in the thoracic and lumbar areas are closed with latissimus dorsi muscle alone or in combination with gluteus maximus muscle. The rationale for systematic regionalized reconstruction of acquired midline back wounds is described.

  5. Scalp reconstruction by microvascular free tissue transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Furnas, H.; Lineaweaver, W.C.; Alpert, B.S. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on a series of patients with scalp defects who have been treated with a variety of free flaps, spanning the era of microvascular free tissue transfer from its incipient stages to the present. Between 1971 and 1987, 18 patients underwent scalp reconstruction with 21 free flaps: 11 latissimus dorsi, 3 scalp transfers between identical twins, 3 groin, one combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior, two serratus anterior, and one omentum. These flaps were used to cover scalp defects resulting from burns, trauma, radiation, and tumors in patients ranging from 7 to 79 years of age. Follow-up has ranged from 3 weeks to 7 years. All of our flaps survived and covered complex defects, many of which had failed more conservative attempts at cover. One patient received radiation therapy to his flap without unfavorable sequelae. This experience began with a pioneering omental flap and includes cutaneous and muscle flaps. The latissimus dorsi is our first choice for free flap reconstruction of extensive, complicated scalp wounds because of its large size, predictable blood supply, ease of harvesting, and provision of excellent vascularity to compromised beds.

  6. Cardiomyoplasty - improvement of muscle fibre type transformation by an anabolic steroid (metenolone).

    PubMed

    Czesla, M; Mehlhorn, G; Fritzsche, D; Asmussen, G

    1997-11-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty, a method to support ventricular function by the chronically stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle wrapped around the heart is accompanied by a loss of mass and force of the transplanted muscle. These effects and the fast-to-slow transformation of the muscle could be possibly influenced by the additional administration of anabolic steroids. In this study, the left latissimus dorsi muscles of 12 sheep were electrically conditioned (group A). In 12 other animals (group B), stimulation was combined with the administration of metenolone (100 mg/week). Biopsies were taken from the right and left muscles at the beginning and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, frozen and cross-sectioned. The muscle fibre type composition was studied enzymhistochemically (SDH-staining and Myosin-ATPase-reaction) and immunocytochemically (using antibodies against different myosin heavy chains, MHC). Furthermore, the expression of different MHC isoforms was investigated electrophoretically. The untreated latissimus dorsi muscle contains 20% type I fibres expressing slow MHC and 80% type II fibres expressing fast MHC. After 6 weeks, the respective fibre type composition was 42 and 58% (group A) and 80 and 20% (group B). After 12 weeks, the percentage of the type I fibres rose in group A to 59% and in group B to 98%. In accordance with these morphological results, the MHC pattern determined electrophoretically showed a corresponding shift from the fast to the slow isoform. Therefore, the administration of metenolone avoids severe muscle atrophy, and improves and accelerates fast to slow fibre type conversion necessary for successful cardiomyoplasty. PMID:9405174

  7. Extended V-Y Advancement Flap Reconstruction of a Large Posterior Upper Midline Trunk Defect

    PubMed Central

    Fukudome, Eugene Y.; Bharadia, Deepak R.; Helm, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Large posterior upper trunk defects can be challenging to reconstruct. Trapezius or latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps are principally utilized for reconstruction; however, some defects may not be amenable to this standard approach. Here, we describe a patient with a full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue loss of the upper back and inferior cervical region after dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans resection. A large, extended V-Y flap was used for closure of this wound secondary to its location, size, and orientation. This approach preserves shoulder function, allows for readvancement of the flap as needed, and is a reconstructive option for patients with large upper back defects.

  8. Reconstructive Options for Oncologic Posterior Trunk Defects: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Björn; Wagner, Johannes M.; Wallner, Christoph; Harati, Kamran; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    After oncological tumor resections at the back, large defects can remain that depending on the size and location may represent reconstructive challenges to plastic surgeons. Flap selection includes the entire armamentarium of coverage, including transposition flaps, perforator flaps, pedicled muscle flaps, and free flaps. Most defects can be closed and reconstructed with local or pedicled muscle flaps. In our hands, sufficient closure could be obtained with all techniques, except the latissimus dorsi turn-over flap. Thereupon, an algorithm for closure of posterior trunk defects related to the anatomical region is proposed. PMID:27014626

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Anterior Plane Block in Breast Reconstruction Surgery.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Rakhi; Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Ahmed, Rosina; Datta, Taniya; Agarwal, Sanjit

    2016-05-01

    Pecs block and its variations have been used for various breast surgeries. We describe 2 cases of mastectomy and breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi (LD) flap where regional analgesia was provided by a combination of ultrasound-guided Pecs-I block and serratus anterior plane block, a recently described technique in which local anesthetic is deposited in the plane between the LD and serratus anterior muscle. This resulted in excellent intraoperative and postoperative analgesia and a minimum of systemic analgesics. The described technique is safe to administer and provides good analgesia for breast reconstruction surgery by LD flap. PMID:26934607

  10. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  11. Extended V-Y Advancement Flap Reconstruction of a Large Posterior Upper Midline Trunk Defect.

    PubMed

    Fukudome, Eugene Y; Bharadia, Deepak R; Helm, Douglas L; Sinha, Indranil

    2016-05-01

    Large posterior upper trunk defects can be challenging to reconstruct. Trapezius or latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps are principally utilized for reconstruction; however, some defects may not be amenable to this standard approach. Here, we describe a patient with a full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue loss of the upper back and inferior cervical region after dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans resection. A large, extended V-Y flap was used for closure of this wound secondary to its location, size, and orientation. This approach preserves shoulder function, allows for readvancement of the flap as needed, and is a reconstructive option for patients with large upper back defects. PMID:27579237

  12. Salvage Free Anterolateral Thigh Composite Flap Transfer Based on the Musculocutaneous Perforator Retrograde Blood Flow Principle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Yang, Xiaonan; Zong, Xianlei; Sun, Hengyun; Qi, Zuoliang; Jin, Xiaolei

    2016-03-01

    An anterolateral thigh myo-adipofascial flap was used in the definitive management of a patient presented with chronic infective process associated with a large fronto-nasal defect. Unfortunately, the risk of free flap transfer failure emerged when intraoperative dissection showed absence of a reliable ipsilateral superficial temporal artery as the recipient artery. This rare incident happened at the stage whereby the anterolateral thigh flap was nearly completely raised with a distal perforator in situ. In this article, the authors presented an innovative strategy to salvage the flap by transforming the flap into a modified composite flap based on the retrograde blood flow principle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using such a technique in reconstructive microsurgery. This successful salvage strategy has clinical application and could potentially minimize free flap transfer failure. PMID:26854778

  13. Simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous free flap.

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, R K; Ahn, C Y; Salzhauer, M A; Scherff, D; Shaw, W W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the results and morbidity associated with simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap breast reconstruction and describe refinements in its surgical technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bilateral prophylactic total mastectomies might be an agreeable option for those patients at highest risk for breast cancer if autogenous tissue breast reconstruction could be performed with reasonable technical ease and acceptable morbidity. However, some surgeons harbor reservations regarding the extensiveness of the surgery, the associated morbidity, and the aesthetic quality of the resulting outcome. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review of clinical experience with 120 consecutive patients who underwent 240 simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap breast reconstructions was developed. RESULTS: The average operating time, including the time required for the breast ablative portion of the procedures, was 8.6 hours. The average length of hospitalization was 7.6 days. However, for the last 40 patients, these figures were reduced to 7.1 hours and 6.1 days, respectively. Nonautologous blood transfusions were needed in 33 cases (28%), but only 1 was required in the last 40 patients. Thromboses developed in six of 240 flaps (2.5%): 4 were arterial and 2 were venous. Re-exploration allowed us to restore circulation in five flaps, whereas one flap was unsalvageable and was replaced successfully with an alternate flap. An uncomplicated deep vein thromboses developed in one patient with a history of recurrent deep vein thromboses that had no adverse effect on her outcome. Minor complications developed in 18 patients (15%) (e.g., hematoma, partial wound necrosis, wound infection, or prolonged postoperative ileus) that did not affect the long-term outcome. Fourteen patients (11.6%) had abdominal wall weakness or hernias. Follow-up time averaged 37.2 months (range, 14-62 months). On last follow-up, patients' self-reported overall satisfaction with the procedure was 56% excellent, 40% good, and 4% fair.CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous bilateral free flap reconstruction is technically feasible with a high rate of success and an acceptable morbidity. When performed by experienced surgeons, bilateral prophylactic total mastectomies combined with simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap reconstruction may provide an adequate surgical option with aesthetically acceptable results for patients at high risk for breast cancer. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9242334

  14. Biomechanical and Electromyographic Comparisons of Isometric Trunk Flexor Endurance Test Postures: Prone Plank Versus V-Sit.

    PubMed

    Musalem, Lindsay L; Stankovic, Tatjana; Glisic, Drazen; Cook, Gillian E; Beach, Tyson A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate why holding times on 2 different tests of isometric trunk flexor endurance capacity (prone plank and v-sit) are weakly correlated. Body position and ground reaction force data from 10 men and 10 women were used to conduct static biomechanical analyses of both test postures, and bilateral activations of the rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques, latissimus dorsi, and lumbar and thoracic erector spinae were measured in a second sample of 15 men and 15 women while holding the test postures. No between-posture differences in net low back flexor moments were found (P = .111), but the lumbar spine was 28° more flexed in the v-sit than in the plank (P < .001). No between-posture differences were detected in the rectus abdominis (P = .397), external obliques (P = .204), internal obliques (P = .226), or lumbar erector spinae (P = .116) activation levels, but those of the thoracic erector spinae (P = .0253) and latissimus dorsi (P < .001) were greater in the plank than in the v-sit. Altogether, the findings suggest that differences between plank and v-sit holding times are most likely related to between-test differences in lumbar spine postures and shoulder demands. PMID:26252077

  15. Mechanical implications of chimpanzee positional behavior.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K D

    1991-12-01

    Mechanical hypotheses concerning the function of chimpanzee anatomical specializations are examined in light of recent positional behavior data. Arm-hanging was the only common chimpanzee positional behavior that required full abduction of the humerus, and vertical climbing was the only distinctive chimpanzee positional behavior that required forceful retraction of the humerus and flexion of the elbow. Some elements of the chimpanzee anatomy, including an abductible humerus, a broad thorax, a cone-shaped torso, and a long, narrow scapula, are hypothesized to be a coadapted functional complex that reduces muscle action and structural fatigue during arm-hanging. Large muscles that retract the humerus (latissimus dorsi and probably sternocostal pectoralis major and posterior deltoid) and flex the elbow (biceps brachii, probably brachialis and brachioradialis) are argued to be adaptations to vertical climbing alone. A large ulnar excursion of the manus and long, curved metacarpals and phalanges are interpreted as adaptations to gripping vertical weight-bearing structures during vertical climbing and arm-hanging. A short torso, an iliac origin of the latissimus dorsi, and large muscles for arm-raising (caudal serratus, teres minor, cranial trapezius, and probably anterior deltoid and clavicular pectoralis major) are interpreted as adaptations to both climbing and unimanual suspension. PMID:1776659

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of the Eco-Pick lift assist: A device designed to facilitate product selection tasks in distribution centers.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Ko, Pei-Ling; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2013-03-01

    Developing lift assist devices to aid workers performing case tasks in distribution centers has been challenging given the movement of workers through a distribution facility. The objective of this work was to biomechanically evaluate a lift assist that can be integrated with pallet jacks and thereby move through the facility with the workers. Twelve participants transferred 16.4 kg boxes from one pallet to another manually and using the Eco-Pick lift assist. Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured bilaterally in the Bicep, Deltoid, Latissimus Dorsi, and Erector Spinae muscles. The analysis showed that the 90th percentile normalized EMG values were significantly reduced in 4 of the 8 muscles sampled when using the Eco-Pick. Likewise, the 50th percentile normalized EMG data were significantly reduced for the Erector Spinae, Latissimus Dorsi, and the Bicep muscles when using the assist. For some of the muscles the advantage of the Eco-Pick was dependent upon the initial lift height or the placement height. Overall, it appears that this evaluation of the Eco-Pick's efficacy indicates that the device has the potential to be an effective means of reducing worker exposure to risk factors associated with back and shoulder injuries experienced during manual palletizing tasks found in distribution centers. PMID:22884290

  17. An electromyographic evaluation of dual role breathing and upper body muscles in response to front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Lomax, M; Tasker, L; Bostanci, O

    2015-10-01

    The upper body trunk musculature is key in supporting breathing, propulsion, and stabilization during front crawl swimming. The aim of this study was to determine if the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and serratus anterior contributed to the development of inspiratory muscle fatigue observed following front crawl swimming. Fourteen trained swimmers completed a 200-m front crawl swim at 90% of race pace. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax) were assessed before (baseline) and after each swim, and electromyography was recorded from the three muscles. Post-swim PImax fell by 11% (P < 0.001, d = 0.57) and the median frequency (MDF: a measure of fatigue) of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and serratus anterior fell to 90% (P = 0.001, d = 1.57), 87% (P = 0.001, r = -0.60) and 89% (P = 0.018, d = 1.04) of baseline, respectively. The fall in serratus anterior MDF was correlated with breathing frequency (r = 0.675, P = 0.008) and stroke rate (r = 0.639, P = 0.014). The results suggest that the occurrence of inspiratory muscle fatigue was partly caused by fatigue of these muscles, and that breathing frequency and stroke rate particularly affect the serratus anterior. PMID:25640018

  18. Relationship between spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity during trunk rotation

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Rie; Wada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity during trunk rotation using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and surface electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 11 healthy men. A three-dimensional motion analysis system measured the trunk rotational angle of 4 segments of the thoracic vertebrae and 2 segments of the lumbar vertebrae. Surface electromyography measured the activities of the unilateral latissimus dorsi, lumbar multifidus, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles. [Results] During ipsilateral rotation at thoracic vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and external oblique was significantly increased compared with the activity in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. During early ipsilateral rotation at lumbar vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis was significantly increased compared with that in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. During contralateral rotation at both thoracic and lumbar vertebral levels, the muscle activity of the external oblique was significantly increased compared with that in the 0–10% range of trunk rotation. [Conclusion] This study indicates that it is important to consider vertebral segments and spinal range of motion during trunk rotation. PMID:27065549

  19. Evaluation of muscle fatigue during 100-m front crawl.

    PubMed

    Stirn, Igor; Jarm, Tomaz; Kapus, Venceslav; Strojnik, Vojko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle fatigue in upper body muscles during 100-m all-out front crawl. Surface electromyogram (EMG) was collected from the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles of 11 experienced swimmers. Blood lactate concentration level increased to 14.1 ± 2.9 mmol l(-1) 5 min after the swim. The velocity, stroke length and stroke rate calculated based on video analysis decreased by 15.0, 5.8 and 7.4%, respectively, during the swim. EMG amplitude of the triceps and the lower part of the latissimus muscles increased, whilst the mean power frequency (MNF) of all muscles significantly decreased by 20-25%. No significant differences in the relative MNF decrease were observed amongst the muscles; however, the differences in the rate of the MNF decrease between the lower part of the latissimus and the triceps brachii muscles were found (P < 0.05). The time of rest between the muscle activation of the two consecutive arm strokes at the end of swimming was extended (P < 0.05). It was concluded that 100-m all-out crawl induced significant fatigue with no evident differences amongst the analysed muscles. PMID:20824283

  20. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  1. [Immediate vaginal reconstruction with a musculocutaneous flap from the gracilis muscle after extended abdomino-perineal resection].

    PubMed

    Sezeur, A; Hautefeuille, P; Trevidic, P

    1995-01-01

    Reconstruction of a functional vagina after radical abdomino-perineal resection is a difficult surgical problem. The use of the gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a satisfactory solution. This article describes the surgical procedure of immediate vaginal reconstruction using the gracilis myocutaneous flap. Unfortunately, this technique is still not widely used by surgical teams. Nevertheless, it is a useful flap because of its low morbidity and the satisfying result of the functional neovaginal cavity. PMID:8526447

  2. The reverse zygomatic implant: a new implant for maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Andrew; Collier, Jonathan; Darwood, Alastair; Tanner, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the rehabilitation of a patient who had been treated with a hemimaxillectomy, reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi vascularized free flap, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the sinus some years previously. Limited jaw opening, difficult access through the flap to the bony site, and the very small amount of bone available in which to anchor the implant inspired the development and use of a new "reverse zygomatic" implant. For this treatment, site preparation and implant insertion were accomplished using an extraoral approach. The implant was used along with two other conventional zygomatic implants to provide support for a milled titanium bar and overdenture to rehabilitate the maxilla. Two years later, the patient continues to enjoy a healthy reconstruction. The reverse zygomatic implant appears to show promise as a useful addition to the implant armamentarium for the treatment of the patient undergoing maxillectomy. PMID:26574864

  3. The Efficacy of Continuous Negative Pressure and Irrigation Treatment Inside the Wound by a Closed System in Reconstruction of All Layers of the Cranium Accompanying Infection and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Mai; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Migita, Hisashi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    There have been many reports to date with respect to treatments on reconstruction of the cranium without accompanying infections following trauma and tumor resection. The morality is, however, high in patients observed with generation of cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and moreover, there are barely any reports on such cases because of the reconstruction thereof being very difficult. In this study, the authors were able to cure such 2 cases by carrying out continuous negative pressure and irrigation treatment inside the wound by a closed system following transplant of free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. This method is believed to be very effective for cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, in which treatment was determined to be very difficult. PMID:26674903

  4. Soft tissue coverage at the resource-challenged facility.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2008-10-01

    Covering soft tissue defects remains challenging for orthopaedic surgeons, especially those in resource-challenged facilities. Covering tissue defects follow a plan from simple to complex: primary closure, local flap, area flap, pedicle flap, and free flap. I will limit my discussion to the role of latter two. At the district-level hospital in Vietnam, pedicle flaps are generally more useful, so I will discuss free flaps only briefly. The choices of pedicle flaps include: kite flap, posterior interosseous flap, radial flap (Chinese flap), neurocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap, gastrocnemius flap, sural flap, posterior leg flaps; we typically use a free flap with the latissimus dorsi. Soft tissue coverage with pedicle flaps has many advantages: reliability, relatively easy harvest, and good blood supply. Free flaps with microanastomosis have an important place in covering difficult medium- or large-sized soft tissue defects but also require more instruments and more highly trained surgeons. PMID:18665433

  5. Noninvasive Free Flap Monitoring Using Eulerian Video Magnification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan Fang; Vuong, Christopher; Walker, Paul Charles; Peterson, Nathaniel Ray; Inman, Jared Christian; Filho, Pedro Alcantara Andrade; Lee, Steve Choon-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) can enhance subtle changes in videos to reveal what was once invisible to the naked eye. In this proof of concept study, we investigated using EVM as a novel form of free flap monitoring. Free flaps with skin paddles were filmed in the operating room with manipulation of their pedicles. In a representative 77-year-old female who received a latissimus dorsi-serratus-rib composite free flap, EVM was able to detect blockage of arterial or venous supply instantaneously, providing a visible representation through degree of color change in videos. EVM has the potential to serve as a powerful free flap monitoring tool with the benefit of being noninvasive, sensitive, easy-to-use, and nearly cost-free. PMID:27092284

  6. Mediastinal infusion with tracheal necrosis: an unusual complication of Port-a-cath devices.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Stéphane; Santelmo, Nicola; Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Massard, Gilbert

    2011-06-01

    The Port-a-cath (PAC) is a catheter totally implanted under the skin. It is commonly used in oncology for permanent venous access. It provides a more simple way to infuse chemotherapies, antibiotics or parenteral nutrition, while offering improved comfort to patients. The usual complications of these devices (infections and catheter obstructions) are well documented. More exceptional events are catheter fractures with systemic migration, and endopleural perfusions due to a wrong positioning of the catheter. Since 1998, 10 cases of mediastinal infusion of cytotoxics have been reported. Surgical management was necessary in only two cases. We are reporting the case of a 57-year-old female suffering from a multimetastatic sigmoid adenocarcinoma. A mediastinal infusion of Folfiri and bevacizumab with a tracheal necrosis complicated the PAC use and required a latissimus dorsi myoplasty to fill up the tracheo-bronchial defect. PMID:21362735

  7. Successful treatment of a bronchopleural fistula after en masse lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Ohsawa, Fumi; Yoshikawa, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old man underwent en masse lobectomy of the lower left lobe because of continued hemoptysis. We chose en masse lobectomy as a last resort because the patient had cardiopulmonary problems including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension, and continued hemoptysis. The patient developed a bronchopleural fistula 2 weeks later, so the Clagett window procedure was performed. After gauze exchange and cleaning of the pleural space, the Clagett window was closed using a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. He was discharged about 3 months after the initial operation. One of the most critical complications after en masse lobectomy is a bronchopleural fistula because the bronchial stump and vessel are too close to each other. The space between the bronchus and vessel can fill with tissue, such as pulmonary parenchyma or lymph nodes, which cover the fistula. PMID:27621901

  8. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Ravi Krishna; Thi Le, Xuan; Nicholls, Philip K.; Cake, Martin A.; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biocompatible ceramic that is currently used in a number of current biomedical applications. Recently, nanometre scale forms of HAP have attracted considerable interest due to their close similarity to the inorganic mineral component of the bone matrix found in humans. In this study ultrafine nanometre scale HAP powders were prepared via a wet precipitation method under the influence of ultrasonic irradiation. The resulting powders were compacted and sintered to form a series of ceramic pellets with a sponge-like structure with varying density and porosity. The crystalline structure, size and morphology of the powders and the porous ceramic pellets were investigated using advanced characterization techniques. The pellets demonstrated good biocompatibility, including mixed cell colonisation and matrix deposition, in vivo following surgical implantation into sheep M. latissimus dorsi. PMID:25168046

  9. Reconstruction of complex defects of the parotid region using a lateral thoracic wall donor site.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Pedrazzoli, Marco; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Colletti, Giacomo; Colombo, Valeria; Frigerio, Alice; Autelitano, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Radical treatment of parotid neoplasms may lead to complex parotid defects that present functional and aesthetic reconstructive challenges. We report our experience using the lateral thoracic wall as a single donor site. Between 2003 and 2009, four patients with malignant tumours in the parotid gland underwent radical parotidectomy and simultaneous reconstruction using a perforator latissimus dorsi cutaneous free flap (de-epithelialized and entire skin paddle in two cases each). A thoracodorsal nerve graft was used in all cases to replace the intraglandular branches of the facial nerve. Costal grafts were used for mandibular reconstruction in two patients. All patients underwent postoperative physiotherapy. No donor-site complication occurred and all treatments achieved good aesthetic results. All patients recovered nearly complete symmetry at rest and partial facial mimetic function. The lateral thoracic wall is a good donor site for the reconstruction of complex parotid defects. PMID:23245945

  10. Biomechanical bases of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.

  11. Autologous reconstruction of a complex form of Poland syndrome using 2 abdominal perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Loschi, Pietro; Sanchez Porro-Gil, Lidia; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Olivares, Leyre

    2015-05-01

    Poland syndrome is the most frequent cause of congenital breast aplasia and hypoplasia. Breast and possible chest wall deformities can be treated with several surgical techniques, including implants, and pedicled or free flaps.We describe the case of a young patient with severe Poland syndrome with amastia, athelia, and deformity of the chest wall, and aplasia of 2 ribs. Marked hypoplasia of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle ruled out a reliable reconstructive option.Two perforator flaps were performed in a single-stage operation. A hemi-deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was harvested to correct the chest deformity, whereas the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap allowed breast reconstruction.No complications occurred and a subjectively and objectively pleasing cosmetic result was maintained at 3-year follow-up. PMID:24322640

  12. Stabilization of the Chest Wall: Autologous and Alloplastic Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Raman Chaos; Butler, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of chest wall stabilization include maintenance of a rigid airtight cavity, protection of the thoracic and abdominal contents, optimization of respiration, and, whenever possible, an aesthetic reconstruction. Evidence suggests that bony fixation results in reduced ventilator dependence, a shorter overall hospital stay, and improved upper extremity function. We prefer to accomplish this with autologous tissue alone (such as the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, or rectus abdominus muscle flaps) for small to moderate defects. En bloc resection of defects larger than 5 cm or containing four or more ribs will likely benefit from chest wall stabilization. For patients previously treated with radiation, even larger defects may be tolerated owing to fibrosis. For these larger defects, methyl methacrylate composite meshes are used and covered with vascularized tissue. Contaminated wounds are generally reconstructed with bioprosthetic mesh rather than synthetic mesh. Using these principles, the reconstructive plastic surgeon can devise a comprehensive and safe plan to repair tremendous defects of the chest wall. PMID:22294941

  13. Perioperative Management of Multiple Noncardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan A; Brull, Sorin J

    2015-12-01

    The number of patients with noncardiac implantable electronic devices is increasing, and the absence of perioperative management standards, guidelines, practice parameters, or expert consensus statements presents clinical challenges. A 69-year-old woman presented for latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. The patient had previously undergone implantation of a spinal cord stimulator, a gastric pacemaker, a sacral nerve stimulator, and an intrathecal morphine pump. After consultation with device manufacturers, the devices with patient programmability were switched off. Bipolar cautery was used intraoperatively. Postoperatively, all devices were interrogated to ensure appropriate functioning before home discharge. Perioperative goals include complete preoperative radiologic documentation of device component location, minimizing electromagnetic interference, and avoiding mechanical damage to implanted device components. PMID:26588030

  14. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

  15. Successful treatment of a bronchopleural fistula after en masse lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Ohsawa, Fumi; Yoshikawa, Ryohei

    2016-08-01

    A 72-year-old man underwent en masse lobectomy of the lower left lobe because of continued hemoptysis. We chose en masse lobectomy as a last resort because the patient had cardiopulmonary problems including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension, and continued hemoptysis. The patient developed a bronchopleural fistula 2 weeks later, so the Clagett window procedure was performed. After gauze exchange and cleaning of the pleural space, the Clagett window was closed using a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. He was discharged about 3 months after the initial operation. One of the most critical complications after en masse lobectomy is a bronchopleural fistula because the bronchial stump and vessel are too close to each other. The space between the bronchus and vessel can fill with tissue, such as pulmonary parenchyma or lymph nodes, which cover the fistula. PMID:27621901

  16. Management of Large Sternal Wound Infections With the Superior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Eburdery, H; Grolleau, J L; Berthier, C; Bertheuil, N; Chaput, B

    2016-01-01

    The management of sternal wound infections often requires pedicled flaps. In recent years, the emergence of perforator flaps has changed our management of wounds involving tissue loss. For sternal wounds, the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap can be used with the propeller procedure with minimal donor site morbidity. In our practice, this flap has replaced the traditional latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps in the treatment of many sternal wounds. We report our experience with 4 patients with large sternal wound infection after cardiothoracic operations. The SEAP flap appears a safe alternative for low-morbidity coverage of sternal infections. Moreover, muscle flaps remain available in case the SEAP flap fails. PMID:26694288

  17. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: The Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Mitchel; Johnson, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    The shoulder joint is essential for placing the hand in a functional position for reach and overhead activities. This depends on the delicate balance between abductor/adductor and internal/external rotator muscles. Spasticity alters this equilibrium, limiting the interaction of the upper limb with the environment. Classically, pediatric patients with upper limb spasticity present with an adduction and internal rotation contracture of the shoulder. These contractures are typically secondary to spasticity of the pectoralis major and subscapularis muscles and sometimes attributed to the latissimus dorsi muscle. Fractional lengthening, Z-step lengthening, or tendon release of the contributing muscle groups may help correct the adduction and internal rotation contractures. With proper diagnosis, a well-executed surgical plan, and a consistent hand rehabilitation regimen, successful surgical outcomes can be achieved. PMID:26869863

  18. The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.

    PubMed

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers. PMID:24064180

  19. [Covering of a thoraco-lumbar defect by omentoplasty].

    PubMed

    Le Fourn, B; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J Y; Lejeune, F; Pannier, M

    1997-02-01

    With a case of thoraco-lumbar defect, the authors discuss about different procedures to cover it. In this place, the better procedure is certainly the latissimus dorsi flap, in all combinations. The indication for omentoplasty at this spinal site should not be performed by first intention but by exclusion of other procedures, as in the case considered by the authors. It was a 37-year-old man, paraplegic from the age of 16, with a deep chronic spinal wound, secondary to sepsis of a posterior segmental fixations. A staphylococcus aureus infection which developed as a surgical complication was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical cleaning procedures without removing instrumentation. However, the infection remained active and the material was finally removed. Spinal immobilisation was strengthened by external fixation. The area was cleared of all suspect material, including bone graft, leaving a wide back-wound open to the spine. Spontaneous healing was first attempted, but the size and the chronicity of the wound led us to use pedicled greater omentum to close the defect. The omentum was pedicled on the right gastroepiploic vessels and transferred to the back wound through the posterior abdominal wall muscles, next to the right kidney. This procedure allows rapid healing. In association with suitable antibiotics, it has prevented any recurrent infection after 18 months of follow-up. It was no feasible to cover the wound with a latissimus dorsi flap, considering the importance of this muscle in the movements of a paraplegic and considering the initial impossibility of removing the external fixation. PMID:9768139

  20. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  1. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P < 0·05). External intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P < 0·05). Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity did not show significant differences between breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. PMID:25040551

  2. Trends in Immediate Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Bottle, Alex; Mayer, Erik; Patten, Darren K.; Rao, Christopher; Aylin, Paul; Hadjiminas, Dimitri J.; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara; Gui, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study aimed to evaluate local and national trends in immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using the national English administrative records, Hospital Episode Statistics. Our prediction was an increase in implant-only and free flap procedures and a decline in latissimus flap reconstructions. Methods: Data from an oncoplastic center were interrogated to derive numbers of implant-only, autologous latissimus dorsi (LD), LD-assisted, and autologous pedicled or free flap IBR procedures performed between 2004 and 2013. Similarly, Hospital Episode Statistics data were used to quantify national trends in these procedures from 1996 to 2012 using a curve fitting analysis. Results: National data suggest an increase in LD procedures between 1996 (n = 250) and 2002 (n = 958), a gradual rise until 2008 (n = 1398) followed by a decline until 2012 (n = 1090). As a percentage of total IBR, trends in LD flap reconstruction better fit a quadratic (R2 = 0.97) than a linear function (R2 = 0.63), confirming a proportional recent decline in LD flap procedures. Conversely, autologous (non-LD) flap reconstructions have increased (1996 = 0.44%; 2012 = 2.76%), whereas implant-only reconstructions have declined (1996 = 95.42%; 2012 = 84.92%). Locally, 70 implant-assisted LD procedures were performed in 2003 -2004, but only 2 were performed in 2012 to 2013. Conclusions: Implants are the most common IBR technique; autologous free flap procedures have increased, and pedicled LD flap procedures are in decline. PMID:26495220

  3. Sarcomere length dynamics of postmortem ovine Psoas major and Longissimus dorsi muscles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding relationships between biological mechanisms of postmortem events in muscle and meat quality is of enormous importance for the meat industry. Because sarcomere length has been previously related to tenderness issues in lambs, we decided to study two contrasting types of muscle with know...

  4. Proteome Analysis of Bovine Longissimus dorsi Muscle Associated with the Marbling Score

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, D. H.; Lee, H. G.; Kang, H. S.; Seo, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The breeding value of marbling score in skeletal muscle is an important factor for evaluating beef quality. In the present study, we investigated proteins associated with the breeding value of the marbling score for bovine sirloin to select potential biomarkers to improve meat quality through comparative proteomic analysis. Proteins isolated from muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. After analyzing images of the stained gel, seven protein spots for the high marbling score group were identified corresponding to changes in expression that were at least two-fold compared to the low marbling score group. Four spots with increased intensities in the high marbling score group were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase 1, triosephophate isomerase, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein PO, and capping protein (actin filament) Z-line alpha 2. Spots with decreased intensities in the high marbling score group compared to the low score group were identified as 14-3-3 epsilon, carbonic anhydrase II, and myosin light chain 1. Expression of myosin light chain 1 and carbonic anhydrase 2 was confirmed by Western blotting. Taken together, these data could help improve the economic performance of cattle and provide useful information about the underlying the function of bovine skeletal muscle. PMID:25049666

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence identification, and gene expression analysis of bovine ADCY2 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y X; Jin, H G; Yan, C G; Ren, C Y; Jiang, C J; Jin, C D; Seo, K S; Jin, X

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclase 2 (ADCY2), a class B member of adenylyl cyclases, is important in accelerating phosphor-acidification as well as glycogen synthesis and breakdown. Given its distinct role in flesh tenderization after butchering, we cloned and sequenced the ADCY2 gene from Yanbian cattle and assessed its expression in bovine tissues. A 2947 bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA of bovine ADCY2 gene was obtained by 5' and 3' remote analysis computations for gene expression. Analyses of the putative protein sequence showed that ADCY2 had high homology among species, except with the non-mammal Oreochromis niloticus. Gene structural domain analyses in humans and rats indicated that the ADCY2 protein had no flaw; only the transmembrane domain was reduced and the CYCc structure domain was shortened. Assessment of ADCY2 expression in bovine tissues by real-time PCR showed that the highest expression was in the testes, followed by the longissimus dorsi, tensor fasciae latae, and latissimus dorsi. These data will serve as a foundation for further insight into the cattle ADCY2 gene. PMID:24797538

  6. [A case of palatal polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, S; Tanaka, T; Nibu, K; Ishibashi, T; Ichimura, K; Yamada, A

    1995-07-01

    We present a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral cheek swelling and an extraorally protruding tumor who has had deaf mutism since birth. He underwent surgery of the right hard palate 11 years ago. Five years later biopsy was performed for a recurrent lesion diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. He refused additional treatment and the size of the tumor subsequently increased slowly. As rapid tumor-growth had been observed since autumn of 1992, he was referred to Tokyo University Hospital. We took meticulous care of this deaf-mute patient, especially from the psychological aspect, which caused him to place great reliance upon us. We performed bilateral maxillectomy with partial resection of the right cheek skin and reconstructed his face and palate successfully using both latissmus dorsi and serratus anterior musculocutaneous free flaps with a rib. Histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, which was registered as a definite entity in the WHO Classification in 1991. There was no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis one year postoperatively. PMID:7562229

  7. New model for cardiomyocyte sheet transplantation using a virus-cell fusion technique

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuto; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Takizawa, Sakiko; Yue, Fengming; Nagai, Mika; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Hirashima, Kanji; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To facilitate close contacts between transplanted cardiomyocytes and host skeletal muscle using cell fusion mediated by hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) and tissue maceration. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes (1.5 × 106) from fetal rats were first cultured. After proliferation, some cells were used for fusion with adult muscle fibers using HVJ-E. Other cells were used to create cardiomyocyte sheets (area: about 3.5 cm2 including 2.1 × 106 cells), which were then treated with Nile blue, separated, and transplanted between the latissimus dorsi and intercostal muscles of adult rats with four combinations of HVJ-E and/or NaOH maceration: G1: HVJ-E(+), NaOH(+), Cardiomyocytes(+); G2: HVJ-E(-), NaOH(+), Cardiomyocytes(+); G3: HVJ-E(+), NaOH(-), Cardiomyocytes(+); G4: HVJ-E(-), NaOH(-), Cardiomyocytes(-). At 1 and 2 wk after transplantation, the four groups were compared by detection of beating domains, motion images using moving target analysis software, action potentials, gene expression of MLC-2v and Mesp1 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunostaining for cardiac troponin and skeletal myosin. RESULTS: In vitro cardiomyocytes were fused with skeletal muscle fibers using HVJ-E. Cardiomyocyte sheets remained in the primary transplanted sites for 2 wk. Although beating domains were detected in G1, G2, and G3 rats, G1 rats prevailed in the number, size, motion image amplitudes, and action potential compared with G2 and G3 rats. Close contacts were only found in G1 rats. At 1 wk after transplantation, the cardiomyocyte sheets showed adhesion at various points to the myoblast layer in the latissimus dorsi muscle. At 2 wk after transplantation, close contacts were seen over a broad area. Part of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasma seemed to project into the myocardiocyte plasma and some nuclei appeared to share both sarcoplasmas. CONCLUSION: The present results show that close contacts were acquired and facilitated

  8. Associations between portion size acceptability of beef cuts and ribeye area of beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Bass, P D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2009-09-01

    Carcasses that do not conform to mainstream specifications (i.e., those with nonconforming ribeye area) may not achieve their full potential value. Research was conducted to evaluate the relationship between beef carcass LM area at the 12th and 13th rib interface (LMA) and portion size acceptability of other muscles in the carcass. Sixty beef carcass sides of varying LMA sizes (between 67.74 and 116.13 cm(2)) were fabricated to generate 14 individual muscle cuts (triceps brachii long head, infraspinatus, chuckeye complexus, pectoralis profundus, longissimus thoracis, latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, longissimus lumborum, tensor fasciae latae, psoas major, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and vastus lateralis). Retail portion size (g/1.27-cm-thick steak) as well as face surface area and dimensions were recorded for each steak cut perpendicular at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis of each muscle. Subsequently, a nationwide survey was conducted with foodservice chefs and retail meat merchandisers to evaluate acceptability of portion sizes and dimensions of individual muscle cuts. Simple linear regression and nonparametric regression analyses were used to evaluate results of the carcass muscle evaluation and survey, respectively. Results demonstrated that LMA did not affect (P < 0.05) retail portion size of 7 of the 14 muscles (chuckeye complexus, pectoralis profundus, psoas major, semimembranosus, tensor fasciae latae, triceps brachii, and vastus lateralis). Similarly, LMA did not affect (P < 0.05) surface area of steak cross-sectional face areas from 7 of the 14 muscles (chuckeye complexus, psoas major, semimembranosus, tensor fasciae latae, infraspinatus, vastus lateralis, and latissimus dorsi). Muscles for which carcass LMA (P < 0.05) was related to portion size or surface area of portion steaks, or both, were included in the survey. Results of the survey demonstrated that portion size for many muscles were still acceptable to retail

  9. A Biomechanical Assessment of Ergometer Task Specificity in Elite Flatwater Kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David; Mahony, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared EMG, stroke force and 2D kinematics during on-ergometer and on-water kayaking. Male elite flatwater kayakers (n = 10) performed matched exercise protocols consisting of 3 min bouts at heart and stroke rates equivalent to 85% of VO2peak (assessed by prior graded incremental test). EMG data were recorded from Anterior Deltoid (AD), Triceps Brachii (TB), Latissimus Dorsi (LD) and Vastus Lateralis (VL) via wireless telemetry. Video data recorded at 50 Hz with audio triggers pre- and post-exercise facilitated synchronisation of EMG and kinematic variables. Force data were recorded via strain gauge arrays on paddle and ergometer shafts. EMG data were root mean squared (20ms window), temporally and amplitude normalised, and averaged over 10 consecutive cycles. In addition, overall muscle activity was quantified via iEMG and discrete stroke force and kinematic variables computed. Significantly greater TB and LD mean iEMG activity were recorded on-water (239 ± 15 vs. 179 ± 10 μV. s, p < 0.01 and 158 ± 12 vs. 137 ± 14 μV.s, p < 0.05, respectively), while significantly greater AD activity was recorded on-ergometer (494 ± 66 vs. 340 ± 35 μV.s, p < 0.01). Time to vertical shaft position occurred significantly earlier on-ergometer (p < 0.05). Analysis of stroke force data and EMG revealed that increased AD activity was concurrent with increased external forces applied to the paddle shaft at discrete phases of the on-ergometer stroke cycle. These external forces were associated with the ergometer loading mechanism and were not observed on- water. The current results contradict a previous published hypothesis on shoulder muscle recruitment during on-water kayaking. Key pointsWhen exercising at fixed heart and stroke rates, biomechanical differences exist between onergometer and on-water kayaking.Ergometer kayaking results in significantly greater Anterior Deltoid activity but significantly lower Triceps Brachii and Latissimus Dorsi activity

  10. Electromyographic Analysis of the Shoulder Girdle Musculature During External Rotation Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Hawkes, David H.; Kemp, Graham J.; Frostick, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Implementation of overhead activity, a key component of many professional sports, requires an effective and balanced activation of the shoulder girdle muscles, particularly during forceful external rotation (ER) motions. Purpose: To identify activation strategies of 16 shoulder girdle muscles/muscle segments during common shoulder ER exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Method: Thirty healthy subjects were included in this study, and 16 shoulder girdle muscles/muscle segments were investigated (surface electrode: anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid; upper, middle, and lower trapezius; serratus anterior; teres major; upper and lower latissimus dorsi; and upper and lower pectoralis major; fine wire electrodes: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and rhomboid major) using a telemetric electromyography (EMG) system. Five ER exercises (standing ER at 0° and 90° of abduction, with underarm towel roll, prone ER at 90° of abduction, side-lying ER with underarm towel) were studied. Exercise EMG amplitudes were normalized to EMG at maximum ER force in a standard position. Univariate analysis of variance and post hoc analysis applied on EMG activity of each muscle were used to assess the main effect of the exercise condition. Results: Muscular activity differed significantly among the ER exercises (P < .05 to P < .001). The greatest activation for anterior and middle deltoid, supraspinatus, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior occurred during standing ER at 90° of abduction; for posterior deltoid, middle trapezius, and rhomboid during side-lying ER with underarm towel; for lower trapezius, upper and lower latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, and teres major during prone ER at 90° of abduction; and for the clavicular and sternal part of the pectoralis major during standing ER with underarm towel. Conclusion: Key glenohumeral and scapular muscles can be optimally activated during specific ER exercises, particularly in positions that

  11. Low frequency chronic electrical stimulation of normal and dystrophic chicken muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, E A; Barnard, P J; Jarvis, J C; Lai, J

    1986-01-01

    The fast-twitch posterior latissimus dorsi muscle of normal and genetically dystrophic chickens was subjected to continuous indirect electrical stimulation at 10 Hz for periods of 4-8 weeks. To sustain this in vivo nerve stimulation an internally implantable miniature stimulator device was designed. This regime of stimulation caused complete fatigue of the normal muscle within 5 min of its initiation. The dystrophic muscles maintained a very small degree of contractile activity during this initial phase. Tangible twitching of the muscle returned in 5 week birds between 3 and 5 days and in 10 week birds between 11 and 16 days after implantation. After 4 weeks of stimulation, no significant change was measured in the time-to-peak of the isometric twitch response, nor in the half-relaxation time. The resistance to fatigue was significantly increased in the stimulated muscles when tested with a series of tetani at 40 Hz. The mean fibre area was decreased, in all muscles stimulated for longer than 3 weeks, in comparison to their contralateral controls, except where fibre splitting in dystrophic birds abnormally reduced the control value. The majority fibre type of the muscle was changed from type IIB to IIA. The histochemical reactions for both NADH-linked oxidation and phosphorylase were distinctly increased in the stimulated muscles. In normal muscle, stimulation increased somewhat the number of nuclei per unit area and changed their intracellular distribution, so that a greater proportion was found adjacent to the sarcolemma. The normal posterior latissimus dorsi muscle responded to chronic stimulation with increases of 3-6-fold in its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The maximum change in AChE occurred after 2 weeks stimulation; a steady level, 3 times that of the control unstimulated muscle, persisted at later times. Chronic stimulation suppressed the over-production of AChE that is characteristic of dystrophic chicken fast-twitch muscle, to attain a level

  12. Comparison of thawing assisted by low-intensity ultrasound on technological properties of pork Longissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Gambuteanu, Corina; Alexe, Petru

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyses technological and textural properties of pork thawed by low intensity ultrasound compared to meat thawed conventionally in air (control) or by immersion in water. The pork thawing was done by means of a generator of constant frequency, with adjusting ultrasound intensity, coupled with a transducer plate and a water bath. The frequency of 25 kHz and the intensity of 0.6 W/cm(2) allowed reducing by 87 % the time required for thawing from -5 °C to -1 °C as well as the overall thawing time as compared to thawing in air. Using intensity of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 W/cm(2) thawing rates were 0.62, 0.73, 1 °C/min, versus 0.16 °C/min in the control. The textural and technological properties of meat thawed by ultrasound are not impaired by the significant lowering of thawing time; there were no large mass loss or modification of meat ultrastructure as compared to control. PMID:25829593

  13. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieun; Jeong, Dawoon; Na, Chong-Sam; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1(++) (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1(++). WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  14. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1++ (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1++. WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  15. Optimizing the Combination of Smoking and Boiling on Quality of Korean Traditional Boiled Loin (M. longissimus dorsi)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of smoking and boiling on the proximate composition, technological quality traits, shear force, and sensory characteristics of the Korean traditional boiled loin were studied. Cooking loss, processing loss, and shear force were lower in the smoked/boiled samples than those in the control (without smoking treatment) (p<0.05). The results showed that the boiled loin samples between the control and treatment did not differ significantly in protein, fat, or ash contents, or pH values (p>0.05). The treated samples had higher score for overall acceptability than the control (p<0.05). Thus, these results show that the Korean traditional boiled loin treated with smoking for 60 min before boiling had improved physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics. PMID:26761822

  16. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin E to improve tenderness of beef from the longissimus dorsi of heifers.

    PubMed

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Trenkle, A; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine whether a single bolus of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)), vitamin E, or a combination of the 2 would improve the tenderness of steaks from the LM of beef heifers. Forty-eight Angus crossbred heifers were allotted randomly to 8 pens. Six heifers were in each pen, and there were 2 pens per treatment. The 4 treatments included control (no 25-OH D(3) or vitamin E); 25-OH D(3) (500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a one-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter); vitamin E (1,000 IU of vitamin E administered daily as a top-dress for 104 d before slaughter); or combination (500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a one-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter and 1,000 IU of vitamin E administered daily as a top-dress for 104 d before slaughter). Blood samples were obtained on the day that heifers were allotted to treatments, on the day 25-OH D(3) was administered, and on the day before slaughter. Plasma calcium concentration was increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered with or without vitamin E (P < 0.007). In LM, calcium concentration tended to increase (P = 0.10) when 25-OH D(3) was administered alone but not when 25-OH D(3) was administered with vitamin E. Concentrations of 25-OH D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered with or without vitamin E (P < 0.001). Steaks from heifers treated with 25-OH D(3) or vitamin E, but not both, tended to have lower Warner-Bratzler shear force than steaks in the control group at 14 d postmortem (P = 0.08). Postmortem protein degradation as measured by Western blot of the 30-kDa degradation product of troponin-T was increased with all treatments after 3 d postmortem (P

  17. Chest wall reconstruction. Experience with 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, P G; Pairolero, P C

    1984-01-01

    Experience with 100 consecutive chest wall reconstructions during the past 7 years was reviewed. There were 52 female and 48 male patients with ages ranging from 13 to 78 years (average 53). Of the 100 patients, 42 had tumors of the chest wall, 19 had radiation necrosis, 24 had infected median sternotomies , and 15 had combinations of the three. Seventy-six patients underwent skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 5.7 ribs were resected in 63 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 29. Ninety-two patients underwent 142 muscle flaps: 77 pectoralis major, 29 latissimus dorsi, and 36 other muscles, including serratus anterior, rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles. The omentum was transposed in ten patients. Chest wall skeletal defects were closed with Prolene mesh in 29 patients and with autogenous ribs in 11. Eighty-nine patients underwent primary closure of the skin. The 100 patients underwent an average of 2.1 operations. Hospitalization averaged 17.5 days. There was one perioperative death (29 days). Two patients required tracheostomy. Follow-up averaged 21.6 months. There were 24 late deaths. All 99 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent results at the time of death or last follow-up. Images Figs. 2A-D. Figs. 3A-F. Figs. 4A-D. Figs. 4A-D. Fig. 5. Fig. 5. PMID:6732314

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, C E; Meyers, R A

    2000-05-01

    Twenty-three species within the avian family Alcidae are capable of wing-propelled flight in the air and underwater. Alcids have been viewed as Northern Hemisphere parallels to penguins, and have often been studied to see if their underwater flight comes at a cost, compromising their aerial flying ability. We examined the anatomy and histochemistry of select wing muscles (Mm. pectoralis, supracoracoideus, latissimus dorsi caudalis, coracobrachialis caudalis, triceps scapularis, and scapulohumeralis caudalis) from Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) to assess if the muscle fiber types reveal the existence of a compromise associated with "dual-medium" flight. Pectoralis was found to be proportional in size with that of nondiving species, although the supracoracoideus was proportionally larger in puffins. Muscle fiber types were largely aerobic in both muscles, with two distinct fast-twitch types demonstrable: a smaller, aerobic, moderately glycolytic population (FOg), and a larger, moderately aerobic, glycolytic population (FoG). The presence of these two fiber types in the primary flight muscles of puffins suggests that aerial and underwater flight necessitate a largely aerobic fiber complement. We suggest that alcids do not represent an adaptive compromise, but a stable adaptation for wing-propelled locomotion both in the air and underwater. PMID:10761049

  19. An Application of Keystone Perforator Island Flap for Closure of Lumbosacral Myelomeningocele Defects.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Sung; Morrison, Edwin; Lo, Cheng; Leong, James

    2016-09-01

    Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida, is the commonest form of neural tube defect in which both meninges and spinal cord herniate through a large vertebral defect. It may be located at any spinal level; however; lumbosacral involvement is most common. After birth, the closure of spinal lesion is preferably undertaken in the first 48 hours to minimize the risk of injury and central nervous system infection. Relatively small skin defects overlying the dural repair may be directly closed. However, larger defects require reconstructive closure. Numerous methods of reconstruction have been described, such as split skin graft, local flaps or lumbosacral fasciocutaneous flaps, muscle flaps using latissimus dorsi, gluteal or paraspinous muscles, and perforator flaps namely superior gluteal artery perforators, and dorsal intercostal artery perforator flaps. At Monash Health, Victoria, we have used the keystone perforator island flaps to reconstruct lumbosacral myelomeningocele defects on 5 newborns between January 2008 and January 2014. This article evaluates the short-term and long-term outcomes of these patients who were followed up for 10 to 66 months. PMID:26418773

  20. Regulation of skeletal alpha-actin promoter in young chickens during hypertrophy caused by stretch overload.

    PubMed

    Carson, J A; Yan, Z; Booth, F W; Coleman, M E; Schwartz, R J; Stump, C S

    1995-04-01

    Anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscles of 3-wk-old male chickens were injected with plasmids containing various lengths of the chicken skeletal alpha-actin promoter (ranging from -2,090 to -77 relative to the transcription start site) driving luciferase. Hypertrophy of the left ALD muscle was induced by attaching a weight (11% of body wt) to the left wing of each chicken, with the unweighted contralateral wing serving the control. Six days of stretch overload significantly increased muscle mass 110%. Luciferase activity from the -2,090 actin-luciferase chimeric gene increased 127% compared with the contralateral control ALD muscle. Luciferase activities driven by the -424, -202, and -99 actin promoters were 179, 134, and 378% higher, respectively, in the stretched ALD muscle than in the contralateral control ALD muscle. Luciferase activity from the -77 deletion construct was not different between stretched and control muscles. These data indicate that the gene region responding to stretch is downstream of -99 and imply, but do not conclusively prove, that the region between -99 and -77, which contains serum response element 1, contributes to the stretch-induced increase in skeletal alpha-actin promoter activity in the ALD muscle. PMID:7537453

  1. [The Current Role of Salvage-Surgery of Recurrent Tumors in the Larynx and Pharynx].

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Rothmeier, N; Mattheis, S; Dominas, N; Lang, S

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, the therapeutic concepts for the treatment of head and neck cancer have evolved and non-surgical treatment strategies have gained in importance. However, despite improved organ preservation protocols and primary chemoradiation, tumor recurrence is still frequent. Under these conditions, salvage surgery if often the only remaining curative treatment option. Over the past 30 years, advancements in plastic-reconstructive surgery have broadened the surgical spectrum in the head and neck area, offering new treatment options for salvage surgery in recurrent cancer of the pharynx and larynx. Survival after salvage surgery mainly depends on the primary treatment modality as well as the localization and tumor stage at the time of initial diagnosis and local recurrence. For the reconstruction of defects after salvage surgery, pedicled flaps and microvascular free flaps may be utilized. The most frequently used flaps in these situations are the pectoralis major island- or the myocutaneous latissimus dorsi island flap. The radial forearm and the ALT-flap are potentially applicable free flaps. With the use of these flaps, vital tissue is transferred into the previously irradiated area, hereby allowing for reconstruction and functional preservation of the resected area and preventing complications such as fistulas. The expected morbidity and the likelihood of surgical success must be assessed thoroughly in every individual case prior to performing salvage surgery. This review aims to support decision making in these situations. PMID:27135424

  2. A comparison of muscle activations during traditional and abbreviated tennis serves.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Matthew K; Uhl, Tim L; McCrory, Jean; McGinn, Patricia; Kibler, W Ben; Shapiro, Robert

    2008-05-01

    The abbreviated tennis serve is a relatively novel modification of the traditional serve that has been reported to provide performance advantages over the traditional technique. However, there are limited objective data regarding the benefits and biomechanics of the abbreviated serve; no data exist that describe shoulder muscle activations during the abbreviated serve. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activations between the traditional and abbreviated serves. Electromyographic data were collected for the anterior and posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, middle trapezius, latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major. When muscle activations were compared during each serve phase, no significant differences were observed between the traditional and abbreviated tennis serve techniques, indicating that the traditional and abbreviated serves are similar regarding shoulder muscle activations. These results could have implications for performance of and injury related to the abbreviated versus traditional serve technique. Although the abbreviated serve has anecdotally been described as advantageous, the present data do not indicate any significant advantages or disadvantages in performing the abbreviated serve technique versus the traditional serve. PMID:18610776

  3. Maximizing Outcomes While Minimizing Morbidity: An Illustrated Case Review of Elbow Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Adrian; Ng, Jonathan; Chui, Christopher; Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien Keem

    2016-01-01

    Background. Injuries to the elbow have led to consequences varying from significant limitation in function to loss of the entire upper limb. Soft tissue reconstruction with durable and pliable coverage balanced with the ability to mobilize the joint early to optimize rehabilitation outcomes is paramount. Methods. Methods of flap reconstruction have evolved from local and pedicled flaps to perforator-based flaps and free tissue transfer. Here we performed a review of 20 patients who have undergone flap reconstruction of the elbow at our institution. Discussion. 20 consecutive patients were identified and included in this study. Flap types include local (n = 5), regional pedicled (n = 7), and free (n = 8) flaps. The average size of defect was 138 cm2 (range 36–420 cm2). There were no flap failures in our series, and, at follow-up, the average range of movement of elbow flexion was 100°. Results. While the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is the workhorse for elbow soft tissue coverage, advancements in microvascular knowledge and surgery have brought about great benefit, with the use of perforator flaps and free tissue transfer for wound coverage. Conclusion. We present here our case series on elbow reconstruction and an abbreviated algorithm on flap choice, highlighting our decision making process in the selection of safe flap choice for soft tissue elbow reconstruction. PMID:27313886

  4. Thoracic wall defects: surgical management of 205 consecutive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pairolero, P.C.; Arnold, P.G.

    1986-07-01

    In this article, we review our experience during the past 9 years with 205 consecutive thoracic wall reconstructions. The 100 female and 105 male patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean, 53.4 years). One hundred fourteen patients had thoracic wall tumors, 56 had radiation necrosis, 56 had infected median sternotomy wounds, and 8 had costochondritis. Twenty-nine of these patients had combinations of the aforementioned conditions. One hundred seventy-eight patients underwent skeletal resection. A mean of 5.4 ribs were resected in 142 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 60. Skeletal defects were closed with prosthetic material in 66 patients and with autogenous ribs in 12. One hundred sixty-eight patients underwent 244 muscle flap procedures: 149 pectoralis major, 56 latissimus dorsi, 14 rectus abdominis, 13 serratus anterior, 8 external oblique, 2 trapezius, and 2 advancement of diaphragm. The omentum was transposed in 20 patients. The mean number of operations per patient was 1.9 (range, 1 to 8). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.5 days. One perioperative death occurred (at 29 days). Four patients required tracheostomy. During a mean follow-up of 32.4 months, there were 49 late deaths, predominantly due to malignant disease. All 204 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent surgical results at last follow-up examination or at the time of death due to causes unrelated to the reconstructive procedure.

  5. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Camille G.; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J.; Cronin, Ernest D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction.

  6. Electromyography variables during the golf swing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Cabri, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review systematically the literature available on electromyographic (EMG) variables of the golf swing. From the 19 studies found, a high variety of EMG methodologies were reported. With respect to EMG intensity, the right erector spinae seems to be highly activated, especially during the acceleration phase, whereas the oblique abdominal muscles showed moderate to low levels of activation. The pectoralis major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of both sides showed their peak activity during the acceleration phase. High muscle activity was found in the forearm muscles, especially in the wrist flexor muscles demonstrating activity levels above the maximal voluntary contraction. In the lower limb higher muscle activity of the trail side was found. There is no consensus on the influence of the golf club used on the neuromuscular patterns described. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on average golf players, since most studies were executed on professional or low handicap golfers. Further EMG studies are needed, especially on lower limb muscles, to describe golf swing muscle activation patterns and to evaluate timing parameters to characterize neuromuscular patterns responsible for an efficient movement with lowest risk for injury. PMID:22542769

  7. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Tae; Chow, John W; Chae, Woen-Sik

    2012-06-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4-L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male collegiate golfers. Average EMG levels for different phases of golf swing were determined. An EMG-assisted optimization model was applied to compute the contact forces acting on the L4-L5. The results revealed a mean peak compressive load of over six times the body weight (BW) during the downswing and mean peak anterior and medial shear loads approaching 1.6 and 0.6 BW during the follow-through phases. The peak compressive load estimated in this study was high, but less than the corresponding value (over 8 BW) reported by a previous study. Average EMG levels of different muscles were the highest in the acceleration and follow-through phases, suggesting a likely link between co-contractions of paraspinal muscles and lumbar spinal loads. PMID:22900401

  8. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, José A; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A; Sonstegard, Tad S; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  9. Chronic expanding hematoma with bronchopleural fistula and empyema space.

    PubMed

    Tsubochi, Hiroyoshi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Imai, Tadashi

    2009-06-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma of the thorax is not typically accompanied by a bronchopleural fistula or purulent lesion. We report an extremely rare case of chronic expanding hematoma with a bronchopleural fistula and empyema space in a 66-year-old man with a history of tuberculous pleurisy admitted because of fever and bloody sputa. Computed tomography and a magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge mass and an air space in the right thorax. A fiber-optic bronchoscope examination showed hemorrhagic effusion from the apical bronchus of the right lower lobe. First, open-window thoracostomy was undertaken to control the septic state and to prevent aspiration of infected pleural fluid. At operation, air leakage was found at the most superior portion in the rear of the thoracic empyema space; this was thought to be from the bronchopleural fistula. Enterococcus casseliflavus was detected in cultures for bacteria of the effusion from the empyema space. After an improvement of his general condition, a radical operation, including the complete extirpation of the hematoma and intrathoracic muscle transposition using the latissimus dorsi muscle, was successfully performed. PMID:19597392

  10. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Garcia; Yip, Joanne; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yick, Kit-Lun

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS) sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS. PMID:26583151

  11. The influence of biocomposites containing genetically modified flax fibers on gene expression in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2010-12-01

    In many studies, natural flax fibers have been proven to be resistant and surgically suitable. Genetically modified flax fibers, derived from transgenic flax expressing three bacterial genes for the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have better mechanical properties than unmodified flax fibers. The aim of this study was to examine the biocompatibility of composites containing flax fibers from transgenic polyhydroxybutyrate producing (M50) and control (wt-NIKE) plants in a polylactide (PLA) matrix in rat Musculus latissimus dorsi. For this purpose, effects of biocomposites on the expression of growth factors and osteogenic differentiation, in particular the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 2, collagen-1, collagen-2 and myostatin, were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. The biocomposites did not show any inflammation response after subcutaneous insertion. The results following subcutaneous insertion of PLA alone and PLA-M50 showed no significant changes on the gene expression of all tested genes, whereas PLA-wt-NIKE reduced the mRNA amount of myostatin, VEGFA and IGF2, respectively. It can be asserted that modified flax membranes with PHB and other organic substances have a good biocompatibility to the muscle and they do not disrupt the muscle function. Furthermore, composites from transgenic flax plants producing PHB did not differ from composites of non-transgenic flax plants. PMID:20973615

  12. A new surgical strategy for breast conservation in locally advanced breast cancer that achieves a good locoregional control rate: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Moneer, M; Ismael, S; Khaled, H; El-Gantery, M; Zaghloul, M S; El-Didi, M

    2001-06-01

    The scope of breast conserving surgery has recently expanded to include locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients who are downstaged following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). However, the efficacy of this approach in achieving adequate locoregional control of disease is in doubt. Some reports have attributed the failure to the association of NACT-induced tumour downstaging which can leave multifocal in situ and invasive lesions around the main tumour mass. In the present study, in order to eradicate all possible tumour satellites, a very wide local excision that included the whole original tumour-bearing area was performed regardless of the expected wide defect. This defect was then immediately reconstructed by an ipsilateral pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap. The study included 26 patients with LABC without evidence of primary tumour-multicentricity. Tumours were downstaged following NACT. The early cosmetic outcome was good in the majority of cases. Early complications were minimal. Twenty-two patients had a mean follow up period of 30.2 (range 7-50) months. In those evaluable cases, locoregional control of the disease was excellent (100%) but distant metastases occurred in seven cases (31.8%). PMID:14965588

  13. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance. PMID:18551836

  14. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs. PMID:26540024

  15. En bloc prefabrication of vascularized bioartificial bone grafts in sheep and complete workflow for custom-made transplants.

    PubMed

    Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Spalthoff, S; Essig, H; Tavassol, F; Schumann, P; Andreae, A; Nolte, I; Jagodzinski, M; Gellrich, N-C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine, in a new experimental model, whether complex bioartificial monoblocs of relevant size and stability can be prefabricated in a defined three-dimensional design, in which the latissimus dorsi muscle serves as a natural bioreactor and the thoracodorsal vessel tree is prepared for axial construct perfusion. Eighteen sheep were included in the study, with six animals in each of three experimental groups. Vitalization of the β-tricalcium phosphate-based constructs was performed by direct application of unmodified osteogenic material from the iliac crest (group A), in vivo application of nucleated cell concentrate (NCC) from bone marrow aspirate (group B), and in vitro cultivation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in a perfusion bioreactor system (group C). The contours of the constructs were designed digitally and transferred onto the bioartificial bone grafts using a titanium cage, which was bent over a stereolithographic model of the defined subvolume intraoperatively. At the end of the prefabrication process, only the axial vascularized constructs of group A demonstrated vital bone formation with considerable stability. In groups B and C, the applied techniques were not able to induce ectopic bone formation. The presented computer-assisted workflow allows the prefabrication of custom-made bioartificial transplants. PMID:24238866

  16. Increasing the vascular pedicle length in a free flap using a two-stage preliminary ectopic transfer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Herndl, E; Mühlbauer, W

    1991-08-01

    The length of the vascular pedicle is critically important in the use and safety of a free flap. A lengthening of the artery and vein, until now, has been achieved through the use of either an autologous vein interposition graft or an arteriovenous loop. In such patients, the risk is nevertheless increased and does so proportionally to the increasing length of the venous interposition. We present a 30-year-old male electrician who had lost his left forearm and most of his right ulna after high-voltage electrical trauma. Lengthening of the vascular pedicle of a free fibula flap was achieved by anastomosis to the thoracodorsal vessels for 4 weeks. After this time, the flap was raised again together with the pedicle of the latissimus dorsi and used safely for reconstruction of the ulnar defect. Postoperative recovery after both operations was uneventful and the aim of reconstruction fully realized. In our opinion, this procedure provides an interesting alternative in patients in whom the length of the vascular pedicle is crucial but the designated flap has only a short pedicle. PMID:1952745

  17. Surface EMG during the Push-up plus Exercise on a Stable Support or Swiss Ball: Scapular Stabilizer Muscle Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung-Hwa; Jeon, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Scapular stabilizer strengthening exercise is crucial for shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare two types of push-up plus exercises, on a stable and unstable bases of support, using surface electromyography (EMG), to suggest an effective shoulder rehabilitation program. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. All volunteers performed two sets of push-up plus exercise (standard push up and knee push up) on stable and unstable bases of support. The muscle activities of five important scapular stabilizer muscles (upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi) were recorded during the exercise. [Results] The upper trapezius showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular retraction posture than in the scapular protraction posture, and the serratus anterior showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular protraction posture than in the scapular retraction posture. The root-mean-square normalized EMG values of the muscles were greater during the exercise performed on the unstable support than those on the stable support. [Conclusion] The standard push-up plus exercise on an unstable base of support helps to increase muscle activity, especially those of the upper/middle trapezius and serratus anterior. PMID:24259864

  18. Effect of various hand position widths on scapular stabilizing muscles during the push-up plus exercise in healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Batbayar, Yanjinsuren; Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various hand position widths during the push-up plus (PUP) exercise on the activity of the scapular stabilizing muscles and other upper-extremity muscles involved in the exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy men participated in our study. The PUP exercise was performed on a stable surface in seven different hand positions, namely shoulder width (SW), and narrower SW (NSW) and wider SW (WSW) at 10%, 20%, and 30%. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and muscle ratio of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius, lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, latissimus dorsi (LD), and triceps muscles. [Results] The SA and LD muscle activities significantly decreased in the 30% NSW and 20% WSW hand positions, respectively. The UT/LT muscle ratio significantly increased in the 30% WSW hand position. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that during the PUP exercise, the SW hand position should be used. In the 30% NSW hand position, the SA muscle activity decreased, and the UT/ LT ratio increased in the 30% WSW hand position. PMID:26357442

  19. Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance. PMID:22303781

  20. [Strategies for the treatment of postoperative sternal infections].

    PubMed

    Akil, A; Schnorr, P; Wiebe, K

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative sternal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An incidence of up to 8 % has to be expected. Typically, a highly inflammatory acute infection with a marked soft tissue component is observed. However, the infection may also be present as a less symptomatic reaction and localised chronic osteomyelitis with fistula formation. The treatment strategy for a deep sternal wound infection consists of several steps. A radical debridement of the wound requires the opening of all abscesses, the resection of non-vital bone and the removal of all infected allomaterial. This is followed by a period of VAC therapy (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy) for infection treatment and conditioning of the wound. Secondary closure of the wound may be planned only after the infection is completely controlled. The sternum is stabilised by osteosynthesis. Sternal defects are covered. In most cases adequate soft tissue coverage is achieved by mobilisation of both pectoral muscles together with the precostal soft tissues. Following resection of the sternum, the reconstruction of the thoracic wall requires the implantation of material for stabilisation as well as soft tissue coverage. For complicated or large defects various muscle flaps and the omentum majus have been advocated. The latissimus dorsi muscle with skin is the muscle flap most frequently used. PMID:26492536

  1. Trends in head and neck microvascular reconstructive surgery in Liverpool (1992-2001).

    PubMed

    Brown, J S; Magennis, P; Rogers, S N; Cawood, J I; Howell, R; Vaughan, E D

    2006-10-01

    Microvascular reconstructive techniques in head and neck surgery are well established, but we are now entering an era of modification exemplified by perforator and free style free flaps. We present a review of the database introduced into the unit in 1992 over a 10-year period, during which time 977 patients with malignant disease were operated on and 620 defects were reconstructed with free flaps. There were 358 radial forearm flaps, 78 composite radial forearm flaps, 84 iliac crest flaps, 43 fibular flaps, 24 from the scapula, 26 from the latissimus dorsi, 4 from the rectus abdominis, and 3 from the lateral arm. The main changes over this time have been the use of more bulky flaps for larger resections of the tongue and the preference for iliac crest flaps over those from the fibula and forearm for composite reconstructions. Improving reliability of tissue transfer remains an important aim, and further development of reliable objective methods of monitoring of flaps is required. PMID:16169640

  2. Skeletal muscle grafts applied to the heart. A word of caution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Andersen, J S; Acker, M A; Hammond, R L; Chin, A J; Douglas, P S; Khalafalla, A S; Salmons, S; Stephenson, L W

    1988-11-01

    Latissimus dorsi pedicle grafts (LDPGs) were wrapped around the heart in eight dogs. In four dogs, the LDPGs were stimulated chronically; the remaining four dogs served as unstimulated controls. Right-sided cardiac filling pressures were normal in all dogs when measured 4 months after graft application. Mean tension generated by the viable LDPGs was 153 +/- 49.9 g. LDPGs contracting in synchrony with the heart did not increase cardiac output. In one dog, the aortic pressure changed from 140/100 to 155/85 mm Hg during synchronous contraction of the LDPG. Three dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, and their hearts were placed in fibrillation. The LDPGs were then stimulated at a burst frequency of 85 Hz and contracted vigorously. Under these conditions, the left ventricular pressure increased by an average of 15 mm Hg with each LDPG contraction; however, the mean aortic pressure was virtually unchanged. Left ventricular and aortic pressures of 125/20 and 125/65 mm Hg, respectively, could be obtained with manual compression of the fibrillating heart. This study indicates that although LDPGs can be made to contract chronically and in synchrony with the heart, they do not necessarily augment left ventricular performance. PMID:3180397

  3. In vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Clark, B J; Acker, M A; McCully, K; Subramanian, H V; Hammond, R L; Salmons, S; Chance, B; Stephenson, L W

    1988-02-01

    Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five dogs underwent 31P-NMR spectroscopic and isometric tension measurements on conditioned and contralateral control muscle during stimulation for 200, 300, 500, and 800 ms of an 1,100-ms duty cycle. With stimulation, phosphocreatine (PCr) fell proportional to the degree of stimulation in both conditioned and control muscle but fell significantly less in conditioned muscle at all but the least intense stimulation period (200 ms). Isometric tension, expressed as a tension time index per gram muscle, was significantly greater in the conditioned muscle at the two longest stimulation periods. The overall small change in PCr and the lack of a plateau in tension observed in the conditioned muscle are similar to that seen in cardiac muscle during increased energy demand. This study indicates that the conditioned muscle's markedly enhanced resistance to fatigue is in part the result of its increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:3348365

  4. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance. PMID:18550961

  5. Evaluation of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue-engineered muscle repair construct-mediated repair of a murine model of volumetric muscle loss injury.

    PubMed

    Kesireddy, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can occur from congenital defects, muscle wasting diseases, civilian or military injuries, and as a result of surgical removal of muscle tissue (eg, cancer), all of which can lead to irrevocable functional and cosmetic defects. Current tissue engineering strategies to repair VML often employ muscle-derived progenitor cells (MDCs) as one component. However, there are some inherent limitations in their in vitro culture expansion. Thus, this study explores the potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an alternative cell source to MDCs for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. A reproducible VML injury model in murine latissimus dorsi muscle was used to evaluate tissue-engineered muscle repair (TEMR) constructs incorporating MDCs or ADSCs. Importantly, histological analysis revealed that ADSC-seeded constructs displayed regeneration potential that was comparable to those seeded with MDCs 2 months postrepair. Furthermore, morphological analysis of retrieved constructs demonstrated signs of neotissue formation, including cell fusion, fiber formation, and scaffold remodeling. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for both structural and functional proteins. Positive staining for vascular structures indicated the potential for long-term neotissue survival and integration with existing musculature. Qualitative observation of lentivirus-Cherry-labeled donor cells by immunohistochemistry indicates that participation of ADSCs in new hybrid myofiber formation incorporating donor cells was relatively low, compared to donor MDCs. However, ADSCs appear to participate in vascularization. In summary, I have demonstrated that TEMR constructs generated with ADSCs displayed skeletal muscle regeneration potential comparable to TEMR-MDC constructs as previously reported. PMID:27114706

  6. Upper Girdle Imaging in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Boccia, Stefania; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pelliccioni, Marco; Masciullo, Marcella; Frusciante, Roberto; Mercuri, Eugenio; Ricci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the upper girdle is early involved and often difficult to assess only relying on physical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern and degree of involvement of upper girdle muscles in FSHD compared with other muscle diseases with scapular girdle impairment. Methods We propose an MRI protocol evaluating neck and upper girdle muscles. One hundred-eight consecutive symptomatic FSHD patients and 45 patients affected by muscular dystrophies and myopathies with prominent upper girdle involvement underwent this protocol. Acquired scans were retrospectively analyzed. Results The trapezius (100% of the patients) and serratus anterior (85% of the patients) were the most and earliest affected muscles in FSHD, followed by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, whilst spinati and subscapularis (involved in less than 4% of the patients) were consistently spared even in late disease stages. Asymmetry and hyperintensities on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences were common features, and STIR hyperintensities could also be found in muscles not showing signs of fatty replacement. The overall involvement appears to be disease-specific in FSHD as it significantly differed from that encountered in the other myopathies. Conclusions The detailed knowledge of single muscle involvement provides useful information for correctly evaluating patients' motor function and to set a baseline for natural history studies. Upper girdle imaging can also be used as an additional tool helpful in supporting the diagnosis of FSHD in unclear situations, and may contribute with hints on the currently largely unknown molecular pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24932477

  7. Cranial-base surgery: a reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Georgantopoulou, A; Hodgkinson, P D; Gerber, C J

    2003-01-01

    Skull-base surgery is associated with a high risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, infection, and functional and aesthetic deformity. Appropriate reconstruction of cranial-base defects following surgery helps to prevent these complications. Between March 1998 and May 2000, 28 patients (age: 1-68 years) underwent reconstruction of the anterior and middle cranial fossae. The indications for surgery were tumours, trauma involving the anterior cranial fossa, midline dermoid cysts with intracranial extension, late post-traumatic CSF leak, craniofacial deformity and recurrent frontal mucocoele. We used local anteriorly based pericranial flaps (23 flaps, alone or in combination with other flaps), bipedicled galeal flaps (seven patients) and free flaps (nine patients; radial forearm fascial/fasciocutaneous flaps, rectus abdominis muscle flap and latissimus dorsi muscle flap). Follow-up has been 4-24 months. We had no deaths, no flap failure and no incidence of infection. Complications included two CSF leaks, three intracranial haematomas and one pulsatile enophthalmos. All patients had a very good aesthetic result. We present an algorithm for skull-base reconstruction and comment on the design and vascularity of the bipedicled galeal flap. The monitoring of intracranial flaps and the difficulties of perioperative management of free flaps in neurosurgical patients are also discussed. PMID:12706142

  8. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  9. The use of fabricated chimeric flap for reconstruction of extensive foot defects.

    PubMed

    Song, Baoqiang; Chen, Jianwu; Han, Yan; Hu, Yalan; Su, Yingjun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Shuzhong

    2016-05-01

    Repair of extensive foot defects requires both adequate tissues for wound coverage and special tissues for functional reconstruction. To maximize its function reconstruction, fabricated chimeric flaps consisting of multiple separate flaps were designed to reconstruct such defects. Five patients suffered extensive foot defects with sizes ranging from 23 × 12 cm to 38 × 14 cm(2) in multiple regions including heel, forefoot, dorsum, ankle, anterior leg, and even toes. Causes included crushing injuries, avulsion injuries, and scar excision. Most areas of the defects except heel were first covered by latissimus dorsi muscle flap or anterolateral thigh flap and their pedicles were anastomosed with recipient vessels. Then free medial plantar flaps were transferred for heel reconstruction and their pedicles were further attached to either side branches of the main source vessel or to its distal continuation. All chimeric flaps survived uneventfully and all patients were able to walk in normal footwear during the 1.5- to 4-years follow-up. None of the flaps developed ulcer and flap breakdown. The assessment by Maryland Foot Score showed that four of the five patients gained a "good" recovery and one patient showed moderate improvement of foot functions. Appearances of reconstructed heels were near-normal. The results indicate that fabricated chimeric flap has good design flexibility and may provide an option for functional reconstruction of extensive foot defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:303-309, 2016. PMID:25752811

  10. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative muscle-tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more 'sub-maximal specialist' quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb. PMID:19034998

  11. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  12. Microsurgical reconstruction of oncological scalp defects in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Filip; Eisenhardt, Steffen U; Penna, Vincenzo; Thiele, Jan R; Stark, G Björn; Bannasch, Holger

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of scalp tumors requiring radical excision increases with age. Free flap surgery is the standard reconstructive option for large defects; however, there is an ongoing uncertainty about its safety in the elderly. We conducted a review of data and report on 19 patients aged ≥75 years and 13 < 75 years. Data regarding patient demographics, types of tumors, surgery, size of defect, flaps used, and prevalence of complications were analyzed. The patients in the elderly group had more accompanying medical conditions and a higher ASA score. Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant tumor in the elderly and sarcoma in the younger patients. The defect size was similar in both groups. The latissimus dorsi (LD) and the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps were flaps of first choice, with temporal vessels most commonly used for anastomosis. Surgery lasted longer in the younger patients. There was no difference in the duration of hospital stay. No significant correlation was found between age and the flap-related or medical complications. Revision surgery was more often required in the younger patients. We conclude that free flap surgery is safe and reliable in the elderly population. The LD and the ALT are the most commonly used flaps. Advanced age should not be considered a risk factor for free flap surgery in these patients. PMID:27133193

  13. Treatment of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the adult: review of the current management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Su, Jeannie J; Chang, Daniel K; Mailey, Brian; Gosman, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMNs) create cosmetic disfigurements and pose risk for malignant transformation. Adult GCMN cases are uncommon because most families opt for surgical treatment during childhood. We review the current literature on GCMN and present an interesting case of an adult with a GCMN encompassing the entire back with painful nodules exhibiting gross involvement of his back musculature, without pathologic evidence of malignancy. Surgical management was deferred in childhood because of parental desires to allow the patient to make his own decision, and treatment in adulthood was pursued on the basis of the significant impairment of the patient's quality of life and self-esteem due to the massive size and deforming nature of the nevus. The treatment strategy used for this young adult male patient involved a massive en bloc excision of the GCMN with partial resection of the latissimus dorsi, followed by a 5-week staged reconstructive process using dermal regenerative matrices and split-thickness skin grafting. Because of the shift in GCMN management from early surgical management to more conservative management, we may see an increase in adult cases of GCMN. Thus, it is critical to better understand the controversy surrounding early versus delayed management of GCMN. PMID:25664413

  14. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xia; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity. PMID:24804227

  15. Multi-view stereophotogrammetry for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiangyang; Henseler, Helga; Peng, Matthew Jian-Qiao; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ray, Arup K; Ayoub, Ashraf F

    2016-03-01

    A multi-view three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system was developed to capture 3D shape of breasts for breast cancer patients. The patients had received immediate unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy by the extended latissimus dorsi flap and without contralateral surgery. In order to capture the whole breast shape including the inframammary fold, the patients were introduced to the imaging room and leaned over the imaging rig to open up the inframammary fold and to expose the entire area of each breast. The imaging system consisted of eight high-resolution ([Formula: see text] pixels) digital cameras and four flash units. The cameras were arranged in four stereo pairs from four different view angles to cover the whole surface of the breasts. The system calibration was carried out ahead of every capture session, and the stereo images were matched to generate four range images to be integrated using an elastic model proposed. A watertight breast mesh model was reconstructed to measure the volume of the breast captured. The accuracy of using the developed multi-view stereophotogrammetry system for breast volume measurement was 11.12cc with SEM 7.74cc, comparing to the measurements of the water displacement method. It was concluded that the 3D stereophotogrammetry image system developed was more reliable than the method of water displacement. PMID:26133282

  16. Elastofibroma of scapula: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hergli, Ilhem; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Ismail, Olfa; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aida; Kilani, Tarek; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Elastofibromas are benign soft tissue tumors. They occur mostly in the infrascapular region between the thoracic wall, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscle, with a prevalence of up to 24% in the elderly. The etiology of this lesion remains uncertain and is a source of ongoing debate. We herein report a 54-year-old female patient, manual worker who presented with bilateral subscapular slow growing tumors for 7 months. Physical examination showed two masses of 4 cm in diameter on the right, and 8 cm on the left, both located inferior to the inferior margin of the scapula. They were more or less firm and mobile on palpation. Computed tomography scan showed large fusiform subscapular soft tissue heterogeneous solid masses with linear areas of low density secondary to fat. The lesions measured 5 cm × 4 cm on the right side and 8 cm × 8 cm on the left. Resection of the largest left tumor was achieved. Macroscopic and histological findings were consistent with elastofibroma. PMID:25332975

  17. Adaptations to isolated shoulder fatigue during simulated repetitive work. Part I: Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tse, Calvin T F; McDonald, Alison C; Keir, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Upper extremity muscle fatigue is challenging to identify during industrial tasks and places changing demands on the shoulder complex that are not fully understood. The purpose of this investigation was to examine adaptation strategies in response to isolated anterior deltoid muscle fatigue while performing simulated repetitive work. Participants completed two blocks of simulated repetitive work separated by an anterior deltoid fatigue protocol; the first block had 20 work cycles and the post-fatigue block had 60 cycles. Each work cycle was 60s in duration and included 4 tasks: handle pull, cap rotation, drill press and handle push. Surface EMG of 14 muscles and upper body kinematics were recorded. Immediately following fatigue, glenohumeral flexion strength was reduced, rating of perceived exertion scores increased and signs of muscle fatigue (increased EMG amplitude, decreased EMG frequency) were present in anterior and posterior deltoids, latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior. Along with other kinematic and muscle activity changes, scapular reorientation occurred in all of the simulated tasks and generally served to increase the width of the subacromial space. These findings suggest that immediately following fatigue people adapt by repositioning joints to maintain task performance and may also prioritize maintaining subacromial space width. PMID:26208429

  18. Evaluation of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue-engineered muscle repair construct-mediated repair of a murine model of volumetric muscle loss injury

    PubMed Central

    Kesireddy, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can occur from congenital defects, muscle wasting diseases, civilian or military injuries, and as a result of surgical removal of muscle tissue (eg, cancer), all of which can lead to irrevocable functional and cosmetic defects. Current tissue engineering strategies to repair VML often employ muscle-derived progenitor cells (MDCs) as one component. However, there are some inherent limitations in their in vitro culture expansion. Thus, this study explores the potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an alternative cell source to MDCs for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. A reproducible VML injury model in murine latissimus dorsi muscle was used to evaluate tissue-engineered muscle repair (TEMR) constructs incorporating MDCs or ADSCs. Importantly, histological analysis revealed that ADSC-seeded constructs displayed regeneration potential that was comparable to those seeded with MDCs 2 months postrepair. Furthermore, morphological analysis of retrieved constructs demonstrated signs of neotissue formation, including cell fusion, fiber formation, and scaffold remodeling. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for both structural and functional proteins. Positive staining for vascular structures indicated the potential for long-term neotissue survival and integration with existing musculature. Qualitative observation of lentivirus-Cherry-labeled donor cells by immunohistochemistry indicates that participation of ADSCs in new hybrid myofiber formation incorporating donor cells was relatively low, compared to donor MDCs. However, ADSCs appear to participate in vascularization. In summary, I have demonstrated that TEMR constructs generated with ADSCs displayed skeletal muscle regeneration potential comparable to TEMR–MDC constructs as previously reported. PMID:27114706

  19. Myoelectric activity and sequencing of selected trunk muscles during isokinetic lifting.

    PubMed

    Noe, D A; Mostardi, R A; Jackson, M E; Porterfield, J A; Askew, M J

    1992-02-01

    Trained weight lifters lift heavy loads without a concomitant degree of acute low-back injuries. To study the process by which large loads are lifted with minimal injury, integrated electromyographic signals were recorded from four large muscle groups: gluteus maximus, quadriceps, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae in 4 weight lifters and 11 asymptomatic control subjects. These signals were recorded during a floor-to-knuckle-height isokinetic lift (dead lift) at 30.5 and 45.7 cm/sec. The signals were normalized for the height of the lift and the maximal isokinetic integrated electromyographic activity. The weight lifters achieved maximal force at 50% of maximal lift height, whereas the control subjects achieved it at 67%. Although not statistically significant, the weight lifters used the gluteus maximus more during the early stages of the lift, perhaps contributing to earlier development of force. This process would stabilize the pelvis and permit the erector spinae to extend the trunk more efficiently. The weight lifter then completed the lift with prolonged and increasing activity in the quadriceps. This technique may minimize the required force in the erector spinae and the forces on the low-back structures. Clinical implications include more effective strength training of lifting muscle groups other than spinal extensors and the teaching of lifting strategies employed by weight lifters in low-back rehabilitation and work-hardening programs. PMID:1532462

  20. Long-term results of pectoralis major muscle transposition for infected sternotomy wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Pairolero, P C; Arnold, P G; Harris, J B

    1991-01-01

    During an 11.5-year period, 100 consecutive patients (79 male, 21 female) underwent repair of an infected sternotomy wound. Sixty-five patients had failed attempts at wound closure by other physicians. Median age was 61.5 years (range, 5 to 85 years). Reconstruction included muscle in 79 patients, omentum in 4, and both in 15. A total of 175 muscles were transposed, including 169 pectoralis major, 3 rectus abdominis, 2 external oblique, and 1 latissimus dorsi. Median number of operations was four (range, 1 to 11). Mechanical ventilation was required in 30 patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred, one related to sepsis. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range, 1.3 to 13.5 years). Twenty-six patients had recurrent infection. Median time from our closure to recurrence was 5.5 months (range, 0.3 to 27.6 months). Cause of recurrence was inadequate removal of cartilage in 16 patients, bone in 6, and retained foreign body in 4. Eighteen patients had the wound reopened with further resection; 10 had another muscle or omentum transposition. There were 30 late deaths, only one related to recurrent infection. At the time of death or last follow-up, 92 patients had a healed chest wall. Transposition of the pectoralis major muscle remains an excellent method of management for infected sternotomy wounds. Failure is directly related to persistent infection of cartilage, bone, or retained foreign bodies. PMID:2039289

  1. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Garcia; Yip, Joanne; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yick, Kit-Lun

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS) sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS. PMID:26583151

  2. Improved Mechanism for Capturing Muscle Power for Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Dennis R.; Melvin, David B.; Byrne, Mark T.; Magovern, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is now understood that trained skeletal muscle can generate enough steady-state power to provide significant circulatory support, there are currently no means by which to tap this endogenous energy source to aid the failing heart. To that end, an implantable muscle energy converter (MEC) has been constructed and its function has been improved to optimize durability, anatomic fit, and mechanical efficiency. Bench tests show that MEC transmission losses average less than 10% of total work input and that about 85% of this muscle power is successfully transferred to the working fluid of the pump. Results from canine implant trials confirm excellent biocompatibility and demonstrate that contractile work of the latissimus dorsi muscle—measured to 290 mJ/stroke in one dog—can be transmitted within the body at levels consistent with cardiac assist requirements. These findings suggest that muscle-powered cardiac assist devices are feasible and that efforts to further develop this technology are warranted. PMID:16143010

  3. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the deltoid and rotator cuff, the deltoid and adductor and the adductor and rotator cuff groups, and a significant negative correlation between the deltoid and elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  4. Reconstruction with a patient-specific titanium implant after a wide anterior chest wall resection

    PubMed Central

    Turna, Akif; Kavakli, Kuthan; Sapmaz, Ersin; Arslan, Hakan; Caylak, Hasan; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Demirkaya, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects is a challenging problem for thoracic surgeons, particularly after a wide resection of the chest wall that includes the sternum. The location and the size of the defect play a major role when selecting the method of reconstruction, while acceptable cosmetic and functional results remain the primary goal. Improvements in preoperative imaging techniques and reconstruction materials have an important role when planning and performing a wide chest wall resection with a low morbidity rate. In this report, we describe the reconstruction of a wide anterior chest wall defect with a patient-specific custom-made titanium implant. An infected mammary tumour recurrence in a 62-year old female, located at the anterior chest wall including the sternum, was resected, followed by a large custom-made titanium implant. Latissimus dorsi flap and split-thickness graft were also used for covering the implant successfully. A titanium custom-made chest wall implant could be a viable alternative for patients who had large chest wall tumours. PMID:24227881

  5. In vivo sup 31 P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.J. III; McCully, A.K.; Subramanian, H.V.; Hammond, R.L.; Salmons, S.; Chance, B.; Stephenson, L.W. Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia Univ. of Birmingham )

    1988-02-01

    Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five dogs underwent {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic and isometric tension measurements on conditioned and contralateral control muscle during stimulation for 200, 300, 500, and 800 ms of an 1,100-ms duty cycle. With stimulation, phosphocreatine (PCr) fell proportional to the degree of stimulation in both conditioned and control muscle but fell significantly less in conditioned muscle at all the least intense stimulation period (200 ms). Isometric tension, expressed as a tension time index per gram muscle, was significantly greater in the conditioned muscle at the two longest stimulation periods. The overall small change in PCr and the lack of a plateau in tension observed in the conditioned muscle are similar to that seen in cardiac muscle during increased energy demand. This study indicates that the conditioned muscle's markedly enhanced resistance to fatigue is in part the result of its increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Effects of short-term fatigue on biomechanical and physiological aspects of double poling in high-level cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Pellegrini, Barbara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2016-06-01

    The study aim was to evaluate biomechanical and physiological alterations in double poling technique (DP) after a short-term fatiguing exercise. Eight high-level skiers performed a sub-maximal DP trial (20kmh(-1), 1°) before (PRE) and after (POST) a DP test to exhaustion while roller skiing on a treadmill. An integrated analysis of DP technique during PRE and POST included measurement of pole, joint, and centre of mass (COM) kinematics, poling forces, cycle timing, and metabolic parameters. Muscle fatigue in three upper-body muscles was assessed by calculating the Dimitrov' fatigue index (FInms5) of specific electromyographic segments. FInms5 tended to increase in the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles (P=0.023 and P=0.030, respectively) across consecutive DP cycles, as did blood lactate concentration (P=0.001) and rating of perceived exertion (P=0.005). The changes indicated a state of fatigue during POST and coincided with the reduction in poling force exertion capacity (P=0.020). Pole, joint and COM kinematics did not differ between PRE and POST (P>0.050), whereas recovery phase and cycle times were shorter at POST (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). Short-term fatigue led to a reduction in poling force exertion capacity and cycle time in high-level skiers, without altering body and pole kinematics. PMID:26904974

  7. The use of free flaps in skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Macía, G; Picón, M; Nuñez, J; Almeida, F; Alvarez, I; Acero, J

    2016-02-01

    Skull base tumours are rare, comprising less than 1% of all tumours of the head and neck. Surgical treatment of these tumours involves the approach, the resection, and the reconstruction of the defect, which present a challenge due to the technical difficulty and anatomical complexity. A retrospective study of 17 patients with tumours involving the skull base, treated by resection and immediate reconstruction using microsurgical free flaps, is presented; 11 were men and six were women. The following types of flap were used: osteocutaneous fibula flaps, fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flaps, and myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flaps. The most common histology of the tumours was squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequent point of origin was the paranasal sinuses (58.8%). All of the free flaps used for reconstruction were viable. A cerebrospinal fluid fistula occurred in two patients, and in one of these cases, meningoencephalitis led to death. In conclusion, the reconstruction of large defects of the skull base after ablation requires a viable tissue that in many cases can be obtained only through the use of microvascular free flaps. The type of flap to be selected depends on the anatomical structures and size of the defect to be restored. PMID:26421478

  8. Extraordinary Lymph Drainage in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and the Value of Hybrid Imaging: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Brammen, Lindsay; Nedomansky, Jakob; Haslik, Werner; Staudenherz, Anton

    2014-12-01

    In melanoma patients, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy has become a gold standard. The role of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or its combination with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) as part of the standard sentinel scintigraphy protocol has yet to be determined. A 46-year-old female patient with melanoma of the trunk received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and subsequent surgical excision. Planar imaging displayed two hot spots in the region of the primary lesion. No other lymphatic flow pathways could be appreciated. Two focal hot spots, one dorsal to the primary lesion near the left latissimus dorsi muscle and one just lateral to the primary lesion in the subcutaneous tissue, were appreciated with SPECT-CT imaging. The primary melanoma lesion, as well as the two additional lesions, which were detected by SPECT-CT, were excised and sent for histopathological examination. While the primary lesion was a superficial spreading melanoma, the lesions appreciated in SPECT-CT revealed four sentinel lymph nodes, each of which was negative for tumor cells. Melanomas, especially of the trunk, can demonstrate multiple lymphatic drain basins in a large percentage of patients. Given that without the detailed anatomical information provided by SPECT-CT it would be very difficult to locate the diverse lymphatic drain basins and their lymph nodes, we would suggest routinely implementing SPECT-CT in the standard planar sentinel imaging protocol. PMID:26396636

  9. Evaluation of Meat Color and Physiochemical Characteristics in Forequarter Muscles of Holstein Steers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung Sil; Seong, Pil-Nam; Jeong, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The beef forequarter muscle comprises approximately 52% of carcass weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical characteristics and meat color from forequarter muscle of Holstein steers. Fifteen forequarter muscles were trimmed of external connective tissue and fat. An experimental group of eight Holstein steers was assessed using meat color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force value at the same quality grade. The M. omotransversarius (0.45 kg) had the highest (p<0.05) lightness (L*) value, whereas the M. teres major (0.4 kg) and M. triceps brachii (caput laterale) (0.52 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05) values. The M. semispanitus capitus (1.48 kg), which is a neck muscle, had the highest values for both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), whereas the lowest (p<0.05) values were for the M. teres major. The M. omotransversarius, M. latissimus dorsi (1.68 kg), and M. rhomboideus (1.2 kg) were ranked high (p<0.05) in water-holding capacity. The drip loss value was the highest for the M. longissimus dorsi thoracis (p<0.05; 1.86 kg), while the M. infraspinatus (2.28 kg), M. supraspinatus (1.38 kg), M. brachiocephalicus (1.01 kg), and M. pectoralis superficialis (1.18 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05). The Warner-Bratzler shear force value indicated that the M. pectoralis profundus (3.39 kg), M. omotransversarius, and M. brachiocephalicus were the toughest (p<0.05), whereas the M. subscapularis (0.86 kg), M. longissimus dorsi thoracis, M. teres major, and M. infraspinatus were the most tender cuts (p<0.05). Here, muscle type explained most of the variability in the forequarter physiochemical characteristics. Thus, our findings suggest that these muscle profile data will allow for more informed decisions when selecting individual muscles to produce value-added products from Holstein steers. PMID:26761893

  10. Evaluation of Meat Color and Physiochemical Characteristics in Forequarter Muscles of Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2015-01-01

    The beef forequarter muscle comprises approximately 52% of carcass weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical characteristics and meat color from forequarter muscle of Holstein steers. Fifteen forequarter muscles were trimmed of external connective tissue and fat. An experimental group of eight Holstein steers was assessed using meat color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner–Bratzler shear force value at the same quality grade. The M. omotransversarius (0.45 kg) had the highest (p<0.05) lightness (L*) value, whereas the M. teres major (0.4 kg) and M. triceps brachii (caput laterale) (0.52 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05) values. The M. semispanitus capitus (1.48 kg), which is a neck muscle, had the highest values for both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), whereas the lowest (p<0.05) values were for the M. teres major. The M. omotransversarius, M. latissimus dorsi (1.68 kg), and M. rhomboideus (1.2 kg) were ranked high (p<0.05) in water-holding capacity. The drip loss value was the highest for the M. longissimus dorsi thoracis (p<0.05; 1.86 kg), while the M. infraspinatus (2.28 kg), M. supraspinatus (1.38 kg), M. brachiocephalicus (1.01 kg), and M. pectoralis superficialis (1.18 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05). The Warner–Bratzler shear force value indicated that the M. pectoralis profundus (3.39 kg), M. omotransversarius, and M. brachiocephalicus were the toughest (p<0.05), whereas the M. subscapularis (0.86 kg), M. longissimus dorsi thoracis, M. teres major, and M. infraspinatus were the most tender cuts (p<0.05). Here, muscle type explained most of the variability in the forequarter physiochemical characteristics. Thus, our findings suggest that these muscle profile data will allow for more informed decisions when selecting individual muscles to produce value-added products from Holstein steers. PMID:26761893

  11. Restoration of Neuromuscular Control During The Pitch After Operative Treatment Of Slap Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Cip, Johannes; Trombley, Robert; Monson, Brett; Wimmer, Markus; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in overhead throwers. Treatment outcomes remain unpredictable with a large percentage of atheletes unable to return to sport. Persistent pain from the LHB (long head biceps) has been postulated as etiology of failure following repair. Previous authors have hypothesized that maximal stress is placed upon the biceps anchor during the cocking phase and that SLAP tears likely occur during this phase. We hypothesized that operative treatment of SLAP tears with repair or tenodesis would result in persistent alterations in neuromuscular control of the biceps during the overhand pitch post-operatively. Methods: We evaluated the activity of the biceps muscle in the overhand pitching motion and correlate this activity with throwing phase in healthy collegiate and semi-professional pitchers, collegiate pitchers status-post SLAP repair, and collegiate pitchers status-post biceps tenodesis. Patients were at least one year post-operative and had returned to pitching with a painless shoulder. Subjects pitched from a regulation-sized mound while surface electrodes collected electromyographic (sEMG) signals at 1500 Hz from the long- and short-heads of the biceps (LHBM and SHBM respectively), the deltoid, the infraspinatus, and the latissimus dorsi. Motion analysis data was captured at 120 Hz with a 14-camera three-dimensional markerless motion analysis system. At least five pitches were performed by each subject. sEMG data was then normalized to maximal manual muscle testing and then divided into previously described pitching phases (wind-up, stride, cocking, acceleration, deceleration, follow-through). Results: Eighteen pitchers participated: 7 normals, 6 status-post SLAP repair, and 5 status-post tenodesis. While no significant differences were observed in mean LHBM, SHBM, deltoid, infraspinatus, or latissimus activity between normals, pitchers status-post SLAP repair

  12. Expression of key genes of the somatotropic axis in longissimus dorsi muscle of beef heifers phenotypically divergent for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A K; Waters, S M; McGee, M; Browne, J A; Magee, D A; Kenny, D A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of residual feed intake (RFI) on the expression of constituent genes of the somatotropic axis in skeletal muscle across 2 diverse dietary regimes. Beef heifers (n=86; initial BW=191.8 kg; SD=37) fed a low-forage (LF) total mixed ration comprising 70:30 concentrate:corn silage (11.0 MJ ME/kg DM) were ranked on RFI. The 10 greatest- (high-RFI) and 10 lowest- (low-RFI) ranking animals were selected for the current study. Biopsies of the LM were harvested at the end of LF dietary period and again after a 6-wk period during which heifers were offered a high-forage grass-silage-only diet (9.7 MJ ME/kg DM). Real-time PCR was used to quantify mRNA transcripts of 11 genes including IGF-1, IGF-2, their receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), 6 IGFBP, and GH receptor (GHR). There was no evidence of a RFI phenotype×diet interaction (P>0.10) for any of the genes examined. An effect (P=0.02) of RFI phenotype was evident for the abundance of GHR mRNA, with twofold greater expression detected in the low-RFI compared with the high-RFI phenotype. Additionally, mRNA expression of IGF-1R was upregulated (1.7-fold; P=0.04) for the low-RFI compared with high-RFI heifers. Residual feed intake was negatively associated with IGF-1R (r=-0.41; P<0.05) and GHR (r=-0.50; P<0.05) mRNA. Moderate negative correlation coefficients were also observed between feed conversion ratio (F:G) and gene expression levels for IGF-1R (r=-0.61; P<0.01) as well as for GHR (r=-0.49; P<0.05). Moreover, associations were detected between DMI with IGF-1R (r=-0.42; P=0.07) and IGF-2R (r=0.40; P=0.07). The IGF-1R mRNA was positively correlated with IGF-1 (r=0.34; P<0.05) and IGF-2 (r=0.71; P<0.001) mRNA. Associations between IGF-1R and IGF-2R with IGFBP5 and GHR were positive (ranging from, r=0.32 to 0.49). These data suggest that components of the somatotropic axis expressed within muscle tissue may be involved in the regulation of feed efficiency in beef cattle. This effect is apparently consistent across contrasting dietary regimens. PMID:23048153

  13. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork. PMID:26212625

  14. Oncoplastic breast surgery: indications, techniques and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Eduardo; Gemperli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Breast-conservation surgery (BCS) is established as a safe option for most women with early breast cancer. Recently, advances in oncoplastic techniques have reduced surgical trauma and thus are capable of preserving the breast form and quality of life. In spite of the most BCS defects can be managed with primary closure, the aesthetic outcome may be unpredictable. Oncoplastic reconstruction may begin at the time of BCS (immediate), weeks (delayed-immediate) or months to years afterwards (delayed). With immediate reconstruction, the surgical process is smooth, since both procedures can be associated in one operative setting. Additionally, it permits wider excision of the tumor, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and potentially reducing the incidence of margin involvement. The oncoplastic techniques are related to volume displacement or replacement procedures including local flaps, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and reduction mammaplasty/masthopexy. Regardless of the fact that there is no consensus concerning the best approach, the criteria are determined by the surgeon’s experience and the size of the defect in relation to the size of the remaining breast. On the basis of our 15-year experience, it is possible to identify trends in types of breast defects and to develop an algorithm for immediate BCS reconstruction on the basis of the initial breast volume, the extent/location of glandular tissue ressection and the remaining available breast tissue. The main advantages of the technique utilized should include reproducibility, low interference with the oncologic treatment and long-term results. Surgical planning should include the patients’s preferences, and chiefly addressing individual reconstructive requirements, enabling each patient to receive an individual “custom-made” reconstruction. PMID:25083476

  15. An electromyographic analysis of shoulder function in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Ryu, R K; McCormick, J; Jobe, F W; Moynes, D R; Antonelli, D J

    1988-01-01

    Shoulder injuries in tennis players are common because of the repetitive, high-magnitude forces generated around the shoulder during the various tennis strokes. An understanding of the complex sequences of muscle activity in this area may help reduce injury, enhance performance, and assist the rapid rehabilitation of the injured athlete. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, middle deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, and serratus anterior muscles were studied in six uninjured male Division II collegiate tennis players using dynamic electromyography (EMG) and synchronized high-speed photography. Each subject performed the tennis serve and the forehand and backhand groundstrokes, and each stroke was divided into stages. The tennis serve contains four stages. Three stages characterize the forehand and backhand groundstrokes. Our results indicate that the subscapularis, pectoralis major, and serratus anterior display the greatest activity during the serve and forehand. The middle deltoid, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus are most active in the acceleration and follow-through stages of the backhand. The biceps brachii increases its activity during cocking and follow-through in the serve with a similar pattern noted in the acceleration and follow-through stages of the forehand and backhand. The serratus anterior demonstrates intense activity in the serve and forehand, thus providing a stable platform for the humeral head and assisting in gleno-humeral-scapulothoracic synchrony. The tennis serve and forehand and backhand groundstrokes are accomplished by complex sequences of muscle activity that incorporate contributions from the lower extremities and trunk into smooth, coordinated patterns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3189681

  16. On-the-Field Resistance-Tubing Exercises for Throwers: An Electromyographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Joseph B; Pasquale, Maria R; Laudner, Kevin G; Sell, Timothy C; Bradley, James P; Lephart, Scott M

    2005-01-01

    Context: Athletes who throw commonly use rubber-tubing resistance exercises in the field setting to assist with warm-up before throwing. Yet no researchers have described which muscles are being activated or which exercises are most effective during rubber-tubing exercises used by throwers for warm-up. Objective: To describe the effectiveness of 12 rubber-tubing resistance exercises commonly used by throwers in activating the shoulder muscles important for throwing. Design: Descriptive research design. Setting: An applied biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen physically active male subjects with no history of shoulder injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Subjects randomly performed 12 rubber-tubing resistance exercises while we assessed muscle activation of the subscapularis, supraspinatus, teres minor, and rhomboid major by indwelling electromyography. Activation of the sternal portion of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid, latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles was assessed by surface electromyography. Results: Performance of 7 exercises (external rotation at 90° of abduction, throwing deceleration, humeral flexion, humeral extension, low scapular rows, throwing acceleration, and scapular punch) resulted in the highest level of muscle activation of all muscles tested. Conclusions: These 7 exercises exhibited moderate activation (>20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) in each muscle of the rotator cuff, the primary humeral movers, and the scapular stabilizer muscles. The results suggest that these exercises are most effective in activating the muscles important to the throwing motion and may be beneficial for throwers during their prethrowing warm-up routine. PMID:15902319

  17. PTHrP regulates the modeling of cortical bone surfaces at fibrous insertion sites during growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Johnson, Randy L; Broadus, Arthur E

    2013-03-01

    The sites that receive ligament and tendon insertions (entheses) on the cortical surfaces of long bones are poorly understood, particularly regarding modeling and regulation. Entheses are classified as either fibrocartilaginous or fibrous based on their structures. Fibrous entheses typically insert into the metaphysis or diaphysis of a long bone, bear a periosteal component, and are modeled during long-bone growth. This modeling forms a root system by which the insertions attach to the cortical surface. In the case of the medial collateral ligament, modeling drives actual migration of the ligament along the cortical surface in order to accommodate linear growth, whereas in other sites modeling may excavate a deep cortical root system (eg, the teres major insertion) or a shallow root system with a large footprint (eg, the latissimus dorsi insertion). We report here that conditionally deleting parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in fibrous entheses via Scleraxis-Cre targeting causes modeling to fail in these three iterations of osteoclast-driven enthesis excavation or migration. These iterations appear to represent formes frustes of a common modeling strategy, presumably differing from each other as a consequence of differences in biomechanical control. In sites in which PTHrP is not induced, either physiologically or because of conditional deletion, modeling does not take place and fibrocartilage is induced. These findings represent the initial genetic evidence that PTHrP regulates periosteal/intramembranous bone cell activity on cortical bone surfaces and indicate that PTHrP serves as a load-induced modeling tool in fibrous insertion sites during linear growth. PMID:23109045

  18. Photochemical bonding of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice to rat muscle layer for esophageal tissue engineering: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Barbara P.; Sato, M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Kochevar, Irene E.; Redmond, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    Bilayered tube structures consist of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice and muscle layer have been fabricated for esophageal tissue engineering. Good adhesion between layers in order to facilitate cell infiltration and neovascularization in the collagen lattice is required. Previous efforts include using other bioglues such as fibrin glue and silicone tube as the physical support. However, the former is subjected to chances of transmitting blood-born infectious disease and is time consuming while the latter requires a second surgical procedure. The current project aimed to bond the cell-seeded collagen lattice to muscle layer using photochemical bonding, which has previously been demonstrated a rapid and non-thermal procedure in bonding collagenous tissues. Rat esophageal epithelial cells were seeded on collagen lattice and together with the latissimus dorsi muscle layer, were exposed to a photosensitizer rose Bengal at the bonding surface. An argon laser was used to irradiate the approximated layers. Bonding strength was measured during the peeling test of the collagen layer from the muscle layer. Post-bonding cell viability was assessed using a modified NADH-diaphorase microassay. A pilot in vivo study was conducted by directly bonding the cell-seeded collagen layer onto the muscle flap in rats and the structures were characterized histologically. Photochemical bonding was found to significantly increase the adherence at the bonding interface without compromising the cell viability. This indicates the feasibility of using the technique to fabricate multi-layered structures in the presence of living cells. The pilot animal study demonstrated integration of the collagen lattice with the muscle layer at the bonding interface although the subsequent surgical manipulation disturbed the integration at some region. This means that an additional procedure removing the tube could be avoided if the approximation and thus the bonding are optimized. Cell infiltration

  19. Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques for Personalized Breast Conserving Surgery in Breast Cancer Patient with Small to Moderate Sized Breast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Dug; Lee, Jeong Woo; Kim, Wan Wook; Jung, Jin Hyang

    2011-01-01

    Oncoplastic surgery has revolutionized the field of breast conserving surgery (BCS). The final aims of this technique are to obtain an adequate resection margin that will reduce the rate of local recurrence while simultaneously improving cosmetic outcomes. To obtain successful results after oncoplastic surgery, it is imperative that patients be risk-stratified based on risk factors associated with positive margins, that relevant imaging studies be reviewed, and that the confirmation of negative margins be confirmed during the initial operation. Patients who had small- to moderate-sized breasts are the most likely to be dissatisfied with the cosmetic outcome of surgery, even if the defect is small; therefore, oncoplastic surgery in this population is warranted. Reconstruction of the remaining breast tissue is divided into volume displacement and volume replacement techniques. The use of the various oncoplastic surgeries is based on tumor location and excised breast volume. If the excised volume is less than 100 g, the tumor location is used to determine which technique should be used, with the most commonly used technique being volume displacement. However, if the excised volume is greater than 100 g, the volume replacement method is generally used, and in cases where more than 150 g is excised, the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap may be used to obtain a pleasing cosmetic result. The local recurrence rate after oncoplastic surgery was lower than that of conventional BCS, as oncoplastic surgery reduced the rate of positive resection margins by resecting a wider section of glandular tissue. If the surgeon understands the advantages and disadvantages of oncoplastic surgery, and the multidisciplinary breast team is able to successfully collaborate, then the success rate of BCS with partial breast reconstruction can be increased while also yielding a cosmetically appealing outcome. PMID:22323910

  20. [Irreparable rotator cuff tears. Debridement, partial reconstruction, tendon transfer or reversed shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Patzer, Th; Hufeland, M; Krauspe, R

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears are fluent, are dependent on the patients' claims and demands and on the grade of the ongoing cuff tear arthropathy.A partial rotator cuff reconstruction with sufficient tenolysis combined with interval slide techniques to restore the anterior and posterior force couple may be indicated if there is no fatty degeneration > grade 3 of the rotator cuff muscles in a well-centered joint. The margin convergence technique with side-by-side adaptation of the tendon limbs may reduce the load on the reconstructed tendons.The role of the suprascapular nerve, which can probably be constricted by the retracted rotator cuff, and its therapy has not been completely clarified. When distinct symptoms are present neurolysis may be reasonable.Tendon transfers can be indicated in a cooperative patient < 65 years with a higher grade of muscular atrophy but without degenerative changes > grade II according to Hamada with the loss of active external rotation but performable active flexion. For posterosuperior tears the latissimus dorsi or recently the teres major tendon transfer to the rotator cuff footprint may be appropriate. For nonreconstructable anterosuperior tears a partial transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is possible.Careful subacromial debridement combined with biceps tenotomy and a cautious or reversed decompression may reduce the pain temporarily without having an influence on active motion until with the loss of active elevation the indication for a reversed shoulder arthroplasty is reached.In the mean time, absorbable subacromial spacers may re-center the humeral head, but the effectiveness of this therapy on clinical outcome should be analyzed in further studies. PMID:26768144

  1. A muscle powered cardiac assist device for right ventricular support: total assist or partial assist?

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, N; Watanabe, G; Misaki, T; Mukai, A; Tsubota, M; Takemura, H; Ohtake, Y; Iwa, T

    1990-01-01

    A muscle powered cardiac assist device (MCAD) for right ventricular support requires optimized diastolic filling to obtain full stroke and acceptable fluid dynamics. A valved and spring-assembled skeletal muscle ventricle (SMV) was designed as a prototype MCAD, regardless of fluid dynamics. The present study addresses the optimal bypass method for right ventricular support, and predicts the future design for an implantable MCAD. Latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of 11 dogs were conditioned electrically for a one year maximum, and transformed into fatigue-resistant muscles (Type I fibers). Superior and inferior vena cavae were anastomosed using one arm of a Y-shaped vascular graft, as an inflow conduit, and the outflow conduit was placed on the main pulmonary artery. SMV was wrapped with transformed LDM and the bypass method was varied by SVC and/or IVC ligation. SMV demonstrated sufficient right ventricular support on total bypass (70% compared with control output), and the maximum pump off-to-on flow ratio (200%) was obtained. Maximum SMV power output was 0.27 X 10(6) erg, which was equivalent to that of canine right ventricle. Right atrial-to-pulmonary artery bypass was also constructed by using SMV in another 14 dogs, and also showed that total bypass was preferable for optimal SMV diastolic filling. In conclusion, specific requirements for a future MCAD include a subsystem assembly such as a spring, magnet, or alternative auxiliary muscle pump assembly for MCAD filling, and total bypass with optimized fluid dynamics and anatomic fitting. PMID:2252702

  2. Joint Kinetics to Assess the Influence of the Racket on a Tennis Player’s Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Hautier, Christophe; Macé, Pierre; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the influence of three rackets on shoulder net joint moments, power and muscle activity during the flat tennis serve under field- conditions. A 6-camera Eagle® motion analysis system, operating at 256 Hz, captured racket and dominant upper limb kinematics of the serve in five tennis players under three racket conditions (A: low mass, high balance and polar moment, B: low three moments of inertia, and C: high mass, swingweight and twistweight). The electromyographic activity of six trunk and arm muscles was simultaneously recorded. Shoulder net joint moments and power were computed by 3D inverse dynamics. The results showed that greater shoulder joint power and internal/external rotation peak moments were found to accelerate and decelerate racket A in comparison with the racket C. Moreover, serving with the racket A resulted in less activity in latissimus dorsi muscle during the acceleration phase, and biceps brachii muscle during the follow-through phase when compared with racket C. These initial findings encourage studying the biomechanical measurements to quantify the loads on the body during play in order to reduce them, and then prevent shoulder injuries. Racket specifications may be a critical point for coaches who train players suffering from shoulder pain and chronic upper limb injuries should be considered in relation to the racket specifications of the players. Key Points Light racket required more joint power than heavy one to achieve similar post impact ball velocity. Serving with a light racket resulted in higher shoulder internal and external rotation moments than using a heavy one for similar performance. Chronic shoulder pain should encourage coaches to check for potentially inappropriate racket specifications of their players. PMID:24149804

  3. Chick myotendinous antigen. I. A monoclonal antibody as a marker for tendon and muscle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, M; Fambrough, D M

    1984-06-01

    Extracellular matrix components are likely to be involved in the interaction of muscle with nonmuscle cells during morphogenesis and in adult skeletal muscle. With the aim of identifying relevant molecules, we generated monoclonal antibodies that react with the endomysium, i.e., the extracellular matrix on the surface of single muscle fibers. Antibody M1, which is described here, specifically labeled the endomysium of chick anterior latissimus dorsi muscle (but neither the perimysium nor, with the exception of blood vessels and perineurium, the epimysium ). Endomysium labeling was restricted to proximal and distal portions of muscle fibers near their insertion points to tendon, but absent from medial regions of the muscle. Myotendinous junctions and tendon fascicles were intensely labeled by M1 antibody. In chick embryos, " myotendinous antigen" (as we tentatively call the epitope recognized by M1 antibody) appeared first in the perichondrium of vertebrae and limb cartilage elements, from where it gradually extended to the premuscle masses. Around day 6, tendon primordia were clearly labeled. The other structures labeled by M1 antibody in chick embryos were developing smooth muscle tissues, especially aorta, gizzard, and lung buds. In general, tissues labeled with M1 antibody appeared to be a subset of the ones accumulating fibronectin. In cell cultures, M1 antibody binds to fuzzy, fibrillar material on the substrate and cell surfaces of living fibroblast and myogenic cells, which confirms an extracellular location of the antigenic site. The appearance of myotendinous antigen during limb morphogenesis and its distribution in adult muscle and tendon are compatible with the idea that it might be involved in attaching muscle fibers to tendon fascicles. Its biochemical characterization is described in the accompanying paper ( Chiquet , M., and D. Fambrough , 1984, J. Cell Biol. 98:1937-1946). PMID:6725406

  4. Comparison of different rowing exercises: trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine motion, load, and stiffness.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Chad M J; Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate 3 different rowing exercises and quantify the muscle activation of the torso and the hip musculature, together with the corresponding spinal loading and stiffness. Seven healthy male subjects from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles and to obtain spine position using an electromagnetic spine position sensor, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments. The 3 rowing exercises investigated are the inverted row, standing bent-over row, and the standing 1-armed cable row. The inverted row elicited the highest activation of the latissimus dorsi muscles, upper back, and hip extensor muscles. The lower activation of the lumbar erector spinae muscles during the inverted row corresponded to the lower-spine load measured. The standing bent-over row produced large activation symmetrically across the back but produced the largest lumbar spine load. The 1-armed cable row challenged the torsional capabilities of the trunk musculature. Some "core" exercises may be better for rehabilitation (e.g., having the training goals of modest muscle activation with low spine load), while other exercises may be better for athletic training (e.g., resulting in higher muscle activation and larger spine load). When prescribing "core" exercises, those wishing to spare the low back may choose the inverted row given the lowest spine load exercise. The standing bent-over row elicited large muscle activation symmetrically from the upper to lower back, however induced larger spine loads, but not surprisingly the highest spine stiffness. If torsional endurance or strength is the training goal, the 1-armed cable row might be considered. PMID:19620925

  5. Comparison of different rowing exercises: trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine motion, load, and stiffness.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Chad M J; Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate 3 different rowing exercises and quantify the muscle activation of the torso and the hip musculature, together with the corresponding spinal loading and stiffness. Seven healthy men from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles and to obtain spine position using an electromagnetic spine position sensor, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments. The 3 rowing exercises investigated were the inverted row, standing bent-over row, and standing 1-armed cable row. The inverted row elicited the highest activation of the latissimus dorsi muscles, upper-back, and hip extensor muscles. The lower activation of the lumbar erector spinae muscles during the inverted row corresponded to the lower spine load measured. The standing bent-over row produced large activation symmetrically across the back, but it produced the largest lumbar spine load. The 1-armed cable row challenged the torsional capabilities of the trunk musculature. Some core exercises may be better for rehabilitation (e.g., having the training goals of modest muscle activation with low spine load), whereas other exercises may be better for athletic training (e.g., resulting in higher muscle activation and larger spine load). When prescribing core exercises, those wishing to spare the low back may choose the inverted row, given the lowest spine load exercise. The standing bent-over row elicited large muscle activation symmetrically from the upper to lower back; it induced larger spine loads but also, not surprisingly, the highest spine stiffness. If torsional endurance or strength is the training goal, the 1-armed cable row might be considered. PMID:19197209

  6. Retrograde migration of pectoral girdle muscle precursors depends on CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Masyuk, Maryna; Abduelmula, Aisha; Morosan-Puopolo, Gabriela; Ödemis, Veysel; Rehimi, Rizwan; Khalida, Nargis; Yusuf, Faisal; Engele, Jürgen; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Theiss, Carsten; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-11-01

    In vertebrates, muscles of the pectoral girdle connect the forelimbs with the thorax. During development, the myogenic precursor cells migrate from the somites into the limb buds. Whereas most of the myogenic precursors remain in the limb bud to form the forelimb muscles, several cells migrate back toward the trunk to give rise to the superficial pectoral girdle muscles, such as the large pectoral muscle, the latissimus dorsi and the deltoid. Recently, this developing mode has been referred to as the "In-Out" mechanism. The present study focuses on the mechanisms of the "In-Out" migration during formation of the pectoral girdle muscles. Combining in ovo electroporation, tissue slice-cultures and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we visualize live in detail the retrograde migration of myogenic precursors from the forelimb bud into the trunk region by live imaging. Furthermore, we present for the first time evidence for the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 during these processes. After microsurgical implantations of CXCR4 inhibitor beads in the proximal forelimb region of chicken embryos, we demonstrate with the aid of in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging that CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling is crucial for the retrograde migration of pectoral girdle muscle precursors. Moreover, we analyzed the MyoD expression in CXCR4-mutant mouse embryos and observed a considerable decrease in pectoral girdle musculature. We thus demonstrate the importance of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis for the pectoral girdle muscle formation in avians and mammals. PMID:24972797

  7. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases PMID:20184752

  8. Management and Reconstruction in the Breast Cancer Patient With a Fungating T4b Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Lily N.; Rezzadeh, Kameron S.; Lee, Edward S.; Keith, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A subset of women with locally advanced breast cancer presented with fungating tumor mass eroding and infiltrating the surrounding breast skin (T4b breast cancers). These patients often have chronic pain, large open wounds, frequent infections, malodorous drainage, social isolation, and general debilitation that present enormous therapeutic challenges. Because of the advanced nature of the disease, palliation, while minimizing recovery time and maximizing quality of life, is essential. Methods: From 2009 to 2014, a total of 12 consecutive patients underwent resection of fungating T4b breast tumors and subsequent chest wall reconstruction. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Results: Fifty percent of women had distant metastases at the time of reconstruction, and 17% of women presented to the emergency department in a hemodynamically unstable condition in either hemorrhagic shock or septic shock, necessitating delay of reconstruction for up to 1 week. Mean wound size for reconstruction was 473 cm2. Reconstructive procedures included split-thickness skin grafting and thoracoepigastric advancement, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, and extended transverse and vertical rectus abdominis flaps. Postoperative survival ranged from 98 to 172 days (mean = 127 days), with 9 patients currently living. Seventy-five percent of patients had improved pain and reduced wound care needs after reconstruction. Postoperative reconstruction-specific complications occurred in 33% of cases, with 1 patient requiring a second operating room visit. Conclusions: Women with fungating T4b breast cancer tumors often present with metastatic disease and have significant need for pain and wound palliation. The reconstructive techniques performed are reliable, efficacious in palliating pain, and reducing wound care needs and have low complication rates. PMID:26417396

  9. PubMed Central

    PUTTEN, L.; SPASIANO, R.; BREE, R.; BERTINO, G.; RENÉ LEEMANS, C.; BENAZZO, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present retrospective analysis evaluated the outcomes of different flap reconstructions for several hypopharyngeal defects in 136 patients who underwent hypopharyngeal reconstruction with a free or pedicled flap after excision of pharyngeal or laryngeal carcinoma. Functional and oncological outcome were the main measures. Nine patients had a type I-a hypopharyngeal defect (partial with larynx preserved), 33 type I-b (partial without larynx preserved), 85 type II (circumferential), 5 type III (extensive superior) and 4 vertical hemipharyngolaryngectomy. The flaps used to reconstruct these defects were pectoralis major (n = 34), free radial forearm (n = 25), jejunum (n = 72), pedicled latissimus dorsi (n = 2), sternocleidomastoid (n = 1), lateral thigh (n = 1) and deltopectoral (n = 1). Twelve defects (9%) needed a secondary flap reconstruction. Surgical and medical complications were seen in 29% and 8% of patients, respectively; 18% of patients developed a fistula. No difference in complication rate or admission days was found for pre-operative versus no previous radiotherapy, type of defect or free versus pedicled flap. After 12 months follow-up, 38% of patients had a tracheo-oesophageal voice prosthesis, in 82% a fully oral diet was obtained and the average body weight gain was 0.9 kg. Five-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 35% and 49%, respectively, while local and regional control rates were 65% and 91%, respectively. Considering these results, a defect orientated approach may be helpful for deciding which flap should be used for reconstruction of the hypopharynx. An algorithm is proposed with similar functional and oncological outcomes for the different groups. The choice of flap should be based on expected morbidity and functional outcome. PMID:23326007

  10. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colby D.; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E.; Robbins, Kathleen A.; Trumble, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze–thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues. PMID

  11. Muscle activation patterns in patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512

  12. Tenderization potential of Hanwoo beef muscles from carcasses with differed genders and loin intramuscular fat content levels during post mortem ageing.

    PubMed

    Park, Beom Young; Seong, Pil Nam; Ba, Hoa Van; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Moon, Sung Sil; Kang, Geun Ho

    2015-06-01

    Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to < 11.5% intramuscular fat (IMF) in loin muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to < 4.5% IMF in loin muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to < 18.5% IMF in loin muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P < 0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) was found higher in LC, SS, LAD and QF muscles of steers (P < 0.05). At day 2 of ageing, gender affected the WBSF values of only PM, LD and QF muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles. PMID:25491951

  13. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue. PMID:26815175

  14. A case report of total breast reconstruction using an inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. Presentation of case The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. Discussion This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. Conclusion This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. PMID:27107500

  15. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  16. Wound coverage considerations for defects of the lower third of the leg.

    PubMed

    Bajantri, Babu; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sabapathy, S Raja

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical features of the lower third of the leg like subcutaneous bone surrounded by tendons with no muscles, vessels in isolated compartments with little intercommunication between them make the coverage of the wounds in the region a challenging problem. Free flaps continue to be the gold standard for the coverage of lower third leg wounds because of their ability to cover large defects with high success rates and feasibility of using it in acute situations by choosing distant recipient vessels. Reverse flow flaps are more useful for the coverage of the ankle and foot defects than lower third leg defects. The perforators in the lower third leg on which these flaps are based are often damaged during the injury. In medium-sized defects of less than 50 cm(2) size, local transposition flaps, perforator flaps, or propeller flaps can be used. Preoperative identification by the Doppler is essential before embarking on these flaps. Of the muscle flaps, the peroneus brevis flap can be used in selected cases with small defects. In spite of all recent developments, cross-leg flaps continue to remain as a useful technique. In rare occasions when other flaps are not possible or when other options fail it can be a life boat. In the author's practice free flaps continue to be the first choice for coverage of wounds in the lower third leg with gracilis muscle flap for small and medium defects, latissimus dorsi muscle flap for large defects and anterolateral thigh flap when a skin flap is preferred. PMID:23162228

  17. Laparoscopic treatment of Poland’s syndrome using the omentum flap technique

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sirlei Santos; Blotta, Rosa Maria; Mariano, Mirandolino Batista; Meurer, Luise; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel Albano

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE For patients with Poland’s syndrome, a transverse skin fold in the anterior axillary pillar, infra-clavicular depression and an anomalous breast contour are the most uncomfortable disfigurements. This study aims to demonstrate that superior aesthetic results can be achieved by using a laparoscopically harvested omentum flap to treat this condition. METHODS From a prospectively maintained clinical database of patients undergoing a laparoscopic omentum flap procedure for breast reconstruction, all of the patients with Poland’s syndrome were identified and their outcomes were studied. RESULTS Thirteen consecutive patients with Poland’s syndrome were treated and evaluated regarding breast contour, reconstruction of the anterior axillary pillar and filling of the infra-clavicular depression. Implants were employed beneath the flap in 76% of cases to improve symmetry. In 23% of cases, a contra-lateral mastopexy was performed, and in 15% of cases, a breast implant was used. The consistency of the flap is similar to natural breast tissue and only a small incision in the breast fold is needed. The majority of patients (85%) were female, with a mean age of 26 (18–53). The flap is extremely malleable, adapts to irregular surfaces, and has a long vascular pedicle. Additionally, its removal does not leave a scar at the donor site as the removal of muscular flaps does. For example, the removal of the latissimus dorsi flap causes a deformity in the dorsal contour. The mean operative time was 201 minutes (80–350) and the mean hospital stay was 2.3 days (1–5). CONCLUSIONS The outcomes of these patients revealed that the omentum flap technique provided superior amelioration of the deformities caused by Poland’s syndrome when compared with other reconstructive options. PMID:20454498

  18. Cardio-respiratory and electromyographic responses to ergometer and on-water rowing in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, I; Sbriccoli, P; Nicolò, A; Passerini, A; Quinzi, F; Felici, F; Sacchetti, M

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation and cardio-respiratory response during ergometer and on-water rowing. Nine internationally competitive rowers (five Olympic Games medal winners, age 25.6 ± 4.8 years) were requested to perform a 1,000 m race simulation test in the two conditions. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from trapezius superior (TRS), latissimus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii (BB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VAM), vastus lateralis (VAL), biceps femoris (BF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded continuously during the tests together with other cardio-respiratory parameters: heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO₂). On-water, subjects covered the same distance in a longer time (218.4 ± 3.8 s vs. 178.1 ± 5.6 s during ergometer test). TRS, LD, BB, RF, VAM and VAL muscle activation on-water was lower than off-water during the rowing race. VO₂ and VE responses were similar between the two conditions even if the time to complete the 1,000 m race simulation test was higher on-water. The results indicate that for most of the analyzed muscles EMG activation on the ergometer is higher than on-water with the maximal activity at the beginning of the on-water test due reasonably to overcome the forces opposing the forward motion, while the ergometer task elicited increasing muscle activation over time. The present data may be considered by coaches when choosing a rowing ergometer in substitution for the training on-water or when relying on the indoor tests to select the crew. PMID:23179206

  19. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  20. Activation of Spinal Stabilizers and Shoulder Complex Muscles During an Inverted Row Using a Portable Pull-up Device and Body Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Keith, Julianne M; Nonn, Danielle E; Squires, Adam C; Hollman, John H

    2016-07-01

    Youdas, JW, Keith, JM, Nonn, DE, Squires, AC, and Hollman, JH. Activation of spinal stabilizers and shoulder complex muscles during an inverted row using a portable pull-up device and body weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1933-1941, 2016-We recorded muscle activation normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (% MVIC) during an inverted body weight row using a commercially available portable pull-up device. Surface electromyographic (EMG) analysis was conducted on 13 male and 13 female subjects performing 4 inverted row exercises: (a) pronated grip both feet weight-bearing (WB); (b) supinated grip both feet WB; (c) pronated grip one leg WB; and (d) supinated grip single-leg WB. Nine muscles were analyzed: (a) posterior deltoid (PD), (b) latissimus dorsi (LD), (c) biceps brachii (BB), (d) lower trapezius (LT), (e) upper trapezius (UT), (f) lumbar multifidus (LM), (g) middle trapezius (MT), (h) lumbar thoracis (LTh), and (i) rectus abdominis (RA). Normalized peak EMG activity was examined separately for each muscle with 9 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Post hoc comparisons of EMG activation across exercises for statistically significant ANOVAs were conducted with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons. We observed statistically significant differences in EMG activation of the LD between supinated and pronated double-leg WB (p = 0.001) condition. Additionally, we found statistical significance in the UT between pronated and supinated single-leg WB (p = 0.007). No statistically significant differences in muscle activation existed between single- and double-leg WB in any muscles. Four muscles (BB, LD, LT, and PD) demonstrated very high (>61% MVIC) EMG activation during all 4 exercise conditions. Three muscles (UT, MT, and LM) demonstrated high (41-60% MVIC) activation, whereas 2 muscles (LTh and RA) demonstrated moderate (21-40% MVIC) activation. Four inverted row exercises activated the LD, UT, MT, LT

  1. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    PubMed Central

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Bouloumpasis, Serafeim; Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The total ‘rib’-preservation method of dissecting out the internal mammary vessels (IMV) during microvascular breast reconstruction aims to reduce free flap morbidity at the recipient site. We review our five-year experience with this technique. Patients & methods An analysis of a prospectively collected free flap data cohort was undertaken to determine the indications, operative details and reconstructive outcomes in all breast reconstruction patients undergoing IMV exposure using the total ‘rib’-preservation method by a single surgeon. Results 178 consecutive breast free flaps (156 unilateral, 11 bilateral) were performed from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2013 in 167 patients with a median age of 50 years (range 28–71). There were 154 DIEP flaps, 14 SIEA flaps, 7 muscle-sparing free TRAMs, 2 IGAP flaps and one free latissimus dorsi flap. 75% of the reconstructions (133/178) were immediate, 25% (45/178) were delayed. The mean inter-costal space distance was 20.9 mm (range 9–29). The mean time taken to expose and prepare the recipient IMV's was 54 min (range 17–131). The mean flap ischaemia time was 95 min (range 38–190). Free flap survival was 100%, although 2.2% (4 flaps) required a return to theatre for exploration and flap salvage. No patients complained of localised chest pain or tenderness at the recipient site and no chest wall contour deformity has been observed. Discussion & conclusion The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques. PMID:26468373

  2. A Twelve-Year Consecutive Case Experience in Thoracic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenny T.; Bonneau, Laura A.; Weigel, Tracey L.; Maloney, James D.; Castro, Francisco; Shulzhenko, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Background: We describe the second largest contemporary series of flaps used in thoracic reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing thoracomyoplasty from 2001 to 2013 was conducted. Ninety-one consecutive patients were identified. Results: Thoracomyoplasty was performed for 67 patients with intrathoracic indications and 24 patients with chest wall defects. Malignancy and infection were the most common indications for reconstruction (P < 0.01). The latissimus dorsi (LD), pectoralis major, and serratus anterior muscle flaps remained the workhorses of reconstruction (LD and pectoralis major: 64% flaps in chest wall reconstruction; LD and serratus anterior: 85% of flaps in intrathoracic indication). Only 12% of patients required mesh. Only 6% of patients with <2 ribs resected required mesh when compared with 24% with 3–4 ribs, and 100% with 5 or more ribs resected (P < 0.01). Increased rib resections required in chest wall reconstruction resulted in a longer hospital stay (P < 0.01). Total comorbidities and complications were related to length of stay only in intrathoracic indication (P < 0.01). Average intubation time was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (5.51 days) than chest wall reconstruction (0.04 days), P < 0.05. Average hospital stay was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (23 days) than chest wall reconstruction (12 days), P < 0.05. One-year survival was most poor for intrathoracic indication (59%) versus chest wall reconstruction (83%), P = 0.0048. Conclusion: Thoracic reconstruction remains a safe and successful intervention that reliably treats complex and challenging problems, allowing more complex thoracic surgery problems to be salvaged. PMID:27257568

  3. Utility of arteriovenous loops before free tissue transfer for post-traumatic leg defects

    PubMed Central

    Mambally, Sheeja Rajan Thekkayil; Santha, Krishnakumar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Crush injuries of severe magnitude involving lower limbs require complex bone and soft tissue reconstructions in the form of microvascular free tissue transfers. However, satisfactory recipient vessels are often unavailable in the leg due to their vulnerability to trauma and post traumatic vessel disease (PTVD), which extends well beyond the site of original injury. In such situations, healthy recipient vessels for free flap anastomosis can be made available by constructing temporary arteriovenous loops with saphenous vein grafts, anastomosed to corresponding free flap vessels. Our study included 7 patients with severe crush injuries of leg due to rail and road traffic accidents. Long and short saphenous vein grafts were anastomosed to Femoral artery in the subsartorial canal in 2 cases and to large muscular branches and accompanying veins in rest of the cases. Free flap transfers were performed in the same sitting in 6 cases. One case showed insufficient dilatation of the vein loop and hence free flap transfer was staged. Free Latissimus dorsi, Gracilis and Rectus abdominis flaps were performed. There were two cases of flap necrosis – one in the case of a pathologic vein graft with staged flap transfer which showed vein thrombosis on re exploration. The other case of flap failure was caused by a hematoma underneath the flap. In another patient, secondary haemorrhage occurred on day 18, without any consequence to the flap. All the other cases had complete free flap survival. We consider the use of single stage arteriovenous loops, a valuable tool to increase the applications of free flap, whenever healthy recipient vessels are not available in the periphery of the trauma. PMID:25991884

  4. Current status of breast reconstruction in China: an experience of 951 breast reconstructions from a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nai-Si; Quan, Chen-Lian; Ma, Lin-Xiao-Xi; Si, Jing; Chen, Jia-Jian; Yang, Ben-Long; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Guang-Yu; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Since mastectomy remained the primary strategy for treating breast cancer in China, post-mastectomy reconstruction is of great importance in the Chinese population. The current study aimed to assess the current status of breast reconstruction in China. Methods We reviewed all patients who received breast reconstruction from August 2000 to July 2015 in the Department of Breast Surgery in our institute. Patients’ baseline characteristics, reconstruction strategy, final pathology and loco-regional recurrence (LRR) information were collected. Results A total of 951 breast reconstructions were conducted during the past 15 years, among which 247 (27.0%) were abdominal flap reconstruction; 471 (51.5%) were latissimus dorsi myocutaneous ± implant; and 233 (25.5%) were prosthesis-based reconstruction. The majority of cases (78.1%) were invasive breast cancer and up to 894 cases (94.0%) were immediate reconstruction. Prosthesis-based reconstruction rapidly increased in recent years, and was associated with bilateral reconstruction, contralateral augmentation and higher complications. 18 patients (2.0%) developed local-regional recurrence at the median follow-up time of 26.6 months (range, 3.7–62.0 months). A total of 66 nipple-areolar complex-sparing mastectomies (NSMs) (6.9%) were performed, none of which developed recurrence. Conclusions Breast reconstruction cases increased over the 15 years with the change of paradigm. Most strikingly, prosthesis-based reconstruction rapidly gained its prevalence and became the most common strategy. NSM was only performed for highly selected patients. Patients with breast reconstruction were able to achieve satisfactory loco-regional control in our cohort. PMID:27294034

  5. Effect of sex on growth, technological and organoleptic characteristics of the Muscovy duck breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Juin, H

    1998-07-01

    1. The aim of our study was to analyse the consequences of sexual dimorphism on muscular growth and on technological and organoleptic characteristics of breast muscle. Ten males and 10 females of the R51 line (Grimaud) were weighed every fortnight, from 1-d-old to 15 weeks of age, and then slaughtered. Four muscles, Sartorius (SART), Anterior and Posterior latissimus dorsi (ALD, PLD), Pectoralis major (PM) were removed and weighed. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. pH value, colour and juice loss of breast muscle were measured on ducks slaughtered between 8 and 15 weeks of age. Sensory analysis, (tastes) was also carried out. 2. At 15 weeks of age, males weighed 4573 g and females 2879 g. Muscle weight and muscular glycolytic activity increased regularly with age. Females showed earlier muscular growth. Sexual dimorphism had a significant effect on muscular growth from 6 weeks of age for ALD, 8 weeks of age for PLD and SART and 10 weeks of age for PM. 3. With age, breasts became redder and darker. The post-mortem fall of pH and juice loss after 24 h of storage at 4 degrees C increased. Females displayed more precocious muscular maturity. The changes in organoleptic characteristics showed a decrease in tenderness, juiciness and mellowness and an increase in flavour and stringiness with age. At any given age, female breast muscles appeared less tender, less juicy and less mellow but had a more intense flavour and seemed more stringy than those of males. PMID:9693821

  6. Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5–9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1–17.9 years). Results: The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10–20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°–140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13–25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°–180°, P < .0003). Conclusion: The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder. PMID:23308301

  7. Histomorphometric analysis of irradiated recipient vessels and transplant vessels of free flaps in patients undergoing reconstruction after ablative surgery.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, S; Erbe, M; Keilholz, L; Radespiel-Tröger, M; Wiltfang, J; Minge, N; Neukam, F W

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, histomorphometrically, quantitative and qualitative changes in irradiated neck recipient vessels and transplant vessels used for microsurgical anastomoses in free flaps in patients undergoing preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In 55 patients receiving 42 radial forearm flaps, 6 latissimus dorsi flaps, 6 osteomyocutaneous fibula grafts and 1 lateral arm flap, a total of 220 vessels were obtained from neck recipient vessels and transplant vessels during anastomosis. Three groups were formed: Group 1 (16 patients) treated with no radiotherapy or chemotherapy; Group 2 (20 patients) treated with preoperative irradiation (40-50 Gy) and chemotherapy (800 mg/m2 5-FU and 20 mg/m2 cisplatin) 1.5 months prior to surgery; Group 3 (19 patients) treated with radiotherapy (60-70 Gy) (median interval 78.7 months; IQR 31.3 months) prior to surgery. From each of the 220 vessel specimens, 3 sections each were histomorphometrically investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively. To evaluate these changes as a function of age, radiation dose and chemotherapy, a statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance and chi-square tests. In Group 3, qualitative changes (intima dehiscence, hyalinosis) were found in recipient arteries significantly more frequently (25%, P=0.009) than in Groups 1 and 2. For Group 3 recipient arteries, histomorphometry revealed a significant decrease in the ratio of media area/total vessel area (median 0.53, IQR 0.10) in comparison with Group 1 (P= 0.02) (median 0.60, IQR 0.29) and Group 2 (P=0.046) (median 0.59, IQR 0.10). No significant differences were found between the vessels of Groups 1 and 2 (P= 0.48). Age and chemotherapy did not appear to have a significant influence on vessel changes in this study. PMID:10833147

  8. Selective brain cooling and its vascular basis in diving seals.

    PubMed

    Blix, Arnoldus Schytte; Walløe, Lars; Messelt, Edward B; Folkow, Lars P

    2010-08-01

    Brain (T(brain)), intra-aorta (T(aorta)), latissimus dorsi muscle (T(m)) and rectal temperature (T(r)) were measured in harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals during experimental dives in 4 degrees C water. The median brain cooling was about 1 degrees C during 15 min diving, but in some cases it was as much as 2.5 degrees C. Cooling rates were slow for the first couple of minutes, but increased significantly after about 5 min of diving. The onset of cooling sometimes occurred before the start of the dive, confirming that the cooling is under cortical control, like the rest of the diving responses. T(aorta) also fell significantly, and was always lower than T(brain), while T(m) was fairly stable during dives. Detailed studies of the vascular anatomy of front flippers revealed that brachial arterial blood can be routed either through flipper skin capillaries for nutritive purposes and return through sophisticated vascular heat exchangers to avoid heat loss to the environment, or, alternatively, through numerous arterio-venous shunts in the skin and return by way of large superficial veins, which then carry cold blood to the heart. In the latter situation the extent to which the brain is cooled is determined by the ratio of carotid to brachial arterial blood flow, and water temperature, and the cooling is selective in that only those organs that are circulated will be cooled. It is concluded that T(brain) is actively down-regulated during diving, sometimes by as much as 2.5 degrees C, whereby cerebral oxygen requirements may be reduced by as much as 25% during extended dives. PMID:20639422

  9. Biomechanical Contributions of Posterior Deltoid and Teres Minor in the Context of Axillary Nerve Injury: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Dustin L.; Plate, Johannes F.; Li, Zhongyu; Saul, Katherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if transfer to only the anterior branch of the axillary nerve will restore useful function following axillary nerve injury with persistent posterior deltoid and teres minor paralysis. Methods We used a computational musculoskeletal model of the upper limb to determine the relative contributions of posterior deltoid and teres minor to maximum joint moment generated during a simulated static strength assessment and to joint moments during 3 sub-maximal shoulder movements. Movement simulations were performed with and without simulated posterior deltoid and teres minor paralysis to identify muscles which may compensate for their paralysis. Results In the unimpaired limb model, teres minor and posterior deltoid accounted for 16% and 14% of the total isometric shoulder extension and external rotation joint moments, respectively. During the 3 movement simulations, posterior deltoid produced as much as 20% of the mean shoulder extension moment, while teres minor accounted for less than 5% of the mean joint moment in all directions of movement. When posterior deltoid and teres minor were paralyzed, the mean extension moments generated by the supraspinatus, long head of triceps, latissimus dorsi, and middle deltoid increased to compensate. Compensatory muscles were not fully activated during movement simulations when posterior deltoid and teres minor were paralyzed. Conclusions Reconstruction of the anterior branch of the axillary nerve only is an appropriate technique for restoring shoulder abduction strength following isolated axillary nerve injury. When shoulder extension strength is compromised by extensive neuromuscular shoulder injury, reconstruction of both the anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve should be considered. Clinical Relevance By quantifying the biomechanical role of muscles during sub-maximal movement, in addition to quantifying muscle contributions to maximal shoulder strength, we can inform pre-operative planning and

  10. An investigation of jogging biomechanics using the full-body lumbar spine model: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Margaret E; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-05-01

    The ability of a biomechanical simulation to produce results that can translate to real-life situations is largely dependent on the physiological accuracy of the musculoskeletal model. There are a limited number of freely-available, full-body models that exist in OpenSim, and those that do exist are very limited in terms of trunk musculature and degrees of freedom in the spine. Properly modeling the motion and musculature of the trunk is necessary to most accurately estimate lower extremity and spinal loading. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a more physiologically accurate OpenSim full-body model. By building upon three previously developed OpenSim models, the full-body lumbar spine (FBLS) model, comprised of 21 segments, 30 degrees-of-freedom, and 324 musculotendon actuators, was developed. The five lumbar vertebrae were modeled as individual bodies, and coupled constraints were implemented to describe the net motion of the spine. The eight major muscle groups of the lumbar spine were modeled (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and latissimus dorsi), and many of these muscle groups were modeled as multiple fascicles allowing the large muscles to act in multiple directions. The resulting FBLS model׳s trunk muscle geometry, maximal isometric joint moments, and simulated muscle activations compare well to experimental data. The FBLS model will be made freely available (https://simtk.org/home/fullbodylumbar) for others to perform additional analyses and develop simulations investigating full-body dynamics and contributions of the trunk muscles to dynamic tasks. PMID:26947033

  11. Differences in motor activation of voluntary and reflex cough in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lasserson, D; Mills, K; Arunachalam, R; Polkey, M; Moxham, J; Kalra, L

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study motor activation patterns of voluntary and reflex cough adjusted for cough flow rates. Methods Surface electromyography (EMG) and cough flow rate were measured in 10 healthy volunteers. Voluntary cough was assessed for 20 efforts in each quintile of increasing cough flow rate. Reflex cough was assessed for 25 efforts produced by nebulised l‐tartaric acid. EMG was recorded over the expiratory (rectus abdominis, obliques, lower intercostals) and accessory (trapezius, pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi) muscles. EMG activity, burst duration and onset were compared for each quintile of voluntary cough, and between voluntary and reflex cough matched for cough flow rate. Results EMG activity and burst duration of expiratory and accessory muscles during voluntary cough increased in proportion to cough flow. Expiratory muscles had longer EMG burst duration (difference 68 ms (95% CI 34 to 102), p<0.01) and earlier onset of EMG activity (difference 44 ms (95% CI 20 to 68), p<0.0001) compared with accessory muscles. EMG activity in all muscles was increased (mean 110.2% v 56.1%, p<0.001) and burst duration (mean 206 ms v 280 ms, p = 0.013) decreased in reflex cough compared with voluntary cough of equal flow rate. There were no differences in EMG onset (difference 8 ms (95% CI 25 to −9) or burst duration (difference 27 ms (95% CI 58 to −4) between expiratory and accessory muscles. Conclusions Functional organisation of motor activity differs between voluntary and reflex cough. Voluntary cough is characterised by sequential activation whereas reflex cough is associated with early and simultaneous activation of expiratory and accessory muscles. PMID:16601089

  12. Prevalence and relationships of sensory taint, 5α-androstenone and skatole in fat and lean tissue from the loin (Longissimus dorsi) of barrows, gilts, sows, and boars from selected abattoirs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Prusa, K; Nederveld, H; Runnels, P L; Li, R; King, V L; Crane, J P

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed prevalence of boar taint in backfat and lean of barrows, gilts, sows, and boars, collected from abattoirs, without knowledge of the farms of origin, in different regions in the United States. Concentrations of 5α-androstenone (liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy) and skatole (liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection) in backfat were measured. A trained panel evaluated boar taint aroma in heated samples. Mean 5α-androstenone and skatole levels were low among barrows, gilts, and sows, whereas 55.8% of boars scored above a 1.0 μg/g threshold for 5α-androstenone concentrations and 34.2% were above a 0.2 μg/g threshold for skatole concentrations. Mean aroma scores for backfat and lean from barrows, gilts, and sows were low. In comparison, 59.2% of boars had elevated mean aroma scores from fat samples and 31.7% from lean. Importantly, boar taint aroma was detectable by the trained panel in at least some animals in each of the sex classes. PMID:21237579

  13. The thoracolumbar fascia: anatomy, function and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Willard, F H; Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Danneels, L; Schleip, R

    2012-01-01

    In this overview, new and existent material on the organization and composition of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) will be evaluated in respect to its anatomy, innervation biomechanics and clinical relevance. The integration of the passive connective tissues of the TLF and active muscular structures surrounding this structure are discussed, and the relevance of their mutual interactions in relation to low back and pelvic pain reviewed. The TLF is a girdling structure consisting of several aponeurotic and fascial layers that separates the paraspinal muscles from the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. The superficial lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF (PLF) is dominated by the aponeuroses of the latissimus dorsi and the serratus posterior inferior. The deeper lamina of the PLF forms an encapsulating retinacular sheath around the paraspinal muscles. The middle layer of the TLF (MLF) appears to derive from an intermuscular septum that developmentally separates the epaxial from the hypaxial musculature. This septum forms during the fifth and sixth weeks of gestation. The paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS) is in a key position to act as a ‘hydraulic amplifier’, assisting the paraspinal muscles in supporting the lumbosacral spine. This sheath forms a lumbar interfascial triangle (LIFT) with the MLF and PLF. Along the lateral border of the PRS, a raphe forms where the sheath meets the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis. This lateral raphe is a thickened complex of dense connective tissue marked by the presence of the LIFT, and represents the junction of the hypaxial myofascial compartment (the abdominal muscles) with the paraspinal sheath of the epaxial muscles. The lateral raphe is in a position to distribute tension from the surrounding hypaxial and extremity muscles into the layers of the TLF. At the base of the lumbar spine all of the layers of the TLF fuse together into a thick composite that attaches firmly to the posterior superior iliac spine

  14. Mechanisms of nascent fiber formation during avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, K. M.; Schultz, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined two putative mechanisms of new fiber formation in postnatal skeletal muscle, namely longitudinal fragmentation of existing fibers and de novo formation. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms to fiber formation in hypertrophying anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle were assessed by quantitative analysis of their nuclear populations. Muscle hypertrophy was induced by wing-weighting for 1 week. All nuclei formed during the weighting period were labeled by continuous infusion of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, and embryonic-like fibers were identified using an antibody to ventricular-like embryonic (V-EMB) myosin. The number of BrdU-labeled and unlabeled nuclei in V-EMB-positive fibers were counted. Wing-weighting resulted in significant muscle enlargement and the appearance of many V-EMB+ fibers. The majority of V-EMB+ fibers were completely independent of mature fibers and had a nuclear density characteristics of developing fibers. Furthermore, nearly 100% of the nuclei in independent V-EMB+ fibers were labeled. These findings strongly suggest that most V-EMB+ fibers were nascent fibers formed de novo during the weighting period by satellite cell activation and fusion. Nascent fibers were found primarily in the space between fascicles where they formed a complex anastomosing network of fibers running at angles to one another. Although wing-weighting induced an increase in the number of branched fibers, there was no evidence that V-EMB+ fibers were formed by longitudinal fragmentation. The location of newly formed fibers in wing-weighted and regenerating ALD muscle was compared to determine whether satellite cells in the ALD muscle were unusual in that, if stimulated to divide, they would form fibers in the inter- and intrafascicular space. In contrast to wing-weighted muscle, nascent fibers were always found closely associated with necrotic fibers. These results suggest that wing-weighting is not simply another

  15. Multibody system of the upper limb including a reverse shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2013-11-01

    The reverse shoulder replacement, recommended for the treatment of several shoulder pathologies such as cuff tear arthropathy and fractures in elderly people, changes the biomechanics of the shoulder when compared to the normal anatomy. Although several musculoskeletal models of the upper limb have been presented to study the shoulder joint, only a few of them focus on the biomechanics of the reverse shoulder. This work presents a biomechanical model of the upper limb, including a reverse shoulder prosthesis, to evaluate the impact of the variation of the joint geometry and position on the biomechanical function of the shoulder. The biomechanical model of the reverse shoulder is based on a musculoskeletal model of the upper limb, which is modified to account for the properties of the DELTA® reverse prosthesis. Considering two biomechanical models, which simulate the anatomical and reverse shoulder joints, the changes in muscle lengths, muscle moment arms, and muscle and joint reaction forces are evaluated. The muscle force sharing problem is solved for motions of unloaded abduction in the coronal plane and unloaded anterior flexion in the sagittal plane, acquired using video-imaging, through the minimization of an objective function related to muscle metabolic energy consumption. After the replacement of the shoulder joint, significant changes in the length of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, teres major, teres minor, coracobrachialis, and biceps brachii muscles are observed for a reference position considered for the upper limb. The shortening of the teres major and teres minor is the most critical since they become unable to produce active force in this position. Substantial changes of muscle moment arms are also observed, which are consistent with the literature. As expected, there is a significant increase of the deltoid moment arms and more fibers are able to elevate the arm. The solutions to the muscle force sharing problem support the

  16. Forelimb muscle architecture and myosin isoform composition in the groundhog (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Rupert, Joseph E; Rose, Jacob A; Organ, Jason M; Butcher, Michael T

    2015-01-15

    Scratch-digging mammals are commonly described as having large, powerful forelimb muscles for applying high force to excavate earth, yet studies quantifying the architectural properties of the musculature are largely unavailable. To further test hypotheses about traits that represent specializations for scratch-digging, we quantified muscle architectural properties and myosin expression in the forelimb of the groundhog (Marmota monax), a digger that constructs semi-complex burrows. Architectural properties measured were muscle moment arm, muscle mass (MM), belly length (ML), fascicle length (l(F)), pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and these metrics were used to estimate maximum isometric force, joint torque and power. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition was determined in selected forelimb muscles by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis. Groundhogs have large limb retractors and elbow extensors that are capable of applying moderately high torque at the shoulder and elbow joints, respectively. Most of these muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and pectoralis superficialis) have high l(F)/ML ratios, indicating substantial shortening ability and moderate power. The unipennate triceps brachii long head has the largest PCSA and is capable of the highest joint torque at both the shoulder and elbow joints. The carpal and digital flexors show greater pennation and shorter fascicle lengths than the limb retractors and elbow extensors, resulting in higher PCSA/MM ratios and force production capacity. Moreover, the digital flexors have the capacity for both appreciable fascicle shortening and force production, indicating high muscle work potential. Overall, the forelimb musculature of the groundhog is capable of relatively low sustained force and power, and these properties are consistent with the findings of a predominant expression of the MHC-2A isoform. Aside from the apparent modifications to the digital flexors, the collective muscle

  17. Noninvasive remote ischemic preconditioning for global protection of skeletal muscle against infarction.

    PubMed

    Addison, Patrick D; Neligan, Peter C; Ashrafpour, Homa; Khan, Asim; Zhong, Anguo; Moses, Michael; Forrest, Christopher R; Pang, Cho Y

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of a noninvasive remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) technique for the protection of multiple distant skeletal muscles against ischemic necrosis (infarction). It was observed in the pig that three cycles of 10-min occlusion and reperfusion in a hindlimb by tourniquet application reduced the infarction of latissimus dorsi (LD), gracilis (GC), and rectus abdominis (RA) muscle flaps by 55%, 60%, and 55%, respectively, compared with their corresponding control (n = 6, P < 0.01) when they were subsequently subjected to 4 h of ischemia and 48 h of reperfusion. This infarct-protective effect of remote IPC in LD muscle flaps was abolished by an intravenous bolus injection of the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg) 10 min before remote IPC and a continuous intravenous infusion (3 mg/kg) during remote IPC and by an intravenous bolus injection of the selective delta 1-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenealtrexone maleate (3 mg/kg). However, this infarct-protective effect of remote IPC was not affected by an intravenous bolus injection of the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium chloride (20 mg/kg) or the nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (10 mg/kg) or by a local intra-arterial injection of the adenosine1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (3 mg/muscle flap) given 10 min before remote IPC. It was also observed that this remote IPC of skeletal muscle against infarction was associated with a slower rate of muscle ATP depletion during the 4 h of sustained ischemia and a reduced muscle neutrophilic myeloperoxidase activity after 1.5 h of reperfusion. These observations led us to speculate that noninvasive remote IPC by brief cycles of occlusion and reperfusion in a pig hindlimb is effective in global protection of skeletal muscle against infarction. This infarct-protective effect is most likely triggered by the activation

  18. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Adsorption onto Poly-ɛ-caprolactone Better Preserves Bioactivity In Vitro and Produces More Bone In Vivo than Conjugation Under Clinically Relevant Loading Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Janki J.; Flanagan, Colleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One strategy to reconstruct large bone defects is to prefabricate a vascularized flap by implanting a biomaterial scaffold with associated biologics into the latissimus dorsi and then transplanting this construct to the defect site after a maturation period. This strategy, similar to all clinically and regulatory feasible biologic approaches to surgical reconstruction, requires the ability to quickly (<1 h within an operating room) and efficiently bind biologics to scaffolds. It also requires the ability to localize biologic delivery. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of binding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) to poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) using adsorption and conjugation as a function of time. Methods: BMP2 was adsorbed (Ads) or conjugated (Conj) to PCL scaffolds with the same three-dimensional printed architecture while altering exposure time (0.5, 1, 5, and 16 h), temperature (4°C, 23°C), and BMP2 concentration (1.4, 5, 20, and 65 μg/mL). The in vitro release was quantified, and C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was used to confirm bioactivity. Scaffolds with either 65 or 20 μg/mL Ads or Conj BMP2 for 1 h at 23°C were implanted subcutaneously in mice to evaluate in vivo bone regeneration. Micro-computed tomography, compression testing, and histology were performed to characterize bone regeneration. Results: After 1 h exposure to 65 μg/mL BMP2 at 23°C, Conj and Ads resulted in 12.83±1.78 and 10.78±1.49 μg BMP2 attached, respectively. Adsorption resulted in a positive ALP response and had a small burst release; whereas conjugation provided a sustained release with negligible ALP production, indicating that the conjugated BMP2 may not be bioavailable. Adsorbed 65 μg/mL BMP2 solution resulted in the greatest regenerated bone volume (15.0±3.0 mm3), elastic modulus (20.1±3.0 MPa), and %bone ingrowth in the scaffold interior (17.2%±5.4%) when compared with conjugation. Conclusion: Adsorption

  19. Recovering value from beef carcasses classified as dark cutters by United States Department of Agriculture graders.

    PubMed

    Bass, P D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2008-07-01

    Effects of the dark-cutting condition were examined on commercially slaughtered beef carcass sides that were classified into groups exhibiting 1/3, 1/2, and full degrees of the dark-cutting (DEGDC) condition, as evaluated by a USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service grader (n = 20 per group). Twenty-nine muscles of each carcass side were evaluated to determine the ultimate pH and color (L*, a*, and b*). Fourteen beef muscles (biceps femoris, deep pectoral, chuck complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, psoas major, longissimus thoracis, longissimus lumborum, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, triceps brachii long head, tensor fasciae latae, and vastus lateralis) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and a trained sensory panel. The muscle x DEGDC interaction was significant for ultimate pH, L*, a*, and b* values (P < 0.05). When ultimate pH values of individual muscles were compared with the same muscles evaluated in a previous study, the 1/3, 1/2, and full DEGDC had 7, 9, and 5 muscles, respectively, that fell within a computed 95% prediction limit of what would be considered as a normal pH but were more variable as measured by within-class CV. Color values (L*, a*, and b*) of the muscles from dark-cutting carcasses were numerically lower than those from the normal carcasses. A survey designed to determine the ideal color range of beef lean for retail meat merchandisers (n = 34) and food service chefs (n = 33) across the United States resulted in data analyzed using principal components analysis of L*, a*, and b* values for muscles dissected in the study to estimate the true values for dark-cutting carcasses. Muscles that were within an acceptable color value range for food service chefs had the potential to add between $42.29 to $26.44 and $14.71 to $8.11 per side when valued at Choice and Select prices, respectively. Muscles that were within an acceptable color value range had the potential to add between $30.39 to $16.74 and $10

  20. Epaxial and limb muscle activity during swimming and terrestrial stepping in the adult newt, Pleurodeles waltl.

    PubMed

    Delvolvé, I; Bem, T; Cabelguen, J M

    1997-08-01

    We have investigated the patterns of activation of epaxial musculature during both swimming and overground stepping in an adult newt (Pleurodeles waltl) with the use of electromyographic (EMG) recordings from different sites of the myomeric muscle dorsalis trunci along the body axis. The locomotor patterns of some limb muscles have also been investigated. During swimming, the epaxial myomeres are rhythmically active, with a strict alternation between opposite myomeres located at the same longitudinal site. The pattern of intersegmental coordination consists of three successively initiated waves of EMG activity passing posteriorly along the anterior trunk, the midtrunk, and the posterior trunk, respectively. Swimming is also characterized by a tonic activation of forelimb (dorsalis scapulae and extensor ulnae) and hindlimb (puboischiotibialis and puboischiofemoralis internus) muscles and a rhythmic activation of muscles (latissimus dorsi and caudofemoralis) acting both on limb and body axis. The latter matched the activation pattern of epaxial myomeres at the similar vertebral level. During overground stepping, the midtrunk myomeres express single synchronous bursts whereas the myomeres of the anterior trunk and those of the posterior trunk display a double bursting pattern in the form of two waves of EMG activity propagating in opposite directions. During overground stepping, the limb muscles and muscles acting on both limb and body axis were found to be rhythmically active and usually displayed a double bursting pattern. The main conclusion of this investigation is that the patterns of intersegmental coordination during both swimming and overground stepping in the adult newt are related to the presence of limbs and that they can be considered as hybrid lampreylike patterns. Thus it is hypothesized that, in newt, a chain of coupled segmental oscillatory networks, similar to that which constitutes the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming in the lamprey, can

  1. Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viable treatment for scoliosis, although previous studies have suggested that it can potentially deliver similarly effective corrective forces to the spine as bracing. Methods The potential of muscle activation for scoliosis correction was investigated over different curvatures both with and without the addition of externally applied forces. The five King’s classifications of scoliosis were investigated over a range of Cobb angles. A biomechanical model of the spine was used to represent various scoliotic curvatures. Optimization was applied to the model to reduce the curves using combinations of both deep and superficial muscle activation and applied external forces. Results Simulating applied external forces in combination with muscle activation at low Cobb angles (< 20 degrees) over the 5 King’s classifications, it was possible to reduce the magnitude of the curve by up to 85% for classification 4, 75% for classifications 3 and 5, 65% for classification 2, and 60% for classification 1. The reduction in curvature was less at larger Cobb angles. For King’s classifications 1 and 2, the serratus, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles were consistently recruited by the optimization algorithm for activation across all Cobb angles. When muscle activation and external forces were applied in combination, lower levels of muscle activation or less external force was required to reduce the curvature of the spine, when compared with either muscle activation or external force applied

  2. Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection.

  3. Tensor fascia lata flap versus tensor fascia lata perforator-based island flap for the coverage of extensive trochanteric pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Sang Wha; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Chang Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle. PMID:23392259

  4. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    Understanding when and how much shoulder muscles are active during upper extremity sports is helpful to physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches in providing appropriate treatment, training and rehabilitation protocols to these athletes. This review focuses on shoulder muscle activity (rotator cuff, deltoids, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, triceps and biceps brachii, and scapular muscles) during the baseball pitch, the American football throw, the windmill softball pitch, the volleyball serve and spike, the tennis serve and volley, baseball hitting, and the golf swing. Because shoulder electromyography (EMG) data are far more extensive for overhead throwing activities compared with non-throwing upper extremity sports, much of this review focuses on shoulder EMG during the overhead throwing motion. Throughout this review shoulder kinematic and kinetic data (when available) are integrated with shoulder EMG data to help better understand why certain muscles are active during different phases of an activity, what type of muscle action (eccentric or concentric) occurs, and to provide insight into the shoulder injury mechanism. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG data have been reported extensively during overhead throwing, such as baseball pitching and football passing. Because shoulder forces, torques and muscle activity are generally greatest during the arm cocking and arm deceleration phases of overhead throwing, it is believed that most shoulder injuries occur during these phases. During overhead throwing, high rotator cuff muscle activity is generated to help resist the high shoulder distractive forces approximately 80-120% bodyweight during the arm cocking and deceleration phases. During arm cocking, peak rotator cuff activity is 49-99% of a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in baseball pitching and 41-67% MVIC in football throwing. During arm deceleration, peak rotator cuff activity is 37-84% MVIC in baseball pitching and 86-95% MVIC in football

  5. Peak and average rectified EMG measures: which method of data reduction should be used for assessing core training exercises?

    PubMed

    Hibbs, A E; Thompson, K G; French, D N; Hodgson, D; Spears, I R

    2011-02-01

    Core strengthening and stability exercises are fundamental for any conditioning training program. Although surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to quantify muscle activity there is a lack of research using this method to investigate the core musculature and core stability. Two types of data reduction are commonly used for sEMG; peak and average rectified EMG methods. Peak EMG has been infrequently reported in the literature with regard to the assessment of core training while even fewer studies have incorporated average rectified EMG data (ARV). The aim of the study was to establish the repeatability of peak and average rectified EMG data during core training exercises and their interrelationship. Ten male highly trained athletes (inter-subject repeatability group; age, 18 ± 1.2 years; height, 176.5 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 71 ± 4.5 kg) and one female highly trained athlete (intra-subject repeatability group; age; 27 years old; height; 180 cm; weight; 53 kg) performed five maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and five core exercises, chosen to represent a range of movement and muscle recruitment patterns. Peak EMG and ARV EMG were calculated for eight core muscles (rectus abdominis, RA; external oblique, EO; internal oblique, IO; multifidis, MF; latissimus dorsi, LD; longissimus, LG; gluteus maximus, GM; rectus femoris, RF) using sEMG. Average coefficient of variation (CV%) for peak EMG across all the exercises and muscles was 45%. This is in comparison to 35% for the ARV method, which was found to be a significant difference (P<0.05), therefore implying that the ARV method is the more reliable measure for these types of exercise. Analysis of the inter-subject and intra-subject CV% values suggest that these exercises and muscles are sufficiently repeatable using sEMG. Five muscles were highly correlated (R>0.70; RA, EO, MF, GM, LG) between peak and ARV EMG suggesting, that for these core muscles, the two methods provide a similar evaluation of muscle

  6. AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SHOULDER COMPLEX MUSCULATURE WHILE PERFORMING EXERCISES USING THE BODYBLADE® CLASSIC AND BODYBLADE® PRO

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Kyle; Dunning, Russell; Mikla, Tony; Grover, Matthew; Kenniston, Mike; Loera, Jesse; Tanasse, Travis; Andrews, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the bodyblade (BB®) being used in clinical settings during shoulder and trunk rehabilitation and training for 24 years, there are only five known scientific papers that have described muscle recruitment patterns using the BB®. Moreover, there are no known studies that have examined muscle activity differences between males and females (who both use the bodyblade in the clinic) or between different BB® devices. Hypothesis/Purpose The primary purposes of this investigation were to compare glenohumeral and scapular muscle activity between the Bodyblade® Pro (BB®P) and Bodyblade® Classic (BB®C) devices while performing a variety of exercises, as well as to compare muscle activity between males and females. It was hypothesized that glenohumeral and scapular muscle activity would be significantly greater in females compared to males, significantly greater while performing exercises with the BB®P compared to the BB®C, significantly different among various BB® exercises, and greater with two hand use compared to one hand use for the same exercise. Study Design Controlled laboratory study using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. Methods Twenty young adults, 10 males and 10 females, performed seven BB® exercises using the BB®C and BB®P, which are: 1) BB®1 - one hand, up and down motion, arm at side; 2) BB®2 - one hand, front to back motion, shoulder flexed 90 °; 3) BB®3 - one hand, up and down motion, shoulder abducted 90 °; 4) BB®4 - one hand, side to side motion, shoulder and elbow flexed 45 °; 5) BB®5 - two hands, side to side motion, shoulders and elbows flexed 45 °; 6) BB®6 - two hands, up and down motion, shoulders flexed 90 °; and 7) BB®7 - two hands, front to back motion, shoulders flexed 90 °. EMG data were collected from anterior and posterior deltoids, sternal pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior during 10 sec of continuous motion

  7. GLENOHUMERAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING PROVOCATIVE TESTS DESIGNED TO DIAGNOSE SUPERIOR LABRUM ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Vanessa J.C.; Sabick, Michelle B.; Pfeiffer, Ron P.; Kuhlman, Seth M.; Christensen, Jason H.; Curtin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable medical advances, arthroscopy remains the only definitive means of Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior (SLAP) lesion diagnosis. Natural shoulder anatomic variants limit the reliability of radiographic findings and clinical evaluations are not consistent. Accurate clinical diagnostic techniques would be advantageous due to the invasiveness, patient risk, and financial cost associated with arthroscopy. Purpose The purpose was to examine the behavior of the joint stabilizing muscles in provocative tests for SLAP lesions. Electromyography was used to characterize the muscle behavior, with particular interest in the long head biceps brachii (LHBB), as activation of the long head and subsequent tension in the biceps tendon should, based on related research, elicit labral symptoms in SLAP lesion patients. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Volunteers (N=21) without a history of shoulder pathology were recruited. The tests analyzed were Active Compression, Speed's, Pronated Load, Biceps I, Biceps II, Resisted Supination External Rotation, and Yergason's. Tests were performed with a dynamometer to improve reproducibility. Muscle activity was recorded for the long and short heads of the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus. Muscle behavior for each test was characterized by peak activation and proportion of muscle activity. Results Speed's, Active Compression Palm-Up, Bicep I and Bicep II, produced higher long head activations. Resisted Supination External Rotation, Bicep I, Bicep II, and Yergason's, produced a higher LHBB proportion. Conclusion Bicep I, and Bicep II elicited promising long head behavior (high activation and selectivity). Speed's and Active Compression Palm-Up elicited higher activation of the LHBB , and Resisted Supination and Yergason's elicited selective LHBB activity. These top performing tests utilize a unique range of test variables that may

  8. Uncommon Flaps for Chest Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The omentum, external oblique musculocutaneous, and thoracoepigastric flaps are uncommonly used for chest wall reconstruction. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge of these flaps is essential for reconstructive surgeons because they fill specific niche indications or serve as lifeboats when workhorse flaps are unavailable. The current report describes the anatomic basis, technical aspects of flap elevation, and indications for these unusual flaps. PMID:22294943

  9. Intestinal obstruction following harvest of VRAM-flap for reconstruction of a large perineal defect

    PubMed Central

    Elawa, Sherif; Hallböök, Olof; Myrelid, Pär; Zdolsek, Johann

    2015-01-01

    A patient with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum was operated with abdominoperineal resection and perineal reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. Six days postoperatively, there was herniation of the small bowel, between the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths, to a subcutaneous location.

  10. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; ... If you are having breast reconstruction at the same time as mastectomy, the surgeon may do either of the following: Skin-sparing mastectomy. This means ...

  11. The four-poster halo vest for protection of a microvascular free-tissue transfer reconstruction of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Wooden, W A; Curtsinger, L J; Jones, N F

    1995-01-01

    Use of a four-poster halo and corset jacket provides complete protection, access, and mobility for patients undergoing free-flap scalp reconstruction. This technique was used in a patient who required a total scalp reconstruction with a compound latissimus/serratus muscle free flap with good success. The case and technique are presented for review. PMID:7809233

  12. The investigation of traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus by electromyography and short latency somatosensory potentials evoked by stimulation of multiple peripheral nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Yiannikas, C; Shahani, B T; Young, R R

    1983-01-01

    A study of 10 patients with brachial plexus trauma was performed to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy of sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) may be improved by using stimulation of multiple peripheral nerves (median, radial, musculocutaneous and ulnar). In addition, the relative advantages of SEPs and peripheral electrophysiological studies were considered. SEP patterns following most common brachial plexus lesions were predictable. Injuries to the upper trunk affected the musculocutaneous and radial SEPs predominantly. Lower trunk or medial cord lesions primarily affected ulnar SEPs. Diffuse brachial plexus lesions affected SEPs from all stimulation sites. In the majority of cases, the necessary information was obtainable from conventional EMG: however, for lesions involving the upper segments only, SEP techniques were more useful. It is suggested that selective SEPs from appropriate peripheral nerves when interpreted in combination with conventional EMG may add useful additional information. PMID:6317804

  13. Electrophysiologic studies of the thoracic limb of the horse.

    PubMed

    Blythe, L L; Kitchell, R L

    1982-09-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the thoracic limb was investigated in 18 barbiturate-anesthetized horses, using electrophysiologic techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least 4 horses by stroking the hairs with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed areas of considerable overlap. The part of a CA of a given nerve supplied only by that nerve is referred to as its autonomous zone (AZ). In contrast to the standard textbook illustrations cutaneous branches of the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves overlapped extensively in the antebrachium. Clinically testable AZ were found in the antebrachium for the caudal cutaneous antebrachial nerve of the ulnar nerve and in the carpus and manus for the cutaneous branches of the median, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves; AZ were not found for the cutaneous branches of the radial and axillary nerves. PMID:7149398

  14. Dissection of intercostal nerves by means of assisted video thoracoscopy: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In total brachial plexus preganglionic lesions (C5-C6-C7-C8 and T1) different extraplexual neurotizations are indicated for partial motor function restitution. Mostly for the flexion of the elbow. Neurotization with intercostal nerves (ICN) to musculocutaneous nerve has been known and accepted during many years with different results 2 - 5. The customary technique as described by various authors is carried out by means of a large submammary incision to harvest three or four intercostal nerves (Figure 1). Then are connected by direct suture or grafts to the musculocutaneous nerve or its motor branches 6 - 7. In this article the authors described the possibility of dissection intercostal nerves by means of assisted video thoracoscopy. (VATS-videdo assisted thoracic surgery). PMID:23406448

  15. Sequelae of an injury from the Second World War treated by free flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Kletenský, J; Tvrdek, M; Nejedlý, A; Pros, Z; Lebeda, V; Prokopová, J; Stĕnhová, H

    1993-01-01

    The authors present the case-history of patients with chronic osteomyelitis of the proximal third of the tibia-resulting from an injury during the Second World War. The defect of bone and soft tissues was treated by free transfer of a musculocutaneous flap. The behaviour of the flap in the osteomyelitic cavity is followed up and checked by repeated CT and NMR examinations. PMID:7515540

  16. [Free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps for reconstruction of the head and neck defects].

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Handa, T; Satoh, Y; Akisada, K; Orita, Y; Yamamoto, H

    1995-01-01

    During the past eight years, tissue defects of the head and neck region in a total of 45 patients were repaired with free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps. These flaps are subclassified into (1) reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (2) thin reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (3) paraumbilical perforator-based flaps, and (4) thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps. The advantages of these flaps are as follows. Since the flaps involve no or only a small portion of the rectus abdominis muscle, (1) the muscle can be left intact on the abdominal wall, and (2) a thin flap can be easily created by simple defatting of the flap. These flaps overcome the major disadvantages of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, i.e., bulkiness of the flap and frequent postoperative abdominal herniation. The territory of the thin flaps is within 10 cm around the perforator. These flaps are suitable for defects in the head and neck region, because simultaneous flap elevation is possible at the time of tumor resection. Paraumbilical perforator-based flaps are suitable for young females and elderly patients. PMID:7897566

  17. Management of the Perineal Defect after Abdominoperineal Excision.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Colin; Martin, Sean

    2016-06-01

    The optimal management of the perineal defect following abdominoperineal excision for anorectal malignancy remains a source of debate. The repopularization of extralevator resection means colorectal surgeons are confronted with larger perineal wounds. There are several surgical options available-primary perineal closure and drainage, omentoplasty, biological or synthetic mesh placement, musculocutaneous flap repair, and negative wound pressure therapy. These options are discussed along with the potential benefits and complications of each. There remains no consensus on which management strategy is superior; thus, each case must be tailored for each individual patient. Surgical expertise and availability of a multidisciplinary team approach are important considerations. PMID:27247542

  18. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C. PMID:27293297

  19. Radiation dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, R.B.; Lynch, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    Even in this era of modern radiotherapy, injuries associated with the medical and industrial use of radiation devices will continue to pose a difficult problem for the reconstructive surgeon. It must be borne in mind that the single most serious hazard to surgery in irradiated tissue is the lodgement of bacteria in tissue rendered avascular by the radiation and the secondary necrosis from the infection itself. The basic principles of wound management must be augmented by thorough knowledge of the use of well-vascularized muscle and musculocutaneous flap to provide adequate, blood-rich, soft-tissue coverage.

  20. Scrotal reconstruction using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap following Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun H; Lee, Jung H; Kim, Sue M; Jun, Young J; Kim, Young J

    2014-08-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a type of necrotising fasciitis around the scrotum and perineum. Because of its aggressive nature, patients should be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergency, radical debridement during the acute phase. After recovering from the acute phase, reconstruction of the scrotal and perineal soft tissue defects is needed and is often challenging. Traditionally, various reconstruction methods have been used, including skin grafts, fasciocutaneous flaps and musculocutaneous flaps, each with its pros and cons. We successfully covered a wide scrotal defect using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap, which has not been previously reported for this indication. The design and operative technique are introduced in this study. PMID:25091799

  1. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with meat tenderness of yak.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n=181) was studied. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age (n=51, 59, and 71, respectively), and samples of each yak...

  2. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of calpain 1 gene with meat tenderness of the yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n = 181) was studied. The experimental design was a repeated measures with the main unit in a completely randomized design...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE SWINE PROTEIN-ANNOTATED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAY AND UTILITY OF THE ARRAYS FOR EQTL AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have evaluated the new Swine Protein-Annotated Oligonucleotide Microarray (http://www.pigoligoarray.org) by analyzing transcriptional profiles for longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), Bronchial lymph node (BLN) and Lung. Four LD samples were used to assess the stringency of hybridization conditions com...

  4. Muscle Transcriptomic Analyses in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness contributes significantly to variation of beef palatability and is largely influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. To identify candidate genes and pathways related to beef tenderness, we analyzed the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus cattle with divergent degree...

  5. The effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of calpastatin (CAST) gene on meat tenderness of yak.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of calpastatin (CAST) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n=181) was studied. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age (n=51, 59, and 71, respectively), and samples of each ya...

  6. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  7. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  8. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  9. Electrophysiologic studies of cutaneous nerves of the forelimb of the cat.

    PubMed

    Kitchell, R L; Canton, D D; Johnson, R D; Maxwell, S A

    1982-10-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the forelimb was investigated in 20 barbiturate-anesthetized cats by using electrophysiological techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least six cats by brushing the hair in the CA with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed larger overlap zones (OZ) than were noted in the dog. Remarkable findings were that the brachiocephalic nerve arose from the axillary nerve and the CA comparable to that supplied by the cutaneous branch of the brachiocephalic nerve in the dog was supplied by a cutaneous branch of the suprascapular nerve. The CA supplied by the communicating branch from the musculocutaneous to the median nerve was similar in both species except that the communicating branch arose proximal to any other branches of the musculocutaneous nerve in the cat, whereas it was a terminal branch in the dog. The superficial branch of the radial nerve gave off cutaneous brachial branches in the cat proximal to the lateral cutaneous antebrachial nerve. The CA of the palmar branches of the ulnar nerve did not completely overlap the CA of the palmar branches of the median nerve as occurred in the dog; thus an autonomous zone (AZ) for the CA of the palmar branches of the median nerve is present in the cat, whereas no AZ existed for the CA of this nerve in the dog. PMID:7142449

  10. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  11. Methylcobalamin Facilitates Collateral Sprouting of Donor Axons and Innervation of Recipient Muscle in End-to-Side Neurorrhaphy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Huang, Min-Chuan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Using ulnar nerve as donor and musculocutaneous nerve as recipient we found earlier that end-to-side neurorrhaphy resulted in weak functional reinnervation after lengthy survival. End-to-side neurorrhaphy however is the sole choice of nerve repair at times and has the advantage of conserving donor nerve function. Here, we investigated whether myelination-enhancing agent methylcobalamin and motoneuron trophic factor pleiotrophin enhances the recovery after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Methylcobalamin significantly increased the expression of growth associated protein 43 and S100 protein and βIII tubulin in musculocutaneous nerve 1 month after neurorrhaphy suggesting the ingrowth of ulnar axonal sprouts in reactive Schwann cell environment. Upper limb functional test, compound muscle action potential measurements, motor end plate counts, and axon and myelin analyses showed that methylcobalamin treatment alone or with pleiotrophin improved the recovery significantly, 3 and 6 months post-surgery. There were fewer axons, closer in number to that of the intact recipient nerve, found in the distal repaired nerve of the methylcobalamin-treated than that of the vehicle control, suggesting that methylcobalamin facilitates axonal maturation and eliminates supernumerary sprouts. In conclusion, our results showed that methylcobalamin does indeed enhance the recovery of peripheral nerve repaired in end-to-side configuration. PMID:24098787

  12. The Extent of Blockade Following Axillary and Infraclavicular Approaches of Brachial Plexus Block in Uremic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sariguney, Damla; Mahli, Ahmet; Coskun, Demet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study was aimed to compare the axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method in terms of the sensory and motor block onset, quality, and extent of blocks of brachial plexus in uremic patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods Forty patients scheduled for creation of arteriovenous fistula with axillary brachial plexus block (group AX, n = 20) or infraclavicular brachial plexus block (IC group, n = 20) were examined. The median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves were selectively localized by nerve stimulation. The volume of the local anesthetics was calculated based on the height of each patient, and the volume determined was prepared by mixing 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine in equal proportions. Sensory and motor block were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 30th min and their durations were measured. Results While the adequate sensory and motor block rate with axillary approach was 100% in musculocutaneous, median, radial, ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves, it was 65% in axillary nerve, 80% in intercostobrachial nerve and 95% in medial brachial cutaneous nerve. This rate was found to be 100% for all the nerves with infraclavicular approach. Conclusion For arteriovenous fistula surgeries in uremic patients, both axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method can be used successfully; however, for the short performance of the procedure, infraclavicular block may be preferred. Keywords Brachial plexus block; Axillary; Infraclavicular; Uremic patients PMID:22383924

  13. The Use of Composite Flaps in the Management of Large Full-Thickness Defects of the Lower Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shuo; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Yuntong; Xue, Chunyu; Bi, Hongda; Dai, Haiying; Xing, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe a modified surgical procedure that uses a combination of the tarsoconjunctival flap, orbicularis myocutaneous advancement flap, and paranasal-island flap to correct extensive full-thickness lower eyelid defects in functioning eyes. From May 2010 to December 2013, a total of 15 patients had reconstructive surgeries of large to giant lower eyelid defect, with an average 19-month follow-up. The musculocutaneous flaps were harvested from both orbicularis and paranasal regions and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. No major complications were observed in any of the patients. All the patients showed aesthetic eyelid contour, good color, and texture match as well as no obvious scar formation. The mean Marginal Reflex Distance-2 measured 4 months after surgery was 4.9 ± 0.4 mm. Reconstruction of a large defect in the lower eyelid with a tarsoconjunctival flap and the composite neighboring musculocutaneous flaps is a reliable and reproducible method. With proper design and well-executed precision, excellent functional and aesthetic results can be achieved by this elegant procedure without any major complications. PMID:26765467

  14. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  15. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (p<0.05) on energy metabolites, fatty acid profile, and expression of certain proteins of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. To conclude, this study showed that the establishment of castor de-oiled cake diet for a long period to goats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. PMID:25866931

  16. Differential expression and effect of the porcine ANGPTL4 gene on intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z Q; Wu, W J; Liu, W H; Zheng, R; Li, J L; Zuo, B; Xu, D Q; Li, F E; Lei, M G; Ni, D B; Xiong, Y Z

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated differences in gene expression in backfat between Meishan and Large White pigs and their F1 hybrids, Large White x Meishan, and Meishan x Large White pigs. One potential differentially expressed sequence tag from the mRNA differential display was a homolog of the human angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) gene, which encodes a protein that is secreted by both liver and white adipose tissues and can inhibit lipoprotein lipase activity and stimulate white adipose tissue lipolysis. Here, ANGPTL4 mRNA was found to be upregulated in the backfat of Large White compared with that in the Meishan pigs and the F1 hybrids, Meishan x Large White and Large White x Meishan, whereas expression was lowest both in the longissimus dorsi and the heart, as shown by the tissue distribution profile. Only one mutation, a G/A transition located in the third intron, was found. The ANGPTL4 G/A polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) showed a significant effect on intramuscular fat (IMF), water moisture of the longissimus dorsi, meat marbling of the longissimus dorsi, and pH of the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). This site seemed to be significantly (P < 0.05) additive in its actions on IMF, water moisture, and pH, whereas it showed significant dominance in its action on meat marbling (P < 0.05). This locus can be potentially considered as a marker for IMF improvement. PMID:24782129

  17. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  18. Alterations of spinal range of motion while sitting in hemiplegic patients with or without gait available

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-dong; Lee, Kyoung-bo; Lee, Dong-geol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine alterations of spinal range of motion while sitting, in hemiplegic patients with or without gait available. [Subjects] There was a gait group (GG) of 6 subjects, and a non-gait group (NGG) of 6 subjects, both with hemiplegia after a stroke. [Methods] The subjects in both groups were given an intervention focusing on ankle dorsi-flexion of the affected foot only once for 30 minutes. The Spinal Mouse was used to gain data of the spinal range of motion before and after the intervention and 30 minutes later for follow-up test. [Results] Only in the gait group, lumbar spinal range of motion showed a significant difference when using flexion extension. Sacral hip and inclination were both increased gradually when upright flexion and flexion extension were used. [Conclusion] Facilitating foot for ankle dorsi-flexion is effective on spinal range of motion especially sacrohip, lumbar spine and inclination only for the subjects in the gait group. The results suggested that ankle dorsi-flexion exercise influences spinal range of motion in a sitting position. PMID:26504339

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and tissue-specific expression of Akirin2 gene in Tianfu goat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jisi; Xu, Gangyi; Wan, Lu; Wang, Nianlu

    2015-01-01

    The Akirin2 gene is a nuclear factor and is considered as a potential functional candidate gene for meat quality. To better understand the structures and functions of Akirin2 gene, the cDNA of the Tianfu goat Akirin2 gene was cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 cDNA full coding sequence (CDS) contains 579bp nucleotides that encode 192 amino acids. A phylogenic tree of the Akirin2 protein sequence from the Tianfu goat and other species revealed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 was closely related with cattle and sheep Akirin2. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Akirin2 was expressed in the myocardium, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and the longissimus dorsi muscle. Especially, high expression levels of Akirin2 were detected in the spleen, lung, and kidney whereas lower expression levels were seen in the liver, myocardium, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle. Temporal mRNA expression showed that Akirin2 expression levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle, first increased then decreased from day 1 to month 12. Western blotting results showed that the Akirin2 protein was only detected in the lung and three skeletal muscle tissues. PMID:25239665

  20. Comparison of Carcass and Meat Quality Traits among Three Rabbit Breeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Su, Yuan; Elzo, Mauricio A; Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Shiyi; Lai, Songjia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass composition and meat quality traits in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in the Hyla, Champagne and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. Tianfu Black rabbits had the heaviest head, skin, thoracic viscera and commercial carcass percentage (p<0.05). In addition, Tianfu Black had the highest pH0 h value, followed by the Champagne and Hyla breeds (p<0.01) in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles. Tianfu Black had a higher a* (0 h and 24 h) than the other two breeds in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). The Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black breeds showed a similar pattern of differences for meat quality traits (pH, L*, a* and b*) measured in fresh meat (0 h) and meat stored for 24 h. Hyla had the highest IMF values of the three breeds (p<0.01). The lower intramuscular fat of Tianfu Black and Champagne rabbits gives them an advantage over Hyla rabbits among most consumers seeking lean rabbit meat. PMID:27499668

  1. Comparison of Carcass and Meat Quality Traits among Three Rabbit Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Elzo, Mauricio A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass composition and meat quality traits in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in the Hyla, Champagne and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. Tianfu Black rabbits had the heaviest head, skin, thoracic viscera and commercial carcass percentage (p<0.05). In addition, Tianfu Black had the highest pH0 h value, followed by the Champagne and Hyla breeds (p<0.01) in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles. Tianfu Black had a higher a* (0 h and 24 h) than the other two breeds in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). The Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black breeds showed a similar pattern of differences for meat quality traits (pH, L*, a* and b*) measured in fresh meat (0 h) and meat stored for 24 h. Hyla had the highest IMF values of the three breeds (p<0.01). The lower intramuscular fat of Tianfu Black and Champagne rabbits gives them an advantage over Hyla rabbits among most consumers seeking lean rabbit meat. PMID:27499668

  2. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

  3. The solution in functional rehabilitation after destruction of the larynx: The tracheostoma closed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Rheims, D.; Attya, E. )

    1986-05-01

    A bayonet-shaped airway allowing free respiration and undisturbed deglutition was reconstructed in 2 young women who had undergone tracheotomy and radiotherapy for thyroid carcinoma. The laryngeal vestibule, glottis, and subglottis had been destroyed, and the air passages were closed. An external gutter and an anterior tracheal wall were created in a multistage procedure. In 1 patient, the hypopharynx and upper esophageal segment were reconstructed with bilateral pectoralis major musculocutaneous flaps, which disfigured the breast. The two displaced nipple-areola complexes were properly repositioned using skin expanders and island flap transfer, and the breast was remodeled with prostheses. Our results suggest that this method of laryngotracheal reconstruction may also be applied in laryngectomized patients in whom only part of the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds remain. Although the procedure is lengthy and difficult, it is recommended for extensive lesions in fully cooperative patients.

  4. Management of chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia with life-threatening complications under negative pressure wound therapy and isolation of Helcococcus kunzii.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Katrin M; Albert, Frauke; Kneser, Ulrich; Bogdan, Christian; Horch, Raymund E

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of an 86-year-old man with severe wound infection originating from a chronic crural ulcer of the lower limb, which under negative pressure wound therapy led to excessive tissue necrosis and perforation of the anterior tibial artery. A swab taken 10 and 7 days preoperatively was positive for Helcococcus kunzii. H. kunzii has been described as a potentially pathogenic organism. The questions whether the negative pressure wound therapy itself caused the bleeding or the negative pressure wound therapy, which generates an anaerobic atmosphere, has triggered the growth and invasion of the facultative anaerobic bacterium H. kunzii and owing to the infection the artery perforated or whether the bacteria has no influence at all remain currently unanswered. After surgical debridement the signs of infection were completely eliminated, and a free musculocutaneous flap led to rapid healing of the wound. Following which H. kunzii was no longer detectable. PMID:23855685

  5. Delayed torrential haemorrhage after firearm injury

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Singhal, Maneesh; Sagar, Sushma; Gupta, Amit

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old man was referred to us after 48 days of gunshot injury to left groin, with torrential bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm of the left external iliac artery. He was successfully managed with a team of specialists involving trauma surgeon, vascular and plastic surgeon, general surgeons and intervention radiologist with the help of critical care specialists. He required judicious debridement, a transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, stenting of the external iliac artery, repair of the external iliac vein and ligation of the bilateral internal iliac artery. He had prolonged intensive care unit stay with open abdomen requiring specialised care. Errors in regular assessment of patient by clinical and radiological examination along with failure in early adequate debridement were responsible for trauma suffered by him. Though it is a rare injury, these devastating complications can occur after any gunshot injury and proper management guidelines must be established. PMID:24810442

  6. [Reconstruction of a cheek defect in three patients].

    PubMed

    Juten, P G; Mureau, M A M; Hofer, S O P

    2007-05-19

    A woman aged 62 and two men aged 52 and 26 all with a cheek defect following resection of a recurrence of a lentigo maligna, a recurrence of a basal-cell carcinoma of the wispy type and a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans respectively, all underwent cheek reconstruction. The rotation flap technique was used in the first two patients. The third patient was treated with a cervicofacial musculocutaneous transposition flap and underwent postoperative radiotherapy due to the high risk of recurrence. All 3 patients made a good recovery. Defects after radical resection of malignant head and neck skin tumours can be treated by several reconstruction techniques depending on the site, size, and shape of the defect. A local transposition flap is the preferred method of reconstruction. It is important to respect the aesthetic units of the face in order to achieve the best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:17557671

  7. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index.

  8. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    PubMed Central

    Winge, Rikke; Berg, Jais O.; Albret, Rikke; Krag, Christen

    2012-01-01

    A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation. PMID:24765464

  9. A novel technique of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in calves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jiro; Yamagishi, Norio; Sasaki, Kouya; Kim, Danil; Devkota, Bhuminand; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2012-12-01

    An interventional ultrasound technique to increase the safety of surgical treatment of the calf forelimb was tested. First, the brachial plexus was evaluated using ultrasonography and then 2% lidocaine was injected under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasonically, the brachial plexus appeared as multiple hypoechoic areas surrounded by a hyperechoic rim or a hyperechoic structure characterised by multiple discontinuous lines. It was located between the omotransverse muscle and axillary artery and vein. The sensitive effect in the forelimb was seen mainly in the area supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve, indicating successful blockage in the nerve plexus. Out of the eight forelimbs, the motor effect was observed in seven forelimbs. These results suggest the clinical feasibility of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in bovine medicine, although further studies are needed to examine various approaches, including the sites of needle insertion and the appropriate volume and dosage of anaesthetic. PMID:22682007

  10. The anatomic basis for a trapezius muscle flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Philibert, D; Fowler, J D; Clapson, J B

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy of the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and its dominant vascular supply, the prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery, was studied by dissection and selective angiography of 16 canine cadavers. The prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery supplies blood to the skin of the caudal half of the neck and the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and is a minor contributor to other muscles of the neck. In these dogs, the mean length of the vascular pedicles was 4.4 cm and the mean diameter was 1.0 mm. With this information, it is possible to design a broad musculocutaneous flap suitable for reconstructive microsurgery in dogs. The potential for successful incorporation of the scapular spine in such a flap remains uncertain. PMID:1455644

  11. Tensor Facia Lata-iliac crest osteocutaneous flap for orbitomaxillary reconstruction: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Kuriakose, Moni A.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor Fascia Lata muscle and musculocutaneous flap has been used in the past for reconstruction of trunk defects and also as a free flap for soft tissue reconstruction elsewhere in the body. Transferring the iliac crest along with the muscle as a free flap has been described earlier, reported for bridging calcaneal defect and small mandibular defects. The use of this flap as a source of free vascularised bone has not been widely practised since these initial few reports. Anatomical studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using this flap for reconstructing maxillary and other head and neck defects, following which it was successfully used for these indications. The preliminary report describes the flap anatomy, method of harvest and its potential uses in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:20924442

  12. Free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Moriguchi, T; Soeda, S; Tanaka, H; Umeda, N

    1992-07-01

    A free paraumbilical perforator-based flap fed by a muscle perforator from the inferior deep epigastric artery and with no muscle was used in 13 patients. Among them, a free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flap with a thin layer of fat, to protect the subdermal plexus of the vessels, was used in seven patients. The dominant pedicle perforator of this thin flap is usually located around the umbilicus and a large flap can be obtained. Its critical length-to-breath ratio is considered to be 4:3. The advantages of this flap are a long and large vascular pedicle, rare postoperative abdominal herniation, little bulkiness of the flap, and a relatively large skin territory. The disadvantages are technical difficulties in dissection of the perforator and anatomical variation in the location of the perforator. We believe this flap largely overcomes the problems of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. PMID:1386718

  13. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Winge, Rikke; Berg, Jais O; Albret, Rikke; Krag, Christen

    2012-05-29

    A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation. PMID:24765464

  14. Profunda artery perforator based V-Y rotation advancement flap for total vulvectomy defect reconstruction--A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Scaglioni, Mario F; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of total vulvectomy defect represents a challenge, and reconstructive methods include skin graft, local skin flap, musculocutanous flap, and pedicled perforator flap. We report a case of a 63-year-old patient affected by extramammary Paget's disease of vulva who underwent total vulvectomy receiving reconstruction with bilateral profunda artery perforator based V-Y rotation advancement flap. The literature about vulva reconstruction was reviewed. This innovative flap design combined the classic rotation flap and V-Y advancement flap with inclusion of the profunda artery perforators to augment the flap blood supply. Besides, the internal pudendal nerve was preserved to maintain the sensation of the neo-uvula. The flap survived completely without major post-operative complications with 9-months follow-up. Profunda artery perforator based V-Y rotation advancement flap may represent a valuable option in total vulvectomy defect reconstruction. PMID:26402576

  15. Sheep YAP1 temporal and spatial expression trend and its relation with MyHCs expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Sun, W; Su, R; Lv, X Y; Wang, Q Z; Li, D; Musa, H H; Chen, L; Zhou, H; Xu, H S; Hua, W H

    2016-01-01

    RT-PCR was used to study the temporal and spatial pattern of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression in four different skeletal muscles (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, soleus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, and extensor digitorum longus) and three growth stages (i.e., 2 days old, 2 and 6 months old) of Hu Sheep. The results showed that YAP1 was differentially expressed in skeletal muscles of sheep, that expression increased gradually with age, and that there were high levels of expression in the gastrocnemius muscle and lower levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle. MyHCI was expressed at high levels in the soleus muscle and at lower levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, MyHCIIA and MyHCIIX were expressed at high levels in the extensor digitorum longus and at lower levels in the soleus muscle. The expression of MyHCI and MyHCIIA decreased with increasing age while that of MyHCIIX increased. YAP1 expression was negatively correlated with MyHCII (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with MyHCIIX (P < 0.01) across all growth stages and skeletal muscle types studied. We speculate that after birth, the thicker muscle fiber diameter is associated with the high expression of MyHCIIX. Therefore, we conclude that YAP1 expression affects sheep muscle fiber development after birth and provides important genetic information for the selection candidate genes for sheep muscle growth. PMID:27173191

  16. Correlation between sheep YAP1 temporal and spatial expression trends and MSTN and MyoG gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lv, X Y; Sun, W; Su, R; Li, D; Wang, Q Z; Musa, H H; Chen, L; Zhang, Y F; Wu, W Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) gene expression after birth on the development of muscle and the relationship between YAP1 and myostatin (MSTN) and myogenin (MyoG). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the trends in YAP1, MSTN, and MyoG temporal and spatial expression levels in various skeletal muscles (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, soleus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, and extensor digitorum longus) and across 3 different growth stages (i.e., 2 days old, 2 and 6 months old) of Hu Sheep. The results showed that YAP1 expression was significantly different in the skeletal muscles of sheep; the expression level gradually increased with age; it was highly expressed in the gastrocnemius muscle and minimally expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle. MSTN, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development, was minimally expressed in the soleus muscle and might be related to the enlargement of muscle fiber diameter. MyoG, an important factor in regulating skeletal muscle development, was minimally expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle and extensor digitorum longus, and highly expressed in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles; it might inhibit the enlargement of muscle fiber diameter after birth. YAP1 expression was significantly (P < 0.05) or extremely significantly (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with MSTN and MyoG at 2 days old, 2 and 6 months old. YAP1 expression was related to muscle fiber development after birth and might be a candidate gene for the regulation of muscle growth. PMID:25966090

  17. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited. PMID:26374843

  18. [The construction of the genetic map and QTL locating analysis on chromosome 2 in swine].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan-Chun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zheng, Rong; Yu, Li; Su, Yu-Hong; Liu, Gui-Lan

    2002-01-01

    The study constructed the genetic linkage map of porcine chromosome 2 and further analysis of quantitative trait loci was conducted. The results of the study demonstrated that all 7 microsatellite loci we chose were with relatively high polymorphism, and its polymorphic information content was from 0.40182 to 0.58477. The genetic map we constructed for resource family was 152.9 cM in length, with the order of all loci highly consistent with the USDA map. All marker intervals were longer than USDA map with the interval between marker Sw2516 and Sw1201 as an exception. Furthermore, we conducted QTLs locating analysis by combining the genetic map with the phenotypic data. QTLs affecting lively estimated traits such as lean meat percentage, were located at 60-65 cM on chromosome 2, while QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were located at 20 cM and 55 cM, respectively Among them, QTL for estimated lean meat percentage was significant at chromosome-wise level (P < 0.01) and was responsible for 21.55% of the phenotypic variance. QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were responsible for 10.12% and 10.97% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The additive and dominance effect of lively estimated traits were in the inverse tendency, while the QTL for the height of Longissmus dorsi muscle had its additive and dominance effect in the same tendency and was with advantageous allele in Large White. The QTLs we detected had relatively large effect on phenotype and built a basis for molecular marker assisted selection and breeding. PMID:12645259

  19. Molecular characterization, tissue expression profile and SNP analysis of porcine GLP2R.

    PubMed

    Chai, Y L; Ma, H M; Jiang, J

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP2R), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, plays an important role in intramuscular fat formation. Little is known, however, about porcine GLP2R. In the present study, GLP2R was cloned, and its expression in pig muscle characterized. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends, gene sequence was obtained from Shaziling pigs. Full-length cDNA was 1868 bp, including an open reading frame 1665 bp in length, encoding 554 amino acids, and 203 bp at the 3' end. The GLP2R homology between porcine and other species was performed using bioinformatics techniques to construct a phylogenetic tree. Porcine GLP2R was most closely related to those from Orcinus orca and Ovis aries, and most distantly related to those from Chrysemys picta, Taeniopygia guttata, and Falco peregrinus. Real-time PCR analysis showed expression of porcine GLP2R in 10 different tissues from 25-day-old Yorkshire and Shaziling piglets, with expression levels being highest in the longissimus dorsi muscle and lowest in kidney. For each pig breed, expression level in longissimus dorsi muscle was highest among ten tissues (P < 0.05). Between the two breeds, GLP2R expression levels were significant in pancreas, the crureus and longissimus dorsi muscles (P < 0.05). A single SNP of porcine GLP2R, A343G, was identified, and genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. This study provides an insight into the function of GLP2R in swine. PMID:26505446

  20. Technical refinements of composite thoracodorsal system free flaps for 1-stage lower extremity reconstruction resulting in reduced donor-site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Holger; Strohm, Peter C; Al Awadi, Khalid; Stark, G Björn; Momeni, Arash

    2008-04-01

    A multitude of local flaps has been suggested for lower extremity reconstruction. However, the gold standard for defect coverage remains free tissue transfer. In this regard, the scapular vascular axis is a well-established source of expendable skin, fascia, muscle, and bone for use in free flap reconstruction of defects requiring bone and soft tissue in complex 3-dimensional relationships. Composite bone and soft-tissue flaps derived from the subscapular vascular axis include the osteocutaneous scapular flap, the "latissimus/bone flap," and the thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous flap.Patient outcome following reconstruction of lower extremity defects with composite free flaps from the thoracodorsal system were analyzed. Here, we demonstrate the execution of technical refinements on free composite flap transfers based on the thoracodorsal vascular axis, thus resulting in a stepwise reduction of donor-site morbidity. PMID:18362565

  1. Breast reconstruction with the fasciocutaneous infragluteal free flap (FCI).

    PubMed

    Papp, Christoph; Windhofer, Christian; Gruber, Sabine

    2007-02-01

    Thin patients who will not accept breast reconstruction with foreign material may not have enough tissue associated with the TRAM or latissimus muscle to achieve an acceptable reconstruction. We feel the next choice is tissue from the infragluteal region raised and moved as a free fasciocutaneous flap (FCI) based on the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery. This (FCI) has not been described for this to our knowledge. Thirty-five FCI flaps were done for 28 patients between 1998 and 2005 for autologous breast reconstruction, as well as simultaneous augmentation of the contralateral breast in 4 of these patients. There was no flap loss. Complications include seroma, scar pain, and fat necrosis and are reported and discussed. We suggest that the FCI flap be considered as a worthy alternative for autologous breast reconstruction in thin patients. PMID:17245137

  2. Essential elements of the preoperative breast reconstruction evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Angela; Losken, Albert

    2015-04-01

    A plethora of options exist for breast reconstruction and preoperative evaluation must be thorough to lead to a successful outcome. We review multiple components of the preoperative assessment including the patient's history, goals, imaging, and key elements of the physical exam. Consideration for tumor biology, staging, need or response to chemotherapy or radiation therapy is important in deciding on immediate versus delayed reconstruction. It is also important to consider the patient's anatomy, breast size and whether the reconstruction will be unilateral or bilateral. The reconstructive surgeon must accommodate all these factors to consider partial or complete mastectomy defects and guide the patient to the most appropriate reconstructive technique whether it be an oncoplastic reduction mammoplasty, expander-based reconstruction, immediate implant reconstruction, or immediate versus delayed autologous tissue reconstruction such as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP)/transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM), latissimus, transverse upper gracilis (TUG)/profunda femoris artery perforator (PAP), or gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps. PMID:26005641

  3. Present status of endoscopic mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Hirata, Munetsugu; Okumura, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Simiya; Nerome, Yasuhito; Takezaki, Toshiro; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy is now being used for breast cancer surgery. Though it is used for mastectomy, lymph node dissection, and breast reconstruction, its prime use is for mastectomy. Because an incision can be placed inconspicuously in the axillary site, a relatively large incision can be created. A retractor with an endoscope, CO2, and an abrasion device with the endoscope are used for operation space security. It is extremely rare that an endoscope is used for lymph node dissection. For breast reconstruction, it may be used for latissimus muscle flap making, but an endoscope is rarely used for other reconstructions. Endoscopic mastectomy is limited to certain institutions and practiced hands, and it has not been significantly developed in breast cancer surgery. On the other hand, endoscopic surgery may be used widely in breast reconstruction. With respect to the spread of robotic surgery, many factors remain uncertain. PMID:26078919

  4. Expression profiles of myostatin, myogenin, and Myosin heavy chain in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds differing in growth rate.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liangde; Xie, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lei, Min; Li, Congyan; Ren, Yongjun; Zheng, Jie; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Cuixia; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Yucai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare mRNA levels of myostatin (MSTN), myogenin (MyoG), and fiber type compositions in terms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds with different body sizes and growth rates. Longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles of 16 Californian rabbits (CW) and 16 Germany great line of ZIKA rabbits (GZ) were collected at the ages of 35d and 84d (slaughter age). The results showed that the live weights of GZ rabbits of 35d and 84d old were approximately 36% and 26% greater than those of CW rabbits, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that at the age of 84d GZ rabbits contained significantly lower MSTN mRNA level and higher MyoG mRNA level in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than CW rabbits, and mRNA levels of MSTN and MyoG exhibited opposite changes from the age of 35d to 84d, suggesting that GZ rabbits were subjected to less growth inhibition from MSTN at slaughter age, which occurred most possibly in skeletal muscles. Four types of fiber were identified by real-time PCR in rabbit muscles, with MyHC-1 and MyHC-2D, MyHC-2B were the major types in biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi muscles, respectively. At the age of 84d, GZ rabbits contained greater proportion of MyHC-1 and decreased proportion of MyHC-2D and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in biceps femoris than CW rabbits, and the results were exactly opposite in longissimus dorsi, suggesting that GZ rabbits show higher oxidative capacity in biceps femoris muscle than CW rabbits. In conclusion, the trends of mRNA levels of MSTN and fiber types in GZ rabbits' skeletal muscles might be consistent with the putative fast growth characteristic of GZ rabbits compared to CW rabbits. PMID:24813217

  5. A Novel Fiber Bragg Grating Based Sensing Methodology for Direct Measurement of Surface Strain on Body Muscles during Physical Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Arudi Subbarao, Guru; Subbaramajois Narasipur, Omkar; Kalegowda, Anand; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2012-07-01

    The present work proposes a new sensing methodology, which uses Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) to measure in vivo the surface strain and strain rate on calf muscles while performing certain exercises. Two simple exercises, namely ankle dorsi-flexion and ankle plantar-flexion, have been considered and the strain induced on the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle while performing these exercises has been monitored. The real time strain generated has been recorded and the results are compared with those obtained using a commercial Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU) system. It is found that the proposed sensing methodology is promising for surface strain measurements in biomechanical applications.

  6. Application of imaging and ultrasound to the quality grading of beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Gammell, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study conducted to assist the Department of Agriculture in the task of considering innovative methods for the grading of carcass beef for human consumption is presented. The processing of photographic, television and ultrasound images of the longissimus dorsi muscle at the 12/13th rib cut was undertaken. The results showed that a correlation could be developed between the quality grade of the carcass as determined by a professional grader, and the fat to area ratio of the muscle as determined by image processing techniques. In addition, the use of ultrasound shows the potential for grading of an unsliced carcass or a live animal.

  7. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  8. The effect of the beta-2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol or implantation with oestradiol plus trenbolone acetate on protein metabolism in wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Bohorov, O; Buttery, P J; Correia, J H; Soar, J B

    1987-01-01

    The effects of Revalor (trenbolone acetate plus oestradiol) implantation or the inclusion of clenbuterol (a beta-2-adrenergic agonist) in the diet of wether lambs was studied. Using continuous intravenous infusion of [3H]tyrosine the fractional synthetic rate of mixed protein from three separate muscles was measured. Clenbuterol slightly increased growth rate but had a significant (P less than 0.02) effect on food conversion efficiency. The weight and protein content of the longissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis muscles were increased but no such changes were observed for the vastus intermedius. For the longissimus dorsi at least the increase was probably achieved by a reduction in fractional degradation rate of the muscle protein. Revalor significantly increased the growth rate and food conversion efficiency of the animals. This increase was not specific for muscle. Estimated degradation rates of muscle protein were lower in the treated animals. The possible mode of action of these materials was discussed. The results obtained again highlight the importance of protein degradation in controlling growth. PMID:3801388

  9. DGAT1, a new positional and functional candidate gene for intramuscular fat deposition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Thaller, G; Kühn, C; Winter, A; Ewald, G; Bellmann, O; Wegner, J; Zühlke, H; Fries, R

    2003-10-01

    Intramuscular fat content, also assessed as marbling of meat, represents an important beef quality trait. Recent work has mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with an effect on marbling to the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14, with the gene encoding thyroglobulin (TG) being proposed as a positional and functional candidate gene for this QTL. Recently, the gene encoding diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1), which also has been mapped within the region of the marbling QTL, has been demonstrated to affect the fat content of milk. In the present study, the effects of a 5'-polymorphism of TG and of a lysine/alanine polymorphism of DGAT1 on the fat content of musculus (m.) semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi in 55 bovine animals (28 German Holstein and 27 Charolais) has been investigated. Significant effects were found for both candidate genes in both the breeds. These effects seem to be independent of one another because the alleles of the two polymorphisms showed no statistically significant disequilibrium. The DGAT1 effect is mainly on the m. semitendinosus. The TG polymorphism only affects m. longissimus dorsi. However, both intramuscular fat enhancing effects seem to be recessive. The possibility of two linked loci, acting recessively on intramuscular fat content, will require special strategies when selecting for higher marbling scores. PMID:14510671

  10. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and tissue expression of the TNNT3 gene in Guizhou black goat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haolin; Zhang, Jinhua; Yu, Bo; Li, Liang; Shang, Yishun

    2015-11-15

    The vertebrate fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) protein is an important regulatory and structural component of thin filaments in skeletal muscle, which improves meat quality traits of livestock and poultry. In this study, the troponin T isoforms from adult goat (skeletal muscle mRNA) were identified. We isolated the full-length coding sequence of the goat TNNT3 gene (GenBank: KM042888), analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different tissues from different aged goats (10, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days old). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Guizhou black goat TNNT3 was highly expressed in the biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, and longissimus dorsi muscle (P<0.01), and lowly expressed in the cardiac muscle, masseter muscle, and rumen tissue (P>0.05). Western blotting confirmed that the TNNT3 protein was expressed in the muscle tissues listed above, with the highest level found in the longissimus dorsi muscle, and the lowest level in the masseter muscle. In the 10 to 360day study period the TNNT3 protein expression level was the highest when the goats were 30 days old. A peptide, ASPPPAEVPEVHEEVH that may contribute to improved goat meat tenderness was identified. This study provides an insight into the molecular structure of the vertebrate TNNT3 gene. PMID:26187066

  11. The microRNA expression profile in porcine skeletal muscle is changed by constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hao, Y; Liu, J R; Zhang, Y; Yang, P G; Feng, Y J; Cui, Y J; Yang, C H; Gu, X H

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress has profound effects on animal performance and muscle function, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in muscle development and stress responses. To characterize the changes in miRNAs in skeletal muscle responding to heat stress, the miRNA expression profiles of longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs raised under constant heat stress (30 °C; n = 8) or control temperature (22 °C; n = 8) for 21 days were analyzed by Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 58 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified with 30 down-regulated and 28 up-regulated, and 63 differentially expressed target genes were predicted by miRNA-mRNA joint analysis. GO and KEGG analyses showed that the genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in glucose metabolism, cytoskeletal structure and function and stress response. Real-time PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PDK4, HSP90 and DES were significantly increased, whereas those of SCD and LDHA significantly decreased by heat exposure. The protein levels of CALM1, DES and HIF1α were also significantly increased by constant heat. These results demonstrated that the change in miRNA expression in porcine longissimus dorsi muscle underlies the changes in muscle structure and metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle affected by constant heat stress. PMID:26857849

  12. Expression and genomic imprinting of the porcine Rasgrf1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue-Yun; Liu, Li-Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Long; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Yin, Zong-Jun

    2014-02-25

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. The Rasgrf1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1) gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in mouse and rat. In the present study, we detected its sequence, imprinting status and expression pattern in the domestic pigs. A 228 bp partial sequence located in exon 14 and a 193 bp partial sequence located in exon 1 of the Rasgrf1 gene in domestic pigs were obtained. A G/A transition, was identified in Rasgrf1 exon 14, and then, the reciprocal Berkshire × Wannan black F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR-RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine Rasgrf1 gene at the developmental stage of 1-day-old. The expression profile results indicated that the porcine Rasgrf1 mRNA was highly expressed in brain, pituitary and pancreas, followed by kidney, stomach, lung, testis, small intestine, ovary, spleen and liver, and at low levels of expression in longissimus dorsi, heart, and backfat. The expression levels of Rasgrf1 gene in brain, pituitary and pancreas tissues were significantly different between the two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine Rasgrf1 gene was maternally expressed in the liver, small intestine, paternally expressed in the lung, but biallelically expressed in brain, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach, pancreas, backfat, testis, ovary, longissimus dorsi and pituitary tissues. PMID:24342659

  13. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets. PMID:6506092

  14. Do the Concentration and Volume of Local Anesthetics Affect the Onset and Success of Infraclavicular Anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Mosaffa, Faramarz; Gharaei, Babak; Qoreishi, Mohammad; Razavi, Sajjad; Safari, Farhad; Fathi, Mohammad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Elyasi, Hedayatollah; Hosseini, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although local anesthesia is a suitable method for upper limb surgeries, there is debate regarding the effects of appropriate dosing. Objectives: In the current study, we investigated the effects of the concentration and volume of a local anesthetic on the beginning and quality of anesthesia during upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients aged between 18 and 85 years candidated for upper limb orthopedic operations. The patients were equally and randomly distributed into two groups (n = 30). Under ultrasound imaging guidance, the first group received 7 mL of 2% lidocaine and the second group 10 mL of 1.3% lidocaine into the brachial plexus cords. The onset of block and the level of sensory and motor block were documented for each nerve territory. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly shorter in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group (P ≤ 0.05). The success rate of sensory and motor block was not different. The quality (completeness) of sensory block for the musculocutaneous nerve and that of motor block for the radial nerve were significantly better in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group. Conclusions: The volume of the injected anesthetic accelerated the onset of sensory and motor block without affecting the rate of success in our patients. PMID:26473102

  15. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Fraiman, D; Miranda, M F; Erthal, F; Buur, P F; Elschot, M; Souza, L; Rombouts, S A R B; Schimmelpenninck, C A; Norris, D G; Malessy, M J A; Galves, A; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA) upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1). Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC) nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting state fMRI scanning. The analysis of empirical functional correlations between neighboring voxels revealed faster correlation decay as a function of distance in the M1 region corresponding to the arm in BPA patients as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups were found in the face area. We also investigated whether such larger decay in patients could be attributed to a gray matter diminution in M1. Structural imaging analysis showed no difference in gray matter density between groups. Our findings suggest that the faster decay in neighboring functional correlations without significant gray matter diminution in BPA patients could be related to a reduced activity in intrinsic horizontal connections in M1 responsible for upper limb motor synergies. PMID:27547727

  16. Exstrophy–Epispadias Complex in a Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Enrico; Vanzo, Valentina; Zaramella, Patrizia; Salvadori, Sabrina; Castagnetti, Marco; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this report is to present a brief review of the current literature on the management of EEC. Case Report A term male neonate presented at birth with classic bladder exstrophy, a variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). The defect was covered with sterile silicon gauzes and waterproof dressing; at 72 hours of life, primary closure without osteotomy of bladder, pelvis, and abdominal wall was successfully performed. Discussion EEC incidence is approximately 2.15 per 1,00,000 live births; several urological, musculocutaneous, spinal, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological anomalies may be associated to EEC. Initial medical management includes use of occlusive dressings to prevent air contact and dehydration of the open bladder template. Umbilical catheters should not be positioned. Surgical repair stages include initial closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with or without osteotomy, followed by epispadias repair at 6 to 12 months, and bladder neck repair around 5 years of life. Those who fail to attain continence eventually undergo bladder augmentation and placement of a catheterizable conduit. Conclusion Modern-staged repair of EEC guarantees socially acceptable urinary continence in up to 80% of cases; sexual function can be an issue in the long term, but overall quality of life can be good. PMID:26495181

  17. Effects of fat preparation methods on the viabilities of autologous fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung-Won; Min, Kyung-Hee; Chang, Hak; Kim, Sukwha; Heo, Eun-Ju

    2010-10-01

    Fat grafts are commonly used in plastic surgery, but their unpredictable absorption rates are a considerable disadvantage. Furthermore, no agreement has been reached regarding the method that best enables fat graft survival. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preparation methods on fat graft viability. Fat tissue was harvested from the remnants of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps by syringe aspiration. Harvested fat tissue was prepared using three different methods: centrifugation, metal sieve concentration, and cotton gauze concentration. To evaluate the viabilities of fat cells, XTT assays were performed. For the study, 18 nude mice were allocated to three groups: the centrifugation, metal sieve, and cotton gauze groups (6 mice per group). Prepared fat (1 ml) was injected into the nuchal area of the mice, and 12 weeks later, grafts were dissected to determine graft survival rates and subjected to histologic analysis. No significant differences were observed in graft survival rates and histologic findings (necrosis and vascularity) between the three groups. However, histologic analysis found the metal sieve group to have significantly lower fat cell viability and more inflammation than the other two groups. The findings suggest that the closed centrifugation technique has no advantage over the open cotton gauze technique in terms of fat graft viability, and that the metal sieve concentration method is deficient as a preparation method because it can cause grafted fat degradation. PMID:20442997

  18. Massive glosso-cervical arteriovenous malformation: The rationale for a challenging surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Raúl; Moreno-García, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Massive arterivenous malformations (AVM) in the cervico-facial area are rare but potentially life-threatening. Treatment protocols are not well-established. A 41-year old man presented large painless rubber-like mass within the entire neck, which also extended intraorally through the floor of the mouth, showing a slow growing pattern for 5 years. Angiography diagnosed it as cervicofacial AVM. Treatment approach consisted on the embolization of the right upper thyroid, lingual and facial arteries under intravenous sedation. Three days later, bilateral radical neck dissection and subtotal glossectomy was performed. A musculo-cutaneous pectoralis major pedicled flap was harvested to reconstruct the floor of the mouth. Treatment of massive AVMs in the cervico-facial area is challenging due to the associated disfigurement and frequent recurrence rate due to incomplete resection. Also, massive bleeding may be present despite pre-operative super-selective embolization. A new case is presented with focus on surgical treatment considerations. Key words:Arteriovenous malformation, high-flow vascular malformation, cervical region, tongue, surgical resection PMID:25593675

  19. Anterolateral thigh adipofascial flap for the restoration of facial contour deformities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolei; Teng, Li; Xu, Jiajie; Lu, Jianjian; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Zhenmin

    2010-07-01

    From January 2000 to May 2008, 50 patients with facial contour deformities underwent soft tissue augmentation with 51 anterolateral thigh (ALT) adipofascial flaps. Fifty flaps survived with no complications; partial fat necrosis occurred in one flap. Mean follow-up was 16 months. Flaps ranged from 10 x 6 cm to 20 x 12 cm. Perforators were found in 50 flaps, 43 musculocutaneous perforators (84.3%) and 7 septocutaneous perforators (13.7%), with a mean of 2.5 perforators per flap. In one flap (2.0%), no perforator was found. In this case, we used an anteromedial thigh adipofascial flap using the medial branch of the descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery as the vascular pedicle. Relatively symmetric facial contour was achieved in 20 cases. In 30 cases, adjunctive procedures including flap debulking, fat injection, and resuspension were necessary, and 23 patients achieved satisfactory outcomes. We conclude that the ALT adipofascial flap can be successfully elevated and transplanted for the correction of soft tissue facial defects. This flap can provide tissue to fill large defects, and posses the qualities of pliability, an excellent blood supply, ease of suspension and fixation, and minimal morbidity at the donor site. PMID:20049917

  20. Late-onset dysphagia caused by severe spastic peristalsis of a free jejunal graft in a case of hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takayuki; Goto, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Ko; Kurosawa, Koreyuki; Asada, Yukinori; Saijo, Shigeru; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2016-12-01

    Free jejunal transfer is the main technique used for reconstructing a circumferential defect caused by total pharyngo-laryngo-cervical-esophagectomy in certain cancer cases. We report a rare case of severe late-onset dysphagia caused by autonomous spastic peristalsis, which led to complete obstruction of the free jejunal route. A 70-year-old man underwent treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer involving total pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunal transfer. After uneventful peri- and postoperative recovery, he developed sudden-onset severe dysphagia 22 months later. Gastrografin fluoroscopy revealed abnormal peristalsis and contraction of the transferred jejunum, leading to complete obstruction. Nutritional treatment, application of depressants of peristalsis, and xylocaine injection into the outer space of the jejunal mucosa all failed to alleviate the dysphagia. Surgical treatment involving a longitudinal incision of the jejunal graft, and interposing a cutaneous flap, as a fixed wall, between the incised jejunal margins to prevent obstruction was performed. After further reconstructive surgery involving using a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap and a split-thickness skin graft to close a refractory jejunum-skin fistula, the dysphagia was permanently alleviated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of severe dysphagia caused by peristalsis of a free jejunal graft. PMID:27068782

  1. Selection of muscle and nerve-cuff electrodes for neuroprostheses using customizable musculoskeletal model.

    PubMed

    Blana, Dimitra; Hincapie, Juan G; Chadwick, Edward K; Kirsch, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic systems based on functional electrical stimulation aim to restore motor function to individuals with paralysis following spinal cord injury. Identifying the optimal electrode set for the neuroprosthesis is complicated because it depends on the characteristics of the individual (such as injury level), the force capacities of the muscles, the movements the system aims to restore, and the hardware limitations (number and type of electrodes available). An electrode-selection method has been developed that uses a customized musculoskeletal model. Candidate electrode sets are created based on desired functional outcomes and the hard ware limitations of the proposed system. Inverse-dynamic simulations are performed to determine the proportion of target movements that can be accomplished with each set; the set that allows the most movements to be performed is chosen as the optimal set. The technique is demonstrated here for a system recently developed by our research group to restore whole-arm movement to individuals with high-level tetraplegia. The optimal set included selective nerve-cuff electrodes for the radial and musculocutaneous nerves; single-channel cuffs for the axillary, suprascapular, upper subscapular, and long-thoracic nerves; and muscle-based electrodes for the remaining channels. The importance of functional goals, hardware limitations, muscle and nerve anatomy, and surgical feasibility are highlighted. PMID:23881765

  2. Electrophysiologic studies of cutaneous nerves of the thoracic limb of the dog.

    PubMed

    Kitchell, R L; Whalen, L R; Bailey, C S; Lohse, C L

    1980-01-01

    The cutaneous innervation of the thoracic limb was investigated in 36 barbiturate-anesthetized dogs, using electrophysiologic techniques. The cutaneous area (CA) innervated by each cutaneous nerve was delineated in at least five dogs by stroking the hair in the area with a small watercolor brush while recording from the nerve. Mapping of adjacent CA revealed areas of considerable overlapping. The part of the CA of a given nerve supplied by only that nerve is referred to as its autonomous zone. Of all nerves arising from the brachial plexus, only the suprascapular, subscapular, lateral thoracic, thoracodorsal, and cranial and caudal pectoral nerves lacked cutaneous afferents. The dorsal cutaneous branch of C6 had a CA, but no grossly demonstrable dorsal cutaneous branches for C7 C8, or T1 were found. The cervical nerves had ventral cutaneous branches, but no lateral cutaneous branches. Thoracic nerves T2-T4 had dorsal, ventral, and lateral cutaneous branches. The cutaneous branches of the brachiocephalic, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median, and ulnar nerves all had CA which were overlapped by adjacent CA, thus their autonomous zones were much smaller than the cutaneous areas usually depicted for these nerves in anatomy and neurology textbooks. PMID:7362125

  3. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  4. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. PMID:23952693

  5. CT angiographic evaluation of perforators in the lower limb and their reconstructive implication

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K.; Chaudhary, Gurab R.; Arvind, Srivastava; Bhattacharya, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The perforator flaps evolved on the knowledge of the vascular tree from the main vascular trunk up to the subdermal plexus. Therefore, we thought that it's necessary to map the whole vascular arcade by CT angiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perforators and the whole vascular tree of the lower limb by peripheral CT angiography with 3D reconstruction and intraoperative evaluation. This study helps in designing flaps of different constituents based on the selected perforators. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients having lower limb defects were selected. CT angiography was done using a non-ionic iodinated contrast media injected through the antecubital vein. The lower limbs were imaged using volume rendering CT scan machine. Three dimensional reconstructions were made. The whole arterial tree, along with the perforators, were mapped. Findings of the audio-Doppler were correlated with the CT angiographic observations. Further these evaluations were confirmed by intraoperative findings. Results: The three dimensional CT angiographic reconstruction with bone and soft tissue provided advanced knowledge of this vascular network. It delineated the main vessel, the perforators, their caliber, distance from fixed bony landmarks and course up to the subdermal plexus. These findings were confirmed during dissection of the proposed flap. The perforators were mainly musculocutaneous in the proximal leg and septocutaneous distally. Conclusions: The vascular details visualized by this technique made advancement over the existing methods namely color Doppler, audio Doppler, two dimensional angiography etc. It improved the understanding of perforator flaps and their successful clinical application. PMID:23450763

  6. [The treatment of a post-burn deformity and contracture of the neck, using extended flaps with axial type of blood supply].

    PubMed

    Zhernov, A A; Zhernov, An A

    2012-03-01

    Experience of treatment of 24 patients, suffering neck deformity and contracture, using stretched flaps with axial type of blood circulation, was summarized. In total 43 expanders were implanted. The cutaneo-fascial flaps stretching was performed in the neck and thorax. In all the flaps a nutrition artery was included. The neck-brachial flaps, including supraclavicular artery, were applied in 25 (58.1%) patients, the neck-thoracic flaps, using superficial neck artery--in 12 (27.91%), the occipital-neck flaps on a musculocutaneous perforating vessels of occipital artery--in 6 (13.95%). The methods of the expander implantation, the stretching, transposition regimes of plastic material and its fixation were elaborated. The donor sites were closed using stretched tissues, left in place after formation of flaps. Flaps were fixed, using mechanical method of the tissues connection with duplicature formation from deepidermized portion of cicatrix or with polypropylene mesh, which played a role of a dense framework. Then a strong connective tissue bolt was formed, securely fixing transposedstretched tissues. While application of a complex-component vascularized flaps a suppuration have occurred in 3 (6.97%), partial necrosis--in 2 (4.64%) observations. Inclusion of nutritive vessels permit to form large size flaps with a small risk of necrosis occurrence. The stretched perforant flaps application permits to achieve positive result in 95.3% of observations--in immediate and in 81.82%--in far remote period. PMID:22702123

  7. Muscular and other abnormalities in a case of Edwards' syndrome (18-trisomy).

    PubMed

    Aziz, M A

    1979-10-01

    This paper describes the anatomical variations observed in a specimen exhibiting Edwards' Syndrome (18-trisomy). The clinical and autopsy data are compared with those reported in earlier literature. Aside from having a tracheoesophageal fistula, the viscera were characterized by abnormalities of the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. The facial musculature was relatively undifferentiated. Only a few abnormalities were recorded in the otomandibular and suprahyoid structures. The infrahyoid region had three pairs of supernumerary muscles, including the "sternohyoideus azygos." The bluk of abnormalities were found in the muscles and nerves of the upper limb. These included the absence of the palmaris longus and brevis, the subclavius and the extensor digiti quinti proprius; the presence of supernumerary muscles, e.g., the "rhomboideus occipitalis," the "latissimocondyloideus," and the "subclavius posticus." The deltoid and the pectoralis major were fused to form the "deltopectoral" complex. A definitive musculocutaneous nerve was found in the right arm only. In the lower extremity supernumerary muscles included the "tenuissimus," "peroneus quinti digiti," and the "extensor primi internodii hallucis." PMID:524303

  8. Surgical exposures of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Catalano, Louis W; Barron, O Alton; Glickel, Steven Z

    2006-12-01

    The neurovascular and muscular anatomy about the humerus precludes the use of a truly "safe" fully extensile approach. Working around a spiraling radial nerve at the posterior midshaft requires either a transmuscular dissection or a triceps-avoiding paramuscular technique. To gain maximal exposure, the radial nerve must be mobilized at the spiral groove. For exposure of only the proximal humeral shaft, many surgeons prefer the anterolateral approach because it uses the internervous plane between the axillary and deltoid nerves proximally and the radial and musculocutaneous nerves distally. Proximally, the deltopectoral approach to the shoulder continues to be the most widely used. However, the lateral deltoid-splitting approach is a viable, less invasive approach for both rotator cuff repair and fixation of valgus-impacted proximal humeral fractures. Distally, intra-articular exposure is dependent on triceps mobilization, either by olecranon osteotomy or triceps release; this exposure can be coupled with either a triceps-splitting or a paratricipital approach for proximal extension. PMID:17148623

  9. Preoperative planning for DIEP breast reconstruction: early experience of the use of computerised tomography angiography with VoNavix 3D software for perforator navigation.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, M D; See, M S; Cavale, N; Collyer, J; Francis, I; Jones, M E; Hazari, A; Boorman, J G; Smith, R W

    2009-11-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is normally the first choice in breast reconstruction; however, due to the considerable vascular anatomical variation and the learning curve for the procedure, muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps are still frequently performed to reduce the rate of complications. Accurate preoperative investigation of the perforators would allow better operative preparation and possibly shorten the learning curve. In an effort to increase accuracy of preoperative planning and to aid preoperative decision-making in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction, we have acquired the use of VoNavix, software that creates three dimensional images from computerised tomography angiography (CTA) data. The use of the VoNavix software for analysis of CTA provides superior imaging that can be viewed in theatre. It, together with CTA, enables decisions to be made preoperatively, including: which side to raise the flap; whether to aim for a medial or lateral row perforator; whether to take a segment of muscle and whether to expect an easy or difficult dissection. We have now performed over 60 free abdominal flap breast reconstructions aided with CTA, and 10 of these cases also used VoNavix technology. This paper presents our initial experience with the use of this software, illustrated with three patient examples. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:18708309

  10. Vulvovaginal reconstruction for neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Höckel, Michael; Dornhöfer, Nadja

    2008-06-01

    Current treatment of neoplastic disease that involves the external female genitalia aims to achieve local disease control, but not to restore form and function of these organs. Despite a growing trend to reduce the extent of surgical resection, impaired quality of life after surgery due to severe sexual dysfunction and disturbed body image is common. We postulate that the integration of surgical techniques for vulvar and vaginal reconstruction into primary treatment would improve aesthetic and functional results and therefore quality of life. We systematically searched the literature for surgical procedures designed and validated for vulvovaginal reconstruction. Various skin flaps, both with random vascularisation and those based on vascular territories (ie, axial pattern, fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, and bowel flaps), can restore important parts of vulvovaginal form and function with acceptable morbidity at the donor and recipient sites. Appropriate vulvovaginal reconstruction cannot be achieved by doing a few standardised procedures; rather, it necessitates specialists who are familiar with general principles of reconstructive surgery to master many techniques to select the optimum procedure for the individual patient. Vulvovaginal reconstructive surgery has limitations, particularly achievement of functional restoration in irradiated tissue. Physicians who treat women with neoplastic disease of the external genitalia should be aware of the current state of vulvovaginal reconstructive surgery. Prospective controlled clinical trials are warranted to assess the effect of vulvovaginal reconstruction on morbidity and quality of life after treatment. PMID:18510987

  11. Obesity Should Not Prevent from TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Omranipour, Ramesh; Akrami, Rahim

    2015-12-01

    Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the most common procedure performed for breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Obesity is a relative contraindication, and complex modifications have been proposed in the pedicled technique for obese patients. We studied ischemic complications in our patients to investigate the effect of body weight on the outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pertinent data from medical records of patients receiving a TRAM flap surgery from 1986 to 2011 were extracted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the body mass index (BMI): normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (>30 kg/m(2)). Flap necrosis is defined as any visible nonviable tissue in the reconstructed breast. It was observed that 117 patients had received TRAM flap reconstruction. Fifty-eight patients were excluded. Of the remaining 59 cases, 24 had normal BMI, 21 were overweight, and 14 were obese. No patient was found to develop flap necrosis. Outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction in obese patients is similar to nonobese patients. No major necrosis in need of reoperation was identified in the studied obese patients. It was concluded that categorizing obesity as a relative contraindication to TRAM flap breast reconstruction should be revisited based on larger cohort studies. PMID:26730022

  12. Simple maxillary reconstruction using free tissue transfer and prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Minoru; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Ota, Yojiro; Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Kishimoto, Seiji; Harii, Kiyonori; Ebihara, Satoshi

    2003-02-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation is essential for maintaining postoperative oral function after maxillary reconstruction. However, the maxillary prosthesis becomes unstable in some patients because of extensive palatomaxillary resection and drooping of the transferred flap. In such patients, maintaining sufficient oral function is difficult, especially if the patient is edentulous. To achieve prosthetic retention, the authors performed microvascular maxillary reconstruction with a slit-shaped fenestration in the midline of the hard palate. Maxillary defects after subtotal or total maxillectomy were reconstructed with rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps in five patients. Defects of the nasal lining and palate were reconstructed with the single cutaneous portion of the flap, and a slit-shaped fenestration was left between the cutaneous portion of the flap and the edge of the remaining hard palate. Postoperatively, patients were fitted with maxillary prostheses that had a flat projection for the palatal fenestration. In all patients, the prosthesis was stable enough for mastication and prevented nasal regurgitation. Speech function was rated as excellent on Hirose's scoring system for Japanese speech ability. The authors believe that their method of palatomaxillary reconstruction is both simple and reliable. PMID:12560680

  13. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a case of myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old male patient. A tumour in the buccal gingiva of the lower left premolar region had been identified 2 years earlier. Whole-jaw panoramic radiographs showed a hypodense shadow in the mesiodistal area near the roots of teeth 34 and 35. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a mass in the lower left premolar soft tissue, with a shadow indicating bone destruction, a clear boundary and uniform density. The preliminary diagnosis at the outpatient department was 34–35 epulis. The patient underwent surgery for 34–35 gingival tumour resection, 34 and 35 extraction, and 34 and 35 immediate implantation. The postoperative pathological examination revealed a cellular type extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the lower left mandible. Under general anaesthesia, the patient underwent lower left mandibular block and segmental resection, submandibular triangle dissection and vessel disassociation, and musculocutaneous flap repair in the oral and maxillofacial defect area. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaints of discomfort, and tumour recurrence was not observed on imaging examinations. PMID:27602220

  14. Propeller Perforator Flaps in Distal Lower Leg: Evolution and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Simple or complex defects in the lower leg, and especially in its distal third, continue to be a challenging task for reconstructive surgeons. A variety of flaps were used in the attempt to achieve excellence in form and function. After a long evolution of the reconstructive methods, including random pattern flaps, axial pattern flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps, the reappraisal of the works of Manchot and Salmon by Taylor and Palmer opened the era of perforator flaps. This era began in 1989, when Koshima and Soeda, and separately Kroll and Rosenfield described the first applications of such flaps. Perforator flaps, whether free or pedicled, gained a high popularity due to their main advantages: decreasing donor-site morbidity and improving aesthetic outcome. The use as local perforator flaps in lower leg was possible due to a better understanding of the cutaneous circulation, leg vascular anatomy, angiosome and perforasome concepts, as well as innovations in flaps design. This review will describe the evolution, anatomy, flap design, and technique of the main distally pedicled propeller perforator flaps used in the reconstruction of defects in the distal third of the lower leg and foot. PMID:22783507

  15. Peculiar indications for the pedicled or free rectus abdominis flap in reconstructive surgery. A review of our experience.

    PubMed

    Sinsel, N K; Guelinckx, P J

    1995-01-01

    Among all known flaps, the rectus abdominis muscle flap possesses an unique diversity in flap designs due to the special vascular supply of the abdominal wall. The axial vascularization of the rectus abdominis muscle gives ofF several musculocutaneous perforators, which are mainly located in the periumbilical region. Abdominal wall skin perfusion is guaranteed by spoke-wheel like vessels arising from these perforators. Subsequently several designs (muscle, myocutaneous and myosubcutaneous) are possible, by varying the included tissue and the position of the skin island. We described 7 cases where the rectus abdominis muscle was used as a muscle or myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of large defects. In most cases a pedicled transfer was necessary, possible and sufficient to reconstruct the difficult defects in various body regions. Great amounts of well perfused tissue can be transferred with still possible primary closure of the donor site. Due to its rich perfusion and constancy of vascular pattern, it represents an excellent and safe pedicled reconstructive procedure for large defects of the thorax, the abdomen, the forearm or the hip and pelvis where free tissue transfers are impossible or contraindicated. No other local transposition would have achieved this goal, due to the lack of volume and mobility. Moreover the flap is ideal for reconstruction of contour deficiencies due to the abundance of fat, as for example in breast or buttock reconstruction. However the flap is not the first choice for traumatic and infected wounds where fat tissue is not desired. PMID:8571724

  16. The keystone flap: expanding the dermatologic surgeon's armamentarium.

    PubMed

    Hessam, Schapoor; Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk G

    2015-01-01

    First described in 2003, the keystone flap has become an established plastic and reconstructive surgery technique for the closure of soft tissue defects following the excision of skin tumors. Complex reconstruction procedures may thus be avoided [3]. In dermatosurgery, however, the keystone flap remains largely unknown.Compared to subcutaneous pedicle flaps, the keystone flap technique warrants better vascular supply by additional-ly preserving musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous perforator vessels [4]. Moreover, the flap is hyperemic compared to the surrounding skin [5]. Adequate perfusion and its specific design result in high safety of the flap. According to both published data and the authors’ experience, the keystone flap technique is associated with a low complication rate [1, 6].In summary, the keystone flap method yields good aesthetic and functional results by preserving shape and cont-our, avoiding differences in skin coloration and preserving sensitivity (Figure 1b). The flap is particularly well suited for deep defects with exposed bones or tendons, especially on the extremities or the trunk. Alternative closing options such as secondary intention healing, primary closure, or local flaps appear less adequate in these cases. In addition, skin grafting without long-term wound conditioning–for example negative pressure wound therapy–or expensive der-mal replacement products are not very promising. Thus, the keystone flap provides the dermatosurgeon with an effective alternative to reconstruction techniques. PMID:25640508

  17. The reconstruction of the mutilated hand.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Michael; Hegge, Thersa; Amalfi, Ashley; Sauerbier, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The challenging reconstructive treatment of defects in the upper extremity requires a sound working knowledge of a variety of flaps. As the hand surgeon weighs the pros and cons of each possible flap to obtain definitive closure, he or she must also integrate the priorities of function, contour, and stability as well as the anticipation of further reconstructive surgery in choosing the flap of choice. This review describes the various flaps available for closure of soft tissue defects of the upper extremity. The principles of management of wounds of the upper extremity is described to guide hand surgeons in the early treatment of massive wounds that will eventually need free tissue coverage. Currently used flaps include fasciocutaneous, fascial, musculocutaneous, muscle, and osteocutaneous flaps. Flap selection is based on the characteristics of the defect including size, shape, and location, the availability of donor sites, and the goals of reconstruction. Improved techniques of microsurgery and an ever increasing repertoire of flaps provide the framework for hand surgeons to offer the most appropriate flap based on donor site, thickness, amount of tissue needed, and composition. A discussion of the selection of ideal flaps for any given defect should enable the reconstructive hand surgeon to provide the most appropriate coverage of wounds to the hand and upper extremity. PMID:21286307

  18. [Curative report of post sternotomy mediastinitis due to bacterofungal infection].

    PubMed

    Katsumata, T; Shimakura, T; Nakano, H; Shimamura, Y; Ishitoya, H

    1994-01-01

    We describe a 72-year-old patient with mediastinitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Candida albicans after median sternotomy who was successfully treated with wound closure with pectoral musculocutaneous flap and closed continuous mediastinal irrigation. The irrigation device consisted of two pairs of irrigation and suction tubes which placed upper and lower half of mediastinum respectively, in which high rate irrigation technique (200 ml/h) was employed using 0.01% of Vancomycin hydrochloride as a base agent and additional 0.1% of Povidone-iodine in early phase and 0.01% of Fluconazole in late phase. After 12-days irrigation, the drainage culture turned negative and the wound was healed and tomographically granulated. High rate irrigation with sufficient concentration of antimicrobial agents selected according to each organism sensitivity could eliminate redundant irrigation and contribute to avoid antimicrobial toxication. We experienced also another four cases (two caused by MRSA, two caused by Serratia liquefaciens) treated successfully with this technique. These results led us to believe that continuous mediastinal irrigation technique could be carried out with safe and effectiveness so far as high rate irrigation with low concentration of Povidone-iodine is employed. PMID:8308391

  19. Cortical Brain Mapping of Peripheral Nerves Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Younghoon R.; Jones, Seth R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S.; Schulte, Marie L.; Runquist, Matthew L.; Yan, Ji-Geng; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Hyde, James S.; Matloub, Hani S.

    2008-01-01

    The regions of the body have cortical and subcortical representation in proportion to their degree of innervation. The rat forepaw has been studied extensively in recent years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—typically by stimulation using electrodes directly inserted into the skin of the forepaw. Here, we stimulate using surgically implanted electrodes. A major distinction is that stimulation of the skin of the forepaw is mostly sensory, whereas direct nerve stimulation reveals not only the sensory system but also deep brain structures associated with motor activity. In this paper, we seek to define both the motor and sensory cortical and subcortical representations associated with the four major nerves of the rodent upper extremity. We electrically stimulated each nerve (median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous) during fMRI acquisition using a 9.4T Bruker scanner. A current level of 0.5-1.0 mA and a frequency of 5 Hz were used while keeping the duration constant. A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve that can be correlated with known sensorimotor afferent and efferent pathways to the rat forepaw. This direct nerve stimulation rat model can provide insight into peripheral nerve injury. PMID:18924070

  20. Refining the Sensory and Motor Ratunculus of the Rat Upper Extremity Using fMRI and Direct Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis; Schulte, Marie L.; Runquist, Matthew L.; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Hyde, James S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well understood that the different regions of the body have cortical representations in proportion to the degree of innervation. Our current understanding of the rat upper extremity has been enhanced using functional MRI (fMRI), but these studies are often limited to the rat forepaw. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique that allows us to refine the sensory and motor representations in the cerebral cortex by surgically implanting electrodes on the major nerves of the rat upper extremity and providing direct electrical nerve stimulation while acquiring fMRI images. This technique was used to stimulate the ulnar, median, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves in the rat upper extremity using four different stimulation sequences that varied in frequency (5 Hz vs. 10 Hz) and current (0.5 mA vs. 1.0 mA). A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve. The higher stimulation current resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of cortical activation. The higher stimulation frequency resulted in both increases and attenuation of cortical activation in different regions of the brain, depending on which nerve was stimulated. PMID:17969116

  1. Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex in a Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Vanzo, Valentina; Zaramella, Patrizia; Salvadori, Sabrina; Castagnetti, Marco; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    Aim The aim of this report is to present a brief review of the current literature on the management of EEC. Case Report A term male neonate presented at birth with classic bladder exstrophy, a variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). The defect was covered with sterile silicon gauzes and waterproof dressing; at 72 hours of life, primary closure without osteotomy of bladder, pelvis, and abdominal wall was successfully performed. Discussion EEC incidence is approximately 2.15 per 1,00,000 live births; several urological, musculocutaneous, spinal, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological anomalies may be associated to EEC. Initial medical management includes use of occlusive dressings to prevent air contact and dehydration of the open bladder template. Umbilical catheters should not be positioned. Surgical repair stages include initial closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with or without osteotomy, followed by epispadias repair at 6 to 12 months, and bladder neck repair around 5 years of life. Those who fail to attain continence eventually undergo bladder augmentation and placement of a catheterizable conduit. Conclusion Modern-staged repair of EEC guarantees socially acceptable urinary continence in up to 80% of cases; sexual function can be an issue in the long term, but overall quality of life can be good. PMID:26495181

  2. [Perineal-scrotal gangrene: epidemiological and therapeutic aspects. About 45 cases].

    PubMed

    Ettalbi, S; Benchamkha, Y; Boukind, S; Droussi, H; Ouahbi, S; Soussou, M; Elatiqi, K; Lakmichi, M A; Dahami, Z; Moudouni, S M; Sarf, I; Rabbani, K; Louzi, A; Benelkhaiat, R; Finech, B

    2013-08-01

    Perineoscrotal gangrene is an acute disease, a rare and severe affection of the perineum, whose evolution is unpredictable and rapidly extensive. The diagnosis is clinical. The paraclinical examinations allow early diagnosis and assessment of anatomical and biological repercussions. We conducted a retrospective study of 45 patients spread over six years, involving a multidisciplinary team consisting of three specialists (urologists, visceral, plastic surgeons). The average age was 52 years. The largely male dominated our series. Fournier gangrene was the most common etiology. We noted five cases of death (11%) in the acute phase, secondary to septic shock (four patients) or multiple organ failure (one patient). The evolution was favorable in 40 other patients in the series, requiring an initial management in intensive care unit, and surgical treatment. The average hospital stay was 17 days. After the acute phase, all patients underwent a surgery for skin coverage, ranging from guided healing (two patients) to musculocutaneous flap of the gracilis (six patients) via the secondary suture (four patients), the burying the testes (18 patients) and half thick skin graft, with a functional and aesthetic result was acceptable, and minimal sequelae. In our series, the most predictive prognostic factors would be the delay of care, sepsis on admission and associated diseases. PMID:21450384

  3. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  4. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also improved G:F (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased as the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, < 0.05). A quadratic effect of L* light and marbling in the longissimus dorsi was observed as the dietary SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also increased the level of serum IGF-1 (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). The optimum SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets. PMID:26020882

  5. Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass

  6. Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), sensorimotor impairments result in severe limitations to ambulation. To improve walking capacity, physical therapies using robotic-assisted locomotor devices, such as the Lokomat, have been developed. Following locomotor training, an improvement in gait capabilities—characterized by increases in the over-ground walking speed and endurance—is generally observed in patients. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these improvements, we studied the effects of Lokomat training on impaired ankle voluntary movement, known to be an important limiting factor in gait for iSCI patients. Methods Fifteen chronic iSCI subjects performed twelve 1-hour sessions of Lokomat training over the course of a month. The voluntary movement was qualified by measuring active range of motion, maximal velocity peak and trajectory smoothness for the spastic ankle during a movement from full plantar-flexion (PF) to full dorsi-flexion (DF) at the patient’s maximum speed. Dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscle strength was quantified by isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Clinical assessments were also performed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the 10-meter walk (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk (6MWT) tests. All evaluations were performed both before and after the training and were compared to a control group of fifteen iSCI patients. Results After the Lokomat training, the active range of motion, the maximal velocity, and the movement smoothness were significantly improved in the voluntary movement. Patients also exhibited an improvement in the MVC for their ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. In terms of functional activity, we observed an enhancement in the mobility (TUG) and the over-ground gait velocity (10MWT) with training. Correlation tests indicated a significant relationship between ankle voluntary movement performance and the walking clinical assessments. Conclusions The improvements of the kinematic and kinetic

  7. The relationship between adipocyte size and the transcript levels of SNAP23, BSCL2 and COPA genes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kociucka, Beata; Jackowiak, Hanna; Kamyczek, Marian; Szydlowski, Maciej; Szczerbal, Izabela

    2016-11-01

    Breed-specific differences in fat tissue accumulation in the pig provide an opportunity to study the genetic background of this process. In the present study three pig breeds, differing in fatness, were analyzed in terms of the size of adipocytes derived from three tissues (subcutaneous, visceral and longissimus dorsi muscle) in relation to transcript levels of genes (SNAP23, BSCL2 and COPA), which encode proteins involved in lipid droplet formation. The analysis of adipocyte size revealed significant effects of breed and tissue and confirmed earlier reports that an elevated backfat thickness in some pig breeds is correlated with a larger adipocyte size. Variability in the transcript abundance of the studied genes among breeds and tissues was observed. We found a positive correlation between the abundance of the SNAP23 transcript and adipocyte diameter. The obtained results indicate that SNAP23 may be considered as an interesting candidate gene involved in adipose tissue growth in the pig. PMID:27232380

  8. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle. PMID:26920270

  9. Relationships between 1H NMR Relaxation Data and Some Technological Parameters of Meat: A Chemometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert J. S.; Capozzi, Francesco; Cavani, Claudio; Cremonini, Mauro A.; Petracci, Massimiliano; Placucci, Giuseppe

    2000-11-01

    In this paper chemometrics (ANOVA and PCR) is used to measure unbiased correlations between NMR spin-echo decays of pork M. Longissimus dorsi obtained through Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments at low frequency (20 MHz) and the values of 14 technological parameters commonly used to assess pork meat quality. On the basis of the ANOVA results, it is also found that the CPMG decays of meat cannot be best interpreted with a "discrete" model (i.e., by expanding the decays in a series of a discrete number of exponential components, each with a different transverse relaxation time), but rather with a "continuous" model, by which a continuous distribution of T2's is allowed. The latter model also agrees with literature histological results.

  10. A revision of infrageneric classification in Astelia Banks & Sol. ex R.Br. (Asteliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Astelia, as currently circumscribed, is paraphyletic, with Collospermum nested within it. Further, Astelia subgenus Astelia is polyphyletic, and Astelia subgenera Asteliopsis and Tricella are paraphyletic, as currently circumscribed. Revision of the subgeneric classification of Astelia is warranted to ensure classification accurately reflects the evolutionary history of these taxa. Collospermum is relegated to synonymy within Astelia. Astelia is dioecious or polygamodioecious, with a superior ovary, anthers dorsi- or basifixed, pistillodes or pistils that have a single short or poorly defined style, a 3 lobed stigma, and fleshy uni- or trilocular fruit with funicular hairs that are poorly to well developed. Astelia subgenus Collospermum (Skottsb.) Birch is described. A key to Astelia sections is provided. Astelia hastata Colenso, Astelia montana Seem., and Astelia microsperma Colenso pro parte are resurrected and the new combination Astelia samoense (Skottsb.) Birch, comb. nov. is made. PMID:26312037

  11. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  12. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  13. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. PMID:27374572

  14. Neural correlates of ankle movements during different motor tasks: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Iandolo, R; Marre, I; Bellini, A; Bommarito, G; Oesingmann, N; Fleysher, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G; Casadio, M; Inglese, M

    2015-08-01

    This ongoing study investigates the neural correlates of ankle dorsi-plantar flexion in active, passive, and proprioceptive tasks. Specifically, we investigated two proprioceptive matching tasks that required a simple combination of active and passive ankle movements: (1) a memory-based ipsilateral matching task and (2) a contralateral concurrent matching task. As expected, during the passive tasks, subjects recruited the same brain areas involved in the correspondent active movements (primary motor cortex (M1), premotor cortex (PM) supplementary motor cortex (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1)), but the activations were lower. Instead, in both the proprioceptive matching tasks, subjects recruited more motor and sensory-motor areas of the brain and the activations were greater. PMID:26737338

  15. Anabolic agents in beef production: Effects on muscle traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ouali, A; Zabari, M; Renou, J P; Touraille, C; Kopp, J; Bonnet, M; Valin, C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of combined oestradiol and trenbolone acetate implants have been investigated. Meat tenderness, juiciness and flavour were assessed by trained taste panelists and 16 variables related to muscle biochemistry and composition and ageing kinetics parameters were analysed on Longissimus dorsi and Triceps brachii caput longum muscles from 24 months old treated and control Charolais steers. Increases in carcass weight and mean daily weight gain, generally observed following such treatment, were confirmed. Furthermore, meat quality traits and ageing rate were significantly correlated with muscle typing parameters. Factorial discriminant analysis of data revealed that muscle typing (isomyosin 3 content) and composition (dry matter and lipid content) as well as NRM relaxation time of meat water (T2b) and ageing rate were the most affected by treatment. In addition, the hormone effect appeared to be muscle dependent. PMID:22055947

  16. Effect of breed and ageing time on meat quality and sensory attributes of veal calves of the "Ternera de Aliste" Quality Label.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Vivar-Quintana, A M

    2006-06-01

    The effect of breed, sex and ageing time on carcass, meat and eating quality were examined in 32 calves of the "Ternera de Aliste" Spanish Quality Label. Swiss Brown×Alistano-Sanabresa heifers were mated with Charolais or Limousin bulls in order to study the effect of breed. Bull and heifer calves were slaughtered when they were 6-7 months old. Samples of the M. longissimus dorsi were aged for 3, 5 or 7 days and chemical and sensory analyses were done. The results showed no differences due to sex but Charolais sires produced meat which was more tender, juicier and had more odour intensity with a darker colour than meat of the Limousin sired animals. Ageing influenced both sensory and instrumental hardness, colour and odour intensity. After seven days of maturation the meat from such young animals achieved a high quality. PMID:22062288

  17. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. II: meat quality.

    PubMed

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to assess meat quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls. In total 34 BRA and 34 CHA under practical farm conditions were randomly assigned for slaughter at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Longissimus dorsi muscle was taken for meat quality and sensory evaluations. CHA meat had higher intramuscular fat, exhibited higher marbling scores and relatively better colour than BRA meat. Although muscle fiber area was similar for both genotypes, shear force values were higher for CHA meat. Water holding capacity was better for CHA meat shown by lower 7-day ageing, thawing and grilling losses. However, the sensory evaluation ratings were similar for both genotypes. Increasing slaughter weight from 500 kg up to 600 kg had no significant effect on meat quality. In conclusion, meat quality of CHA was superior to BRA. PMID:20374885

  18. Iron(II) Initiation of Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Pork: The Role of Oxymyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feibai; Jongberg, Sisse; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Iron(II), added as FeSO4·7H2O, was found to increase the rate of oxygen depletion as detected electrochemically in a pork homogenate from Longissimus dorsi through an initial increase in metmyoglobin formation from oxymyoglobin and followed by formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products and protein oxidation as detected as thiol depletion in myofibrillar proteins. Without added iron(II), under the same conditions at 37 °C, oxygen consumption corresponded solely to the slow oxymyoglobin autoxidation. Long-lived myofibrillar protein radicals as detected by ESR spectroscopy in the presence of iron(II) were formed subsequently to oxymyoglobin oxidation, and their level was increased by lipid oxidation when oxygen was completely depleted. Similarly, the time profile for formation of lipid peroxide indicated that oxymyoglobin oxidation initiates both protein oxidation and lipid oxidation. PMID:27217062

  19. Vacuum skin pack of beef--a consumer friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lagerstedt, Åsa; Ahnström, Maria L; Lundström, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how beef quality traits are affected by skin packaging compared with vacuum and high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 80% O(2) and 20% CO(2)). Both M. longissimus dorsi from 6 young bulls were cut and aged in vacuum for 7 days and then cut into 3.5-cm steaks, thereafter either frozen directly day 7 or stored in skin pack, vacuum pack or MAP for an additional 7 or 14 days and then frozen. Warner-Bratzler shear force, loss and colour were measured and sensory analysis was performed. The results showed no differences in shear force, sensory analysis and total loss between steaks packed in skin pack or vacuum, but skin packed steaks had lower purge loss. MAP steaks had lower sensory scores than the other treatments at days 14 and 21. Raw MAP-steaks were bright red, but showed signs of premature browning when cooked. PMID:21316869

  20. HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis meat characterisation.

    PubMed

    Ritota, Mena; Casciani, Lorena; Failla, Sebastiana; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2012-12-01

    ¹H-High resolution magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to gain the metabolic profile of longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscles of four different breeds: Chianina, Holstein Friesian, Maremmana and Buffalo. Principal component analysis, partial least squares projection to latent structure - discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least squares projection to latent structure - discriminant analysis were used to build models capable of discriminating the muscle type according to the breed. Data analysis led to an excellent classification for Buffalo and Chianina, while for Holstein Friesian the separation was lower. In the case of Maremmana the use of intelligent bucketing was necessary due to some resonances shifting allowed improvement of the discrimination ability. Finally, by using the Variable Importance in Projection values the metabolites relevant for the classification were identified. PMID:22819725

  1. Effect of ageing and μ-calpain markers on meat quality from Brangus steers finished on pasture.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Melucci, Lilia M; Villarreal, Edgardo L; Mezzadra, Carlos A; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Motter, Mariana M; Schor, Alejandro; Miquel, María C

    2010-11-01

    Brangus steers (n=247) finished on pasture were used to evaluate the effects of post-mortem ageing and polymorphism CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 markers on meat tenderness and objective colour measurements (CIEL*a*b*) of m. Longissimus dorsi. Ageing meat for 7 days decreased shear force (SF) by 13.7% and improved a* (8.4%) and b* (10%) compared to ageing for 1 day. No difference between 7 and 14 days of ageing was found for SF, a* and b*. However, L* increased markedly with ageing. Fitting both markers simultaneously, CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L* and CAPN1 4751 with a* and b*. Fitting the markers individually, CAPN1 4751 affected all traits and CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L*. Post-mortem ageing and the use of markers represent two independent and alternative tools that could be used for improving quality of meat from Brangus cattle. PMID:20709460

  2. Effect of protein oxidation on the impaired quality of dry-cured loins produced from frozen pork meat.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Ventanas, Sonia; Akcan, Tolga; Estévez, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Dry-cured loins elaborated from frozen (-20 °C/20 weeks)/thawed longissimus dorsi muscles (F) were compared with counterparts elaborated from fresh (unfrozen) muscles (UF) for the extent of protein oxidation (carbonylation and Schiff base formation) and their sensory profile (quantitative-descriptive analysis). All samples had similar moisture, fat and protein contents (p>0.05). In accordance with previous studies, freezing meat prior to processing affected the oxidative stability of meat proteins. This chemical change occurred concomitantly with modifications of the sensory profile of the loins as F-samples received significantly (p<0.05) higher scores for rancid and salty flavor, hardness and fibrousness than UF-counterparts. The formation of cross-links (assessed as Schiff bases) during freezing and the subsequent processing may have contributed to strengthening the meat structure and hence, impairing the texture properties of dry-cured loins. PMID:26593621

  3. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group. PMID:22063845

  4. Effect of muscle and post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall on antioxidant enzyme activities in beef.

    PubMed

    Pastsart, Umaporn; De Boever, Maarten; Claeys, Erik; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle, inner and outer Musculus biceps femoris (IBF and OBF respectively) and Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD), on the post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) during simulated retail display. At day 0 of display (2 days post-mortem), the CAT and GSH-Px activities were lower in IBF than in OBF and LD (P<0.001), and the SOD activity was lower in OBF compared to IBF and LD (P<0.001). At day 10 of display, SOD and CAT activities had decreased in all three muscles compared to day 0 (P<0.001), whereas the GSH-Px activity did increase with time of display. Across muscles, there were significant relationships between temperature fall, colour, lipid and colour stability and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:23273481

  5. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingzhi; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat. PMID:26761795

  6. Skin microbial flora and effectiveness of aseptic technique for deep muscle biopsies in Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii ) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mellish, J; Tuomi, P; Hindle, A; Jang, S; Horning, M

    2010-04-01

    Deep muscle biopsies were collected from the pectoralis and longissimus dorsi of wild Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, during October-December 2007. Sterile swabs were collected from the surface of each skin site before biopsy and from the deep-needle path after biopsy. No growth occurred in two of six pectoralis and three of six longissimus skin sites, or in four of 10 pectoralis deep biopsy and eight of 12 longissimus deep-biopsy sites. Positive skin culture was not predictive of deep-biopsy contamination, nor did contamination at one body location correlate with contamination at the second site. Psychrobacter species were most common in one or more samples from each of the four sample types. Only one of the eight documented bacteria exhibited resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:20688668

  7. Single Base-Resolution Methylome of the Dizygotic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Su, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Sheep is an important livestock in the world for meat, dairy and wool production. The third version of sheep reference genome has been recently assembled, but sheep DNA methylome has not been profiled yet. In this study, we report the comprehensive sheep methylome with 94.38% cytosine coverage at single base resolution by sequencing DNA samples from Longissimus dorsi of dizygotic Sunit sheep, which were bred in different habitats. We also compared methylomes between the twin sheep. DNA methylation status at genome-scale differentially methylated regions (DMRs), functional genomic regions and 248 DMR-containing genes were identified between the twin sheep. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG annotations of these genes were performed to discover computationally predicted function. Lipid metabolism, sexual maturity and tumor-associated categories were observed to significantly enrich DMR-containing genes. These findings could be used to illustrate the relationship between phenotypic variations and gene methylation patterns. PMID:26536671

  8. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more during re-alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Systemic insulin response to glucose administration was lower in RES in period 1 (P < 0.001) with no difference observed during period 2. The insulin signaling pathway in M. longissimus dorsi was enriched (P < 0.05) in response to dietary restriction but not during re-alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. PMID:26015430

  9. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  10. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P < 0.01), adrenaline, nor-adrenaline and dopamine concentrations (P < 0.05) than non-transported goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) more rapid muscle pH fall during the first 12 h after slaughter. Muscles from electrically-stimulated carcasses had significantly (P < 0.05) longer sarcomeres, lower shear force value, a lighter colour (higher L* value), higher expressed juice and myofibrillar fragmentation index than those from non-stimulated ones. Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups

  11. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  12. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

    PubMed

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. PMID:24917310

  13. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    PubMed Central

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of human consumers. Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96). PMID:26486776

  14. Contribution of the cerebellum to self-initiated synchronized movements: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bard, Chantal; Paillard, Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to examine the neural substrate underlying self-initiated versus externally triggered synchronized movements. Seven healthy subjects performed synchronized right index finger and foot movements in two conditions: either by setting them going at their own pace (self-initiated condition) or by reacting to randomly dispensed auditory signals (externally triggered condition). In addition, subjects either self-initiated or performed in reaction to an audible tone a sequence of finger and foot movements. We hypothesized that cerebellar activity would reflect the behavioural difference observed when hand and foot are self-initiated synchronously compared to when these movements are externally triggered. Consistent with early observations by one of us (Paillard 1948, Année Psychologique, pp 28-47), subjects exhibited a precession of finger initiation over foot dorsi-flexion in the externally triggered condition, and a precession of foot dorsi-flexion over finger onset in the self-initiated condition. In addition to the cortical areas already described in the literature as differently activated in self-initiated and externally triggered movements, we found, according to the research hypothesis, a prominent activation of the left postero-lateral hemi-cerebellum in self-initiated synchronized movements when compared to the externally triggered movements. No cerebellar activity was found for self-initiated sequence of hand-foot movements when compared to externally triggered sequence of hand and foot movements. We suggest that this cerebellar activity could be related to some motor timing processes specifically required by the self-initiated synchronized movements. PMID:15064886

  15. Foot kinematics in walking on a level surface and on stairs in patients with hallux rigidus before and after cheilectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Walking down stairs is a clinically relevant daily activity for older persons. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of cheilectomy on walking on level ground and on stairs. Methods 3D motion analysis of foot kinematics was performed in eight patients with hallux rigidus and 11 healthy control participants with a 12-camera system, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method before and one year after surgery. The clinical results were documented using the AOFAS Scale. Results The range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint did not improve after the operation under any gait condition. Preoperatively, hallux dorsi-/plantarflexion in level walking was 11.9° lower in patients than in controls (p = 0.006), postoperatively 14.5° lower (p = 0.004). Comparing walking conditions in patients, hallux dorsi-/plantarflexion was significantly higher in level walking than in climbing stairs (difference up stairs – level: -8.1°, p = 0.018). The AOFAS Scale improved significantly from 56.9 ± 19.9 points (mean ± SD), preoperatively, to 75.9 ± 13.9 points, postoperatively (p = 0.027). Conclusions Cheilectomy is appropriate for reducing symptoms of hallux rigidus. However, neither a positive influence on the range of motion in walking on level ground and on stairs nor a functional improvement was observed in this group of patients. Trial registration NCT01804491 PMID:24524773

  16. Adaptations in muscle activity to induced, short-term hindlimb lameness in trotting dogs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb's function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  17. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-01-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. PMID:24917310

  18. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    PubMed

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P < 0.05). CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P < 0.05). The SID Leu:Lys of 104 and 109% optimized average daily gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs. PMID:25867302

  19. Essential elements of the preoperative breast reconstruction evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of options exist for breast reconstruction and preoperative evaluation must be thorough to lead to a successful outcome. We review multiple components of the preoperative assessment including the patient’s history, goals, imaging, and key elements of the physical exam. Consideration for tumor biology, staging, need or response to chemotherapy or radiation therapy is important in deciding on immediate versus delayed reconstruction. It is also important to consider the patient’s anatomy, breast size and whether the reconstruction will be unilateral or bilateral. The reconstructive surgeon must accommodate all these factors to consider partial or complete mastectomy defects and guide the patient to the most appropriate reconstructive technique whether it be an oncoplastic reduction mammoplasty, expander-based reconstruction, immediate implant reconstruction, or immediate versus delayed autologous tissue reconstruction such as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP)/transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM), latissimus, transverse upper gracilis (TUG)/profunda femoris artery perforator (PAP), or gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps. PMID:26005641

  20. Pattern and timing of diversification in Yucca (Agavaceae): specialized pollination does not escalate rates of diversification

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle; Althoff, David M; Balcázar-Lara, Manuel; Leebens-Mack, James; Segraves, Kari A

    2007-01-01

    The yucca–yucca moth interaction is one of the most well-known and remarkable obligate pollination mutualisms, and is an important study system for understanding coevolution. Previous research suggests that specialist pollinators can promote rapid diversification in plants, and theoretical work has predicted that obligate pollination mutualism promotes cospeciation between plants and their pollinators, resulting in contemporaneous, parallel diversification. However, a lack of information about the age of Yucca has impeded efforts to test these hypotheses. We used analyses of 4322 AFLP markers and cpDNA sequence data representing six non-protein-coding regions (trnT–trnL, trnL, trnL intron, trnL–trnF, rps16 and clpP intron 2) from all 34 species to recover a consensus organismal phylogeny, and used penalized likelihood to estimate divergence times and speciation rates in Yucca. The results indicate that the pollination mutualism did not accelerate diversification, as Yucca diversity (34 species) is not significantly greater than that of its non-moth-pollinated sister group, Agave sensu latissimus (240 species). The new phylogenetic estimates also corroborate the suggestion that the plant–moth pollination mutualism has at least two origins within the Agavaceae. Finally, age estimates show significant discord between the age of Yucca (ca 6–10 Myr) and the current best estimates for the age of their pollinators (32–40 Myr). PMID:18048283

  1. Magnitude of forward trunk flexion influences upper limb muscular efforts and dynamic postural stability requirements during sitting pivot transfers in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Guillaume; Gagnon, Dany; Nadeau, Sylvie; Popovic, Milos

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of imposing different degrees of forward trunk flexion during sitting pivot transfers on electromyographic activity at the leading and trailing upper limb muscles and on dynamic stability requirements. Thirty-two individuals with a spinal cord injury performed three types of sitting pivot transfers: natural technique, exaggerated forward trunk flexion and upright trunk position. Ground reaction forces, trunk kinematics, and bilateral electromyographic activity of eight upper limb muscles were recorded. Electromyographic data were analyzed using the area under the curve of the muscular utilization ratio. Dynamic stability requirements of sitting pivot transfers were assess using a dynamic equilibrium model. Compared to the natural strategy, significantly greater muscle activities were found for the forward trunk flexion condition at the anterior deltoid and both heads of the pectorialis major, whereas the upright trunk strategy yielded greater muscle activity at the latissimus dorsii and the triceps. The forward flexed condition was found to be more dynamically stable, with a lower stabilizing force, increased area of base of support and greater distance traveled. Thus, transferring with a more forward trunk inclination, even though it increases work of few muscles, may be a beneficial trade-off because increased dynamic stability of this technique and versatility in terms of potential distance of the transfer. PMID:24094473

  2. Motoneurons of the adult marmoset can grow axons and reform motor endplates through a peripheral nerve bridge joining the locally injured cervical spinal cord to the denervated biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Emery, E; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Lyoussi, B; Tadié, M; Horvat, J C

    2000-12-15

    Reconnection of the injured spinal cord (SC) of the marmoset with the denervated biceps brachii muscle (BB) was obtained by using a peripheral nerve (PN) bridge. In 13 adult males, a 45 mm segment of the peroneal nerve was removed: one end was implanted unilaterally into the cervical SC of the same animal (autograft), determining a local injury, although the other end was either directly inserted into the BB (Group A) or, alternatively, sutured to its transected motor nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve (Group B). From 2-4 months post-surgery, eight out of the 10 surviving animals responded by a contraction of the BB to electrical stimulations of the PN bridge. All ten were then processed for a morphological study. As documented by retrograde axonal tracing studies using horse radish peroxidase or Fast Blue (FB), a mean number of 314 (Group A) or 45 (Group B) spinal neurons, mainly located close to the site of injury and grafting, re-expressed a capacity to grow and extend axons into the PN bridge. Most of these regenerated axons were able to grow up to the BB and form or reform functional motor endplates. Many of the spinal neurons that were retrogradely labeled with FB simultaneously displayed immunoreactivity for choline acetyl-transferase and consequently were assumed to be motoneurons. Reinnervation and regeneration of the BB were documented by methods revealing axon terminals, endplates and myofibrillary ATPase activity. Our results indicate that motoneurons of the focally injured SC of a small-sized primate can, following the example of the adult rat, re-establish a lost motor function by extending new axons all the way through a PN bridge connected to a denervated skeletal muscle. PMID:11107167

  3. Predictive Capability of Near-Infrared Fluorescence Angiography in Submental Perforator Flap Survival

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aya; Lee, Bernard T.; Winer, Joshua H.; Laurence, Rita G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Perforator flaps have become increasingly popular in reconstructive surgery as patients experience less donor-site morbidity than with conventional musculocutaneous flaps. Previously, our laboratory described the intraoperative use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography for patient-specific perforator-flap design. This study evaluates the predictive capability of NIR fluorescence angiography for flap survival in submental flap reconstruction. Methods NIR angiography was performed using indocyanine green at 0, 0.5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-surgery after flap creation in 12 pigs. A single perforator artery was preserved during flap creation based on location (central or non-central) and dominance (dominant or non-dominant). Venous drainage, arterial perfusion, and perfused area as percentage of total flap were analyzed. Clinical assessments of perfusion were compared with those made using NIR imaging and histology. Results Use of NIR fluorescence angiography immediately after flap creation accurately predicted areas of perfusion at 72 h (p = 0.0013), compared to the initial clinical assessment (p = 0.3085). Identification of necrosis by histology at 72 h correlated with NIR findings of insufficient arterial perfusion immediately after flap creation. No statistically significant differences in perfusion metrics were detected based on location or dominance of the preserved perforator; however, flaps containing central perforators had a higher percent perfused area than those with non-central perforators. Conclusions The use of NIR angiography immediately after flap creation can predict areas of perfusion at 72 h. This predictive capability may permit intraoperative revision of compromised flaps that have a high likelihood of failure. PMID:21042109

  4. Evaluation of additional head of biceps brachii: a study with autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, L E; Forero, P L; Buitrago, E R

    2014-05-01

    Additional head of the biceps brachii (AHBB) has been reported in different population groups with a frequency of 1-25%. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and morphologic expression of the AHBB as determined in a sample of the Colombian population. An exploration was conducted with 106 arms corresponding to unclaimed corpses autopsied at Institute of Legal and Forensic Medicine of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Using medial incision involvingskin, subcutaneous tissue, and brachial fascia, the heads of the biceps and their innervating branches were visualised. One AHBB was observed in 21 (19.8%) of the arms evaluated, with non-significant difference (p = 0.568) per side of presentation: 11 (52.4%) cases on the right side and 10 (47.6%) on the left side. All AHBBs were originated in the infero-medial segment of the humerus, with a mean thickness of 17.8 ± 6.8 mm. In 4 (19%) cases the fascicle was thin, less than 10 mm; in 7 (33.3%) cases it was of medium thickness, between 11 and 20 mm, whereas in 47.6% it was longer than 20 mm. The length of the AHBB was 118.3 ± 26.8 mm; its motor point supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was located at 101.3 ± 20.9 mm of the bi-epicondylar line. The incidence of AHBB in this study is located at the upper segment of what has been reportedin the literature and could be a morphologic trait of the Colombian population; in agreement with prior studies, the origin was the infero-medial surface of the humerus. PMID:24902098

  5. Upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block increases blood supply of unipedicled TRAM flap.

    PubMed

    Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis; Kakagia, Despoina; Gravvanis, Andreas; Iconomou, Thomais; Tsagkarakis, Myron; Zogogiannis, Ioannis; Dimitriou, Vassilios

    2008-09-01

    A prospective clinical study was conducted to evaluate the impact of upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block (CTGB) on blood supply of the unipedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap. The use of the technique is first reported herein, as a manipulation improving arterial blood flow within the flap in high-risk patients, thus reducing postoperative morbidity. From March 2003 to September 2006, 28 heavy smokers, who underwent delayed breast reconstruction with unipedicled TRAM flap, were included in the study. Intraoperative upper cervicothoracic block (ganglia C5,6,7 and T1,2) was performed in 16 patients (group A), while 12 patients, who did not consent to have the blockade (group B), were the control. Clinical evaluation and thermographic monitoring of skin temperature, using the Thermacam A40 (FLIR systems, Wilsonville, OR), was used in all patients and determined the blood flow within the flap. All patients were monitored for early and late complications. In all group A patients, CTGB resulted in TRAM flap temperature increase within 9.5 to 16 min. Flap temperature elevation was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) and hospital stay was significantly shorter (P = 0.004) in group A patients. No CTGB or TRAM flap complications were recorded in group A patients. However, in group B, major fat necrosis occurred in 2 patients and partial (1/3) flap necrosis in 1 patient. Upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block is a reliable, safe, and useful technique for increasing blood flow within TRAM flaps in high-risk patients, like heavy smokers, and it minimizes postoperative morbidity. PMID:18724121

  6. The Impact of Different Degrees of Injured C7 Nerve Transfer: An Experimental Rat Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chang, Tommy Nai-Jen; Lu, Johnny Chuieng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ipsilateral C7 nerve transfer is an available procedure in C5C6 2-root avulsion injury of the brachial plexus. However, concomitant injury of a normal-looking C7 cannot be ruled out. The efficiency of a concomitant injury of C7 transfer was investigated. Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups. They all underwent a 2-stage procedure. In the first stage from dorsal spine approach, left C5 and C6 roots were avulsed and C7 was crushed with jeweler’s forceps with different degrees: group A (n = 6), C7 not injured; group B (n = 10), C7 crushed for 10 seconds; group C (n = 10), C7 crushed for 30 seconds; group D (n = 10), C7 doubly crushed for 60 seconds; and group E (n = 6), C7 transected and not repaired. Four weeks later in the second stage, the C7 was reexplored via volar approach, transected, and coapted to the musculocutaneous nerve. At 12 weeks following the nerve transfer, functional outcomes were assessed. Results: Grooming test, muscle weight, electromyography, and muscle tetanic contraction force all showed that the biceps muscles were significantly worse in group C (moderate crush) and group D (severe crush). Group B (mild crush) and group A (uninjured) showed no difference. Group E (C7 cut and not repaired) was the worst. Conclusions: An injured but grossly normal-looking ipsilateral C7 can be used as a motor source but with variable results. The result is directly proportional to the severity of injury, potentially implying that better results will be achieved when longer regeneration time is allowed. PMID:25426347

  7. Relationship between BMI and Postoperative Complications with Free Flap in Anterolateral Craniofacial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Shunjiro; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Takanari, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nishio, Naoki; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have seen tremendous advancement in microsurgery over the last 2 decades and free tissue transfer has become standard for head and neck reconstruction, surgeons still struggle to prevent postoperative complications. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and postoperative complications in patients undergoing rectus abdominis free flap transfer after anterolateral craniofacial resection. Methods: This was a retrospective review of reconstructive surgery using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap in patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma from 2003 to 2014 (n = 35, 27 men and 8 women; average age, 60.9 ± 7.8 years). All patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction after anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base resection and maxillectomy (class IV, subtype a) with palatal resection. Patients were categorized based on sex, BMI, and other parameters. Results: Recipient-site infection occurred in 11 patients (31.4%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 6 (17.1%), partial flap necrosis in 2 (5.7%), total flap necrosis in 1 (2.9%), and facial fistula in 4 (11.4%). Women showed partial flap necrosis significantly more frequently (P = 0.047), probably owing to poor vascular supply of the subcutaneous fat layer. Patients with low BMI (<20 kg/m2) showed recipient-site infection (P = 0.02) and facial fistula (P = 0.01) significantly more frequently owing to insufficient tissue volume and poor vascular supply. Conclusion: Postoperative recipient-site infection and facial fistula occurred mainly in low-BMI patients. Surgeons should take care to achieve sufficient donor tissue on low-BMI patients. Using a prosthetic obturator in low-BMI patients for craniofacial reconstruction can be a good alternative option to reduce postoperative complications due to insufficient donor tissue volume. PMID:27257566

  8. Closure of Myelomeningocele Defects Using a Limberg Flap or Direct Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung-Hwan; Hwang, Na-Hyun; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of myelomeningocele has been reported to be 0.8–1 per 1,000 live births. Early closure of the defect is considered to be the standard of care. Various surgical methods have been reported, such as primary skin closure, local skin flaps, musculocutaneous flaps, and skin grafts. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of myelomeningocele defects and present the surgical outcomes of recent cases of myelomeningocele at our institution. Methods Patients who underwent surgical closure of myelomeningocele at our institution from January 2004 to December 2013 were included in this study. A retrospective chart review of their medical records was performed, and comorbidities, defect size, location, surgical procedures, complications, and the final results were analyzed. Results A total of 14 patients underwent surgical closure for myelomeningocele defects. Twelve cases were closed with direct skin repair, while two cases required local skin flaps to cover the skin defects. Three cases of infection occurred, requiring incision and either drainage or removal of allogenic materials. One case of partial flap necrosis occurred, requiring secondary revision using a rotational flap and a full-thickness skin graft. Despite these complications, all wounds eventually healed completely. Conclusions Most myelomeningocele defects can be managed by direct skin repair alone. In cases of large defects, in which direct repair is not possible, local flaps may be used to cover the defect. Complications such as wound dehiscence and partial flap necrosis occurred in this study; however, all such complications were successfully managed with simple ancillary procedures. PMID:26848442

  9. The efficacy of end-to-end and end-to-side nerve repair (neurorrhaphy) in the rat brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Proximal nerve injury often requires nerve transfer to restore function. Here we evaluated the efficacy of end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy of rat musculocutaneous nerve, the recipient, to ulnar nerve, the donor. The donor was transected for end-to-end, while an epineurial window was exposed for end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Retrograde tracing showed that 70% donor motor and sensory neurons grew into the recipient 3 months following end-to-end neurorrhaphy compared to 40–50% at 6 months following end-to-side neurorrhaphy. In end-to-end neurorrhaphy, regenerating axons appeared as thick fibers which regained diameters comparable to those of controls in 3–4 months. However, end-to-side neurorrhaphy induced slow sprouting fibers of mostly thin collaterals that barely approached control diameters by 6 months. The motor end plates regained their control density at 4 months following end-to-end but remained low 6 months following end-to-side neurorrhaphy. The short-latency compound muscle action potential, typical of that of control, was readily restored following end-to-end neurorrhaphy. End-to-side neurorrhaphy had low amplitude and wide-ranging latency at 4 months and failed to regain control sizes by 6 months. Grooming test recovered successfully at 3 and 6 months following end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy, respectively, suggesting that powerful muscle was not required. In short, both neurorrhaphies resulted in functional recovery but end-to-end neurorrhaphy was quicker and better, albeit at the expense of donor function. End-to-side neurorrhaphy supplemented with factors to overcome the slow collateral sprouting and weak motor recovery may warrant further exploration. PMID:19682138

  10. Microvascular Reconstructions of Full-Thickness Oncological Chest Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Tukiainen, Erkki; Popov, Pentscho; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the suitability of microvascular flaps for the reconstruction of extensive full-thickness defects of the chest wall. Summary Background Data: Chest wall defects are conventionally reconstructed with pedicular musculocutaneous flaps or the omentum. Sometimes, however, these flaps have already been used, are not reliable due to previous operations or radiotherapy, or are of inadequate size. In such cases, microvascular flaps offer the only option for reconstruction. Methods: From 1988 to 2001, 26 patients with full-thickness resections of the chest wall underwent reconstruction with microvascular flaps. There were 8 soft tissue sarcomas, 8 recurrent breast cancers, 5 chondrosarcomas, 2 desmoid tumors, 1 large cell pulmonary cancer metastasis, 1 renal cancer metastasis, and 1 bronchopleural fistula. The surgery comprised 5 extended forequarter amputations, 5 lateral resections, 8 thoracoabdominal resections, and 8 sternal resections. The mean diameter of a resection was 28 cm. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with 16 tensor fasciae latae, 5 tensor fascia latae combined with rectus femoris, and 3 transversus rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. In 2 patients with a forequarter amputation, the remnant forearm was used as the osteomusculocutaneous free flap. Results: There were no flap losses or perioperative mortality. Four patients needed tracheostomy owing to prolonged respiratory difficulties. The mean survival time for patients with sarcomas was 39 months and for those with recurrent breast cancer 18 months. Conclusions: Extensive chest wall resections are possible with acceptable results. In patients with breast cancer, the surgery may offer valuable palliation and in those with sarcomas it can be curative. PMID:14631216

  11. Internal fixation of the sternum in median sternotomy dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Chase, C W; Franklin, J D; Guest, D P; Barker, D E

    1999-05-01

    Sternal dehiscence may be defined as separation of the bony sternum and manubrium following median sternotomy. It may occur at any time postoperatively and has various etiologies. Restoration of sternal integrity in sternal dehiscence is a challenging problem, particularly when associated with deep-seated infection. This report reviews a single-stage technique that virtually eliminates the infected sternotomy wound and provides anatomic reduction and stabilization of the sternum. Complete debridement of infected and/or nonviable soft tissue, bone, and cartilage is followed by pulse irrigation. Parallel stainless steel mandibular reconstruction plates are then placed on each side of the remaining sternum and wired together. One or more transmanubrial compression plates may be added. Bilateral pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap advancement and primary skin closure is performed over two to three closed suction drains. From January of 1994 to July of 1996, this technique was used by the same surgeon in 26 male and 4 female patients aged 43 to 78 years (mean = 61). Indications for the operation were sternal dehiscence with infection (osteomyelitis and/or mediastinitis) in 14 patients and sternal dehiscence without infection in 16 patients. All patients survived to discharge with mean time on the ventilator, intensive care unit length of stay, and postoperative length of stay of 0.7, 2, and 8 days, respectively. Choice and duration of antibiotics were based on culture results and operative findings. Subsequent hardware removal was necessary in one patient for hardware loosening and three patients for late periplate infection. A closed wound was eventually achieved in all 30 patients, and sternal stability was restored in 29 patients. In the management of sternal dehiscence, the described technique of internal fixation can provide anatomic sternal reduction and stabilization, elimination of infection, and wound closure in a single-stage operation. Successful outcomes

  12. Health-related quality of life, surgical and aesthetic outcomes following microvascular free flap reconstructions: an 8-year institutional review

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, RT; Butler, JS; Murphy, SM; Cronin, KJ

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Microvascular free flap reconstruction has revolutionised the reconstruction of complex defects of traumatic, oncological, congenital and infectious aetiologies. Complications of microvascular free flap procedures impact negatively on patient post-operative course and outcome. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of 102 consecutive patients undergoing 108 free flap procedures at a tertiary referral centre over an 8-year period. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors pRedictive of free flap complications. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and aesthetic outcomes were assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire and a satisfaction visual analogue scale respectively. RESULTS In total, 108 free tissue transfers were performed; 23% were fasciocutaneous free flaps, 69% musculocutaneous and 8% osteoseptocutaneous. The overall flap success rate was 92.6%. Over a third of patients (34.3%) had flap-related complications ranging from minor wound dehiscence to total flap loss. ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade ≥2 (OR: 16.9, 95% CI: 15.3–18.1, p<0.009), history of smoking (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 5.5–7.2, p<0.049), body mass index ≥25kg/ m2 (OR: 21.3, 95% CI: 20.8–22.1, p<0.003), low albumin (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.9, p<0.003) and peripheral vascular disease (OR: 6.9, 95% CI: 5.9–7.5, p<0.036) were identified as factors independently predictive of free flap complications. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing uncomplicated free flap surgery and those reporting superior post-operative flap aesthesis have higher HRQoL scores. Microvascular free tissue transfer has revolutionised our approach to the reconstruction of complex defects, providing a safe, reliable procedure to restore functionality and quality of life for patients. PMID:22524928

  13. Comparison of two techniques for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade in cats.

    PubMed

    Ansón, Agustina; Laredo, Francisco G; Gil, Francisco; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, Maria D; Agut, Amalia

    2015-06-01

    Axillary blockade of the brachial plexus (BP) is advocated in humans and dogs for surgical procedures carried out on the foot, carpus and elbow as it provides complete analgesia distally from above the elbow joint. The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound (US)-guided approach to block the BP in cats. Two groups of 12 feline cadavers each were used to compare two different techniques to block the BP at the axillary level. The reliability of the techniques was assessed by anatomical and computed tomography (CT) studies. Cadavers of the first group were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb to be blocked adducted (thoracic limbs flexed and orientated caudally) (FAD technique). The second group was positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb abducted 90° (FAB technique). The accuracy of the techniques was determined by US after injecting 1 ml blue ink along the BP nerves, and by CT after injecting 1 ml of an iodinated contrast medium. The anatomical and CT studies confirmed the accuracy of the US location of the BP nerves. Staining of the axillaris, musculocutaneous, radialis, medianus and ulnaris nerves was observed in 100% of cats using the FAB technique and in 66% of the cats using the FAD technique. Rate of complications was higher in the FAD technique. In conclusion, a US-guided axillary approach to the BP by the use of a FAB technique is a safe and feasible procedure to block the BP in the cat. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether the technique can be applied in a clinical setting. PMID:25193280

  14. A cadaveric microanatomical study of the fascicular topography of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sumit; Prasad, G Lakshmi; Lalwani, Sanjeev

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Mapping of the fascicular anatomy of the brachial plexus could provide the nerve surgeon with knowledge of fascicular orientation in spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. This knowledge might improve the surgical outcome of nerve grafting in brachial plexus injuries by anastomosing related fascicles and avoiding possible axonal misrouting. The objective of this study was to map the fascicular topography in the spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. METHODS The entire right-sided brachial plexus of 25 adult male cadavers was dissected, including all 5 spinal nerves (C5-T1), from approximately 5 mm distal to their exit from the intervertebral foramina, to proximal 1 cm of distal branches. All spinal nerves were tagged on the cranial aspect of their circumference using 10-0 nylon suture for orientation. The fascicular dissection of the C5-T1 spinal nerves was performed under microscopic magnification. The area occupied by different nerve fascicles was then expressed as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a spinal nerve. RESULTS The localization of fascicular groups was fairly consistent in all spinal nerves. Overall, 4% of the plexus supplies the suprascapular nerve, 31% supplies the medial cord (comprising the ulnar nerve and medial root of the median nerve [MN]), 27.2% supplies the lateral cord (comprising the musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the MN), and 37.8% supplies the posterior cord (comprising the axillary and radial nerves). CONCLUSIONS The fascicular dissection and definitive anatomical localization of fascicular groups is feasible in plexal spinal nerves. The knowledge of exact fascicular location might be translatable to the operating room and can be used to anastomose related fascicles in brachial plexus surgery, thereby avoiding the possibility of axonal misrouting and improving the results of plexal reconstruction. PMID:26654179

  15. Surgical anatomy of the pectoral nerves and the pectoral musculature.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The pectoral nerves (PNs) may be selectively injured through various traumatic mechanisms such as direct trauma, hypertrophic muscle compression, and iatrogenic injuries (breast surgery and axillary node dissection, pectoralis major muscle transfers). The PN may be surgically recovered through nerve transfers. They may also be used as donors to the musculocutaneous, axillary, long thoracic, and spinal accessory nerves and for reinnervation of myocutaneous free flaps. Thus, in this article, we reviewed the surgical anatomy of PN. A meta-analysis of the available literature showed that the lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) arises most frequently with two branches from the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks (33.8%) or as a single root from the lateral cord (23.4%). The medial pectoral nerve (MPN) usually arises from the medial cord (49.3%), anterior division of the lower trunk (43.8%), or lower trunk (4.7%). The two PN are usually connected immediately distal to the thoracoacromial artery by the so-called ansa pectoralis. The MPN may also show communications with the intercostobrachial nerve. In 50%-100% of cases, it may pass, at least with some branches, through the pectoralis minor muscle. The LPN supplies the upper portions of the pectoralis major muscle; the MPN innervates the lower parts of the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor muscle. Among the accessory muscles of the pectoral girdle, the LPN may also innervate the tensor semivaginae articulationis humero-scapularis, pectoralis minimus, sternoclavicularis, axillary arch, sternalis, and infraclavicularis muscles; the MPN may innervate the pectoralis quartus, chondrofascialis, axillary arch, chondroepitrochlearis, and sternalis muscles. PMID:22125052

  16. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  17. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  18. Niacin supplementation increases the number of oxidative type I fibers in skeletal muscle of growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent study showed that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber switching from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, leading to muscle fiber switching and up-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid import and oxidation, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin supplementation causes type II to type I muscle and changes the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscles in growing pigs. Results 25 male, 11 wk old crossbred pigs (Danzucht x Pietrain) with an average body weight of 32.8 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD) kg were randomly allocated to two groups of 12 (control group) and 13 pigs (niacin group) which were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 750 mg niacin/kg diet. After 3 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in three different muscles (M. longissismus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris, M. gastrocnemius) was greater in the niacin group and the percentage number of type II fibers was lower in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PGC-1β and genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid catabolism (CACT, FATP1, OCTN2), citrate cycle (SDHA), oxidative phosphorylation (COX4/1, COX6A1), and thermogenesis (UCP3) in M. longissimus dorsi were greater in the niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The study demonstrates that niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber switching, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in pigs. Given that oxidative muscle types tend to develop dark, firm and dry pork in response to intense physical activity and/or high psychological stress levels preslaughter, a niacin

  19. The effect of a limit-fed diet and slow-feed hay nets on morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Glunk, E C; Hathaway, M R; Grev, A M; Lamprecht, E D; Maher, M C; Martinson, K L

    2015-08-01

    Modern horse management systems tend to limit a horse's opportunity to forage, rely on meal feeding, and may contribute to the increase in equine obesity. The use of slow-feed hay nets represents an opportunity to extend foraging time while feeding a restricted diet. The objectives of this study were to determine if limit feeding combined with a slow-feed hay net would affect morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in overweight adult horses. Eight adult Quarter horses (BW 563 kg ± 4.6 kg; BCS 7.2 ± 0.3) were used in a randomized complete block design, with 4 horses assigned to feeding hay off the stall floor (FLOOR) and 4 horses assigned to feeding from a slow-feed hay net (NET). Horses were fed in individual stalls at 1% BW each day, split evenly between 2 meals at 0700 and 1600 h. Body weight, BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, and ultrasound measurements of average rump fat, longissimus dorsi (LD) depth, and LD thickness were taken on d 0, 14, and 28. Three 24-h blood samplings were conducted on d 0, 14, and 28 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, cortisol, and leptin concentrations. Samplings occurred every 30 min for 3 h postfeeding, with hourly samples occurring between feedings. Horses feeding from the FLOOR took less time to consume their hay meal compared with horses feeding from the NET ( < 0.001). All horses lost weight over the 28-d period ( < 0.0001); however, no difference was observed between treatments. There was no difference in BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, rump fat, or LD depth between days or treatments ( ≥ 0.25). There was an effect of day on LD thickness in horses feeding from the NET. Longissimus dorsi thickness was lower on d 28 compared with that on d 0 ( = 0.0257). Only time to peak insulin and peak cortisol were affected by treatment ( ≤ 0.037), with horses feeding from the NET having lower values than horses feeding from the FLOOR. Average glucose

  20. Amifostine Reduces Radiation-Induced Complications in a Murine Model of Expander-Based Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Felice, Peter A.; Nelson, Noah S.; Page, Erin E.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, José; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immediate expander-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy is a prevalent option for many women with breast cancer. When coupled with adjuvant radiation, however, radiation-induced skin and soft tissue injury diminish the success of this reconstructive technique. We hypothesize that prophylactic administration of the cytoprotectant Amifostine will reduce soft tissue complications from irradiation, aiding expander-based reconstruction for women battling this disease. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two experimental groups, Operative Expander Placement (Expander) and Operative Sham (Sham). Expander specimens received a sub-latissimus tissue expander with a 15cc fill volume; Shams underwent identical procedures without expander placement. Experimental groups were further divided into Control specimens receiving no further intervention, XRT specimens receiving human-equivalent radiation, and AMF-XRT specimens receiving both Amifostine and human-equivalent radiation. Animals underwent a 45-day recovery period and were evaluated grossly and via ImageJ analysis for skin and soft tissue complications. Results None of the Control, XRT, or AMF-XRT Sham specimens showed skin and soft tissue complications. For Expander animals, significantly fewer AMF-XRT specimens (4 of 13, 30%) demonstrated skin and soft tissue complications compared to XRT specimens (9 of 13, 69%; p = 0.041). ImageJ evaluation of Expander specimens demonstrated a significant increase in skin and soft tissue necrosis for XRT specimens (12.94%), compared with AMF-XRT animals (6.96%, p = 0.019). Conclusions Amifostine pre-treatment significantly reduced skin and soft-tissue complications in both gross inspection and ImageJ analysis. These findings demonstrate that Amifostine prophylaxis provides protection against radiation-induced skin and soft tissue injury in a murine model of expander-based breast reconstruction. Level of Evidence Animal study, not gradable for level of

  1. The effects of botulinum toxin A on survival of rat TRAM flap with vertical midline scar.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Rah, Dong Kyun; Chong, Yosep; Kim, June-kyu

    2015-01-01

    The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap has been widely used in various reconstructive surgeries. Recently, there have been reports regarding the positive effect of botulinum toxin A (BoTA) on flap survival. We hypothesized that pretreatment with BoTA could augment the survival of pedicled TRAM flaps with a vertical midline scar. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely, control group and BoTA group. Five days after a vertical midline incision, the BoTA group was pretreated with BoTA, whereas the control group was pretreated with normal saline. Ten days after the initial incision, the TRAM flap was harvested. We evaluated the gross flap survival and analyzed the overall histologic change, lumen area of pedicle, and microvessel density with immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for the evaluation of angiogenesis-related factors. In the BoTA group, the gross flap survival rate was significantly higher than that in the control group on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides (P < 0.001). In the BoTA group, a significant increase in pedicle lumen area was observed (P < 0.001). In the control group, mild to moderate epidermal necrosis was seen; microvessels were relatively small compared with those of the BoTA group. According to immunohistochemistry, the number of CD31 positively stained vessels was significantly higher on the contralateral side in the control group compared to that in the BoTA group (P < 0.001). The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CD31 was significantly lower in the BoTA group than that in the control group on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the relative mRNA expression of VEGF was significantly higher in the BoTA group than in the control group on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides (P < 0.001).We believe that preoperative BoTA therapy is a feasible method to improve circulation of the rat TRAM flap

  2. Comparison between perivascular and perineural ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using levobupivacaine: A prospective, randomised clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ambi, Uday; Bhanupriya, PVV; Hulkund, Shivanand Y; Prakashappa, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Ultrasound (US)-guided regional blocks are becoming increasingly popular as its use increases success rate, shortens block onset time and reduces complications. Currently, there exist two methods to perform US-guided axillary brachial plexus block (US-ABPB), the perivascular (PV) and the perineural (PN) techniques. We compared the two techniques to study the block characteristics and other variables using levobupivacaine. Methods: In this prospective, randomised trial, 60 patients were randomly allocated to receive a PV (n = 30) or PN (n = 30) US-ABPB. The local anaesthetic agent, 0.5% levobupivacaine and total volume of 36 ml of solution were identical in all the subjects. For both the groups, the musculocutaneous nerve was first located and then anaesthetised with 6 ml. Subsequently in the PV group, 30 ml was deposited dorsal to the axillary artery (6 o’clock position). In PN group, the median, ulnar and radial nerves were individually anaesthetised with volumes of 10 ml each. The onset and duration of sensory block, the onset and duration of motor block, number of failed blocks and complications were noted. Results: No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of success rate (PV - 93.33%, PN - 96.66%), sensory onset (PN: 8.07 (standard deviation [SD] ± 0.651) min and PV: 8.14 [SD ± 1.079] min; P = 0.754), motor onset (PN: 14.62 [SD ± 2.077] min and PV: 14.93 [SD ± 1.844] min; P = 0.557) and total duration of anaesthesia. No complications were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The PV technique provides a simple alternative for PN US-ABPB. In the light of emerging needling positions for PV and PN techniques, this study calls for large scale trials and much research in this area before one defines best or safe approach. PV technique may be considered as an alternative method for US-ABPB in patients with anatomical variation or difficulties in identifying the individual nerves. PMID:26644614

  3. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    outcome. Proximal nerve injuries have a poorer prognosis for neurological recovery. The most common peripheral nerve injury in the athlete is the burner syndrome. Though primarily a football injury, burners have been reported in wrestling, hockey, basketball and weight-lifting as a result of acute head, neck and/or shoulder trauma. Most burners are self-limiting, but they occasionally produce permanent neurological deficits. The axillary nerve is commonly injured with shoulder dislocations but is also susceptible to injury by direct compression. The sciatic and common peroneal nerves can be injured by trauma. The suprascapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median and tibial nerves are susceptible to entrapment. The long thoracic and femoral nerves can be injured by severe traction. PMID:9421863

  4. Effect of eprosartan on catecholamines and peripheral haemodynamics in subjects with insulin-induced hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Marina; Ibsen, Hans; Worck, René

    2005-02-01

    ANG II (angiotensin II) facilitates catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla and neuronal NE (noradrenaline) release. Since animal experiments point to specific sympatho-inhibitory properties of the AT1 (ANG II type 1)-receptor blocker EPRO (eprosartan), the primary aim of this study was to clarify if EPRO inhibits sympathetic reactivity in humans as determined by the effect of EPRO on insulin-induced catecholamine release. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were randomized in a double-blind cross-over study to receive a single dose of EPRO (600 mg) compared with placebo, followed by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia [0.15 IU (international unit)/kg of body weight; intravenous bolus] on two study days 1 week apart. From baseline to the end of hypoglycaemia (170 min), the sympatho-adrenal reactivity was mapped by invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring and repeated measurements of FBF (forearm blood flow), arterial and venous concentrations of glucose, catecholamines [EPI (adrenaline) and NE (noradrenaline)], renin, ANG II and aldosterone. EPRO induced an 8-10-fold increase in plasma renin and ANG II concentrations compared with placebo. Plasma glucose decreased equally during placebo and EPRO from baseline 5.9 mmol/l to 1.9 mmol/l and 2.1 mmol/l respectively, inducing a 17-fold increase in arterial EPI concentration at peak. The AUC (area under the curve) during hypoglycaemia for arterial EPI concentrations was 314+/-48 nmol.min.l-1 in placebo compared with 254+/-26 nmol.min.l-1 following EPRO treatment (P=0.14). EPRO attenuated the corresponding AUC for the EPI-induced pulse pressure response (4670+/-219 mmHg.min in EPRO compared with 5004+/-266 mmHg.min in placebo; P=0.02). Moreover, EPRO caused a less pronounced increase in FBF compared with placebo (402+/-30 compared with 479+/-46 ml.100 g-1 of body weight; P=0.04). Musculocutaneous NE release was not affected by EPRO and the AUC for NE release was 51.69+/-15.5 pmol.min-1.100 g-1 of body weight in placebo

  5. Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2001-04-01

    Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

  6. The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of pork jerky in comparison to beef jerky.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Sul; Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Seon-Tea; Park, Gu-Boo

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of beef and pork jerky, prepared from whole muscle of beef semimembranosus (BSM), pork semimembranosus (PSM), pork longissimus dorsi (PLD), and pork psoas major (PPM). The BSM and PSM jerky had higher moisture content, and PPM jerky had lower water activity than other jerky samples during 30days of storage at 25°C (P<0.05). Pork jerky samples had higher lightness value than beef jerky, while PSM jerky had higher pH value than other jerky samples (P<0.05). The shear force and TBARS values of PPM jerky were higher than those of other jerky samples (P<0.05). Saturated fatty acid (SFA, %) was significantly higher in the BSM jerky than others, while unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, %) was significantly higher in the PSM and PLD than BSM and PPM jerky samples (P<0.05). The PPM jerky showed a significant increase in UFA (%) during storage, and a significantly decrease in microbial count after storage of 30days (P<0.05). PMID:20416733

  7. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles changes associated with constant heat stress in pigs as measured by bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yue; Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress affects muscle development and meat quality in food animals; however, little is known regarding its regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level, such as via DNA methylation. In this study, we aimed to compare the DNA methylation profiles between control and heat-stressed pigs to identify candidate genes for skeletal muscle development and meat quality. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the longissimus dorsi muscles of the pigs. Both groups showed similar proportions of methylation at CpG sites but exhibited different proportions at non-CpG sites. A total of 57,147 differentially methylated regions were identified between the two groups, which corresponded to 1,422 differentially methylated genes. Gene ontogeny and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that these were mainly involved in energy and lipid metabolism, cellular defense and stress responses, and calcium signaling pathways. This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of pig muscle between normal and heat stress conditions. The result of this study might contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in pig muscle development and meat quality. PMID:27264107

  8. Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Aouadi, Dorra; Brogna, Daniela M R; Scerra, Manuel; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Ben Salem, Hichem

    2013-10-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3 months of age), were assigned for 95 days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400 ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n=6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n=6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties. PMID:23747617

  9. Effect of mevalonic acid on cholesterol synthesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Cheng, Haijian; Zhang, Qingfeng; Song, Enliang; Wan, Fachun; Han, Hong; Liu, Guifen

    2016-02-01

    Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key material in the synthesis of cholesterol; indeed, intracellular cholesterol synthesis is also called the mevalonic acid pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. This study suggests that MVA may play an important role in the differentiation of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. We investigated differential mRNA expression in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs) and bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes (BSPs) by culturing cells from the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues of Luxi yellow cattle. The morphology of lipid accumulation of bovine preadipocytes was detected by Oil Red O staining, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels were measured. Temporospatial expression of HMGR was investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The TC, LDLC, and HDLC content did not significantly differ over time but increased slowly with increasing MVA concentration. HMGR expression increased over time and with increasing concentrations of MVA. MVA increased adipose cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. MVA stimulated HMGR expression in two cell types and its influence on adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26122311

  10. Can calcium chloride injection facilitate the ageing-derived improvement in the quality of meat from culled dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Bunmee, T; Jaturasitha, S; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated whether the positive effects of ageing on tenderness of meat from culled dairy cows can be facilitated by CaCl₂. Injections of 250 mM CaCl₂ solution (10% wt/wt) were performed on Longissimus dorsi samples from 32 7-yrs old cows. Samples were vacuum packaged and aged for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Ageing alone produced lighter and less red meat with lower shear force, higher myofibrillar fragmentation and tenderness scores but also elevated lipid oxidation. For most traits investigated, CaCl₂-injected meat exhibited similar ageing effects, but drip loss increased with age. The CaCl₂-injected meat had a lower shear force and myofibrillar fragmentation increased more rapidly, but drip loss, off-flavour scores, colour stability and oxidative stability were inferior to untreated meat. Overall, it was found possible to accelerate tenderisation of such meat with CaCl₂, but only at the cost of adverse effects in some other quality traits. PMID:24398003

  11. The application of biosensors for drip loss analysis and glycolytic potential evaluation.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Wiesław; Sionek, Barbara; Jaworska, Danuta; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glucose and lactate measured by biosensors in drip loss (strip method) with muscle glycolytic potential and their compounds. On the samples taken from Longissimus dorsi of 24 pigs (pure Neckar hybrid line) the following meat quality traits were determined: pH at 24h, meat color according to CIE L(⁎)a(⁎)b(⁎) system and drip loss. The highest correlations were found between glucose in drip loss and glycogen (r=0.84) or glycolytic potential (r=0.81) in muscle. A significant positive relationship between lactate measured in muscle by enzymatic method and by biosensor in drip loss was established (r=0.76). Glycogen, glucose, lactate and glycolytic potential with meat quality traits as ultimate pH, lightness, b(⁎) value and drip loss were significantly related. Results of multiple regression between glucose as well as lactate measured in muscle drip loss with muscle glycolytic potential showed the possibility of its prediction (r=0.87 with Pα≤0.001). PMID:26930360

  12. Effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Rutbİl, Hilal; Akpinar, Ercan; Yildirim, Alİ; Karakaya, İlkİm Çitak

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance. [Subjects and Methods] In this randomized-controlled, single-blind study, 59 university students (35 females, 24 males) were randomized into study (n=29) and control (n=30) groups. The study group received a foot and ankle proprioceptive exercise program including stretching, strengthening (plantar and dorsi-flexors, invertor and evertor muscles), and balance board exercises, each with 10 repetitions per session, 5 days a week, for a total of 10 sessions. The control group did not receive any intervention. Static body balance was evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer, which showed the balance index scores under both single foot and both feet conditions. This evaluation was repeated at the end of two weeks for both groups. [Results] Outcome measures of the groups were similar at the baseline. Balance index scores of both groups improved at the end of two weeks, and the study group had significantly lower index scores than those of the control group, indicating better balance. [Conclusion] Ankle proprioceptive training had positive effects on static body balance parameters in healthy individuals, and it is worth investigating the effects of this type of training in patients with balance disorders. PMID:26644697

  13. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry. PMID:22061236

  14. Transcriptome analysis of genetic mechanism of growth curve inflection point using a pig model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-12-01

    Animal growth curves play an important role for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies (De Lange et al., 2001 [1]; Brossard et al., 2009 [2]; Strathe et al., 2010 [3]). However, the genetic mechanism of the phenotypic difference between the inflection point and noninflection points of the growth curve remains unclear. Here, we report the differentially expressed gene pattern in pig longissimus dorsi among three typical time points of the growth curve, inflection point (IP), before inflection point (BIP) and after inflection point (AIP). The whole genome RNA-seq data was deposited at GenBank under the accession number PRJNA2284587. The RNA-seq libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. Totals of 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified in IP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Furthermore, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between IP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and IP. Function enrichment analysis of DEGs found that the highly expressed genes in IP were mainly enriched in energy metabolism, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity. This study contributes to reveal the genetic mechanism of growth curve inflection point. PMID:26697358

  15. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  16. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of meat from young bulls fed ground soybean or rumen protected fat with or without monensin.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, M M; Santarosa, L C; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Oliveira, D M; Carvalho, J R R; Lopes, L S; Ribeiro, J S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profile of the muscle and subcutaneous fat of young bulls fed ground soybean grain (SB) or rumen protected fat (RPF) with (230 mg head(-1) day(-1)) or without monensin. Forty animals with an initial weight of 359 kg were allotted in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The use of monensin increased the arachidonic and α-linolenic acids in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and subcutaneous fat, respectively (P<0.05). The meat from the animals receiving RPF had greater C18:1 content (P<0.01). The CLA and C18:2 contents were greater in the LD muscle of the animals fed SB (P<0.01). However, α-C18:3 was greater in the LD muscle of animals fed RPF (P<0.01). In the subcutaneous fat, SB reduced C12:0 and C14:0 contents (P<0.01) and increased C18:0 (P<0.05). The inclusion of RPF increased the C18:1 and CLA contents (P<0.01) in the subcutaneous fat. Soybean elevated PUFA contents and increased susceptibility of muscle and subcutaneous fat to lipid oxidation. PMID:24018278

  17. Effect of inulin extracts or inulin-containing plant supplement on blood lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Sobolewska, S; Roziński, T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inulin or dandelion, chicory and Jerusalem artichoke powder on lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues. The experiment involved 120 crossbred pigs (PL x PLW) x Duroc with an initial body weight of 25.0 +/- 0.5 kg. Animals were assigned into 6 groups. A diet for group I (control) did not comprise an inulin additive, group II and III received 2% inulin (water or water-alcohol extraction of inulin from chicory root, respectively), while the mixtures for group IV, V and VI contained 4% root powder from Jerusalem artichoke (topinambur), chicory or dandelion, respectively. The animals were slaughtered at 115 kg body weight. The samples of blood, liver and the muscle longissimus dorsi tissues as well as whole hearts were collected for analysis. Fatty acid profile, some lipid indices and crude fat and cholesterol content were evaluated. Dietary supplement of 40 g dandelion powder resulted in preferable significant changes in the blood lipid indices and fatty acids composition (increased PUFA share and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio). PMID:24724475

  18. Nondestructive detection of pork comprehensive quality based on spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Yankun; Zhang, Leilei; Dhakal, Sagar; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    Pork is one of the highly consumed meat item in the world. With growing improvement of living standard, concerned stakeholders including consumers and regulatory body pay more attention to comprehensive quality of fresh pork. Different analytical-laboratory based technologies exist to determine quality attributes of pork. However, none of the technologies are able to meet industrial desire of rapid and non-destructive technological development. Current study used optical instrument as a rapid and non-destructive tool to classify 24 h-aged pork longissimus dorsi samples into three kinds of meat (PSE, Normal and DFD), on the basis of color L* and pH24. Total of 66 samples were used in the experiment. Optical system based on Vis/NIR spectral acquisition system (300-1100 nm) was self- developed in laboratory to acquire spectral signal of pork samples. Median smoothing filter (M-filter) and multiplication scatter correction (MSC) was used to remove spectral noise and signal drift. Support vector machine (SVM) prediction model was developed to classify the samples based on their comprehensive qualities. The results showed that the classification model is highly correlated with the actual quality parameters with classification accuracy more than 85%. The system developed in this study being simple and easy to use, results being promising, the system can be used in meat processing industry for real time, non-destructive and rapid detection of pork qualities in future.

  19. Effect of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Balance and Joint Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Perrin, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Prophylactic knee braces are designed to prevent and reduce the severity of ligamentous injuries to the knee. Conflicting evidence is reported concerning their efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic knee bracing on the proprioceptive parameters of balance and joint position sense. Active and passive joint position sense were assessed using the Cybex II + Isokinetic Dynamometer (Cybex Division of Lumex, Inc, Ronkonkoma, NY). Sway index and center of balance were assessed using the Chattecx Dynamic Balance System (Chattanooga Group, Hixson, TN). Thirty-six male subjects were measured with and without prophylactic knee braces. Joint position sense was measured in degrees of error from four preselected target angles. Sway index and center of balance measures were recorded in centimeters under the following platform conditions: stable, plantar flexion/dorsiflexion, and inversion/eversion. Separate repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to determine if there were differences between the braced and unbraced conditions for center of balance, sway index, and joint position sense. Center of balance with the platform moving in a dorsi/plantar flexion direction was improved while wearing the knee braces. In addition, differences in both center of balance and sway were recorded across the three platform conditions with and without knee bracing. Bracing did not affect joint position sense. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic knee braces have very little impact on proprioceptive feedback mechanisms. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 4. PMID:16558386

  20. Effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Fumika; Toyoshi, Masanari; Irie, Masakazu

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs fed feed made from food waste, including noodles and chocolate. Four dietary treatments, 2 levels of lysine/protein ratio (0.035 and 0.046) and 2 levels of fat (3.3% and 6.0%), were adapted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each diet for the finishing pigs contained the same levels of adequate crude protein (16%) and lysine (0.58-0.75%), and similar levels of high total digestible nutrients (90.2-92.6%). In total, 32 LWD pigs with an average body weight of 57.2 kg were assigned to 4 dietary groups. The pigs were slaughtered at about 115 kg. Growth performance was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Carcass characteristics were slightly influenced by the dietary fat level. As the dietary lysine/protein ratio decreased, the marbling score of Longissimus dorsi muscle increased and the intramuscular fat (IMF) increased from 6.82% to 9.46%. Marbling score was not significantly influenced by the dietary fat level. These results indicate that IMF increased without adverse effects on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality, when pigs were fed a diet with low lysine/protein ratio. PMID:24261827

  1. The miRNA Transcriptome Directly Reflects the Physiological and Biochemical Differences between Red, White, and Intermediate Muscle Fiber Types

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Zongwen; Zhu, Li; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Skeletal muscle comprises different fiber types that can be broadly classified as red, intermediate, and white. Recently, a set of miRNAs was found expressed in a fiber type-specific manner in red and white fiber types. However, an in-depth analysis of the miRNA transcriptome differences between all three fiber types has not been undertaken. Herein, we collected 15 porcine skeletal muscles from different anatomical locations, which were then clearly divided into red, white, and intermediate fiber type based on the ratios of myosin heavy chain isoforms. We further illustrated that three muscles, which typically represented each muscle fiber type (i.e., red: peroneal longus (PL), intermediate: psoas major muscle (PMM), white: longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM)), have distinct metabolic patterns of mitochondrial and glycolytic enzyme levels. Furthermore, we constructed small RNA libraries for PL, PMM, and LDM using a deep sequencing approach. Results showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly enriched in PL and played a vital role in myogenesis and energy metabolism. Overall, this comprehensive analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the miRNA regulatory mechanism that achieves the phenotypic diversity of skeletal muscles. PMID:25938964

  2. Microsystem technology based diode lasers and Raman sensors for in situ food quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, B.; Schmidt, H.; Maiwald, M.; Müller, A.; Erbert, G.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.; Tränkle, G.

    2009-05-01

    A microsystem based Raman sensor system for the in situ control of meat was realized. As excitation laser source a compact external cavity diode laser (ECDL) emitting at 671.0 nm mounted on a micro optical bench with a total dimension of (13 x 4 x 1) mm3 is implemented. An output power of 200 mW, a stable emission at 671.0 nm, and a narrow spectral width of about 80 pm, i.e. 2 cm-1, were measured. The device is well suited for Raman measurements of liquid and solid samples. The devices parameters and the stability will be reviewed. The micro-system laser device is implemented into a specifically laboratory prototype, including an optical bench with a diameter of 25 mm and a length of 170 mm. The probe is coupled fiber-optically to a polychromator with CCD detector for rapid spectral analysis. The Raman probe is characterized and first Raman measurements of porcine musculus longissimus dorsi through the package will be presented. The usefulness of Raman spectroscopy will be discussed with a view of integrating the sensor in a handheld laser scanner for food control.

  3. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  4. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  5. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  6. Comparative transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq to discern differential expression of genes in liver and muscle tissues of adult Berkshire and Jeju Native Pig.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Song, Ki-Duk; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Sharma, Neelesh; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Nameun; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Adhikari, Pradeep; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Sang Pyo; Oh, Sung Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2014-08-10

    RNA-seq is being rapidly adopted for the profiling of the transcriptomes in different areas of biology, especially in the studies related to gene regulation. The discovery of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adult animals of Jeju Native Pig (JNP) and Berkshire breeds of Sus scrofa, is of particular interest for the current study. For the better understanding of the gene expression profiles of the liver and longissimus dorsi muscle, DEGs were identified via RNA-seq. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the pig reference genome (Sscrofa10.2) using Tophat2. We identified 169 and 39 DEGs in the liver and muscle of JNP respectively, by comparison with Berkshire breed. Out of all identified genes, 41 genes in the liver and 9 genes in the muscle have given significant expression. Gene ontology (GO) terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic, immune response and protein binding were commonly enriched pathways in the two tissues. Further the heat map analysis by ArrayStar has shown the different levels of expression in JNP with respect to the Berkshire breed. The validation through real time PCR and western blotting also confirmed the differential expression of genes in both breeds. Genes pertaining to metabolic process and inflammatory and immune system are more enriched in Berkshire breed. This comparative transcriptome analysis of two tissues suggests a subset of novel marker genes which expressed differently between the JNP and Berkshire. PMID:24910116

  7. Effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg and approximately 15 months old fed extensively or intensively on maize silage and concentrate mixture for 100 or 138 days, were divided into four groups to assess the effect of time on feed and feeding intensity on the performance, carcass and meat quality traits. Bulls intensively fed for 138 days before slaughter had higher final body weight (673.7 kg) compared with the other three groups (610.6 kg, as overall mean). Intensive feeding significantly increased the average daily gain (1371 g/day) and improved the feed efficiency (6.95 kg DM/kg gain) compared with extensive feeding (943 g/day and 7.97 kg DM/kg gain). No significant differences were detected by time on feed. Hot carcass and kidney fat weights were significantly higher for intensively fed bulls compared with extensive ones. Dressing percentage significantly increased for 138 day groups compared with 100 day groups. Carcass conformation and fatness scores significantly improved by intensive feeding. L and b(*) values were not affected by time on feed or feeding intensity. Slaughtering after 138 days on feed significantly elevated the meat redness value (a(*)). Intensive feeding significantly decreased moisture and increased fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Shear force, collagen content, juiciness, flavour and sarcomere length did not differ by time on feed or feeding intensity, while inconsistent effects were observed on tenderness and solubility of collagen. PMID:22061314

  8. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  9. Comparative Analysis on Antioxidative Ability of Muscle between Laiwu Pig and Large White.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hong-Lei; Shi, Yuan; Zhao, Meng-Meng; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Yong-Qing

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of storage temperatures (4°C and 20°C) and pig breeds (Laiwu pig and Large White pig) on the main antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) activity and lipid oxidation in porcine Longissimus dorsi muscle. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (AOE) decreased slightly during storage, regardless of storage temperatures. Muscle antioxidative enzymes activities stored at 4°C were higher than that stored at 20°C. Laiwu pig's enzymes activities were significantly (p<0.01) higher than Large White's. The level of malondialdehyde is a direct expression of the grade of lipid oxidation in meat. In our study, the malondialdehyde contents increased after 6 days storage. However, malondialdehyde contents of Laiwu pig were significantly (p<0.01) lower than Large White's. A lower content of malondialdehyde corresponds to a lower oxidation of lipids. These results indicated the muscle antioxidative ability of Laiwu pig was higher than Large White pig. It also implied that antioxidative enzymes were involved in the essentials and deciding mechanisms of meat quality by quenching oxygen free radicals and inhibiting lipid oxidation in muscle. PMID:25049680

  10. Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

  11. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  12. Design of an automated device to measure sagittal plane stiffness of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Leung, Aaron K L; Akazawa, Yasushi; Naito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Masao; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a new automated stiffness measurement device which could perform a simultaneous measurement of both dorsi- and plantarflexion angles and the corresponding resistive torque around the rotational centre of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). This was achieved by controlling angular velocities and range of motion in the sagittal plane. The device consisted of a hydraulic servo fatigue testing machine, a torque meter, a potentiometer, a rotary plate and an upright supporter to enable an AAFO to be attached to the device via a surrogate shank. The accuracy of the device in reproducing the range of motion and angular velocity was within 4% and 1% respectively in the range of motion of 30° (15° plantarflexion to 15° dorsiflexion) at the angular velocity of 10°/s, while that in the measurement of AAFO torque was within 8% at the 0° position. The device should prove useful to assist an orthotist or a manufacturer to quantify the stiffness of an AAFO and inform its clinical use. PMID:20681928

  13. Comparative Analysis on Antioxidative Ability of Muscle between Laiwu Pig and Large White

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hong-Lei; Shi, Yuan; Zhao, Meng-Meng; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Yong-Qing

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of storage temperatures (4°C and 20°C) and pig breeds (Laiwu pig and Large White pig) on the main antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) activity and lipid oxidation in porcine Longissimus dorsi muscle. Activities of antioxidative enzymes (AOE) decreased slightly during storage, regardless of storage temperatures. Muscle antioxidative enzymes activities stored at 4°C were higher than that stored at 20°C. Laiwu pig’s enzymes activities were significantly (p<0.01) higher than Large White’s. The level of malondialdehyde is a direct expression of the grade of lipid oxidation in meat. In our study, the malondialdehyde contents increased after 6 days storage. However, malondialdehyde contents of Laiwu pig were significantly (p<0.01) lower than Large White’s. A lower content of malondialdehyde corresponds to a lower oxidation of lipids. These results indicated the muscle antioxidative ability of Laiwu pig was higher than Large White pig. It also implied that antioxidative enzymes were involved in the essentials and deciding mechanisms of meat quality by quenching oxygen free radicals and inhibiting lipid oxidation in muscle. PMID:25049680

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  15. Influence of early pH decline on calpain activity in porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ertbjerg, Per; Karlsson, Anders H; Costa, Leonardo Nanni; Lametsch, René

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of post-mortem pH decline on calpain activity and myofibrillar degradation. From 80 pigs, 30 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of pH values at 3h post-mortem and classified into groups of 10 as fast, intermediate and slow pH decline. The rate of pH decline early post-mortem differed between the three groups, but the ultimate pH values were similar at 24h. Calpain activity and autolysis from 1 to 72h post-mortem were determined using casein zymography and studied in relation to myofibrillar fragmentation. Colour and drip loss were measured. A faster decrease in pH resulted in reduced level of mu-calpain activity and increased autolysis of the enzyme, and hence an earlier loss of activity due to activation of mu-calpain in muscles with a fast pH decline. Paralleling the mu-calpain activation in muscles with a fast pH decline a higher myofibril fragmentation at 24h post-mortem was observed, which was no longer evident in the later phase of the tenderization process. In conclusion, the rate of early pH decline influenced mu-calpain activity and the rate but not the extent of myofibrillar degradation, suggesting an early effect of proteolysis on myofibril fragmentation that is reduced during ageing due to an earlier exhaustion of mu-calpain activity. PMID:20374873

  16. Investigation on CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine gene polymorphisms and expression in relation to post-mortem calpain activity in muscle and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, G; Pomponio, L; Ertbjerg, P; Karlsson, A H; Nanni Costa, L; Lametsch, R; Russo, V; Davoli, R

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to detect variability in CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine genes and to investigate the effect of CAST and CAPN1 polymorphisms on the activity of native and autolyzed μ-calpain and m-calpain, measured from 1 to 72 h post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 30 pigs. Effects of polymorphisms on meat quality parameter such as pH, color and drip loss were also evaluated. Samples carrying CAST EU137105:g.76,872AA genotype showed higher autolyzed μ-calpain activity 24 and 72 h post-mortem, as well as lower drip loss values. Expression of CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 was assessed in LD muscles divergent for shear force. Higher CAST and CAPN3 expression was found in LD with high shear force (P<0.2), confirming a direct role for calpastatin but not for calpain 3 in meat tenderization. In conclusion, CAST gene affected post-mortem activation time of calpain and drip loss. PMID:21450414

  17. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  18. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  19. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  20. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (p<0.05). Peak force was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997