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Sample records for latitudinal gradient genetic

  1. Seasonal time constraints reduce genetic variation in life-history traits along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Sniegula, Szymon; Golab, Maria J; Drobniak, Szymon M; Johansson, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Time constraints cause strong selection on life-history traits, because populations need to complete their life cycles within a shorter time. We therefore expect lower genetic variation in these traits in high- than in low-latitude populations, since the former are more time-constrained. The aim was to estimate life-history traits and their genetic variation in an obligately univoltine damselfly along a latitudinal gradient of 2730 km. Populations were grown in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at their place of origin. In a complementary experiment, individuals from the same families were grown in constant temperature and photoperiod that mimicked average conditions across the latitude. Development time and size was faster and smaller, respectively, and growth rate was higher at northern latitudes. Additive genetic variance was very low for life-history traits, and estimates for egg development time and larval growth rate showed significant decreases towards northern latitudes. The expression of genetic effects in life-history traits differed considerably when individuals were grown in constant rather than simulated and naturally variable conditions. Our results support strong selection by time constraints. They also highlight the importance of growing organisms in their native environment for correct estimates of genetic variance at their place of origin. Our results also suggest that the evolutionary potential of life-history traits is very low at northern compared to southern latitudes, but that changes in climate could alter this pattern. PMID:26333659

  2. Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Nilsson-Örtman, V; Rogell, B; Stoks, R; Johansson, F

    2015-10-01

    The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18 populations along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We reared full sib larvae at three temperatures and estimated genetic variances in the height and slope of thermal reaction norms of body size at three points in time during ontogeny using random regression. Our data show that most populations harbor genetic variation in growth rate (reaction norm height) in all ontogenetic stages, but only some populations and ontogenetic stages were found to harbor genetic variation in thermal plasticity (reaction norm slope). Genetic variances in reaction norm height differed among species, while genetic variances in reaction norm slope differed among populations. The slope of the ontogenetic trend in genetic variances of both reaction norm height and slope increased with latitude. We propose that differences in genetic variances reflect temporal and spatial variation in the strength and direction of natural selection on growth trajectories and age-dependent plasticity. Selection on age-dependent plasticity may depend on the interaction between temperature seasonality and time constraints associated with variation in life history traits such as generation length. PMID:25649500

  3. The threatened epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in the Iberian Peninsula: genetic diversity and structure across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Otálora, Mónica A G; Belinchón, Rocío; Prieto, María; Aragón, Gregorio; Izquierdo, Patricia; Martínez, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The current genetic diversity and structure of a species plays a marked role in the species' future response to environmental changes. Identification of the factors that might ensure the long-term viability of populations along its distribution area is therefore important for conserving biodiversity. In this work, infraspecific genetic diversity and structure of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria was investigated along a latitudinal gradient, spanning the Spanish latitudinal range of L. pulmonaria. Eighteen populations in Northern, Central, and Southern Spain were analysed using six specific fungal microsatellites of L. pulmonaria. Genetic diversity indices were calculated and compared among populations. Genetic differentiation was assessed using AMOVA and Bayesian methods. Additionally, a redundancy analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of environmental factors on the genetic variation among populations. Annual precipitation was the only factor affecting the genetic diversity probably through its influence on population and thallus size of L. pulmonaria, and significantly higher levels of genetic diversity were detected in southern populations. Isolation by distance was not significant, being environmental variables most important factors controlling genetic variation in L. pulmonaria populations. PMID:26321729

  4. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-11-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R(2)= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (Φ(RT) = 0.07) and unlogging populations (Φ(PT) = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (Φ(PT) = 0.03-0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  5. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-01-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (ΦRT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (ΦPT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (ΦPT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  6. Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling support allopatric over parapatric speciation along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur? Results Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM). The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five

  7. Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: Contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Luis E; Rezende, Enrico L; Santos, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed by examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time (TDT) curves, and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. Thermal death time curves allow estimation of the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), by extrapolating to the temperature that would knock down the flies almost "instantaneously," and the thermal sensitivity to increasing stressful temperatures. We found a positive latitudinal cline for CT(max), but no clinal pattern for knockdown temperatures estimated from the ramping assays. Although high-latitude populations were more tolerant to an acute heat stress, they were also more sensitive to prolonged exposure to less stressful temperatures, supporting a trade-off between acute and chronic heat tolerances. Conversely, developmental plasticity did not affect CT(max) but increased the tolerance to chronic heat exposition. The patterns observed from the TDT curves help to understand why the relationship between heat tolerance and latitude depends on the methodology used and, therefore, these curves provide a more complete and reliable measurement of heat tolerance. PMID:26292981

  8. Local adaptation at range edges: comparing elevation and latitudinal gradients.

    PubMed

    Halbritter, A H; Billeter, R; Edwards, P J; Alexander, J M

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation at range edges influences species' distributions and how they respond to environmental change. However, the factors that affect adaptation, including gene flow and local selection pressures, are likely to vary across different types of range edge. We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate local adaptation in populations of Plantago lanceolata and P. major from central locations in their European range and from their latitudinal and elevation range edges (in northern Scandinavia and Swiss Alps, respectively). We also characterized patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in populations using molecular markers. Range-centre plants of P. major were adapted to conditions at the range centre, but performed similarly to range-edge plants when grown at the range edges. There was no evidence for local adaptation when comparing central and edge populations of P. lanceolata. However, plants of both species from high elevation were locally adapted when compared with plants from high latitude, although the reverse was not true. This asymmetry was associated with greater genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation over the elevation gradient than over the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that adaptation in some range-edge populations could increase their performance following climate change. However, responses are likely to differ along elevation and latitudinal gradients, with adaptation more likely at high-elevation. Furthermore, based upon these results, we suggest that gene flow is unlikely to constrain adaptation in range-edge populations of these species. PMID:26201435

  9. Eocene continental climates and latitudinal temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, David R.; Wing, Scott L.

    1995-11-01

    Global climate during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic is thought to have been warmer than at present, but there is debate about winter temperatures. Paleontological data indicate mild temperatures even at high latitudes and in mid-latitude continental interiors, whereas computer simulations of continental paleoclimates produce winter temperatures closer to modern levels. Foliar physiognomy and floristic composition of 23 Eocene floras from the interior of North America and Australia indicate cold month means generally >2 °C, even where the mean annual temperature (MAT) was <15 °C. Reconstructed Eocene latitudinal gradients of MAT are curvilinear but are about 0.4 °C per 1° of latitude in continental interiors at mid-latitudes, much less than the 0.8 1.0 °C per 1° of latitude observed in eastern and central North America today, but similar to modern gradients in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and on the west coast of North America. Latitudinal temperature gradients reconstructed here are broadly representative of Eocene climates, showing that the discrepancy between proxy data and simulations will not be resolved by regional adjustments to paleogeography or reinterpretation of individual fossil assemblages. Similar discrepancies between proxy data and general circulation model simulations for other time periods suggest that there is a basic flaw with the way climate models simulate heat transport to, or loss from, continental surfaces.

  10. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Weir, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    The role of historical factors in driving latitudinal diversity gradients is poorly understood. Here, we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors-speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates-in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades. We fit a model that allows speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates to differ, both with latitude and between the New and Old World. Our results consistently support extinction (all clades had lowest extinction where species richness was highest) as a key driver of species richness gradients across each of eight major clades. In contrast, speciation and dispersal rates showed no consistent latitudinal patterns across replicate bird clades, and thus are unlikely to represent general underlying drivers of latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:26940812

  11. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982–2012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: −0.91°C and −0.68°C lat−1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: −0.28, −0.29, −0.32°C lat−1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3–10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6–47°S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (−0.3 to −1.7°C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (−10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (42–60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26–35°N, −0.5 to −2.2°C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change

  12. Structure of Benthic Communities along the Taiwan Latitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Deulofeu, Lauriane; Denis, Vianney; De Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and the structure of benthic assemblages vary with latitude. However, few studies have described benthic communities along large latitudinal gradients, and patterns of variation are not fully understood. Taiwan, lying between 21.90°N and 25.30°N, is located at the center of the Philippine-Japan arc and lies at the northern margin of coral reef development. A wide range of habitats is distributed along this latitudinal gradient, from extensive fringing coral reefs at the southern coast to non-reefal communities at the north. In this study, we examined the structure of benthic communities around Taiwan, by comparing its assemblages in four regions, analyzing the effects of the latitudinal gradient, and highlighting regional characteristics. A total of 25 sites, 125 transects, and 2,625 photographs were used to analyze the benthic communities. Scleractinian corals present an obvious gradient of increasing diversity from north to south, whereas macro-algae diversity is higher on the north-eastern coast. At the country scale, Taiwanese coral communities were dominated by turf algae (49%). At the regional scale, we observed an important heterogeneity that may be caused by local disturbances and habitat degradation that smooths out regional differences. In this context, our observations highlight the importance of managing local stressors responsible for reef degradation. Overall, this study provides an important baseline upon which future changes in benthic assemblages around Taiwan can be assessed. PMID:27513665

  13. Structure of Benthic Communities along the Taiwan Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    De Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and the structure of benthic assemblages vary with latitude. However, few studies have described benthic communities along large latitudinal gradients, and patterns of variation are not fully understood. Taiwan, lying between 21.90°N and 25.30°N, is located at the center of the Philippine-Japan arc and lies at the northern margin of coral reef development. A wide range of habitats is distributed along this latitudinal gradient, from extensive fringing coral reefs at the southern coast to non-reefal communities at the north. In this study, we examined the structure of benthic communities around Taiwan, by comparing its assemblages in four regions, analyzing the effects of the latitudinal gradient, and highlighting regional characteristics. A total of 25 sites, 125 transects, and 2,625 photographs were used to analyze the benthic communities. Scleractinian corals present an obvious gradient of increasing diversity from north to south, whereas macro-algae diversity is higher on the north-eastern coast. At the country scale, Taiwanese coral communities were dominated by turf algae (49%). At the regional scale, we observed an important heterogeneity that may be caused by local disturbances and habitat degradation that smooths out regional differences. In this context, our observations highlight the importance of managing local stressors responsible for reef degradation. Overall, this study provides an important baseline upon which future changes in benthic assemblages around Taiwan can be assessed. PMID:27513665

  14. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  15. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers

  16. The latitudinal gradient of the NO peak density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, C. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Gerard, J.-C.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from SME observations of the latitudinal gradients of peak NO densities at about 110-km altitude during the solstice and equinox periods from 1982 through 1985. It is shown that the response of the peak NO densities to the declining level of solar activity varies with latitude, with the polar regions exhibiting low sensitivity and the low-latitude regions responding strongly. The SME data also revealed marked asymmetries in the latitudinal structure of the two hemispheres for each season and considerable day-to-day variations in the NO densities. The solar cycle minimum data for June were simulated using a two-dimensional model; results of sensitivity studies performed with varied quenching rate and eddy diffusion coefficient are presented.

  17. Latitudinal gradients in marine diatom and coccolithophore diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Colleen; Vogt, Meike; Leblanc, Karine; Gruber, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biodiversity have long been recognised in terrestrial ecosystems, with the highest diversity of many groups occurring in the tropics and declining towards the poles. For marine phytoplankton, a latitudinal gradient has been observed in dinoflagellates, and there seems to be some consensus that coccolithophore diversity also follows the typical pattern of highest diversity at low latitudes. Mixed results have so far been reported for marine diatoms. We use the new MAREDAT (Marine Ecosystem DATa) diatom and coccolithophore datasets to investigate global patterns in species diversity. This database contains global biomass and abundance observations for 10 plankton functional groups, including 91 704 samples of diatom abundance and biomass and 11 703 for coccolithophores. We find evidence for a poleward decline in species richness and diversity for both groups, with total observed species richness per 5 degree latitudinal band declining by approximately 75% between the equator and 60°. Mean station diversity is measured using both species richness and the Shannon diversity index. For the diatoms, species richness per station declines from a mean of 25 between 20°S and 20°N to values less than 10 for stations above 60°S and N. For the coccolithophores, the trend is less clear: mean station richness reaches a maximum of 22 between 10 and 15°N and shows a clear northward decline, with only one species per station reported north of 60°N. Mean coccolithophore richness per station is, however, relatively low at the equator, with highest richness per station in the Southern Hemisphere observed between 20 and 40°S. Highest richness and diversity of both groups is associated with low group-specific biomass and low total chlorophyll, with higher productivity regions typically dominated by one or few species.

  18. Latitudinal gradients in tertiary molluscan faunas of the Pacific coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addicott, W.O.

    1970-01-01

    Tertiary molluscan faunas of the middle latitudes of the marginal eastern North Pacific are characterized by warm-water taxa whose descendants now live in more southerly latitudes. A series of profiles in which cumulative percentages of warm-water faunal elements are plotted against latitude show progressive northward decreases in the percentage of these elements in the faunas of Pacific coast Tertiary stages. Systematic changes in the relative position of these latitudinal gradients during the Middle and Late Tertiary are related to climatic change in the Pacific Basin. Widespread tropical marine climate in the middle latitudes of the eastern North Pacific during the Eocene is indicated by widespread faunal units characterized by high levels of taxonomic diversity. Succeeding Early Oligocene faunas are less diverse, suggesting cooler climatic conditions. Unusually low representations of warm-water genera characterize the molluscan faunas of the Acila shumardi Zone in central California (latitude 34??-37??N). The anomalously cool-water aspect of these faunas may record the occurrence of upwelling along a bold linear segment of the Pacific coast. During the Late Oligocene or the Early Miocene, they are replaced by faunas of unusually warm-water aspect resulting in positive anomalies in Miocene latitudinal faunal gradients in central California. The Miocene anomalies seem to result from the development of an irregular Neogene coastline with extensive, newly established shallow-water embayments. ?? 1970.

  19. Bimodality of Latitudinal Gradients in Marine Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Chhaya; Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The paradigm for the latitudinal gradient in species richness is that it is unimodal with a tropical peak. For 27 published studies, and global datasets of 65 000 recent and 50 000 fossil marine species, we found that almost all datasets were significantly bimodal with a dip in species richness near the equator. The locations of mid-latitude peaks varied between taxa and were higher in the northern hemisphere where the continental shelf is greatest. Our findings support hypotheses of tropical species evolving in response to temperature variation near the edges of the tropics and available high-productivity habitat. They suggest that the equator may already be too hot for some species and that the modes may move further apart due to climate warming. PMID:27372733

  20. Latitudinal Gradients in Degradation of Marine Dissolved Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Arnosti, Carol; Steen, Andrew D.; Ziervogel, Kai; Ghobrial, Sherif; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars). Genomic investigations provide information about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76°S to 79°N to hydrolyze a range of high molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing climate increasingly affects the marine environment, changes in the spectrum of substrates accessible by microbial communities may lead to shifts in the location and rate at which marine DOC is respired. Since the inventory of DOC in the ocean is comparable in magnitude to the atmospheric CO2 reservoir, such a change could profoundly affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:22216139

  1. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  2. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  3. Southern hospitality: a latitudinal gradient in gene flow in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Eernisse, Douglas J

    2007-03-01

    In recent years population genetics and phylogeographic studies have become increasingly valuable tools for inferring both historical and present-day genetic patterns within marine species. Here, we take a comparative approach to population-level study, analyzing original mitochondrial DNA data from 969 individuals representing 28 chiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) species to uncover large-scale genetic patterns along the Pacific coast of North America. The data reveal a distinct latitudinal connectivity gradient among chitons: species that exist at lower latitudes tend to have more isolated populations. This trend appears to be a product of between-species differences; within species, no significant gradient in connectivity is observed. Lower average annual sea surface temperatures are hypothesized to contribute to longer larval duration (and by extension, greater connectivity) among lecithotrophic species, providing a mechanism for the observed positive correlation between gene flow and latitude. Because increased isolation among populations may lead to speciation, a latitudinal trend in gene flow may contribute to the increased species diversity observed at lower latitudes. PMID:17348933

  4. Disease Ecology, Biodiversity, and the Latitudinal Gradient in Income

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Matthew H.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Keenan, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    While most of the world is thought to be on long-term economic growth paths, more than one-sixth of the world is roughly as poor today as their ancestors were hundreds of years ago. The majority of the extremely poor live in the tropics. The latitudinal gradient in income is highly suggestive of underlying biophysical drivers, of which disease conditions are an especially salient example. However, conclusions have been confounded by the simultaneous causality between income and disease, in addition to potentially spurious relationships. We use a simultaneous equations model to estimate the relative effects of vector-borne and parasitic diseases (VBPDs) and income on each other, controlling for other factors. Our statistical model indicates that VBPDs have systematically affected economic development, evident in contemporary levels of per capita income. The burden of VBDPs is, in turn, determined by underlying ecological conditions. In particular, the model predicts it to rise as biodiversity falls. Through these positive effects on human health, the model thus identifies measurable economic benefits of biodiversity. PMID:23300379

  5. Effects of predation risk across a latitudinal temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Catherine M; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2015-03-01

    The nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) of predators on prey behavior and physiology can influence the structure and function of ecological communities. However, the strength of NCEs should depend on the physiological and environmental contexts in which prey must choose between food and safety. For ectotherms, temperature effects on metabolism and foraging rates may shape these choices, thereby altering NCE strength. We examined NCEs in a rocky intertidal food chain across a latitudinal sea surface temperature gradient within the Gulf of Maine. The NCEs of green crabs (Carcinus maenas) on the foraging, growth, and growth efficiency of prey snails (Nucella lapillus) were consistent across a broad (~8.5 °C) temperature range, even though snails that were transplanted south consumed twice as many mussels (Mytilus edulis) and grew twice as much as snails that were transplanted north. The positive effects of warmer temperatures in the south allowed snails under high risk to perform similarly to or better than snails under low risk at cooler temperatures. Our results suggest that for prey populations residing at temperatures below their thermal optimum, the positive effects of future warming may offset the negative effects of predation risk. Such effects may be favorable to prey populations facing increased predation rates due to warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Attention to the direct and indirect effects of temperature on species interactions should improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on ecological communities. PMID:25433694

  6. Mangrove pore water exchange across a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.; Macklin, Paul A.; Santos, Isaac R.

    2016-04-01

    We combined observations of the natural tracer radon (222Rn) with hydrodynamic models across a broad latitudinal gradient covering several climate zones to estimate pore water exchange rates in mangroves. Pore water exchange ranged from 2.1 to 35.5 cm d-1 from temperate to tropical regions and averaged 16.3 ± 5.1 cm d-1. If upscaled to the global weighted mangrove area, pore water exchange in mangroves would recirculate the entire volume of water overlying the continental shelf in less than 153 years. Although pore water exchange (recirculated seawater) and river discharge represent different pathways for water entering the coastal ocean, the estimated global mangrove pore water exchange would be equal to approximately one third of annual global river discharge to the ocean (3.84 × 1013 m3 yr-1). Because biogeochemical processes in mangroves are largely dependent on pore water exchange, these large exchange rates have major implications for coastal nutrient, carbon, and greenhouse gas cycling in tropical marine systems.

  7. Examination of wintertime latitudinal gradients in stratospheric NO2 using theory and LIMS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Russell, J. M., III; Haggard, K. V.; Natarajan, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nimbus 7 LIMS data and a photochemical model are used to show that the observed sharp latitudinal gradients in stratospheric wintertime NO2 are consistent with the conversion of NO2 to N2O5 at high latitudes. This conversion, and the sharp gradients, are brought about by the interaction between transport and photochemistry. Calculated variations show good agreement with observations.

  8. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  9. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the GISS GCM (Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  10. Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Tomašových, Adam; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Betzner, Tristan J; Kuehnle, Nicole Bitler; Edie, Stewart; Kim, Sora; Supriya, K; White, Alexander E; Rahbek, Carsten; Huang, Shan; Price, Trevor D; Jablonski, David

    2016-05-11

    Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size-on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level of genera. Here, both groups show a nested pattern in which narrow-ranging genera are confined to the tropics and broad-ranging genera extend across much of the gradient. We find that (i) genus range size and its variation with latitude is closely associated with per-genus species richness and (ii) broad-ranging genera contain more species both within and outside of the tropics when compared with tropical- or temperate-only genera. Within-genus species diversification thus promotes genus expansion to novel latitudes. Despite underlying differences in the species range-size gradients, species-rich genera are more likely to produce a descendant that extends its range relative to the ancestor's range. These results unify species richness gradients with those of genera, implying that birds and bivalves share similar latitudinal dynamics in net species diversification. PMID:27147094

  11. A latitudinal gradient in seed nutrients of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, P; Kolb, A; Graae, B J; Decocq, G; Baltora, S; De Schrijver, A; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; Dhondt, R; Diekmann, M; Gruwez, R; Heinken, T; Hermy, M; Liira, J; Saguez, R; Shevtsova, A; Baskin, C C; Verheyen, K

    2011-05-01

    The nutrient concentration in seeds determines many aspects of potential success of the sexual reproductive phase of plants, including the seed predation probability, efficiency of seed dispersal and seedling performance. Despite considerable research interest in latitudinal gradients of foliar nutrients, a similar gradient for seeds remains unexplored. We investigated a potential latitudinal gradient in seed nutrient concentrations within the widespread European understorey forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in 15 populations along a 1900-km long latitudinal gradient at three to seven seed collection dates post-anthesis and investigated the relative effects of growing degree-hours >5 °C, soil characteristics and latitude on seed nutrient concentrations. Seed nitrogen, nitrogen:phosphorus ratio and calcium concentration decreased towards northern latitudes, while carbon:nitrogen ratios increased. When taking differences in growing degree-hours and measured soil characteristics into account and only considering the most mature seeds, the latitudinal decline remained particularly significant for seed nitrogen concentration. We argue that the decline in seed nitrogen concentration can be attributed to northward decreasing seed provisioning due to lower soil nitrogen availability or greater investment in clonal reproduction. This pattern may have large implications for the reproductive performance of this forest herb as the degree of seed provisioning ultimately co-determines seedling survival and reproductive success. PMID:21489100

  12. ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OF SCALE ON LATITUDINAL DIVERSITY GRADIENTS IN COASTAL ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Garza, Corey. 2003. Estimating the Effects of Scale on Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in Coastal Estuaries (Abstract). Presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists, 7-10 November 2003, Long Beach, CA. 1 p. (ERL,GB R967).

    In this study the ef...

  13. Latitudinal gradients of cosmic rays and the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field: A preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.; Lockwood, J. A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Within the statistical limits imposed by the currently available data and the noise inherent in the determination of the latitudinal gradient, no evidence for the expected change in the latitudinal gradient from pre-1980 to post-1980 epochs can be found. In addition, the rigidity dependence of the gradient appears to be the same in the two epochs. Thus, no evidence is found for a sensitivity of the latitudinal gradient to the polarity of the largescale heliospheric magnetic field such as has been predicted by models incorporating particle drifts.

  14. Latitudinal gradient of energetic particles in the outer heliosphere during 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R.B.; Krimigis, S.M.; Venkatesan, D.

    1987-04-01

    We report a measurement of a sustained latitudinal gradient of 70-MeV galactic cosmic ray protons using data from the interplanetary probes Voyager 1 and 2 and the earth-orbiting satellite IMP 8 during a 1-year period from mid-1985 to mid-1986. Starting in early 1985 the intensity of cosmic rays at Voyager 2 began increasing faster than that at Voyager 1. By mid- 1985 the intensity at Voyager 2 (helioradius 17 AU, heliolatitude --0/sup 0/) exceeded and remained higher than that at Voyager 1 (helioradius 24 AU, heliolatitude --26/sup 0/) for at least 14 solar rotations. Using the Voyager 2-IMP 8 data to correct for the radial gradient, we determine an average latitudinal gradient during this period of (-0.53 +- 0.10)% deg/sup -1/ or (-0.38 +- 0.11)% deg/sup -1/ (i.e., intensity decreasing northward of the solar equatorial plane), assuming either a constant radial gradient or one that decreased at an average rate of -0.025% AU/sup -1/ AU/sup -1/, as was the case during 1984, respectively. In addition, we present Voyager data at very low (approx. >30 keV) ion energies which are associated with acceleration at corotating shocks. These ions also exhibit a latitudinal gradient (---3% deg/sup -1/), with lower intensities at higher latitudes, and serve to highlight changes that occurred in the interplanetary medium in early 1985. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987.

  15. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A.; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway. PMID:26101885

  16. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway. PMID:26101885

  17. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  18. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods.

    PubMed

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  19. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  20. Determination of galactic cosmic ray latitudinal gradient using Earth based detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BADRUDDIN; Yadav, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Using cosmic ray intensity data from the Deep River Neutron monitor and the relation between solar wind velocity and heliomagnetic latitude, an attempt is made to evaluate quantitatively the latitudinal gradient of cosmic ray intensity during the periods dominated by a two sector pattern. Assuming a constant orientation of the heliospheric current sheet on a time scale of the order of a year, a relationship is determined between cosmic ray intensity and heliomagnetic latitude.

  1. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  2. Can Rapoport's rule be rescued? Modeling causes of the latitudinal gradient in species richness

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Gaines, S.D.

    1999-12-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species richness, wherein species richness peaks near the equator and declines toward the poles, is a widely recognized phenomenon that holds true for many taxa in all habitat types. Understanding the causative mechanism of mechanisms that generate the latitudinal gradient in species richness (LGSR) has been a major challenge, and the gradient remains unexplained. A different latitudinal trend (named Rapoport's rule), in which the mean size of species geographical ranges tends to decline toward the equator, has been hypothesized by G.C. Stevens to play a key role in generating the LGSR when coupled with a version of the rescue effect, in which local populations toward the fringes of geographical ranges are sustained by immigration. The Stevens hypothesis is now commonly cited as a potential explanation for the LGSR and has provoked numerous empirical studies in macroecology and biogeography. However, important aspects of the hypothesis are not obvious in Steven's verbal model and may go unrecognized, despite their major implications for empirical work related to large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Here the authors present mathematical simulation models that test the logical structure of the Stevens hypothesis, examine effects on global patterns of species richness produced by the mechanisms (Rapoport's rule and the rescue effect) explicitly identified by Stevens, and investigate the additional effect of competition.

  3. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rogério R.; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F.

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20o of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  4. Ecosystem-wide morphological structure of leaf-litter ant communities along a tropical latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rogério R; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20° of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  5. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  6. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  7. ACTN3 Allele Frequency in Humans Covaries with Global Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lek, Monkol; North, Kathryn N.; Organ, Chris L.

    2013-01-01

    A premature stop codon in ACTN3 resulting in α-actinin-3 deficiency (the ACTN3 577XX genotype) is common in humans and reduces strength, muscle mass, and fast-twitch fiber diameter, but increases the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle. Linkage disequilibrium data suggest that the ACTN3 R577X allele has undergone positive selection during human evolution. The allele has been hypothesized to be adaptive in environments with scarce resources where efficient muscle metabolism would be selected. Here we test this hypothesis by using recently developed comparative methods that account for evolutionary relatedness and gene flow among populations. We find evidence that the ACTN3 577XX genotype evolved in association with the global latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that environmental variables related to latitudinal variation, such as species richness and mean annual temperature, may have influenced the adaptive evolution of ACTN3 577XX during recent human history. PMID:23359641

  8. An evaluation of the latitudinal gradient of chlorophyll in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tracking of spatial and temporal trends in phytoplankton abundance and distribution is an important step toward understanding large-scale macroecological processes in the ocean. Measurements of ocean radiance from satellite-borne sensors, such as SeaWiFS and MODIS, can be used to estimate surface chlorophyll concentration, which is a good indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the latitudinal gradient in chlorophyll concentration within the California Current first reported by Ware and Thomson (2005). They found that average chlorophyll concentration tended to increase steadily from 32-48°N latitude. This concentration gradient was reevaluated using a longer dataset and an algorithm refined for the region. Radiance data from the MODIS-Aqua instrument were obtained for every year from 2002 through 2013. Data included annual averages of remote sensing radiance as well as monthly averages for February, April, and August. These months were chosen to represent each of the three oceanographic seasons present in the California Current. Estimates of chlorophyll concentration were derived from these data using the CALFIT algorithm developed by Kahru et al. (2012). The resulting maps of chlorophyll concentration were processed in MATLAB and linear regressions were performed using SYSTAT 13 software. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) latitudinal trend in chlorophyll was observed in the annual averaged data as well as in the averaged seasonal data from February and August. No significant trend was observed in the averaged April data. Chlorophyll concentration was positively correlated with latitude in every instance, except in April 2003 and April 2005, where a negative correlation was observed. The positive latitudinal trend was strongest during August and weakest during April. Strong peaks in chlorophyll were observed near San Francisco Bay and the mouth of the Columbia River, suggesting that river-borne nutrient input may be

  9. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  10. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-01-01

    We use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses for the latitudinal richness gradient and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The ecological limits hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal gradient arises from a gradient in speciation rates. (4) Finally, the tropical stability hypothesis argues that climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance (MRD) and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all produced phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between MRD and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. We found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios, with no relation expected under the ecological limits hypothesis, a negative relationship expected under the speciation rates hypothesis, and a positive relationship expected under the tropical stability hypothesis. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with multiple

  11. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. PMID:27357005

  12. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors.

  13. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. PMID:27357005

  14. Evidence of a latitudinal gradient in the age at onset of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Andrew; Miller, Geoffrey; Mintz, Jim

    2007-08-01

    Variation in the age at onset of a multifactorial disease often reflects variation in cause. Here we show a linear latitudinal gradient in the mean age at onset of schizophrenia in 13 northern hemisphere cities, ranging from 25 years old in Cali, Columbia (at 4 degrees north) to 35 years old in Moscow, Russia (at 56 degrees north). To our knowledge, this striking association has not been previously reported. We consider several explanations, including the effects of pathogen stress, natural selection, sexual selection, migration, life-history profiles, or some combination of these factors, and we propose a test of competing causal hypotheses. PMID:17509836

  15. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  16. Faster Speciation and Reduced Extinction in the Tropics Contribute to the Mammalian Latitudinal Diversity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L.; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the “out of the tropics” hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern. PMID:24492316

  17. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern. PMID:24492316

  18. Comparison of the effects of two models for perpendicular diffusion on cosmic-ray latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnie, J.; Burger, R. A.; Parhi, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Bieber, J. W.

    We compare the effects of two different models for perpendicular diffusion on the latitudinal gradients of galactic cosmic ray protons during solar minimum conditions. These two models correspond to the newly developed non-linear guiding center theory [Matthaeus, W.H., Qin, G., Bieber, J.W., Zank, G.P. Nonlinear collisionless perpendicular diffusion of charged particles. Astrophys. J. Lett., 590 (1), L53 L56, 2003] and the theory based on a velocity correlation function approach [Bieber, J.W., Matthaeus, W.H. Perpendicular diffusion and drift at intermediate cosmic-ray energies. Astrophys. J., 485 (2) 655 659, 1997]. In this ab initio study a steady-state two-dimensional numerical modulation model is used which incorporates a state-of-the-art turbulence model. We show that the non-linear guiding center theory predicts a mean free path that has a rigidity dependence that better accounts for the latitudinal gradients measured by Ulysses during its first fast latitude scan in 1994/1995.

  19. Mississippian coral latitudinal diversity gradients (western interior United States): Testing the limits of high resolution diversity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, G.E.; Sando, W.J.; Raymond, A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of high resolution diversity data for Mississippian corals in the western interior United States yielded mild latitudinal diversity gradients despite the small geographic area covered by samples and a large influence on diversity patterns by geographic sampling intensity (sample bias). Three competing plate tectonic reconstructions were tested using the diversity patterns. Although none could be forcefully rejected, one reconstruction proved less consistent with diversity patterns than the other two and additional coral diversity data from farther north in Canada would better discriminate the two equivalent reconstructions. Despite the relatively high sampling intensity represented by the analyzed database, diversity patterns were greatly affected by sample abundance and distribution. Hence, some effort at recognizing and accounting for sample bias should be undertaken in any study of latitudinal diversity gradients. Small-scale geographic lumping of sample localities had only small effects on geographic diversity patterns. However, large-scale (e.g., regional) geographic lumping of diversity data may not yield latitudinally sensitive diversity patterns. Temporal changes in coral diversity in this region reflect changes in eustacy, local tectonism, and terrigenous sediment flux, far more than they do shifting latitude. Highest regional diversity occurred during the interval when the studied region occupied the highest latitude. Therefore, diversity data from different regions may not be comparable, in terms of latitudinal inference. Small-scale stratigraphic lumping of the data caused a nearly complete loss of the latitudinal diversity patterns apparent prior to lumping. Hence, the narrowest possible stratigraphic resolution should be maintained in analyzing latitudinal diversity gradients.

  20. Climate-driven habitat size determines the latitudinal diversity gradient in temporary ponds.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2016-04-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) has been one of the most documented patterns in ecology, typically showing decreasing species diversity with increasing latitude. Studies of these patterns also used different spatial scales and dispersal traits to better understand the underpinning ecological factors. Seasonal freshwater ecosystems are less studied and may exhibit different patterns because they are more sensitive to climatic variation, which result in an inundation-desiccation cycle. In California, precipitation increases and temperature decreases with increasing latitude and thus the LDG pattern may be associated with this climatic gradient. Using collected data and United States Fish and Wildlife Service reports across seven degrees of latitude, analysis of California vernal pool invertebrate community (total richness and richness of passive and active dispersers) was conducted using correlations (Spearman rank and partial). Alpha diversity (total and passive dispersers) increased and beta diversity (passive dispersers) decreased with increasing latitude. Vernal pool surface area was correlated with active disperser alpha and passive disperser beta diversity. This suggests that climate-driven habitat size influences alpha and beta diversity patterns depending on dispersal ability. Active dispersers and predators exhibited higher beta diversity than passive dispersers and prey, respectively. Species composition differed among counties and some of these differences were correlated with pool depth and temperature. These results suggest that seasonal habitats will have diversity patterns strongly associated with local scale characteristics (habitat size and hydroperiod) determined by climate variation along the latitudinal gradient. Understanding these diversity patterns along the gradient will also contribute to management and restoration of these ecosystems with high endemism and diversity. PMID:27220212

  1. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Barnett, D.; Flather, C.; Kartesz, J.; Peterjohn, B.

    2005-01-01

    It has been long established that the richness of vascular plant species and many animal taxa decreases with increasing latitude, a pattern that very generally follows declines in actual and potential evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperature, and thus, total productivity. Using county-level data on vascular plants from the United States (3000 counties in the conterminous 48 states), we used the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate competing models predicting native and nonnative plant species density (number of species per square kilometer in a county) from various combinations of biotic variables (e.g., native bird species density, vegetation carbon, normalized difference vegetation index), environmental/topographic variables (elevation, variation in elevation, the number of land cover classes in the county; radiation, mean precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, and potential evapotranspiration), and human variables (human population density, crop-land, and percentage of disturbed lands in a county). We found no evidence of a latitudinal gradient for the density of native plant species and a significant, slightly positive latitudinal gradient for the density of nonnative plant species. We found stronger evidence of a significant, positive productivity gradient (vegetation carbon) for the density of native plant species and nonnative plant species. We found much stronger significant relationships when biotic, environmental/topographic, and human variables were used to predict native plant species density and nonnative plant species density. Biotic variables generally had far greater influence in multivariate models than human or environmental/topographic variables. Later, we found that the best, single, positive predictor of the density of nonnative plant species in a county was the density of native plant species in a county. While further study is needed, it may be that, while humans facilitate the initial establishment invasions of nonnative

  2. Body size and growth of benthic invertebrates along an Antarctic latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Katrin; Barnes, David K. A.; Enderlein, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Much has been made of body-size variability with latitude, and extreme body sizes in polar waters, but body size has never been investigated along a latitudinal gradient within polar waters. The Scotia arc and Antarctic Peninsula are ideal for latitudinal studies, and a number of species extend along the length of this region. We studied body size in two gastropod molluscs, Margarella antarctica and Nacella concinna, an echinoid, Sterechinus neumayeri, and two bryozoans, Celleporella bougainvillea and Inversiula nutrix, at six sites from South Georgia to Adelaide Island (54-68°S). We hypothesised that size, age, and growth would not correlate with latitude, given the uniformity of conditions (i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc.) within the Polar Frontal Zone. We found significant differences in size of all five species among our study sites, but not a linear trend, nor one that correlated with latitude. In bryozoans, this result was because growth was positively and age negatively correlated with latitude—resulting in little difference in overall size. In the grazer organisms (the two gastropods and the echinoid) a correlation with local food availability (chlorophyll a concentration) did not correlate with latitude. Fecundity in the gastropod M. antarctica was positively correlated with body size, and body size also was influenced by food availability. We conclude that variation in body size in all five study taxa was governed by local factors such as food availability and competition and not by latitude.

  3. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Marcot, Jonathan D; Fox, David L; Niebuhr, Spencer R

    2016-06-28

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals. PMID:27298355

  4. Selective Pressure along a Latitudinal Gradient Affects Subindividual Variation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Mar; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo; Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual plants produce repeated structures such as leaves, flowers or fruits, which, although belonging to the same genotype, are not phenotypically identical. Such subindividual variation reflects the potential of individual genotypes to vary with micro-environmental conditions. Furthermore, variation in organ traits imposes costs to foraging animals such as time, energy and increased predation risk. Therefore, animals that interact with plants may respond to this variation and affect plant fitness. Thus, phenotypic variation within an individual plant could be, in part, an adaptive trait. Here we investigated this idea and we found that subindividual variation of fruit size of Crataegus monogyna, in different populations throughout the latitudinal gradient in Europe, was explained at some extent by the selective pressures exerted by seed-dispersing birds. These findings support the hypothesis that within-individual variation in plants is an adaptive trait selected by interacting animals which may have important implications for plant evolution. PMID:24069297

  5. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  6. Bivalve network reveals latitudinal selectivity gradient at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Vilhena, Daril A.; Harris, Elisha B.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Maliska, Max E.; Ward, Peter D.; Sidor, Christian A.; Strömberg, Caroline A. E.; Wilson, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Biogeographic patterns of survival help constrain the causal factors responsible for mass extinction. To test whether biogeography influenced end-Cretaceous (K-Pg) extinction patterns, we used a network approach to delimit biogeographic units (BUs) above the species level in a global Maastrichtian database of 329 bivalve genera. Geographic range is thought to buffer taxa from extinction, but the number of BUs a taxon occurred in superseded geographic range as an extinction predictor. Geographically, we found a latitudinal selectivity gradient for geographic range in the K-Pg, such that higher latitude BUs had lower extinction than expected given the geographic ranges of the genera, implying that (i) high latitude BUs were more resistant to extinction, (ii) the intensity of the K-Pg kill mechanism declined with distance from the tropics, or (iii) both. Our results highlight the importance of macroecological structure in constraining causal mechanisms of extinction and estimating extinction risk of taxa.

  7. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.

    2016-06-01

    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  8. Climate Effects on Methylmercury Bioaccumulation Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetelat, J.; Richardson, M.; MacMillan, G. A.; Amyot, M.; Hintelmann, H.; Crump, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inorganic mercury (Hg) loadings to Arctic lakes decline with latitude. However, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in fish and their prey do not decline in a similar fashion, suggesting that higher latitude lakes are more vulnerable to Hg inputs. Preliminary results will be presented from a three-year study (2012-2015) of climate effects on MMHg bioaccumulation in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We have investigated mercury transport and accumulation processes in lakes and ponds from three study regions along a latitudinal gradient in climate-controlled ecosystem types in the Canadian Arctic, specifically sub-Arctic taiga, Arctic tundra and polar desert. In each water body, we measured key aspects of MMHg bioaccumulation—MMHg bioavailability to benthic food webs and organism growth rates—as well as how watershed characteristics affect the transport of Hg and organic carbon to lakes. Novel approaches were incorporated including the use of passive samplers (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film samplers or DGTs) to estimate sediment bioavailable MMHg concentrations and tissue RNA content to compare organism short-term growth rates. A comparison of Arctic tundra and sub-Arctic taiga lakes showed that surface water concentrations of MMHg were strongly and positively correlated to total Hg concentrations both within and among study regions, implying strong control of inorganic Hg supply. Sediment concentrations of bioavailable MMHg were highly variable among lakes, although average concentrations were similar between study regions. Local environmental conditions appear to have a strong influence on sediment potential for MMHg supply. Lake-dwelling Arctic char from tundra lakes had similar or higher total Hg concentrations compared with brook trout from sub-Arctic lakes that were exposed to higher water MMHg concentrations. Potential environmental drivers of these patterns will be discussed. This latitudinal study will provide new

  9. Differences in beta diversity between exotic and native grasslands vary with scale along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leanne M; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    Biodiversity can be partitioned into alpha, beta, and gamma components, and beta diversity is not as clearly understood. Biotic homogenization predicts that exotic species should lower beta diversity at global and continental scales, but it is still unclear how exotic species impact beta diversity at smaller scales. Exotic species could theoretically increase or decrease beta diversity relative to natives depending on many factors, including abiotic conditions, community assembly history, management, dispersal rates of species, and connectivity among patches. We sampled plant species abundances in 42 novel, exotic- and native-dominated (remnant) grasslands across a latitudinal gradient in the tallgrass prairie region, and tested whether exotic and native grasslands differed in beta diversity at three scales: across sites within the entire biome, across sites within regions, and across locations within sites. Exotic-dominated grasslands differed from native-dominated grasslands in beta diversity at all scales, but the direction of the difference changed from positive to negative as scales went from large to small. Contrary to expectations, exotic-dominated grasslands had higher beta diversity than native-dominated grasslands at the largest scale considered. This occurred because the identity of dominant exotic species varied across the latitudinal gradient, with many exotic grassland pairs exhibiting zero similarity, whereas native-dominated grasslands differed more gradually with distance. Beta diversity among sites within a region was variable, with exotic-dominated grasslands having 29% higher beta diversity than native grasslands in the south and 33% lower beta diversity in the north. Within sites, beta diversity was 26% lower in exotic-dominated than native grasslands. Our results provide evidence that different regional identities and abundances of exotics, and lack of connectivity in fragmented landscapes can alter beta diversity in unexpected ways across

  10. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. PMID:26465806

  11. Contrarian clade confirms the ubiquity of spatial origination patterns in the production of latitudinal diversity gradients

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Andrew Z.; Jablonski, David; Valentine, James W.

    2007-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), wherein the number of species and higher taxa peaks in the tropics and decreases toward the poles, is the best-documented large-scale diversity pattern on Earth, but hypotheses explaining the standard LDG must also account for rare “contrarian” taxa that show diversity maxima outside of the tropics. For marine bivalves, one of the few groups that provide spatially explicit temporal data on a global scale, we show that a major contrarian group, the Anomalodesmata, unexpectedly exhibits the same large-scale dynamics as related clades having normal LDGs in two key respects. First, maxima in standing genus diversity and genus origination rates coincide spatially. Second, the strength of a clade's present-day LDG is significantly related to the proportion of its living genera that originated in the tropics during the late Cenozoic, with the contrarian gradient strength at both species and genus level predicted quantitatively by the values for the other clades. Geologic age distributions indicate that the anomalous LDG results from origination that is damped in the tropics rather than heightened in the temperate zones. The pervasive role of spatial origination patterns in shaping LDGs, regardless of the position of their diversity maxima, corroborates hypotheses based on clades showing standard gradients and underscores the insights that contrarian groups can provide into general principles of diversity dynamics. PMID:17989214

  12. Elevational and Latitudinal Gradient Sites Enable Phenology Controls and Climate Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losleben, M. V.; Weltzin, J. F.; Billick, I.; Jones, D.

    2008-12-01

    Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological phases, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. Although phenology is a far-reaching component of environmental science, it is poorly understood relative to other ecological patterns and processes. For example, it is unclear how climatic attributes affect the phenology of different organisms, and how those attributes vary in importance on different spatial and temporal scales. We know phenology affects the abundance and diversity of organisms, and their function and interactions in the environment, especially their effects on fluxes in water, energy, and chemical elements at various scales. With sufficient observations and understanding, phenology can be used as a predictor for other processes and variables of importance at local to global scales, and phenology could drive a variety of ecological forecast models with both scientific and practical applications. Integration of spatially-extensive phenological data and models with both short and long-term climatic forecasts offer a powerful agent for human adaptation to ongoing and future climate change. To fully utilize the value of phenology, not only more observations at more locations are needed, but also linkages between climatic factors and phenology must be more firmly established through linked direct observations and remotely sensed (Landscape Phenology or LSP) measurements with climatic factors. Sites along elevational gradients over a range of latitudes provide this opportunity. Elevational gradients present the phenological observational efficiency of compressed ecosystem transitions, and through climatic matching of sites, latitudinal range presents opportunities to control for additional abiotic factors such as day length, seasonal variability, storm track, and atmospheric chemistry. These sites also provide excellent platforms to advance new, and

  13. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  14. Size-Frequency Distributions along a Latitudinal Gradient in Middle Permian Fusulinoideans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichun; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic gradients in body size within and among living species are commonly used to identify controls on the long-term evolution of organism size. However, the persistence of these gradients over evolutionary time remains largely unknown because ancient biogeographic variation in organism size is poorly documented. Middle Permian fusulinoidean foraminifera are ideal for investigating the temporal persistence of geographic gradients in organism size because they were diverse and abundant along a broad range of paleo-latitudes during this interval (∼275–260 million years ago). In this study, we determined the sizes of Middle Permian fusulinoidean fossils from three different paleo-latitudinal zones in order to examine the relationship between the size of foraminifers and regional environment. We recovered the following results: keriothecal fusulinoideans are substantially larger than nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans; fusulinoideans from the equatorial zone are typically larger than those from the north and south transitional zones; neoschwagerinid specimens within a single species are generally larger in the equatorial zone than those in both transitional zones; and the nonkeriothecal fusulinoideans Staffellidae and Schubertellidae have smaller size in the north transitional zone. Fusulinoidean foraminifers differ from most other marine taxa in exhibiting larger sizes closer to the equator, contrary to Bergmann's rule. Meridional variation in seasonality, water temperature, nutrient availability, and carbonate saturation level are all likely to have favored or enabled larger sizes in equatorial regions. Temporal variation in atmospheric oxygen concentrations have been shown to account for temporal variation in fusulinoidean size during Carboniferous and Permian time, but oxygen availability appears unlikely to explain biogeographic variation in fusulinoidean sizes, because dissolved oxygen concentrations in seawater typically increase away from the equator due to

  15. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  16. Relative effects of time for speciation and tropical niche conservatism on the latitudinal diversity gradient of phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Determinants of contemporary patterns of diversity, particularly those spanning extensive latitudinal gradients, are some of the most intensely debated issues in ecology. Recently, focus has shifted from a contemporary environmental perspective to a historical one in an attempt to better understand the construction of latitudinal gradients. Although the vast majority of research on historical mechanisms has focused on tropical niche conservatism (TNC), other historical scenarios could produce similar latitudinal gradients. Herein, I formalize predictions to distinguish between two such historical processes—namely time for speciation (TFS) and TNC—and test relative support based on diversity gradients of New World bats. TFS and TNC are distinctly spatial and environmental mechanisms, respectively. Nonetheless, because of the way that environmental characteristics vary spatially, these two mechanisms are hard to distinguish. Evidence provided herein suggests that TNC has had a more important effect than TFS in determining diversity gradients of New World bats. Indeed, relative effects of different historical mechanisms, as well as relative effects of historical and contemporary environmental determinants, are probably context-dependent. Future research should move away from attempting to identify the mechanism with primacy and instead attempt to understand the particular contexts in which different mechanisms have greater influence on diversity gradients. PMID:21208951

  17. Variation in Size and Growth of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chauvaud, Laurent; Patry, Yann; Jolivet, Aurélie; Cam, Emmanuelle; Le Goff, Clement; Strand, Øivind; Charrier, Grégory; Thébault, Julien; Lazure, Pascal; Gotthard, Karl; Clavier, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate. PMID:22649553

  18. Geographic variation in thermal physiological performance of the intertidal crab Petrolisthes violaceus along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Opitz, Tania; Lagos, Nelson A; Timmermann, Tania; Lardies, Marco A

    2014-12-15

    Environmental temperature has profound effects on the biological performance and biogeographical distribution of ectothermic species. Variation of this abiotic factor across geographic gradients is expected to produce physiological differentiation and local adaptation of natural populations depending on their thermal tolerances and physiological sensitivities. Here, we studied geographic variation in whole-organism thermal physiology of seven populations of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes violaceus across a latitudinal gradient of 3000 km, characterized by a cline of thermal conditions. Our study found that populations of P. violaceus show no differences in the limits of their thermal performance curves and demonstrate a negative correlation of their optimal temperatures with latitude. Additionally, our findings show that high-latitude populations of P. violaceus exhibit broader thermal tolerances, which is consistent with the climatic variability hypothesis. Interestingly, under a future scenario of warming oceans, the thermal safety margins of P. violaceus indicate that lower latitude populations can physiologically tolerate the ocean-warming scenarios projected by the IPCC for the end of the twenty-first century. PMID:25394627

  19. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. PMID:23640735

  20. Diversity and distribution of freshwater testate amoebae (protozoa) along latitudinal and trophic gradients in China.

    PubMed

    Ju, Lihua; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Wilkinson, David M

    2014-11-01

    Freshwater microbial diversity is subject to multiple stressors in the Anthropocene epoch. However, the effects of climate changes and human activities on freshwater protozoa remain poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae from the surface sediments were investigated in 51 Chinese lakes and reservoirs along two gradients, latitude and trophic status. A total of 169 taxa belonging to 24 genera were identified, and the most diverse and dominant genera were Difflugia (78 taxa), Centropyxis (26 taxa) and Arcella (12 taxa). Our analysis revealed that biomass of testate amoebae decreased significantly along the latitudinal gradient, while Shannon-Wiener indices and species richness presented an opposite trend (P < 0.05). The relationship of diversity and latitude is, we suspect, an artifact of the altitudinal distribution of our sites. Furthermore, biomass-based Shannon-Wiener index and species richness of testate amoebae were significantly unimodally related to trophic status (P < 0.05). This is the first large-scale study showing the effects of latitude and trophic status on diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in China. Therefore, our results provide valuable baseline data on testate amoebae and contribute to lake management and our understanding of the large-scale global patterns in microorganism diversity. PMID:24910015

  1. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated.

  2. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rubén G; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B; Svenning, Jens-C; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated. PMID:27151094

  3. The mossy north: an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in European bryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Petitpierre, Blaise; Araújo, Miguel B.; Svenning, Jens-C.; Baselga, Andrés; Fernández-González, Federico; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; Muñoz, Jesús; Suarez, Guillermo M.; Luoto, Miska; Guisan, Antoine; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change. Nevertheless, although the extent of liverwort species turnover in the south is substantially and significantly lower than in spermatophytes, liverworts share with the latter a higher nestedness in the north and a higher turn-over in the south, in contrast to mosses and ferns. The extent to which the similarity in the patterns displayed by spermatophytes and liverworts reflects a similar assembly mechanism remains, however, to be demonstrated. PMID:27151094

  4. Comparison of Forest Soil Carbon Dynamics at Five Sites Along a Latitudinal Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    Carbon stocks, and C:N ratios, were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil, and two mineral soil fractions (particulate and mineral-associated organic matter, POM and MOM, respectively) at five forest sites, ranging from 60 to 100 years old, along a latitudinal gradient in the eastern United States. Sampling at four sites was replicated over two consecutive years. For many measurements (like forest floor carbon stocks, cumulative soil organic carbon stocks to 20 cm, and the fraction of whole soil carbon in POM), there was no significant difference between years at each site despite the use of somewhat different sampling methods. With one exception, forest floor and mineral soil carbon stocks increased from warm, southern, sites (with fine-textured soils) to northern, cool, sites (with more coarse-textured soils). The exception was a northern site, with less than 10% silt-clay content, that had a soil organic carbon stock similar to those measured at southern sites. Soil carbon at each site was partitioned into two pools (labile and stable) on the basis of carbon measured in the forest floor and POM and MOM fractions from the mineral soil. A two-compartment steady-state model, with randomly varying parameter values, was used in probabilistic calculations to estimate the turnover time of labile soil organic carbon (MRTU) and the annual transfer of labile carbon to stable carbon (k2) at each site in two different years. Based on empirical data, the turnover time of stable soil carbon (MRTS) was determined by mean annual temperature and increased from 30 to 100 years from south to north. Moving from south to north, MRTU increased from approximately 5 to 14 years. Consistent with prior studies, 13C enrichment factors ( ) from the Rayleigh equation, that describe the rate of change in 13C through the soil profile, were an indicator of soil carbon turnover times along the latitudinal gradient. Consistent with its role in stabilization of soil organic carbon, silt

  5. Quantitative Genetic Architecture at Latitudinal Range Boundaries: Reduced Variation but Higher Trait Independence.

    PubMed

    Paccard, Antoine; Van Buskirk, Josh; Willi, Yvonne

    2016-05-01

    Species distribution limits are hypothesized to be caused by small population size and limited genetic variation in ecologically relevant traits, but earlier studies have not evaluated genetic variation in multivariate phenotypes. We asked whether populations at the latitudinal edges of the distribution have altered quantitative genetic architecture of ecologically relevant traits compared with midlatitude populations. We calculated measures of evolutionary potential in nine Arabidopsis lyrata populations spanning the latitudinal range of the species in eastern and midwestern North America. Environments at the latitudinal extremes have reduced water availability, and therefore plants were assessed under wet and dry treatments. We estimated genetic variance-covariance (G-) matrices for 10 traits related to size, development, and water balance. Populations at southern and northern distribution edges had reduced levels of genetic variation across traits, but their G-matrices were more spherical; G-matrix orientation was unrelated to latitude. As a consequence, the predicted short-term response to selection was at least as strong in edge populations as in central populations. These results are consistent with genetic drift eroding variation and reducing the effectiveness of correlational selection at distribution margins. We conclude that genetic variation of isolated traits poorly predicts the capacity to evolve in response to multivariate selection and that the response to selection may frequently be greater than expected at species distribution margins because of genetic drift. PMID:27104998

  6. Northward displacement of optimal climate conditions for ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum L. across a latitudinal gradient in Alaska.

    PubMed

    McGraw, James B; Turner, Jessica B; Souther, Sara; Bennington, Cynthia C; Vavrek, Milan C; Shaver, Gaius R; Fetcher, Ned

    2015-10-01

    Plants are often genetically specialized as ecotypes attuned to local environmental conditions. When conditions change, the optimal environment may be physically displaced from the local population, unless dispersal or in situ evolution keep pace, resulting in a phenomenon called adaptational lag. Using a 30-year-old reciprocal transplant study across a 475 km latitudinal gradient, we tested the adaptational lag hypothesis by measuring both short-term (tiller population growth rates) and long-term (17-year survival) fitness components of Eriophorum vaginatum ecotypes in Alaska, where climate change may have already displaced the optimum. Analyzing the transplant study as a climate transfer experiment, we showed that the climate optimum for plant performance was displaced ca. 140 km north of home sites, although plants were not generally declining in size at home sites. Adaptational lag is expected to be widespread globally for long-lived, ecotypically specialized plants, with disruptive consequences for communities and ecosystems. PMID:26033529

  7. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  8. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates.

    PubMed

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-09-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  9. A latitudinal gradient in climate effects on seabird demography: results from interspecific analyses

    PubMed Central

    SANDVIK, HANNO; COULSON, TIM; SÆTHER, BERNT-ERIK

    2008-01-01

    For an understanding of the effect of climate change on animal population dynamics, it is crucial to be able to identify which climatologic parameters affect which demographic rate, and what the underlying mechanistic links are. An important reason for why the interactions between demography and climate still are poorly understood is that the effects of climate vary both geographically and taxonomically. Here, we analyse interspecifically how different climate variables affect the breeding success of North Atlantic seabird species along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. By approaching the problem comparatively, we are able to generalize across populations and species. We find a strong interactive effect of climate and latitude on breeding success. Of the climatic variables considered, local sea surface temperatures during the breeding season tend to be more relevant than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, the effect of NAO on breeding success shows a clear geographic pattern, changing in sign from positive in the south to negative in the north. If this interaction is taken account of, the model explains more variation than any model with sea surface temperature. This superiority of the NAO index is due to its ability to capture effects of more than one season in a single parameter. Mechanistically, however, several lines of evidence suggest that sea surface temperature is the biologically most relevant explanatory variable.

  10. Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Michael A.; Stuart, Carol T.; Coyne, Gina

    2000-01-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) in the Northern Hemisphere are the most well established biogeographic patterns on Earth. Despite long-standing interest in LSDGs as a central problem in ecology, their explanation remains uncertain. In terrestrial as well as coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems, these poleward declines in diversity typically have been represented and interpreted in terms of species richness, the number of coexisting species. Newly discovered LSDGs in the bathyal (500–4,000 m) benthos of the North Atlantic may help to resolve the underlying causes of these large-scale trends because the deep sea is such a physically distinct environment. However, a major problem in comparing surface and deep-sea LSDGs is that the latter have been measured differently, by using species diversity indices that are affected by both species richness and the evenness of relative abundance. Here, we demonstrate that deep-sea isopods, gastropods, and bivalves in the North Atlantic do exhibit poleward decreases in species richness, just as those found in other environments. A comprehensive systematic revision of the largest deep-sea gastropod family (Turridae) has provided a unique database on geographic distributions that is directly comparable to those used to document LSDGs in surface biotas. This taxon also shows a poleward decline in the number of species. Seasonal organic enrichment from sinking phytodetritus is the most plausible ecological explanation for deep-sea LSDGs and is the environmental factor most consistently associated with depressed diversity in a variety of bathyal habitats. PMID:10759545

  11. Cyanobacterial diversity of western European biological soil crusts along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Williams, Laura; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Büdel, Burkhard

    2016-10-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs) have important attributes, such as nitrogen fixation and soil stabilisation. However, research on these organisms has been minimal, and their diversity and distribution throughout temperate Europe is currently unknown. The SCIN (Soil Crust International) project is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to achieve improved understanding of the BSCs of Europe, one facet being an investigation into the cyanobacterial communities of BSCs across a latitudinal gradient. Cyanobacteria assemblages were analysed by both morphological and molecular analysis. Two treatments were applied prior to DNA extraction, continued sample wetting and a dry sample process, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons were processed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results reveal high and variable cyanobacterial diversity with each site showing a unique assemblage. Many common cyanobacterial genera, for example Nostoc and Microcoleus, were found in all sites but the abundances of different genera varied considerably. The polyphasic approach was found to be essential in recording the presence of important cyanobacteria that a single method itself did not highlight. The wet and dry treatments showed some differences in diversity, but mainly in abundance, this may suggest how cyanobacterial composition of BSCs changes with seasonal variability. PMID:27411981

  12. Cyanobacterial diversity of western European biological soil crusts along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Büdel, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs) have important attributes, such as nitrogen fixation and soil stabilisation. However, research on these organisms has been minimal, and their diversity and distribution throughout temperate Europe is currently unknown. The SCIN (Soil Crust International) project is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to achieve improved understanding of the BSCs of Europe, one facet being an investigation into the cyanobacterial communities of BSCs across a latitudinal gradient. Cyanobacteria assemblages were analysed by both morphological and molecular analysis. Two treatments were applied prior to DNA extraction, continued sample wetting and a dry sample process, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons were processed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results reveal high and variable cyanobacterial diversity with each site showing a unique assemblage. Many common cyanobacterial genera, for example Nostoc and Microcoleus, were found in all sites but the abundances of different genera varied considerably. The polyphasic approach was found to be essential in recording the presence of important cyanobacteria that a single method itself did not highlight. The wet and dry treatments showed some differences in diversity, but mainly in abundance, this may suggest how cyanobacterial composition of BSCs changes with seasonal variability. PMID:27411981

  13. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  14. The response of forest plant regeneration to temperature variation along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    De Frenne, Pieter; Graae, Bente J.; Brunet, Jörg; Shevtsova, Anna; De Schrijver, An; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Hermy, Martin; Heinken, Thilo; Kolb, Annette; Nilsson, Christer; Stanton, Sharon; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The response of forest herb regeneration from seed to temperature variations across latitudes was experimentally assessed in order to forecast the likely response of understorey community dynamics to climate warming. Methods Seeds of two characteristic forest plants (Anemone nemorosa and Milium effusum) were collected in natural populations along a latitudinal gradient from northern France to northern Sweden and exposed to three temperature regimes in growth chambers (first experiment). To test the importance of local adaptation, reciprocal transplants were also made of adult individuals that originated from the same populations in three common gardens located in southern, central and northern sites along the same gradient, and the resulting seeds were germinated (second experiment). Seedling establishment was quantified by measuring the timing and percentage of seedling emergence, and seedling biomass in both experiments. Key Results Spring warming increased emergence rates and seedling growth in the early-flowering forb A. nemorosa. Seedlings of the summer-flowering grass M. effusum originating from northern populations responded more strongly in terms of biomass growth to temperature than southern populations. The above-ground biomass of the seedlings of both species decreased with increasing latitude of origin, irrespective of whether seeds were collected from natural populations or from the common gardens. The emergence percentage decreased with increasing home-away distance in seeds from the transplant experiment, suggesting that the maternal plants were locally adapted. Conclusions Decreasing seedling emergence and growth were found from the centre to the northern edge of the distribution range for both species. Stronger responses to temperature variation in seedling growth of the grass M. effusum in the north may offer a way to cope with environmental change. The results further suggest that climate warming might differentially affect

  15. Mean Annual Precipitation Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Cenozoic Mammal Beta Diversity and Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in North America

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Danielle; Hassall, Christopher; Gorelick, Root; Rybczynski, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma – present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity) is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimated from paleosols (∼450 mm/year) and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs) increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential. PMID:25203658

  16. Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; Bakker, Kevin M; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-05-22

    More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth pulses followed a latitudinal gradient, with northern states exhibiting spring/summer peaks and southern states exhibiting autumn peaks, a pattern we also observed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the amplitude of United States birth seasonality was more than twofold greater in southern states versus those in the north. Next, we examined the dynamical impact of birth seasonality on childhood disease incidence, using a mechanistic model of measles. Birth seasonality was found to have the potential to alter the magnitude and periodicity of epidemics, with the effect dependent on both birth peak timing and amplitude. In a simulation study, we fitted an susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model to simulated data, and demonstrated that ignoring birth seasonality can bias the estimation of critical epidemiological parameters. Finally, we carried out statistical inference using historical measles incidence data from New York City. Our analyses did not identify the predicted systematic biases in parameter estimates. This may be owing to the well-known frequency-locking between measles epidemics and seasonal transmission rates, or may arise from substantial uncertainty in multiple model parameters and estimation stochasticity. PMID:24695423

  17. Life history attributes of fishes along the latitudinal gradient of the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.

  18. Global Patterns in Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction: A Latitudinal Gradient in Nitrogen Retention and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Thompson, A. W.; Bradbury, D.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition in humid environments has the potential to significantly increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions via nitrification and denitrification. This potential N loss may be significantly offset by N retention from dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this study, we report on rates of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2O and ammonium along a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the boreal forest. We conducted laboratory experiments with forest soils from Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, California, and Alaska to determine maximum potential rates of DNRA and N2O production. We also conducted field experiments in Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and Alaska to estimate in situ rates. Maximum potential rates of DNRA ranged from 10 ug/g/d in fertilized poplar forests in Alaska to 0.3 ug/g/d in unfertilized polyculture plantations in Costa Rica. At all sites, rates of DNRA appeared to be nitrate limited. On average, temperate and boreal forests had greater potential rates of DNRA (5 +/- 1 ug/g/d) than tropical forests (3 +/- 1 ug/g/d). Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased rates of DNRA in Alaska. Rates of maximum potential N2O flux were generally lower than DNRA rates (0.16 to 4 ug/g/d). In field experiments, rates of DNRA were greatest in tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico, followed by wet forests in Costa Rica, and black spruce forests in Alaska. Although field DNRA rates were low in Alaska, they accounted for up to 13 % of gross mineralization and 24 % of gross nitrification. At all sites, rates of N2O flux via denitrification and nitrification were significantly lower than N retention via DNRA. Our results suggest that this previously unmeasured N cycling pathway effectively competes with processes resulting in N-trace gas loss from a range of forested ecosystems.

  19. The latitudinal species richness gradient in New World woody angiosperms is consistent with the tropical conservatism hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Weiser, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity, like that of most other taxonomic groups, peaks in the tropics, where climatic conditions are warm and wet, and it declines toward the temperate and polar zones as conditions become colder and drier, with more seasonally variable temperatures. Climate and evolutionary history are often considered competing explanations for the latitudinal gradient, but they are linked by the evolutionarily conserved environmental adaptations of species and the history of Earth’s climate system. The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) invokes niche conservatism, climatic limitations on establishment and survival, and paleoclimatic history to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient. Here, we use latitudinal distributions for over 12,500 woody angiosperm species, a fossil-calibrated supertree, and null modeling to test predictions of the TCH. Regional assemblages in the northern and southern temperate zones are less phylogenetically diverse than expected based on their species richness, because temperate taxa are clustered into relatively few clades. Moreover, lineages with temperate affinities are generally younger and nested within older, more tropical lineages. As predicted by the TCH, the vast majority of temperate lineages have arisen since global cooling began at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (34 Mya). By linking physiological tolerances of species to evolutionary and biogeographic processes, phylogenetic niche conservatism may provide a theoretical framework for a generalized explanation for Earth’s predominant pattern of biodiversity. PMID:24847062

  20. Latitudinal TEC gradients over polar ionosphere using high latitude GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Tepenitsyna, Nadezhda; Yakimova, Galina; Ephishov, I. I.

    The GPS observations of Greenland network were used to analyze the latitudinal variations of TEC at the high-latitudes ionosphere. This network provides unique opportunity to monitor TEC variability in polar ionosphere on a regular base. GPS stations are arranged along the latitude over the range 60-83°N (65°-87° Corrected Geomagnetic Latitude) near of 30°-40° longitudes. More than 20 GPS stations are located closely with one another along latitude. The distance between stations is about 1°-2°.Such spatial resolution provides the possibility to analyze the detailed structure of latitudinal TEC profiles. The standard procedure of processing GPS observations was used for TEC estimation. On this base it was obtained the diurnal TEC variations over all Greenland stations. The TEC data is used to form latitudinal profiles (TEC section) covered subauroral, auroral and polar ionosphere. In the report the observations of TEC for quiet and disturbed ionosphere during several geomagnetic storms occurred in September 2011 are presented. During quiet conditions in the night-time TEC profiles demonstrated invariable values about of 4-6 TECU in latitudinal region of 60°-75°N; then it presented THE increase towards the higher latitude and reached the value of 10 TECU near 80°N. The daytime profiles revealed TEC decrease toward high latitude in keeping with 0.8 TECU/degree. During storm the structure of latitudinal TEC profiles was essentially changed with agreement to the development of geomagnetic storm. The positive effect was observed at subauroral and auroral latitudes, negative effect was prevailed at the polar region. During the night time the ionospheric trough can be observed. In the report features of the behavior of latitudinal profiles at high-latitude ionosphere for September 2011 events were discussed.

  1. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  2. Woody plant encroachment effect on soil organic carbon dynamics: results from a latitudinal gradient in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, Guido; Chiti, Tommaso; Moscatelli, Maria Cristina; Marinari, Sara; Papale, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Woody plant encroachment into pastures and grasslands represents a significant land cover change phenomenon, with a considerable impact on carbon dynamics at an ecosystem level. It was estimated that 7.64% of the Southern Europe land was subject to that process between 1950 to 2010. As a result of woody encroachment, changes in vegetation composition can produce substantial changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle. Despite the numerous papers published on land-use change, an evaluation of the IPCC terrestrial carbon pools changes occurring during woody encroachment on abandoned pastures and grasslands is still lacking, particularly for the Italian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of woody encroachment on carbon sequestration over abandoned pastures and grasslands in Alpine and Apennine ecosystems, with a particular focus on the SOC. We applied a chronosequence approach to seven selected sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Italy. Each chronosequence consisted of a pasture currently managed, three sites abandoned at different times in the past and, finally, a mature forest stand representing the last phase of the succession. The European Commission sampling protocols to certify SOC changes was adopted to estimate the variations following woody encroachment. Soil samples were collected at different depths in the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-70 cm), despite the original protocol formulation being limited to the topsoil only. In addition, aboveground living biomass (AGB), dead wood and litter were also measured following international protocols. Considering all C pools together, woody plant encroachment leads to a progressive C stock accumulation in all the chronosequences. The total C stock of mature forest stands ranges from 1.78±0.11 times (Eastern Alps) to 2.48±0.31 times (central Apennine) the initial value on pastures. Unsurprisingly, the C stocks of AGB, dead wood and litter all increase during the

  3. Latitudinal temperature gradient during the Cretaceous Upper Campanian-Middle Maastrichtian: δ 18O record of continental vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Fluteau, Frédéric; Legendre, Serge; Martineau, François

    2004-09-01

    Latitudinal variations in model biogenic apatite δ18O values were calculated using fractionation equations of vertebrates and weighted rainfall δ18O values along with mean annual air temperatures provided by IAEA-WMO meteorological stations. The reference equation obtained was used to compute a continental temperature gradient for the Late Campanian-Middle Maastrichtian interval by using published and new δ18O values of phosphate from vertebrates. Samples are mainly tooth enamel from crocodilians and dinosaurs that lived at paleolatitudes ranging from 83-9+4°N (Alaska) to 32±3°S (Madagascar). The temperature gradient was less steep (0.4±0.1 °C/°latitude) than the present-day one (0.6 °C/°latitude) with temperatures that decreased from about 30 °C near the equator to about -5 °C at the poles. Above 30° of paleolatitude, air temperatures were higher than at present. The validity of these results is discussed by comparison with climatic criteria inferred from paleontological, paleobotanical and sedimentological data. The latitudinal distribution of oxygen isotope compositions of continental vertebrates is potentially a powerful tool for quantifying Mesozoic terrestrial climates.

  4. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors. PMID:23888386

  5. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-11-01

    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  6. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in eastern Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  7. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biancucci, L.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  8. Osmoregulatory capacity and the ability to use marine food sources in two coastal songbirds (Cinclodes: Furnariidae) along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Pablo; Maldonado, Karin; Fariña, Jose Miguel; del Rio, Carlos Martínez

    2006-06-01

    Cinclodes nigrofumosus and C. oustaleti are two closely related songbirds that inhabit the northern Chilean coast during the austral fall and winter. This stretch spans a dramatic north to south latitudinal gradient in rainfall and temperature. Whereas C. nigrofumosus lives exclusively on coastal environments, C. oustaleti shifts seasonally from coastal environments to inland freshwater ones. We used the delta13C of these two species' tissues to investigate whether the reliance on marine versus terrestrial sources varied from the hyper-arid north to the wet south. We also investigated latitudinal variation in the renal traits that mediate how these birds cope with dehydration and a salty marine diet. Both species increased the incorporation of terrestrial carbon, as measured by delta13C, as terrestrial productivity increased southwards. However, C. nigrofumosus had consistently more positive (i.e. more marine) and less variable delta13C values than C. oustaleti. The osmoregulatory traits of both species varied with latitude as well. Urine osmolality decreased from extremely high values in the north to moderate values in the south, while C. nigrofumosus produced more concentrated urine than C. oustaleti. In both species, the proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue decreased from north to south, and kidney size increased significantly with latitude. Cinclodes nigrofumosus had larger kidneys with larger proportions of medullary tissue than C. oustaleti. C. nigrofumosus and C. oustaleti are terrestrial organisms subsidized by a rich marine environment where it is adjacent to an unproductive terrestrial. Variation in the reliance on marine food sources seems to be accompanied by adjustments in the osmoregulatory mechanisms used by these birds to cope with salt and dehydration. PMID:16496181

  9. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change. PMID:27503738

  10. Mammalian Biogeography and the Latitudinal Climatic Gradient in Western North America During the Paleocene Evolutionary Radiation of Mammals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, D. L.; Rose, P.

    2010-12-01

    We use the middle Paleocene (ca. 63-58) mammalian fossil record of western North America to examine the latitudinal gradients in both species richness and body size of mammals during their evolutionary radiation following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Decreasing species richness with latitude is a biogeographic pattern common to most clades today, including mammals, and is linked to climatic gradients; an inverse relationship between body size and environmental temperature (Bergmann’s rule) is well-known both within and among species of living endothermic vertebrates, including diverse clades of mammals. Despite the frequency among mammals of these patterns today, their long-term histories in the fossil record is not well documented. We compiled mammalian taxonomic occurrence data from published literature, online museum collection databases, and the Paleobiology Database for roughly 160 Torrejonian (To, ca. 63-60 Ma) and Tiffanian (Ti, ca. 60-58 Ma) North American Land Mammal Age fossil localities in western North America from Texas to Alberta. These localities were binned into nine geographic regions based on paleolatitude, and the centroids of the regions span ca. 28° of latitude. For the faunas from these regions, we compiled body size data from the literature for 170 Paleocene (Torrejonian and Tiffanian) mammal species, using lower first molar area (m1 LxW) as a proxy for body mass. The phosphate oxygen isotope composition of teeth from species of a single clade of herbivorous mammals (Phenacodontidae) indicates that mid-Paleocene latitudinal climate gradients were broadly similar to modern gradients in the region, so we treat paleolatitude as a proxy for temperature. Slopes of separate least squares linear regressions of rarefied To and Ti species richness on paleolatitude are not significantly different from zero, and the regressions explain only a small fraction of the variances in richness. For all species, m1 area has a statistically

  11. Reproductive efficiency of a Mediterranean endemic zooxanthellate coral decreases with increasing temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Airi, Valentina; Gizzi, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity) of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades. PMID:24618568

  12. Reproductive Efficiency of a Mediterranean Endemic Zooxanthellate Coral Decreases with Increasing Temperature along a Wide Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Airi, Valentina; Gizzi, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity) of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades. PMID:24618568

  13. Latitudinal variation in growth of Crangon crangon (L.): Does counter-gradient growth compensation occur?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Joana; Freitas, Vânia; Pedrosa, Cindy; Guillot, Rita; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2009-11-01

    Length growth in relation to water temperature was studied for Crangon crangon (L.) from two populations at the northern and southern edges of its distributional range to determine whether counter-gradient growth compensation occurs. In crustaceans, growth rate depends on the time between moulting events (intermoult period) and the size increase at moult (moult increment). In this study, the period between moults was shorter at higher temperature, ranging respectively from about 11 days at 25 °C to 27 days at 10 °C at southern edge, and from 10 to 24 days at the same temperatures at the northern edge. Moult increment showed a large variability, from 1.5 to 2.7 mm with no clear trend with temperature at the northern edge; and decreasing from about 2.7 mm at 10 °C to about 1.5 mm at 25 °C at the southern edge. As a result, the temperature effect on the overall growth rate differed between shrimps from the north and those from the south, suggesting counter-gradient growth compensation. At the northern edge, mean growth increased from about 0.12 mm d - 1 at 10 °C to about 0.23 mm d - 1 at 25 °C, while at the southern edge, growth was lower, about 0.08 mm d - 1 at 10 °C and increased to about 0.16 mm d - 1 at 25 °C. Maximum observed growth rates of shrimps from the north were also higher and ranged from 0.17 mm d - 1 at 10 °C to 0.89 mm d - 1 at 25 °C, while shrimps from the south grew at a maximum of 0.08 to 0.75 mm d - 1 respectively at 15 and 20 °C. Sex and size differences were also found, with males growing slower than females and at a decreasing growth rate with increasing size. Implications for the brown shrimp's life cycle are discussed.

  14. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  15. Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, C Edward; Travis, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves migrate northward in Florida and colonize marshes historically dominated by salt marsh species. In theory, this migration should be facilitated by greater numbers of propagules stemming from increased reproductive activity and greater genetic variability caused by outcrossing. We aimed to determine if stand reproduction and % outcrossing were affected by cold stress (stress increases with latitude), anthropogenic stress (human population density as a proxy), and years since a major hurricane. Further, we wished to determine if mutation rate varied with the stressors and if that affected stand reproduction. Both coasts of Florida from the southern Florida Keys to Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico coast, and Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast. We conducted field surveys of frequency of reproducing trees (104,211 trees surveyed in 102 forested stands), incidence of trees showing albinism in propagules, and% outcrossing estimated from the ratio of albino:normal propagules. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a conceptual model that served as a multivariate hypothesis. Reproductive frequencies varied by site and increased with latitude although more strongly on the Gulf coast. Our SEM results indicate that outcrossing increases in this predominately selfing species under conditions of cold and anthropogenic stress, and that this increases reproductive output in the population. Further, we find that increased mutation rates suppress stand reproductive output but there is no significant relationship between outcrossing and mutation rate. Tree size responded to stressors but did not affect stand reproduction. Reproduction increased with years since major hurricane. Potential for colonization of northern Florida salt marshes by mangroves is enhanced by increased reproductive rates that provides more propagules and outcrossing that should enhance genetic variation thereby promoting adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Natural (cold) stress

  16. Climate dependence of feldspar weathering in shale soils along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, Ashlee L.; White, Timothy S.; April, Richard H.; Reynolds, Brian; Miller, Thomas E.; Knapp, Elizabeth P.; McKay, Larry D.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-12-01

    Although regolith, the mantle of physically, chemically, and biologically altered material overlying bedrock, covers much of Earth’s continents, the rates and mechanisms of regolith formation are not well quantified. Without this knowledge, predictions of the availability of soil to sustain Earth’s growing population are problematic. To quantify the influence of climate on regolith formation, a transect of study sites has been established on the same lithology - Silurian shale - along a climatic gradient in the northern hemisphere as part of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania, USA. The climate gradient is bounded by a cold/wet end member in Wales and a warm/wet end member in Puerto Rico; in between, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) increase to the south through New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama. The site in Puerto Rico does not lie on the same shale formation as the Appalachian sites but is similar in composition. Soils and rocks were sampled at geomorphologically similar ridgetop sites to compare and model shale weathering along the transect. Focusing on the low-concentration, non-nutrient element Na, we observe that the extent and depth of Na depletion is greater where mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) are higher. Na depletion, a proxy for feldspar weathering, is the deepest reaction documented in the augerable soil profiles. This may therefore be the reaction that initiates the transformation of high bulk-density bedrock to regolith of low bulk density. Based on the shale chemistry along the transect, the time-integrated Na release rate (QNa) increases exponentially as a function of MAT and linearly with MAP. NY, the only site with shale-till parent material, is characterized by a QNa that is 18 times faster than PA, an observation which is attributed to the increased surface area of minerals due to grinding of the glacier and kinetically limited

  17. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  18. Abundance, diversity, and latitudinal gradients of southeastern Atlantic and Antarctic abyssal gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödl, M.; Bohn, J. M.; Brenke, N.; Rolán, E.; Schwabe, E.

    2011-03-01

    Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656 m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m -2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica.

  19. Bacterial Community Responses to Soils along a Latitudinal and Vegetation Gradient on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quanchao; Dong, Yanghong; An, Shaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient recycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Loess soils are one of the most important soil resources for maintaining the stability of vegetation ecosystems and are mainly distributed in northwest China. Estimating the distributions and affecting factors of soil bacterial communities associated with various types of vegetation will inform our understanding of the effect of vegetation restoration and climate change on these processes. In this study, we collected soil samples from 15 sites from north to south on the Loess Plateau of China that represent different ecosystem types and analyzed the distributions of soil bacterial communities by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the 142444 sequences were grouped into 36816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. The results of the analysis showed that the dominant taxonomic phyla observed in all samples were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two most abundant groups in all samples. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 14.73% to 40.22% as the ecosystem changed from forest to sandy, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased from 35.35% to 21.40%. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria had significant correlations with mean annual precipitation (MAP), pH, and soil moisture and nutrients. MAP was significantly correlated with soil chemical and physical properties. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes correlated significantly with MAP, suggesting that MAP was a key factor that affected the soil bacterial community composition. However, along with the MAP gradient, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria had narrow ranges that did not significantly vary with the soil and environmental factors. Overall, we conclude that the edaphic properties and/or vegetation

  20. Relationships between growth, population dynamics, and environmental parameters in the solitary non-zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Caryophyllia inornata along a latitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroselli, E.; Ricci, F.; Brambilla, V.; Mattioli, G.; Levy, O.; Falini, G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Goffredo, S.

    2016-06-01

    The ecology of scleractinian corals may be understood through comparisons between population demographic data and environmental parameters. Growth (growth constant and maximum size) and demographic parameters (population structure stability, instantaneous mortality rate, average age of individuals, percentage of immature individuals, age at maximum biomass, and average age of biomass) of the solitary, non-zooxanthellate, and temperate coral Caryophyllia inornata were investigated at six sites along an 8° latitudinal gradient of temperature and solar radiation (SR) on the western Italian coasts. Growth parameters were homogeneous among populations across the investigated latitudinal range. While demographic parameters were not correlated with depth temperature, populations were progressively less stable and showed a deficiency of young individuals with increasing SR, likely as a result of the lowered energetic resources due to reduced zooplankton availability. These results contrast with data from another Mediterranean non-zooxanthellate solitary coral, Leptopsammia pruvoti, investigated along the same gradient, which shows no correlation between population demography and temperature or SR.

  1. Variation of cosmic rays and solar wind properties with respect to the heliospheric current sheet. II - Rigidity dependence of the latitudinal gradient of cosmic rays at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.; Asbridge, J.; Lockwood, J. A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The role which empirical determinations of the latitudinal variation of cosmic rays with respect to the current sheet may have in illuminating the importance of the cross-field drift of particles in the large-scale heliospheric magnetic field is discussed. Using K coronameter observations and measured solar wind speeds, the latitudinal gradients have been determined with respect to the current sheet for cosmic rays in four rigidity ranges. Gradients vary between approximately -2 and -50 pct/AU. The rigidity dependence of the decrease of cosmic ray flux with distance from the current sheet lies between the -0.72 to -0.86 power of the rigidity, with the exact dependence being determined by the definition used for the median rigidity of each monitor.

  2. Spatial Analyses of Benthic Habitats to Define Coral Reef Ecosystem Regions and Potential Biogeographic Boundaries along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km) coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0–30 m) benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework for similar

  3. A compilation of Western European terrestrial records 60-8 ka BP: towards an understanding of latitudinal climatic gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ana; Svensson, Anders; Brooks, Stephen J.; Connor, Simon; Engels, Stefan; Fletcher, William; Genty, Dominique; Heiri, Oliver; Labuhn, Inga; Perşoiu, Aurel; Peyron, Odile; Sadori, Laura; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Wulf, Sabine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial records of past climatic conditions, such as lake sediments and speleothems, provide data of great importance for understanding environmental changes. However, unlike marine and ice core records, terrestrial palaeodata are often not available in databases or in a format that is easily accessible to the non-specialist. As a consequence, many excellent terrestrial records are unknown to the broader palaeoclimate community and are not included in compilations, comparisons, or modelling exercises. Here we present a compilation of Western European terrestrial palaeo-records covering, entirely or partially, the 60-8-ka INTIMATE time period. The compilation contains 56 natural archives, including lake records, speleothems, ice cores, and terrestrial proxies in marine records. The compilation is limited to include records of high temporal resolution and/or records that provide climate proxies or quantitative reconstructions of environmental parameters, such as temperature or precipitation, and that are of relevance and interest to a broader community. We briefly review the different types of terrestrial archives, their respective proxies, their interpretation and their application for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. We also discuss the importance of independent chronologies and the issue of record synchronization. The aim of this exercise is to provide the wider palaeo-community with a consistent compilation of high-quality terrestrial records, to facilitate model-data comparisons, and to identify key areas of interest for future investigations. We use the compilation to investigate Western European latitudinal climate gradients during the deglacial period and, despite of poorly constrained chronologies for the older records, we summarize the main results obtained from NW and SW European terrestrial records before the LGM.

  4. Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke M; Kaluthota, Sobadini; Pearce, David W; Allan, Gerard J; Floate, Kevin; Rood, Stewart B; Whitham, Thomas G

    2016-07-01

    Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the species' range along the Rocky Mountains of North America (ca. 1700 km). We present three main findings. First, we found strong evidence of divergent selection (Q ST > F ST) on fall phenology (bud set) with adaptive consequences for frost avoidance. We also found evidence for selection on bud flush duration, tree height, and basal diameter, resulting in population differentiation. Second, we found strong associations with climate variables that were strongly correlated with latitude of origin. More strongly differentiated traits also showed stronger climate correlations, which emphasizes the role that climate has played in divergent selection throughout the range. We found population × garden interaction effects; for some traits, this accounted for more of the variance than either factor alone. Tree height was influenced by the difference in climate of the source and garden locations and declined with increasing transfer distance. Third, growth traits were correlated with dependent arthropod community diversity metrics. Synthesis. Overall, we conclude that climate has influenced genetic variation and structure in phenology and growth traits and leads to local adaptation in P. angustifolia, which can then impact dependent arthropod species. Importantly, relocation of genotypes far northward or southward often resulted in poor growth, likely due to a phenological mismatch with photoperiod, the proximate

  5. Phylogenetic support for the Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis despite the absence of a clear latitudinal species richness gradient in Yunnan's woody flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Zhang, M. G.; Liu, C.; Zhou, Z.; Chen, W.; Slik, J. W. F.

    2014-05-01

    The Tropical Niche Conservatism Hypothesis (TCH) tries to explain the generally observed latitudinal gradient of increasing species diversity towards the tropics. To date, few studies have used phylogenetic approaches to assess its validity, even though such methods are especially suited to detect changes in niche structure. We test the TCH using modeled distributions of 1898 woody species in Yunnan Province (southwest China) in combination with a family level phylogeny. Unlike predicted, species richness and phylogenetic diversity did not show a latitudinal gradient, but identified two high diversity zones, one in Northwest and one in South Yunnan. Despite this, the underlying residual phylogenetic diversity showed a clear decline away from the tropics, while the species composition became progressingly more phylogenetically clustered towards the North. These latitudinal changes were strongly associated with more extreme temperature variability and declining precipitation and soil water availability, especially during the dry season. Our results suggests that the climatically more extreme conditions outside the tropics require adaptations for successful colonization, most likely related to the plant hydraulic system, that have been acquired by only a limited number of phylogenetically closely related plant lineages. We emphasize the importance of phylogenetic approaches for testing the TCH.

  6. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1972-01-01

    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.

  7. Environmental rather than spatial factors structure bacterioplankton communities in shallow lakes along a > 6000 km latitudinal gradient in South America.

    PubMed

    Souffreau, Caroline; Van der Gucht, Katleen; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Kosten, Sarian; Lacerot, Gissell; Lobão, Lúcia Meirelles; de Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia; Roland, Fabio; Jeppesen, Erik; Vyverman, Wim; De Meester, Luc

    2015-07-01

    Metacommunity studies on lake bacterioplankton indicate the importance of environmental factors in structuring communities. Yet most of these studies cover relatively small spatial scales. We assessed the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors in shaping bacterioplankton communities across a > 6000 km latitudinal range, studying 48 shallow lowland lakes in the tropical, tropicali (isothermal subzone of the tropics) and tundra climate regions of South America using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) differed significantly across regions. Although a large fraction of the variation in BCC remained unexplained, the results supported a consistent significant contribution of local environmental variables and to a lesser extent spatial variables, irrespective of spatial scale. Upon correction for space, mainly biotic environmental factors significantly explained the variation in BCC. The abundance of pelagic cladocerans remained particularly significant, suggesting grazer effects on bacterioplankton communities in the studied lakes. These results confirm that bacterioplankton communities are predominantly structured by environmental factors, even over a large-scale latitudinal gradient (6026 km), and stress the importance of including biotic variables in studies that aim to understand patterns in BCC. PMID:25471233

  8. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine. PMID:25715470

  9. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  10. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming.

    PubMed

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals. PMID:25754672

  11. Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David; Belanger, Christina L.; Berke, Sarah K.; Huang, Shan; Krug, Andrew Z.; Roy, Kaustuv; Tomasovych, Adam; Valentine, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Latitudinal diversity gradients are underlain by complex combinations of origination, extinction, and shifts in geographic distribution and therefore are best analyzed by integrating paleontological and neontological data. The fossil record of marine bivalves shows, in three successive late Cenozoic time slices, that most clades (operationally here, genera) tend to originate in the tropics and then expand out of the tropics (OTT) to higher latitudes while retaining their tropical presence. This OTT pattern is robust both to assumptions on the preservation potential of taxa and to taxonomic revisions of extant and fossil species. Range expansion of clades may occur via “bridge species,” which violate climate-niche conservatism to bridge the tropical-temperate boundary in most OTT genera. Substantial time lags (∼5 Myr) between the origins of tropical clades and their entry into the temperate zone suggest that OTT events are rare on a per-clade basis. Clades with higher diversification rates within the tropics are the most likely to expand OTT and the most likely to produce multiple bridge species, suggesting that high speciation rates promote the OTT dynamic. Although expansion of thermal tolerances is key to the OTT dynamic, most latitudinally widespread species instead achieve their broad ranges by tracking widespread, spatially-uniform temperatures within the tropics (yielding, via the nonlinear relation between temperature and latitude, a pattern opposite to Rapoport’s rule). This decoupling of range size and temperature tolerance may also explain the differing roles of species and clade ranges in buffering species from background and mass extinctions. PMID:23759748

  12. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  13. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  14. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  15. Photosynthetic response to temperature of marine phytoplankton along a latitudinal gradient (16°N to 74°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. K. W.

    1985-11-01

    Photosynthesis-temperature relationships for natural phytoplankton assemblages were established by measuring the uptake of H 14CO 3 in freshly collected seawater samples incubated for 2 h across a shipboard laboratory temperature gradient. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for photosynthesis, as well as the extent of photosynthetic change per unit temperature change in the suboptimal range, all decreased from low to high latitude. The empirical mathematical model of RATKOWSKYet al. (1983, Journal of Bacteriology, 154, 1222-1226) provided a good fit to the data.

  16. Differential measurement and model calculations of cosmic ray latitudinal gradient with respect to the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous magnetic field and charged particle measurements from the Voyager spacecraft with heliographic latitude separations of more than 10 deg are used to investigate the distribution of about 1-GeV galactic cosmic ray protons with respect to the heliospheric current sheet in the outer solar system. By comparing the ratio of cosmic ray flux at Voyager 1 to that at Voyager 2 during periods of relatively quiet interplanetary conditions when the spacecraft are either both north or both south of the heliospheric current sheet, an average latitude component of the gradient of the cosmic ray flux on opposite sides of the current sheet is derived under restricted interplanetary conditions of -0.22 + or - 0.03 pct/deg, equivalent to a decrease of about 1 percent/AU away from the current sheet at about 12 AU. The results for these limited periods are in qualitative agreement with propagation models incorporating particle drifts.

  17. Do land surface models need to include differential plant species responses to drought? Examining model predictions across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kauwe, M. G.; Zhou, S.-X.; Medlyn, B. E.; Pitman, A. J.; Wang, Y.-P.; Duursma, R. A.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-08-01

    Future climate change has the potential to increase drought in many regions of the globe, making it essential that land surface models (LSMs) used in coupled climate models, realistically capture the drought responses of vegetation. Recent data syntheses show that drought sensitivity varies considerably among plants from different climate zones, but state-of-the-art LSMs currently assume the same drought sensitivity for all vegetation. We tested whether variable drought sensitivities are needed to explain the observed large-scale patterns of drought impact. We implemented data-driven drought sensitivities in the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) LSM and evaluated alternative sensitivities across a latitudinal gradient in Europe during the 2003 heatwave. The model predicted an overly abrupt onset of drought unless average soil water potential was calculated with dynamic weighting across soil layers. We found that high drought sensitivity at the northernmost sites, and low drought sensitivity at the southernmost sites, was necessary to accurately model responses during drought. Our results indicate that LSMs will over-estimate drought impacts in drier climates unless different sensitivity of vegetation to drought is taken into account.

  18. Moss stable isotopes (carbon-13, oxygen-18) and testate amoebae reflect environmental inputs and microclimate along a latitudinal gradient on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew J; Roland, Thomas P; Jones, Glyn D; Convey, Peter; Griffiths, Howard; Hodgson, Dominic A; Charman, Dan J

    2016-07-01

    The stable isotope compositions of moss tissue water (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) and cellulose (δ(13)C and δ(18)O), and testate amoebae populations were sampled from 61 contemporary surface samples along a 600-km latitudinal gradient of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) to provide a spatial record of environmental change. The isotopic composition of moss tissue water represented an annually integrated precipitation signal with the expected isotopic depletion with increasing latitude. There was a weak, but significant, relationship between cellulose δ(18)O and latitude, with predicted source water inputs isotopically enriched compared to measured precipitation. Cellulose δ(13)C values were dependent on moss species and water content, and may reflect site exposure to strong winds. Testate amoebae assemblages were characterised by low concentrations and taxonomic diversity, with Corythion dubium and Microcorycia radiata types the most cosmopolitan taxa. The similarity between the intra- and inter-site ranges measured in all proxies suggests that microclimate and micro-topographical conditions around the moss surface were important determinants of proxy values. Isotope and testate amoebae analyses have proven value as palaeoclimatic, temporal proxies of climate change, whereas this study demonstrates that variations in isotopic and amoeboid proxies between microsites can be beyond the bounds of the current spatial variability in AP climate. PMID:27003701

  19. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals

  20. Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for annual carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.

    2015-11-01

    A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and annual C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.

  1. Ecological Diversity in South American Mammals: Their Geographical Distribution Shows Variable Associations with Phylogenetic Diversity and Does Not Follow the Latitudinal Richness Gradient.

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the latitudinal gradient in species richness may be paralleled by a similar gradient of increasing functional or phylogenetic diversity is a matter of controversy. We evaluated whether taxonomic richness (TR) is informative in terms of ecological diversity (ED, an approximation to functional diversity) and phylogenetic diversity (AvPD) using data on 531 mammal species representing South American old autochthonous (marsupials, xenarthrans), mid-Cenozoic immigrants (hystricognaths, primates) and newcomers (carnivorans, artiodactyls). If closely related species are ecologically more similar than distantly related species, AvPD will be a strong predictor of ED; however, lower ED than predicted from AvPD may be due to species retaining most of their ancestral characters, suggesting niche conservatism. This pattern could occur in tropical rainforests for taxa of tropical affinity (old autochthonous and mid-Cenozoic immigrants) and in open and arid habitats for newcomers. In contrast, higher ED than expected from AvPD could occur, possibly in association with niche evolution, in arid and open habitats for taxa of tropical affinity and in forested habitats for newcomers. We found that TR was a poor predictor of ED and AvPD. After controlling for TR, there was considerable variability in the extent to which AvPD accounted for ED. Taxa of tropical affinity did not support the prediction of ED deficit within tropical rainforests, rather, they showed a mosaic of regions with an excess of ED interspersed with zones of ED deficit within the tropics; newcomers showed ED deficit in arid and open regions. Some taxa of tropical affinity showed excess of ED in tropical desert areas (hystricognaths) or temperate semideserts (xenarthrans); newcomers showed excess of ED at cold-temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This result suggests that extreme climatic conditions at both temperate and tropical latitudes may have promoted niche evolution in mammals

  2. Use of a latitudinal gradient in bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) production to examine physiological controls of biotic boundaries and potential responses to environment change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Predictions of vegetation change with global warming require models that accurately reflect physiological processes underlying growth limitations and species distributions. However, information about environmental controls on physiology and consequent effects on species boundaries and ecosystem functions such as production is limited, especially for forested wetlands that are potentially important carbon sinks. Location: The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) region of the south-eastern United States was studied to examine how production of an important forested wetland varies with latitude and temperature as well as local hydrology. Methods: We used published data to analyse litter production across a latitudinal gradient from 26.2 to 37.8?? N to determine how bald cypress swamps might respond to alternate climate conditions and what changes might occur throughout the distributional range. Results: Litterfall rates followed a bell shaped curve, indicating that production was more limited at the distributional boundaries (c. 225 g/m2 year-1) compared to the mid-range (795-1126 g/m2 year-1). This pattern suggests that conditions are sub-optimal near both boundaries and that the absence of populations outside this latitudinal range may be largely due to physiological constraints on the carbon balance of dominant species. While dispersal limitations cannot be totally discounted, competition with other wetland types at the extremes of the range does not seem likely to be important because the relative basal area of bald cypress does not decrease near the edges of the range. Impaired hydrology depressed production across the entire range, but more in the south than the north. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) physiological limitations constrain biotic boundaries of bald cypress swamps; (2) future changes in global temperature would affect litter production in a nonlinear manner across the distributional range; (3) local changes in hydrology may

  3. High Density of Tree-Cavities and Snags in Tropical Dry Forest of Western Mexico Raises Questions for a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters. PMID:25615612

  4. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  5. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters. PMID:25615612

  6. Scope of Gradient and Genetic Algorithms in Multivariable Function Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Sen, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization of a multivariable function - constrained by bounds specified on each variable and also unconstrained - is an important problem with several real world applications. Deterministic methods such as the gradient algorithms as well as the randomized methods such as the genetic algorithms may be employed to solve these problems. In fact, there are optimization problems where a genetic algorithm/an evolutionary approach is preferable at least from the quality (accuracy) of the results point of view. From cost (complexity) point of view, both gradient and genetic approaches are usually polynomial-time; there are no serious differences in this regard, i.e., the computational complexity point of view. However, for certain types of problems, such as those with unacceptably erroneous numerical partial derivatives and those with physically amplified analytical partial derivatives whose numerical evaluation involves undesirable errors and/or is messy, a genetic (stochastic) approach should be a better choice. We have presented here the pros and cons of both the approaches so that the concerned reader/user can decide which approach is most suited for the problem at hand. Also for the function which is known in a tabular form, instead of an analytical form, as is often the case in an experimental environment, we attempt to provide an insight into the approaches focusing our attention toward accuracy. Such an insight will help one to decide which method, out of several available methods, should be employed to obtain the best (least error) output. *

  7. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30–40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations. PMID:27490900

  8. Limited Genetic Connectivity between Gorgonian Morphotypes along a Depth Gradient.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Federica; Gori, Andrea; Lopez-González, Pablo; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Rossi, Sergio; Gili, Josep-Maria; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events. Moreover, this hypothesis is not so clear accepted in temperate seas. Eunicella singularis is one of the most common gorgonian species in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, playing an important role as ecosystem engineer by providing biomass and complexity to the coralligenous habitats. It has a wide bathymetric distribution ranging from about 10 m to 100 m. Two depth-related morphotypes have been identified, differing in colony morphology, sclerite size and shape, and occurrence of symbiotic algae, but not in mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. In the present study the genetic structure of E. singularis populations along a horizontal and bathymetric gradient was assessed using microsatellites and ITS1 sequences. Restricted gene flow was found at 30-40 m depth between the two Eunicella morphotypes. Conversely, no genetic structuring has been found among shallow water populations within a spatial scale of ten kilometers. The break in gene flow between shallow and deep populations contributes to explain the morphological variability observed at different depths. Moreover, the limited vertical connectivity hinted that the refugia hypothesis does not apply to E. singularis. Re-colonization of shallow water populations, occasionally affected by mass mortality events, should then be mainly fueled by larvae from other shallow water populations. PMID:27490900

  9. Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  10. Relationship between the herbaceous and woody vegetation caracteristics and biological soil crusts distribution in fallow and rangeland across a latitudinal gradient in Sahelian Western Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malam Issa, O.; Hiernaux, P.; Kalilou, A.; Rajot, J. L.; Languille, J.

    2012-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) are common soil feature in the Sahel, in Western Niger. They occur in association with various types of physical soil crusts in fallow, rangeland and 'tiger bush' biomes (landscape with a typical pattern consisting of alternating dense thicket bands composed of shrubs and small trees, and bare soil bands). Despite their widespread occurrence, little research has focussed on the spatial extent of microbiotic soil crusts at regional scale in Sahel. Moreover, little is known about the interrelations between the occurrence of those crusts and the characteristics of the vegetation. In this paper, field data on the distribution of biological soil crusts and some characteristics (cover, composition, mass) of herbaceous and woody vegetation co-occurring in fallows and rangelands are presented and analysed. The study was performed in ten sites selected in Western Niger along a south-north climatic gradient between 650 to 300 mm of annual rainfall. The soil surfaces features, specifically physical and biological soil crusts, were surveyed twice in july-october 2009 and October-november 2011. The second survey combined the assessment of soil surfaces features with systematic observations of vegetation. Herbaceous cover, mass and species composition were assessed by stratified sampling along a 200 meter axis. PCQ distance method was used to characterise the density, cover and species composition of the woody plant population. The extends of BSC observed in the 10 sites in 2011 are in the same order as those observed in 2009, i.e. ranging between 4 and 59% in 2009 vs 1.5 and 48 % in 2011. The results showed a significant increase of BSC coverage with increasing annual rainfall towards the south of the gradient. The actual cover of herbaceous vegetation, taking the extends of bare soil patches in account, averages 14.2 % over the different sites. Similarly to BSC repartition, a slight increase of herbaceous cover is observed from the northern dryer

  11. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J.; Vermeire, Lance; Collins, Scott L.; Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. Weused regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities.

  12. Climatic controls of aboveground net primary production in semi-arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient portend low sensitivity to warming.

    PubMed

    Mowll, Whitney; Blumenthal, Dana M; Cherwin, Karie; Smith, Anine; Symstad, Amy J; Vermeire, Lance T; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2015-04-01

    Although climate models forecast warmer temperatures with a high degree of certainty, precipitation is the primary driver of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands. Conversely, variations in temperature seldom are related to patterns of ANPP. Thus forecasting responses to warming is a challenge, and raises the question: how sensitive will grassland ANPP be to warming? We evaluated climate and multi-year ANPP data (67 years) from eight western US grasslands arrayed along mean annual temperature (MAT; ~7-14 °C) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; ~250-500 mm) gradients. We used regression and analysis of covariance to assess relationships between ANPP and temperature, as well as precipitation (annual and growing season) to evaluate temperature sensitivity of ANPP. We also related ANPP to the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI), which combines precipitation and evapotranspiration to better represent moisture available for plant growth. Regression models indicated that variation in growing season temperature was negatively related to total and graminoid ANPP, but precipitation was a stronger predictor than temperature. Growing season temperature was also a significant parameter in more complex models, but again precipitation was consistently a stronger predictor of ANPP. Surprisingly, neither annual nor growing season SPEI were as strongly related to ANPP as precipitation. We conclude that forecasted warming likely will affect ANPP in these grasslands, but that predicting temperature effects from natural climatic gradients is difficult. This is because, unlike precipitation, warming effects can be positive or negative and moderated by shifts in the C3/C4 ratios of plant communities. PMID:25669452

  13. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  14. Out of Anatolia: longitudinal gradients in genetic diversity support an eastern origin for a circum-Mediterranean oak gallwasp Andricus quercustozae.

    PubMed

    Rokas, Antonis; Atkinson, Rachel J; Webster, Lucy; Csóka, György; Stone, Graham N

    2003-08-01

    Many studies have addressed the latitudinal gradients in intraspecific genetic diversity of European taxa generated during postglacial range expansion from southern refugia. Although Asia Minor is known to be a centre of diversity for many taxa, relatively few studies have considered its potential role as a Pleistocene refugium or a potential source for more ancient westward range expansion into Europe. Here we address these issues for an oak gallwasp, Andricus quercustozae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), whose distribution extends from Morocco along the northern coast of the Mediterranean through Turkey to Iran. We use sequence data for a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and allele frequency data for 12 polymorphic allozyme loci to answer the following questions: (1). which regions represent current centres of genetic diversity for A. quercustozae? Do eastern populations represent one refuge or several discrete glacial refugia? (2). Can we infer the timescale and sequence of the colonization processes linking current centres of diversity? Our results suggest that A. quercustozae was present in five distinct refugia (Iberia, Italy, the Balkans, southwestern Turkey and northeastern Turkey) with recent genetic exchange between Italy and Hungary. Genetic diversity is greatest in the Turkish refugia, suggesting that European populations are either (a). derived from Asia Minor, or (b). subject to more frequent population bottlenecks. Although Iberian populations show the lowest diversity for putatively selectively neutral markers, they have colonized a new oak host and represent a genetically and biologically discrete entity within the species. PMID:12859636

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  16. Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae) along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Hernández, Dulce M.; Lozada-García, J. Armando; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vázquez-Torres, S. Mario

    2015-01-01

    Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State) grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l.) using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42) and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems. PMID:25607732

  17. Temperature-Stress Resistance and Tolerance along a Latitudinal Cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    Wos, Guillaume; Willi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL) was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but—unexpectedly—they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches. PMID:26110428

  18. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Adaptive Genetic Divergence along Narrow Environmental Gradients in Four Stream Insects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kozo; Kazama, So; Omura, Tatsuo; Monaghan, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    A central question linking ecology with evolutionary biology is how environmental heterogeneity can drive adaptive genetic divergence among populations. We examined adaptive divergence of four stream insects from six adjacent catchments in Japan by combining field measures of habitat and resource components with genome scans of non-neutral Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci. Neutral genetic variation was used to measure gene flow and non-neutral genetic variation was used to test for adaptive divergence. We identified the environmental characteristics contributing to divergence by comparing genetic distances at non-neutral loci between sites with Euclidean distances for each of 15 environmental variables. Comparisons were made using partial Mantel tests to control for geographic distance. In all four species, we found strong evidence for non-neutral divergence along environmental gradients at between 6 and 21 loci per species. The relative contribution of these environmental variables to each species' ecological niche was quantified as the specialization index, S, based on ecological data. In each species, the variable most significantly correlated with genetic distance at non-neutral loci was the same variable along which each species was most narrowly distributed (i.e., highest S). These were gradients of elevation (two species), chlorophyll-a, and ammonia-nitrogen. This adaptive divergence occurred in the face of ongoing gene flow (Fst = 0.01–0.04), indicating that selection was strong enough to overcome homogenization at the landscape scale. Our results suggest that adaptive divergence is pronounced, occurs along different environmental gradients for different species, and may consistently occur along the narrowest components of species' niche. PMID:24681871

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on leaf phenology and cold hardiness of native and introduced riparian trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the roles of plasticity and genetic variation in the response to spatial and temporal climate variation, we established a common garden consisting of paired collections of native and introduced riparian trees sampled along a latitudinal gradient. The garden in Fort Collins, Colorado (latitude 40.6??N), included 681 native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and hybrids) collected from 15 sites at 29.2-47.6??N in the central United States. In the common garden both species showed latitudinal variation in fall, but not spring, leaf phenology, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient in fall phenology observed in the field results at least in part from inherited variation in the critical photoperiod, while the latitudinal gradient in spring phenology observed in the field is largely a plastic response to the temperature gradient. Populations from higher latitudes exhibited earlier bud set and leaf senescence. Cold hardiness varied latitudinally in both fall and spring for both species. For cottonwood, cold hardiness began earlier and ended later in northern than in southern populations. For saltcedar northern populations were hardier throughout the cold season than southern populations. Although cottonwood was hardier than saltcedar in midwinter, the reverse was true in late fall and early spring. The latitudinal variation in fall phenology and cold hardiness of saltcedar appears to have developed as a result of multiple introductions of genetically distinct populations, hybridization and natural selection in the 150 years since introduction. ?? 2011 US Government.

  1. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north–south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  2. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient.

    PubMed

    Hufford, Kristina M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north-south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  3. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control. PMID:24585133

  4. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  5. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.S.; Terwilliger, L.A.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results. Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion. Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. ?? 2008 Eggert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. PMID:19014596

  7. Control of lateral thickness gradients of Mo-Si multilayer on curved substrates using genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Jin, Chunshui; Yao, Shun; Li, Chun; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Feng; Guo, Benyin; Xie, Yao; Liu, Yu; Wang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    An inversion method based on a genetic algorithm has been developed to control the lateral thickness gradients of a Mo-Si multilayer deposited on curved substrates by planar magnetron sputtering. At first, the sputtering distribution of the target is inversed from coating thickness profiles of flat substrates at different heights. Then, the speed profiles of substrates sweeping across the target are optimized according to the desired coating thickness profiles of the primary and secondary mirrors in a two-bounce projection system. The measured coating thickness profiles show that the non-compensable added figure error is below 0.1 nm rms, and the wavelength uniformity across each mirror surface is within ±0.2% P-V. The inversion method introduced here exhibits its convenience in obtaining the sputtering distribution of the target and efficiency in coating iterations during process development. PMID:26368686

  8. The impact of distance and a shifting temperature gradient on genetic connectivity across a heterogeneous landscape

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inter-population distance and differences in breeding times are barriers to reproduction that can contribute to genotypic differentiation between populations. Temporal changes in environmental conditions and local selective processes can further contribute to the establishment of reproductive barriers. Telopea speciosissima (Proteaceae) is an excellent subject for studying the effect of geographic, edaphic and phenological heterogeneity on genotypic differentiation because previous studies show that these factors are correlated with morphological variation. Molecular, morphological and environmental datasets were combined to characterise the relative influence of these factors on inter-population differentiation, and Bayesian analyses were used to investigate current levels of admixture between differentiated genomes. Results A landscape genetic approach involving molecular and morphological analyses identified three endpoints of differentiated population groups: coastal, upland and southern. The southern populations, isolated from the other populations by an edaphic barrier, show low migration and no evidence of admixture with other populations. Amongst the northern populations, coastal and upland populations are connected along a skewed altitudinal gradient by genetically intermediate populations. The strong association between temperature and flowering time in Telopea speciosissima was shown to maintain a temporally unstable reproductive barrier between coastal and upland populations. Conclusions Substrate-mediated allopatry appears to be responsible for long-term genetic isolation of the southern populations. However, the temperature-dependent reproductive barrier between upland and coastal populations bears the genetic signature of temporal adjustments. The extreme climatic events of the last glacial maximum are likely to have caused more complete allochronic isolation between upland and coastal populations, as well as exerting increased selective

  9. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  10. Metagenomic analysis of lacustrine viral diversity along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; López-Bueno, Alberto; Alonso-Lobo, Juan M; Quesada, Antonio; Alcamí, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Environmental viruses constitute the most abundant biological entities on earth, and harbor an enormous genetic diversity. While their strong influence on the ecosystem is widely acknowledged, current knowledge about their diversity and distribution remains limited. Here we present the metagenomic study of viral communities from freshwater bodies located along a transect of the Antarctic Peninsula. These ecosystems were chosen on the basis of environmental and biogeographical variation. The results obtained indicate that the virus assemblages were diverse, and that the larger fraction represented viruses with no close relatives in the databases. Comparisons to existing metaviromes showed that the communities studied were dissimilar to other freshwater viromes including those from the Arctic. Finally, we observed no indication of there being a reduction in either viral richness or diversity estimates with increasing latitude along the studied transect, further adding to the controversy regarding the possible existence of latitudinal gradients of diversity in the microbial world. PMID:27059864

  11. Global-scale latitudinal patterns of species diversity in the deep-sea benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, Michael A.; Stuart, Carol T.; Hessler, Robert R.; Allen, John A.; Sanders, Howard L.; Wilson, George D. F.

    1993-10-01

    LATITUDINAL gradients of species diversity are ubiquitous features of terrestrial and coastal marine biotas, and they have inspired the development of theoretical ecology1-3. Since the discovery of high species diversity in the deep-sea benthos4, much has been learned about local5,6and regional7-9patterns of diversity. Variation in diversity on larger scales remains poorly described. Latitudinal gradients of diversity were unexpected because it was assumed that the environmental gradients that cause large-scale patterns in surface environments could not affect communities living at great depths10. Here we report that deep-sea bivalves, gastropods and isopods show clear latitudinal diversity gradients in the North Atlantic, and strong interregional variation in the South Atlantic. Many seemingly incompatible mechanisms have been proposed to explain deep-sea species diversity11. The existence of regular global patterns suggests that these mechanisms operate at different spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Genetic diversity of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) along a salinity gradient in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone.

    PubMed

    Møller Nielsen, Mette; Paulino, Cristina; Neiva, João; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Bruhn, Annette; Serrão, Ester A

    2016-08-01

    The North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone constitutes a boundary area for the kelp species Saccharina latissima due to a strong salinity gradient operating in the area. Furthermore, the existence of S. latissima there, along Danish waters, is fairly patchy as hard bottom is scarce. In this study, patterns of genetic diversity of S. latissima populations were evaluated along the salinity gradient area of Danish waters (here designated brackish) and were compared to reference sites (here designated marine) outside the gradient area, using microsatellite markers. The results showed that the S. latissima populations were structured into two clusters corresponding to brackish versus marine sites, and that gene flow was reduced both between clusters and between populations within clusters. In addition, results provided empirical evidence that marginal populations of S. latissima in the salinity gradient area exhibited a distinct genetic structure when compared to marine ones. Brackish populations were less diverse, more related, and showed increased differentiation over distance compared to marine populations. The isolation of the brackish S. latissima populations within the salinity gradient area of Danish waters in conjunction with their general low genetic diversity makes these populations vulnerable to ongoing environmental and climate change, predicted to result in declining salinity in the Baltic Sea area that may alter the future distribution and performance of S. latissima in the area. PMID:27151230

  13. Latitudinal Variation in δ13C derived from Terrestrial Plants during the Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strganac, C.; Jacobs, L. L.; Ferguson, K.; Macphee, R. D.; Fiorillo, A. R.; Hooker, J.; Nishida, Y.; Flemming, C.

    2010-12-01

    Modern plankton and terrestrial plants exhibit a gradient in δ13C with latitude. Although there are several reasons for δ13C variation in plants, modern latitudinal variation is correlated with environmental and climatic factors such as temperature. We present δ13C values derived from mid-Cretaceous terrestrial plant fossils in Texas at paleolatitude ~30 N and Australia at paleolatitude ~70 S that show an offset in δ13C values, suggesting a latitudinal gradient in δ13C in plants during the Cretaceous. This hypothesis was tested by new data from Antarctica at paleolatitude ~60 S and Alaska at paleolatitude ~70 N, and we compared these data to published carbon isotope records. The latitudinal variation in plant δ13C was on the order of 2‰ more negative at high latitudes, suggesting a shallower Cretaceous latitudinal gradient in plant δ13C than at present. The shallow gradient in plant δ13C during the Cretaceous correlates with a latitudinal temperature gradient that is also less than today.

  14. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  15. Design of a gradient-index beam shaping system via a genetic algorithm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal C.; Shealy, David L.

    2000-10-01

    Geometrical optics - the laws of reflection and refraction, ray tracing, conservation of energy within a bundle of rays, and the condition of constant optical path length - provides a foundation for design of laser beam shaping systems. This paper explores the use of machine learning techniques, concentrating on genetic algorithms, to design laser beam shaping systems using geometrical optics. Specifically, a three-element GRIN laser beam shaping system has been designed to expand and transform a Gaussian input beam profile into one with a uniform irradiance profile. Solution to this problem involves the constrained optimization of a merit function involving a mix of discrete and continuous parameters. The merit function involves terms that measure the deviation of the output beam diameter, divergence, and irradiance from target values. The continuous parameters include the distances between the lens elements, the thickness, and radii of the lens elements. The discrete parameters include the GRIN glass types from a manufacturer's database, the gradient direction of the GRIN elements (positive or negative), and the actual number of lens elements in the system (one to four).

  16. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  17. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  18. Great influence of geographic isolation on the genetic differentiation of Myriophyllum spicatum under a steep environmental gradient

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhigang; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhong; Li, Xing; Xu, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how natural processes affect population genetic structures is an important issue in evolutionary biology. One effective method is to assess the relative importance of environmental and geographical factors in the genetic structure of populations. In this study, we examined the spatial genetic variation of thirteen Myriophyllum spicatum populations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent highlands (Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, YGP) by using microsatellite loci and environmental and geographical factors. Bioclim layers, hydrological properties and elevation were considered as environmental variables and reduced by principal component analysis. The genetic isolation by geographic distance (IBD) was tested by Mantel tests and the relative importance of environmental variables on population genetic differentiation was determined by a partial Mantel test and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR). Two genetic clusters corresponding to the QTP and YGP were identified. Both tests and MMRR revealed a significant and strong correlation between genetic divergence and geographic isolation under the influence of environmental heterogeneity at the overall and finer spatial scales. Our findings suggested the dominant role of geography on the evolution of M. spicatum under a steep environmental gradient in the alpine landscape as a result of dispersal limitation and genetic drift. PMID:26494202

  19. Preliminary Structural Design Using Topology Optimization with a Comparison of Results from Gradient and Genetic Algorithm Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.

  20. Latitudinally structured variation in the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates.

    PubMed

    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan; Johansson, Helena; Johansson, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Theory of Ecology predicts that the slope of the rate-temperature relationship, E, remains consistent across traits and organisms, acting as a major determinant of large-scale ecological patterns. Although E has recently been shown to vary systematically, we have a poor understanding of its ecological significance. To address this question, we conducted a common-garden experiment involving six damselfly species differing in distribution, estimating E at the level of full-sib families. Each species was sampled throughout its latitudinal range, allowing us to characterise variation in E along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We show that E differs among populations and increases with latitude. E was right-skewness across species, but this was largely an artefact of the latitudinal trend. Increased seasonality towards higher latitude may contribute to the latitudinal trend in E. We conclude that E should be seen as a trait involved in local adaptation. PMID:23050790

  1. A latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, M G; Williams, D R; Tilyard, P A; Pinkard, E A; Wardlaw, T J; Glen, M; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M

    2013-01-01

    The possible drivers and implications of an observed latitudinal cline in disease resistance of a host tree were examined. Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) damage, caused by Teratosphaeria species, was assessed in five Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) common garden trials containing open-pollinated progeny from 13 native-forest populations. Significant population and family within population variation in MLD resistance was detected, which was relatively stable across different combinations of trial sites, ages, seasons and epidemics. A distinct genetic-based latitudinal cline in MLD damage among host populations was evident. Two lines of evidence argue that the observed genetic-based latitudinal trend was the result of direct pathogen-imposed selection for MLD resistance. First, MLD damage was positively associated with temperature and negatively associated with a prediction of disease risk in the native environment of these populations; and, second, the quantitative inbreeding coefficient (QST) significantly exceeded neutral marker FST at the trial that exhibited the greatest MLD damage, suggesting that diversifying selection contributed to differentiation in MLD resistance among populations. This study highlights the potential for spatial variation in pathogen risk to drive adaptive differentiation across the geographic range of a foundation host tree species. PMID:23211794

  2. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component: Coronal Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements by Ulysses have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,) of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the corona, the plasma, beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in field strength will relax due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens quickly enough so that the field is essentially uniform by 5 - 10 solar radius, apparently remaining so as it is carried to beyond 1 AU. Here, we illustrate the coronal relaxation with a qualitative physical argument and by reference to a detailed Magneto HydroDynamics (MHD) simulation.

  3. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system. PMID:18637957

  4. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  5. Genetic markers reveal a gradient of hybridization between cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus) in their sympatric geographic distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, Laura; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-02-01

    The cape hakes Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus are important fishing resources for African countries such as Namibia and South Africa. In this study we have genetically analyzed adult samples from the overlapping distribution of these species. Eight microsatellite loci, the nuclear 5S rDNA locus and the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were employed as molecular markers. A North-South gradient of interspecific hybridization was found, with discordant mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes at the northernmost edge of M. paradoxus distribution. These results suggest intense introgression in North Benguela off the Namibian coast. Independent hake stock assessment is recommended in this region for sustainable management of this valuable resource.

  6. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  7. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (Amax). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, Amax, stomatal conductance (gs), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, Amax and gs, but not carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), were

  8. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (A max). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, A max, stomatal conductance (g s ), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, A max and g s , but not carboxylation capacity (V

  9. Inherited variability in multiple traits determines fitness in populations of an annual legume from contrasting latitudinal origins

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose María

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Variation in fitness depends on corresponding variation in multiple traits which have both genetically controlled and plastic components. These traits are subjected to varying degrees of local adaptation in specific populations and, consequently, are genetically controlled to different extents. In this study it is hypothesized that modulation of different traits would have contrasting relevance for the fitness of populations of diverse origins. Specifically, assuming that environmental pressures vary across a latitudinal gradient, it is suggested that inherited variation in traits differentially determines fitness in annual Lupinus angustifolius populations from contrasting latitudinal origins in western Spain. Methods Seeds of L. angustifolius from three contrasting origins were grown in a common garden. Traits related to more plastic vegetative growth and more genetically conserved phenology were measured, together with estimates of reproductive success. Fitness was estimated by the number of viable seeds per plant. Structural Equation Models were used to infer causal relationships among multiple traits and fitness, separating the direct and indirect effects of morphological, phenological and reproductive traits. Key Results Phenological, vegetative and reproductive traits accounted for most of the fitness variation. Fitness was highest in plants of southernmost origin, mainly due to earlier flowering. Fitness within each seed origin was controlled by variation in different traits. Southern origin plants that grew to a larger size achieved higher fitness. However, plant size in plants of northernmost origin was irrelevant, but early flowering promoted higher fitness. Variation in fruit and seed set had a greater effect on the fitness of plants of central origin than phenological and size variation. Conclusions It is concluded that modulation of a functional trait can be relevant to fitness in a given population (i.e. affecting intensity and

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Arabidopsis thaliana along an altitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Antariksh; Singh, Shivani; Mishra, Parneeta; Singh, Akanksha; Tripathi, Abhinandan Mani; Jena, Satya Narayan; Roy, Sribash

    2016-01-01

    The natural genetic variation within a plant species is primarily a consequence of its phylogeography and evolutionary history. This variation largely determines its present-day population structure. Arabidopsis thaliana, as a model plant, has been studied in great detail including its probable origin, local as well as global genetic diversity pattern, population structure, adaptation, etc. However, no such studies have so far been reported from the Indian Himalayan region. Here, we describe a comprehensive study on the genetic diversity and population structure of A. thaliana from an altitudinal range of 700–3400 m above mean sea level the highest altitudinal range reported so far. We also compare these populations with previously reported worldwide populations. A total of 48 accessions representing six populations were analysed using 19 microsatellites and 11 chloroplast markers. Genetic diversity analysis indicated populations to be highly diverse and comparable with worldwide populations. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and isolation by distance (IBD) analyses showed that genetic variation in different populations is structured at geographical and altitudinal level. Further analyses indicate that these populations are genetically distinct from the rest of the world populations. Different parameters of the demographic expansion model support a rapid expansion. Based on mismatch distribution, the initial time of expansion of west Himalayan populations was found to be about 130 000 years. Bayesian analysis of divergence time indicated that these populations have a long evolutionary history in this region. Based on the results of genetic diversity parameters, demographic expansion and divergence time estimation, it appears that west Himalayan populations may be the source of the west–east expansion model. PMID:26672075

  11. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  12. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes. PMID:26577830

  13. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana. PMID:25293874

  14. Microgeographic Patterns of Genetic Divergence and Adaptation across Environmental Gradients in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Perera, Nadeesha; Chowdhury, Bashira; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Abiotic and biotic conditions often vary continuously across the landscape, imposing divergent selection on local populations. We used a provenance trial approach to examine microgeographic variation in local adaptation in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In montane ecosystems, environmental conditions change considerably over short spatial scales, such that neighboring populations can be subject to different selective pressures. Using accessions from southern (Colorado) and northern (Idaho) populations, we characterized spatial variation in genetic similarity via microsatellite markers. We then transplanted genotypes from multiple local populations into common gardens in both regions. Continuous variation in local adaptation emerged for several components of fitness. In Idaho, genotypes from warmer environments (low-elevation or south-facing sites) were poorly adapted to the north-facing garden. In high- and low-elevation Colorado gardens, susceptibility to insect herbivory increased with source elevation. In the high-elevation Colorado garden, germination success peaked for genotypes that evolved at elevations similar to that of the garden and decreased for genotypes from higher and lower elevations. We also found evidence for local maladaptation in survival and fecundity components of fitness in the low-elevation Colorado garden. This approach is a first step in predicting how global change could affect evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26656218

  15. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  16. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  17. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. PMID:26781165

  18. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m(2) quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. PMID:26781165

  19. Coupling of soil prokaryotic diversity and plant diversity across latitudinal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Tao; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Hu, Hang-Wei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Bao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Ping; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The belowground soil prokaryotic community plays a cardinal role in sustaining the stability and functions of forest ecosystems. Yet, the nature of how soil prokaryotic diversity co-varies with aboveground plant diversity along a latitudinal gradient remains elusive. By establishing three hundred 400-m2 quadrats from tropical rainforest to boreal forest in a large-scale parallel study on both belowground soil prokaryote and aboveground tree and herb communities, we found that soil prokaryotic diversity couples with the diversity of herbs rather than trees. The diversity of prokaryotes and herbs responds similarly to environmental factors along the latitudinal gradient. These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems.

  20. Asymmetric changes of growth and reproductive investment herald altitudinal and latitudinal range shifts of two woody species.

    PubMed

    Matías, Luis; Jump, Alistair S

    2015-02-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of the geographical distribution of a species, where range expansions or contractions may occur. Current demographical status at geographical range limits can help us to predict population trends and their implications for the future distribution of the species. Thus, understanding the comparability of demographical patterns occurring along both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients would be highly informative. In this study, we analyse the differences in the demography of two woody species through altitudinal gradients at their southernmost distribution limit and the consistency of demographical patterns at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the complete distribution range. We focus on Pinus sylvestris and Juniperus communis, assessing their demographical structure (density, age and mortality rate), growth, reproduction investment and damage from herbivory on 53 populations covering the upper, central and lower altitudes as well as the treeline at central latitude and northernmost and southernmost latitudinal distribution limits. For both species, populations at the lowermost altitude presented older age structure, higher mortality, decreased growth and lower reproduction when compared to the upper limit, indicating higher fitness at the treeline. This trend at the treeline was generally maintained through the latitudinal gradient, but with a decreased growth at the northern edge for both species and lower reproduction for P. sylvestris. However, altitudinal and latitudinal transects are not directly comparable as factors other than climate, including herbivore pressure or human management, must be taken into account if we are to understand how to infer latitudinal processes from altitudinal data. PMID:25044677

  1. Explaining the sawtooth: latitudinal periodicity in a circadian gene correlates with shifts in generation number.

    PubMed

    Levy, R C; Kozak, G M; Wadsworth, C B; Coates, B S; Dopman, E B

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate insects take advantage of longer growing seasons at lower latitudes by increasing their generation number or voltinism. In some insects, development time abruptly decreases when additional generations are fit into the season. Consequently, latitudinal 'sawtooth' clines associated with shifts in voltinism are seen for phenotypes correlated with development time, like body size. However, latitudinal variation in voltinism has not been linked to genetic variation at specific loci. Here, we show a pattern in allele frequency among voltinism ecotypes of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis) that is reminiscent of a sawtooth cline. We characterized 145 autosomal and sex-linked SNPs and found that period, a circadian gene that is genetically linked to a major QTL determining variation in post-diapause development time, shows cyclical variation between voltinism ecotypes. Allele frequencies at an unlinked circadian clock gene cryptochrome1 were correlated with period. These results suggest that selection on development time to 'fit' complete life cycles into a latitudinally varying growing season produces oscillations in alleles associated with voltinism, primarily through changes at loci underlying the duration of transitions between diapause and other life history phases. Correlations among clock loci suggest possible coupling between the circadian clock and the circannual rhythms for synchronizing seasonal life history. We anticipate that latitudinal oscillations in allele frequency will represent signatures of adaptation to seasonal environments in other insects and may be critical to understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of variable environments, including response to global climate change. PMID:25430782

  2. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea–Baltic Sea salinity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-01-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone. PMID:25892181

  3. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients

    PubMed Central

    Mikulášková, Eva; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, Adam; Johnson, Matthew G; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes dominate some ecosystems despite their extraordinary sensitivity to habitat quality. Nevertheless, some species behave differently across various regions. The existence of local adaptations is questioned by a high dispersal ability, which is thought to redistribute genetic variability among populations. Although Sphagnum warnstorfii is an important ecosystem engineer in fen peatlands, the causes of its rather wide niche along the pH/calcium gradient are poorly understood. Here, we studied the genetic variability of its global populations, with a detailed focus on the wide pH/calcium gradient in Central Europe. Principal coordinates analysis of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a significant gradient coinciding with water pH, but independent of geography; even samples from the same fens were clearly separated along this gradient. However, most of the genetic variations remained unexplained, possibly because of the introgression from phylogenetically allied species. This explanation is supported by the small heterogeneous cluster of samples that appeared when populations morphologically transitional to S. subnites, S. rubellum, or S. russowii were included into the analysis. Alternatively, this unexplained variation might be attributed to a legacy of glacial refugia with recently dissolved ecological and biogeographic consequences. Isolation by distance appeared at the smallest scale only (up to 43 km). Negative spatial correlations occurred more frequently, mainly at long distances (up to 950 km), implying a genetic similarity among samples which are very distant geographically. Our results confirm the high dispersal ability of peatmosses, but simultaneously suggested that their ability to cope with a high pH/calcium level is at least partially determined genetically, perhaps via specific physiological mechanisms or a hummock-forming ability. PMID:25628880

  4. Latitudinal skewness in global EQ distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, E.; Levin, B.

    2009-04-01

    The results of statistical analysis of worldwide seismic catalogs (ISC and NEIC), which was carried out in frame of two projects are presented. In both cases we extracted the evens occurred in the Pacific region from 1964 with Mb>=4.0. The aftershocks were canceled from the list. All events were divided into following magnitude ranges (MR): 4<=Mb<4.5; 4.5<=Mb<5; 5<=Mb<5.5; 5.5<=Mb<6.0; 6<=Mb. Further analysis was performed separately for each MR. In frame of the first project [Levin, Sasorova, 2009] the whole Pacific region was divided in 18 latitudinal intervals (size of every interval was 10 deg). The number of events in each latitudinal interval was normalized two times. The first one number of events was divided on common number of events in given MR. It was calculated relative number of events in each latitudinal interval for given MR. Then normalization was produced with respect to the length of lithosphere plate boundaries situated in given latitude zone. The approach gives the characteristic of seismicity for lithosphere plate boundary, i.e. seismic event number which was generated at unit of length of plate boundary. An analysis of the Pacific earthquake latitude distribution showed that the empirical distribution is described by a bimodal function with two maxima in middle latitudes (40-50 deg N and 20-30 deg S), local minimum near equator (10-20 deg N), and zero values in polar zones. Thus the bimodal latitudinal EQ distribution shows clear expressed skewness (in direction to the Northern Hemisphere). The stability of distributions from the observation interval size was demonstrated on the data independence analysis for several ten-year intervals. Then it was carried out the analysis about statistically valid regularity of the EQ distribution over depth and over latitudinal belts for different magnitude ranges (MR). It was shown, that for the high latitudes up to 90% of the EQ sources are located on the depth H<=20 km. The part of EQ with 20

  5. Genetic structure and gene flow along an altitudinal gradient among two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) on La Réunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Jérémie; Litrico, Isabelle; Tillard, Emmanuel; Duvallet, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    Seasonal variations of insect population sizes are often dramatic, particularly in temperate regions and at altitudes where the climatic conditions are unfavorable to insect development during the winter. Decline of population size (or bottlenecks) and founder events may reduce the genetic variability and may create genetic differentiation between populations by drift and founder effects, but this reduction of genetic diversity is strongly influenced by gene flow between populations. In this study, we determined the population genetic structure for two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) and Stomoxys niger niger Macquart, which co-occur in dairy barns along an altitudinal gradient on La Réunion island. Using microsatellite markers, we quantified the genetic variation within and among populations for different altitudes. This study displays that, contrary to expectations, genetic diversity is not correlated with altitude and that genetic differentiation is not larger among high-altitude populations than among low-altitude populations. These results attest to the small drift and founder effects in high-altitude populations despite drastic decreases in population size during the winter. Furthermore, at the island scale, the populations of S. calcitrans were slightly differentiated, but those of S. niger niger were not. Together, the results revealed large levels of gene flow on La Réunion Island despite the dramatic geographic barriers, and they emphasize the importance of considering agricultural practices to restrict the dispersal of stomoxyines. PMID:17547228

  6. Ecological Genomics of Anopheles gambiae Along a Latitudinal Cline: A Population-Resequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changde; White, Bradley J.; Kamdem, Colince; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Costantini, Carlo; Hahn, Matthew W.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2012-01-01

    The association between fitness-related phenotypic traits and an environmental gradient offers one of the best opportunities to study the interplay between natural selection and migration. In cases in which specific genetic variants also show such clinal patterns, it may be possible to uncover the mutations responsible for local adaptation. The malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is associated with a latitudinal cline in aridity in Cameroon; a large inversion on chromosome 2L of this mosquito shows large differences in frequency along this cline, with high frequencies of the inverted karyotype present in northern, more arid populations and an almost complete absence of the inverted arrangement in southern populations. Here we use a genome resequencing approach to investigate patterns of population divergence along the cline. By sequencing pools of individuals from both ends of the cline as well as in the center of the cline—where the inversion is present in intermediate frequency—we demonstrate almost complete panmixia across collinear parts of the genome and high levels of differentiation in inverted parts of the genome. Sequencing of separate pools of each inversion arrangement in the center of the cline reveals large amounts of gene flux (i.e., gene conversion and double crossovers) even within inverted regions, especially away from the inversion breakpoints. The interplay between natural selection, migration, and gene flux allows us to identify several candidate genes responsible for the match between inversion frequency and environmental variables. These results, coupled with similar conclusions from studies of clinal variation in Drosophila, point to a number of important biological functions associated with local environmental adaptation. PMID:22209907

  7. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populations. Lippia origanoides was sampled along an altitudinal gradient from 365 to 2595 m.a.s.l. throughout Chicamocha River Canyon, a semiarid area in northeastern Colombia. Genetic diversity was assessed by means of AFLP markers. The number of AFLP loci (355) and the number of individuals sampled (173) were sufficient to reliably identify four populations at contrasting altitudes (FST = 0.18, P-value < 0.0000), two populations in the lower basin, one population in the medium basin, and one population in the upper basin, with a low level of admixture between them. In average, genetic diversity within populations was relatively high (Ht = 0.32; I = 0.48); nevertheless, diversity was significantly reduced at higher altitude, a pattern that may be consistent with a scenario of range expansion toward higher elevations in an environment with more extreme conditions. The differences in altitude among the basins in the Chicamocha River seem to be relevant in determining the genetic structure of this species. PMID:23170204

  8. Latitudinal Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Agricultural Soils of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liuqin; Deng, Ye; Wang, Shang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The response of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities to individual environmental variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and carbon- and nitrogen-related soil nutrients) has been extensively studied, but how these environmental conditions collectively shape AOB and AOA distributions in unmanaged agricultural soils across a large latitudinal gradient remains poorly known. In this study, the AOB and AOA community structure and diversity in 26 agricultural soils collected from eastern China were investigated by using quantitative PCR and bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. The sampling locations span over a 17° latitude gradient and cover a range of climatic conditions. The Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera were the dominant clusters of AOB and AOA, respectively; but the subcluster-level composition of Nitrosospira-related AOB and Nitrososphaera-related AOA varied across the latitudinal gradient. Variance partitioning analysis showed that geography and climatic conditions (e.g., mean annual temperature and precipitation), as well as carbon-/nitrogen-related soil nutrients, contributed more to the AOB and AOA community variations (∼50% in total) than soil pH (∼10% in total). These results are important in furthering our understanding of environmental conditions influencing AOB and AOA community structure across a range of environmental gradients. PMID:25002421

  9. Latitudinal distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in the agricultural soils of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Liuqin; Deng, Ye; Wang, Shang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Li; Dong, Hailiang

    2014-09-01

    The response of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities to individual environmental variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and carbon- and nitrogen-related soil nutrients) has been extensively studied, but how these environmental conditions collectively shape AOB and AOA distributions in unmanaged agricultural soils across a large latitudinal gradient remains poorly known. In this study, the AOB and AOA community structure and diversity in 26 agricultural soils collected from eastern China were investigated by using quantitative PCR and bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. The sampling locations span over a 17° latitude gradient and cover a range of climatic conditions. The Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera were the dominant clusters of AOB and AOA, respectively; but the subcluster-level composition of Nitrosospira-related AOB and Nitrososphaera-related AOA varied across the latitudinal gradient. Variance partitioning analysis showed that geography and climatic conditions (e.g., mean annual temperature and precipitation), as well as carbon-/nitrogen-related soil nutrients, contributed more to the AOB and AOA community variations (∼50% in total) than soil pH (∼10% in total). These results are important in furthering our understanding of environmental conditions influencing AOB and AOA community structure across a range of environmental gradients. PMID:25002421

  10. No Latitudinal Trends in Body Size of Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Payne, J.; Seixas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many organisms, such as penguins and polar bears, follow Bergmann's rule, which states that body size of animals tends to increase as temperature decreases, and thus as latitude increases toward to poles. A study of marine mollusk bivalves across a latitudinal gradient found no correlation between body size and latitude along the North American Pacific Coast, suggesting that the body size of marine bivalves might be controlled by other factors. This posed the question: Is there a lack of correlation between latitude and body size for all marine invertebrates or is it unique to marine bivalves? In this study, we examined four suborders of benthic foraminifera, Lagenina, Miliolina, Rotaliina, and Textulariina, a diverse phylum of amoeboid protists, to determine the relationship between body size and latitude within and across suborders at the global scale. We measured the shell (test) dimensions of foraminifera from a compilation of monograph images of type specimens. The mean test size as well as the maximum body size of those foraminifera suborders does not vary with increasing latitude. Our results show that foraminifera do not follow Bergmann's rule, consistent with the body size distribution pattern observed in marine bivalves. Different biological and environmental factors that vary between foraminifera suborders, such as life habitats, behaviors, and physiology, might have a greater influence on body size distributions.

  11. GENETIC ADAPTATION AND ACCLIMATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON ALONG A STRESS GRADIENT IN THE EXTREME WATERS OF THE AGRIO RIVER-CAVIAHUE LAKE (ARGENTINA)(1).

    PubMed

    López-Rodas, Victoria; Rouco, Mónica; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    We tested if different adaptation strategies were linked to a stress gradient in phytoplankton cells. For this purpose, we studied the adaptation and acclimation of Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Naumann) Komárek et Perman (Chlorophyta) and Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. (Cyanobacteria) to different water samples (from extremely acid, metal-rich water to moderate stressful conditions) of the Agrio River-Caviahue Lake system (Neuquén, Argentina). Both experimental strains were isolated from pristine, slightly alkaline waters. To distinguish between physiological acclimation and genetic adaptation (an adaptive evolution event), a modified Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis was carried out with both species by using as selective agent sample waters from different points along the stress gradient. M. aeruginosa did not acclimate to any of the waters tested from different points along the stress gradient nor did D. chlorelloides to the two most acidic and metal-rich waters. However, D. chlorelloides proliferated by rapid genetic adaptation, as the consequence of a single mutation (5.4 × 10(-7) resistant mutants per cell per division) at one locus, in less extreme water and also by acclimation in the least extreme water. It is hypothesized that the stress gradient resulted in different strategies of adaptation in phytoplankton cells from nonextreme waters. Thus, very extreme conditions were lethal for both organisms, but as stressful conditions decreased, adaptation of D. chlorelloides cells was possible by the selection of resistant mutants, and in less extreme conditions, by acclimation. PMID:27020184

  12. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  13. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  14. Latitudinal Controls on Topography: The Role of Precipitation and Fluvial Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, C.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the North and South American Cordillera show that mean and maximum elevations decrease with increasing latitude. The trend in elevation follows the latitudinal dependence of snowline altitudes. This correlation between elevation and snowline altitude has been the impetus behind the glacial 'buzzsaw' hypothesis, which states that glaciers limit the elevation of mountain peaks. Underlying this hypothesis is an assumption that elevations prior to glaciation were either uniform, randomly distributed, or followed a pattern that is no longer present. However, there may be other factors that are responsible for these patterns, such as latitudinal trends in precipitation. Here, we address this assumption and the necessity of glacial erosion in explaining the latitudinal trend in elevation. We use the CHILD landscape evolution model parameterized by modern precipitation data along a latitudinal gradient in the Andes to predict the topography in the absence of glaciation. Using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation data from 1981-2010, we derive storm duration, intensity, and frequency statistics for a series of locations along the Andean orogen. For each location, we run a model using a sequence of storms generated from these statistics. Erodibility and rock-uplift are held constant between the different locations and the models are run until topographic steady-state is achieved. We also present runs exploring the role of a threshold for bedrock detachment in the modeled results. For each run, we track the maximum and mean elevation as well as the time to steady-state. Preliminary results for all cases show that fluvial processes alone are sufficient to account for the latitudinal dependence of topography. For example, landscapes produced with precipitation statistics similar to the dry central Andes are more than an order of magnitude higher than landscapes from the southern, wetter, part of the orogen. Future analysis will use precipitation data from

  15. Latitudinal Variation of Solar Wind Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishnan, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Janardhan, P.

    1995-04-01

    Single station solar wind velocity measurements using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) in India (operating at 327 MHz) are reported for the period August 1992 to August 1993. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations on a large number of compact radio sources covering a latitudinal range of ±80° were used to derive solar wind velocities using the method of fitting a power law model to the observed IPS spectra. The data shows a velocity versus heliographic latitude pattern which is similar to that reported by Rickett and Coles (1991) for the 1981 1982 period. However, the average of the measured equatorial velocities are higher, being about 470 km s-1 compared to their value of 400 km s-1. The distribution of electron density variations (ΔN e ) between 50R⊙ and 90R⊙ was also determined and it was found that ΔN e was about 30% less at the poles as compared to the equator.

  16. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  17. Solar latitudinal distortions: From observations to theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, S.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2004-06-01

    Solar diameters have been measured from different ground-based instruments on different sites all around the world. There are values dating back to three centuries ago, but the revival of interest began in the 1970s when it was claimed that a temporal periodic modulation had been found. The interest of such measurements, pinpointed from only two decades, may not lie in these temporal variations, but in the fact that a latitudinal heliographic dependence may exist. Such a solar shape distortion has been deduced from the analysis of solar astrolabe data sorted by heliographic latitudes, but observational evidence has also been obtained by means of a scanning heliometer (Pic du Midi Observatory). Latitudinal dependence implies sub-surfacic physical mechanisms and can be explained theoretically. Thus, in spite of the fact that ground-based observations are altered by seeing effects that may amplify or superimpose noise, it can be advanced that the solar shape is not a pure spheroid. We present here a new theory based upon the thermal-wind equation, which explains the observed distorted solar shape. Using the W parameter (called here asphericity-luminosity parameter), we show that large negative values (W ranging from around -0.075 up to -0.6) leading to a prolate Sun, are unlikely. The best range of W lies between around -0.075 and +0.6. Concerning observations, only space missions (or balloon flights) will be able to reach a clear conclusion. A space mission called PICARD is scheduled to be launched by 2008: one of its major aims is to measure these asphericities with astrometric precision.

  18. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  19. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D.; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  20. RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration?

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Simon; Côté, Caroline; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    During their larval leptocephalus phase, newly hatched American eels undergo an extensive oceanic migration from the Sargasso Sea toward coastal and freshwater habitats. Their subsequent metamorphosis into glass eel is accompanied by drastic morphological and physiological changes preceding settlement over a wide geographic range. The main objective of this study was to compare RNA/DNA ratios and condition factor among glass eels in order to test the null hypothesis of no difference in physiological status and metabolic activity of glass eels at the outcome of their oceanic migration. This was achieved by analyzing glass eel samples collected at the mouth of 17 tributaries covering a latitudinal gradient across the species distribution range from Florida to Gaspésie (Québec). Our main observations were (i) a latitudinal increase in mean total length; (ii) a latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of sampling locations; and (iii) a latitudinal variation in Fulton's condition factor, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its maximum in the central range of sampling locations. Below we discuss the possible links between latitudinal variation in glass eel physiological status and variable energetic and environmental constraints to oceanic migration as a function of latitudinal distribution. PMID:22837833

  1. RNA/DNA ratios in American glass eels (Anguilla rostrata): evidence for latitudinal variation in physiological status and constraints to oceanic migration?

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon; Côté, Caroline; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-05-01

    During their larval leptocephalus phase, newly hatched American eels undergo an extensive oceanic migration from the Sargasso Sea toward coastal and freshwater habitats. Their subsequent metamorphosis into glass eel is accompanied by drastic morphological and physiological changes preceding settlement over a wide geographic range. The main objective of this study was to compare RNA/DNA ratios and condition factor among glass eels in order to test the null hypothesis of no difference in physiological status and metabolic activity of glass eels at the outcome of their oceanic migration. This was achieved by analyzing glass eel samples collected at the mouth of 17 tributaries covering a latitudinal gradient across the species distribution range from Florida to Gaspésie (Québec). Our main observations were (i) a latitudinal increase in mean total length; (ii) a latitudinal variation in mean RNA/DNA ratios, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its minimum in the central range of sampling locations; and (iii) a latitudinal variation in Fulton's condition factor, which was best explained by a quadratic model reaching its maximum in the central range of sampling locations. Below we discuss the possible links between latitudinal variation in glass eel physiological status and variable energetic and environmental constraints to oceanic migration as a function of latitudinal distribution. PMID:22837833

  2. Foliar δ13C response patterns along a moisture gradient arising from genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in grassland species of Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Niu, Haishan; Xu, Xingliang

    2013-01-01

    Plants depend upon both genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity to cope with environmental variation over different timescales. The spatial variation in foliar δ13C levels along a moisture gradient represents an overlay of genetic and plastic responses. We hypothesized that such a spatial variation would be more obvious than the variation arising purely from a plastic response to moisture change. Leymus chinensis and Stipa spp. were sampled from Inner Mongolia along a dry-wet transect, and some of these species were transplanted to an area with a moisture gradient. For Stipa spp., the slope of foliar δ13C and mean annual precipitation along the transect was significantly steeper than that of foliar δ13C and mean annual precipitation after the watering treatment. For L. chinensis, there was a general decreasing trend in foliar δ13C under the different (increasing) watering levels; however, its populations showed an irregular relationship between foliar δ13C and moisture origin. Therefore, support for our hypothesis was obtained from Stipa spp., but not from L. chinensis. PMID:23467429

  3. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. PMID:26517175

  4. GenGIS 2: Geospatial Analysis of Traditional and Genetic Biodiversity, with New Gradient Algorithms and an Extensible Plugin Framework

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Donovan H.; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S.; Armanini, David G.; Baird, Donald J.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis. PMID:23922841

  5. GenGIS 2: geospatial analysis of traditional and genetic biodiversity, with new gradient algorithms and an extensible plugin framework.

    PubMed

    Parks, Donovan H; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S; Armanini, David G; Baird, Donald J; Langille, Morgan G I; Beiko, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis. PMID:23922841

  6. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  7. Latitudinal variation of thermospheric hydrogen near solstice from AE-D observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanatani, S.; Breig, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Variations of thermospheric neutral atomic hydrogen with latitude during a solstice season near solar minimum were investigated using data acquired with the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite. Hydrogen concentrations at low latitude were found to be comparable to those found from observations with the AE-E satellite, but were slightly higher than concentrations derived from the 1983 mass spectrometer incoherent scatter atmospheric model. Results confirm the general summer-to-winter density increase, large latitudinal gradients in the summer hemisphere, and the winter enhancement of hydrogen observed in AE-C nighttime measurements. The AE-D data, however, show a small polar depression in hydrogen concentration at high winter latitudes, attributed to atmospheric dynamics following auroral heating. The density gradients observed by AE-D in the summer hemisphere were in sharp contrast to the more constant horizontal daytime profiles reported from OGO-6 and previous AE-C measurements, indicating the possibility of local time effects.

  8. Latitudinal Libration in a Triaxial Ellipsoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Vantieghem, S.; Noir, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a consequence of gravitational coupling with their orbital partners, the rotational dynamics of planets and moons exhibits periodic variations in time, such as precession, libration and nutation. Moreover, most planets are subject to tidal forces, which in combination with the planet's rotation, result in a departure from a purely spherically symmetric object. In this theoretical-numerical study, we investigate the flows driven by latitudinal libration (i.e. an oscillation of the figure axis with respect to the mean rotation axis) within liquid cores of triaxial ellipsoidal shape. We first derive a uniform-vorticity solution for the equations of motion, and find that it can resonate with the spin-over inertial mode. Using a reduced model of viscosity (J. Noir and D. Cébron, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 737 (2013)), we deduce that the amplitude of the flow at resonance diverges as the inverse square-root of the Ekman number. Our results are consistent with previous studies in a spheroidal geometry (K. Zhang et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 696 (2012)). In a following step, we address the dynamical stability of this uniform-vorticity flow. We show that it is prone to inertial instabilities arising from a parametric resonance between two free inertial modes and the base flow. We also show that the vigor of the instability is governed by the frequency and two parameters that capture the dependence on the libration amplitude and geometry. The resonant nature of these phenomena suggests that libration in latitude, despite its small amplitude, may drive strong flows within planetary cores with possibly major implications for heat transport, dissipation and magnetic field generation/induction. This is discussed at planetary settings for the cores of the Moon, Io and Mercury, and the ancient lunar core.

  9. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1–39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6–27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. PMID:25618143

  10. Dynamics of the ITCZ-Equatorial Cold Tongue Complex and Causes of theLatitudinal Climate Asymmetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yuqing

    1999-06-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-coastline model driven by solar radiation is advanced to understand the essential physics determining the annual cycle of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)-equatorial cold tongue (ECT) complex and associated latitudinal climate asymmetry. With a thermocline depth similar to that of the western Pacific, the aquaplanet climate is latitudinal symmetric and stable. The presence of an oceanic eastern boundary supports an east-west asymmetric climate and an ECT due to unstable air-sea interaction and counter stabilization provided by zonal differential surface buoyancy flux. Formation of latitudinal climate asymmetry requires the presence of the ECT.The antisymmetric solar forcing due to annual variation of the solar declination angle can convert a stable latitudinal symmetric climate into a bistable-state latitudinal asymmetric climate by changing trade winds, which in turn control annual variations of the ECT. The ECT then interacts with ITCZ, providing a self-maintenance mechanism for ITCZ to linger in one hemisphere, either the northern or southern, depending on initial conditions. The establishment of the bistable-state asymmetry requires a delicate balance between counter effects of the antisymmetric solar forcing and self-maintenance. Two factors are critical for the latter: (i) The annual variation of ECT follows the SST of the ITCZ-free hemisphere and the meridional SST gradients between the ECT and ITCZ sustain moisture convergence, which prolongs residence of the ITCZ in summer hemisphere. (ii) The latent heat released in the ITCZ produces remarkable asymmetry in Hadley circulation and trades between the two hemispheres, and the stronger evaporation cooling in the ITCZ-free hemisphere delays and weakens the warming and convection development in that hemisphere.The annual cycle of insolation due to the earth-sun distance variation may convert the bistable-state asymmetry into a preferred latitudinal asymmetric climate. The

  11. Genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio spp. in environmental samples analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Wawer, C; Muyzer, G

    1995-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in environmental samples was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified [NiFe] hydrogenase gene fragments. Five different PCR primers were designed after comparative analysis of [NiFe] hydrogenase gene sequences from three Desulfovibrio species. These primers were tested in different combinations on the genomic DNAs of a variety of hydrogenase-containing and hydrogenase-lacking bacteria. One primer pair was found to be specific for Desulfovibrio species only, while the others gave positive results with other bacteria also. By using this specific primer pair, we were able to amplify the [NiFe] hydrogenase genes of DNAs isolated from environmental samples and to detect the presence of Desulfovibrio species in these samples. However, only after DGGE analysis of these PCR products could the number of different Desulfovibrio species within the samples be determined. DGGE analysis of PCR products from different bioreactors demonstrated up to two bands, while at least five distinguishable bands were detected in a microbial mat sample. Because these bands most likely represent as many Desulfovibrio species present in these samples, we conclude that the genetic diversity of Desulfovibrio species in the natural microbial mat is far greater than that in the experimental bioreactors. PMID:7793940

  12. Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    Homozygous; Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  13. Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  14. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  15. Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.

  16. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. New information To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow taxa (species and hybrids) per stand was four, and varied from one to nine. There is a progressive increase in willow diversity from south to north with the median number of taxa per stand in southern Europe being three, and in northern Europe six. A total of 20 willow species were recorded, along with 12 hybrids. The most widespread willow in the transect was Salix alba L. (occurring in 20 sites out of 42) followed by S. triandra L. (15 sites), S. caprea L., S. phylicifolia L. (14 sites) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., Salix ×fragilis L. (13 sites). Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K). These samples provide a "snapshot" of willow diversity along a latitudinal gradient and an indication of the geographically changing taxonomic diversity that is

  17. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  18. Spatial distribution patterns in macrobenthos along a latitudinal transect at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenin, A.; Budaeva, N.; Mokievsky, V.; Pantke, C.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of benthic organisms are the focus of various faunal marine studies. However, data on horizontal and bathymetric distribution of the deep-sea macrofauna are still scattered and incomplete, and conclusions are usually based on a low number of samples. Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna was studied based on the material collected during the RV Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/2 in July 2012. Eleven stations along the latitudinal transect at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in the Fram Strait were taken at depths of about 2.3-2.7 km. Macrofauna was obtained using the box corer. A half core (0.125 m2) was taken at each station and four subcores (0.03 m2) were taken from each core and used for the quantitative analysis. The results suggest that a single, highly variable community with the dominance of polychaetes Galathowenia fragilis and Myriochele heeri inhabits the studied area. No latitudinal gradient in the community was revealed. The prevalence of a spatial variability in the community structure at a scale larger than the full sample per station (0.125 m2) was detected. Several abundant taxa (e.g. the polychaetes Prionospio sp. and Galathowenia fragilis) tend to form patches within a full sample.

  19. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon).

    PubMed

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E; Dos Santos, Ednei B; Rendall, Drew

    2016-02-10

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N-55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  20. Latitudinal variation of chorus frequency observed in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Murakami, T.

    1982-07-01

    Latitudinal variations of chorus band frequency have been obtained from frequency-time VLF spectrograms of relatively long ISIS passes received at Syowa station, Antarctica, in 1977 and 1978. The upper and lower limit frequencies of the dayside chorus decrease with L value, and their latitudinal variations roughly agree with a latitudinal variation of one half of the equatorial gyrofrequency. This result is consistent with the dayside magnetospheric chorus model in which the chorus generated near the equatorial magnetosphere propagates along the field lines in the ducted mode or inwards from the original field line in the nonducted model. Nightside choruses were observed in geomagnetically disturbed periods; thus the generation mechanism for the nightside chorus seems to be different from that of the dayside chorus. A new case was found in which the chorus band frequencies at latitudes beyond the plasmapause are higher than those at latitudes inside the plasmapause.

  1. Tracking Chemotactic Migration of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium in the Presence of Constructed Nutrient Gradients Within a Sandy Aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Ford, R. M.; Metge, D. W.; Wang, M.; Toepfer, A. A.; McGowan, S. B.

    2008-05-01

    Due to our increasing dependence upon groundwater resources, there is a growing need to remediate shallow aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Often, trichloroethene (TCE) travels into zones of low permeability thereby making removal difficult by traditional pump-and-treat technologies. In addition, degradation of TCE by native microbial communities can result in buildup of highly toxic intermediates such as vinyl chloride. Bioaugmentation, involving addition of specialized bacterial consortia to an aquifer, can facilitate more complete degradation into harmless byproducts. Also, it is believed that chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to swim towards higher concentrations of a chemical perceived as beneficial to survival, may expedite movement of introduced bacteria to where they are needed. However, there is no quantitative information about chemotaxis at the field scale and the evidence for bacterial chemotaxis during bioaugmentation has been largely anecdotal. In this study, the chemotactic migration of the bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri in a TCE-contaminated, sand- and-gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, Massachusetts was measured. P. stutzeri is known to denitrify as well as degrade a variety of aromatic and chlorinated solvents and is often advocated as a candidate for bioaugmentation. This bacterium was genetically engineered to be resistant to ampicillin and produce blue- fluorescing protein (BFP) in order to facilitate maintaining the bacteria in pure culture and later to track them in the environment. The study involved a natural-gradient injection and recovery test in which vertical gradients of an electron donor (acetate) and acceptor (nitrate) were created within the sandy aquifer sediments above an amendment of the genetically engineered P. stutzeri. The bacteria, nitrate, and acetate were allowed to be advected with the natural flow of groundwater past close-interval, multi-level samplers that were installed downgradient from the points of

  2. Latitudinal clines: an evolutionary view on biological rhythms†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Hut, Roelof A.; Paolucci, Silvia; Dor, Roi; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Daan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the circadian and annual timing systems are expected to vary systematically with latitude on the basis of different annual light and temperature patterns at higher latitudes, creating specific selection pressures. We review literature with respect to latitudinal clines in circadian phenotypes as well as in polymorphisms of circadian clock genes and their possible association with annual timing. The use of latitudinal (and altitudinal) clines in identifying selective forces acting on biological rhythms is discussed, and we evaluate how these studies can reveal novel molecular and physiological components of these rhythms. PMID:23825204

  3. Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Paenibacillus azotofixans Strains and Soil Samples Analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Alexandre S.; Duarte, Gabriela F.; Seldin, Lucy; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of dinitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) fragments in Paenibacillus azotofixans strains was investigated by using molecular methods. The partial nifH gene sequences of eight P. azotofixans strains, as well as one strain each of the close relatives Paenibacillus durum, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus macerans, were amplified by PCR by using degenerate primers and were characterized by DNA sequencing. We found that there are two nifH sequence clusters, designated clusters I and II, in P. azotofixans. The data further indicated that there was sequence divergence among the nifH genes of P. azotofixans strains at the DNA level. However, the gene products were more conserved at the protein level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all nifH cluster II sequences were similar to the alternative (anf) nitrogenase sequence. A nested PCR assay for the detection of nifH (cluster I) of P. azotofixans was developed by using the degenerate primers as outer primers and two specific primers, designed on the basis of the sequence information obtained, as inner primers. The specificity of the inner primers was tested with several diazotrophic bacteria, and PCR revealed that these primers are specific for the P. azotofixans nifH gene. A GC clamp was attached to one inner primer, and a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol was developed to study the genetic diversity of this region of nifH in P. azotofixans strains, as well as in soil and rhizosphere samples. The results revealed sequence heterogeneity among different nifH genes. Moreover, nifH is probably a multicopy gene in P. azotofixans. Both similarities and differences were detected in the P. azotofixans nifH DGGE profiles generated with soil and rhizosphere DNAs. The DGGE assay developed here is reproducible and provides a rapid way to assess the intraspecific genetic diversity of an important functional gene in pure cultures, as well as in environmental samples. PMID:9687429

  4. Gill's model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, revisited: The role of latitudinal variations in wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.

  5. Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization.

    PubMed

    Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season. PMID:25362581

  6. Latitudinal profiles of solar protons in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamics of the latitudinal profiles penetrating into magnetosphere solar protons is studied using particle spectrometers data on board of the low latitude satellite CORONAS-F with orbit inclination ∼83o. Formations of several different types of the profiles during magnetic storms are considered.

  7. Latitudinal Discontinuity in Thermal Conditions along the Nearshore of Central-Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Fabian J.; Largier, John L.; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30–32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4–10 years at 15 sites between 28–35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30–31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30–31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  8. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  9. Shifting latitudinal clines in avian body size correlate with global warming in Australian passerines.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Heinsohn, Robert; Joseph, Leo

    2009-11-01

    Intraspecific latitudinal clines in the body size of terrestrial vertebrates, where members of the same species are larger at higher latitudes, are widely interpreted as evidence for natural selection and adaptation to local climate. These clines are predicted to shift in response to climate change. We used museum specimens to measure changes in the body size of eight passerine bird species from south-eastern Australia over approximately the last 100 years. Four species showed significant decreases in body size (1.8-3.6% of wing length) and a shift in latitudinal cline over that period, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a consistent trend across all eight species. Southern high-latitude populations now display the body sizes typical of more northern populations pre-1950, equivalent to a 7 degrees shift in latitude. Using ptilochronology, we found no evidence that these morphological changes were a plastic response to changes in nutrition, a likely non-genetic mechanism for the pattern observed. Our results demonstrate a generalized response by eight avian species to some major environmental change over the last 100 years or so, probably global warming. PMID:19675006

  10. Shifting latitudinal clines in avian body size correlate with global warming in Australian passerines

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Janet L.; Heinsohn, Robert; Joseph, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Intraspecific latitudinal clines in the body size of terrestrial vertebrates, where members of the same species are larger at higher latitudes, are widely interpreted as evidence for natural selection and adaptation to local climate. These clines are predicted to shift in response to climate change. We used museum specimens to measure changes in the body size of eight passerine bird species from south-eastern Australia over approximately the last 100 years. Four species showed significant decreases in body size (1.8–3.6% of wing length) and a shift in latitudinal cline over that period, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a consistent trend across all eight species. Southern high-latitude populations now display the body sizes typical of more northern populations pre-1950, equivalent to a 7° shift in latitude. Using ptilochronology, we found no evidence that these morphological changes were a plastic response to changes in nutrition, a likely non-genetic mechanism for the pattern observed. Our results demonstrate a generalized response by eight avian species to some major environmental change over the last 100 years or so, probably global warming. PMID:19675006