Science.gov

Sample records for latvian brain drain

  1. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  2. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  3. The brain drain.

    PubMed

    Rubin, I M

    1987-01-01

    The adult human brain weights around three pounds. Yet it is capable of feats that dwarf those of the most sophisticated computers. The sad fact is, those brains are largely wasted in modern organizations. Instead of tapping the full capacity of the human brains that could make our organizations more efficient and effective, we allow them to lapse into an inexcusably large amount of wasted activity. What is needed by the health care field, in a time that demands more with less, is more sensible use not only of its manpower but also of its brainpower. PMID:10312137

  4. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  5. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%. PMID:15375452

  6. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national affiliations,…

  7. Ethics and policy of medical brain drain: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Buyx, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Health-worker migration, commonly called "medical brain drain", refers to the mass migration of trained and skilled health professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives) from low-income to high-income countries. This is currently leaving a significant number of poor countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with critical staff shortages in the healthcare sector. A broad consensus exists that, where medical brain drain exacerbates such shortages, it is unethical, and this review presents the main arguments underpinning this view. Notwithstanding the general agreement, which policies are justifiable on ethical grounds to tackle brain drain and how best to go about implementing them remains controversial. The review offers a discussion of the specific ethical issues that have to be taken into account when deciding which policy measures to prioritise and suggests a strategy of policy implementation to address medical brain drain as a matter of urgency. PMID:24163012

  8. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among professionally…

  9. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the total…

  10. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  11. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  12. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  13. Some specifics on the brain drain from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Mckee, D L

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the brain drain from the Andean countries of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the United States is presented. The data are from a survey of 62 persons from those countries who are currently residing in the United States and are listed in the current edition of "American Men and Women of Science". The reasons why they left their country of origin and are staying in the United States are considered. (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159629

  14. Brain drain leads to more physicists heading to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2010-01-01

    If budgets are too tight at home, academics often flock abroad in what is known as a "brain drain". But now a study by economists in the UK has revealed that elite physicists seem to be more mobile than ever. Having ana lysed the career paths of 158 of the world's most highly cited physicists, Andrew Oswald of the University of Warwick and colleagues found that half do not now work in the countries where they were born (Economic Journal 119 F231).

  15. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    PubMed Central

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  16. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    PubMed

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  17. The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized…

  18. Beyond Brain Drain: The Dynamics of Geographic Mobility and Educational Attainment of B.C. Young Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Licker, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain drain," both…

  19. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Gbary, Akpa Raphael; Muthuri, Lenity Kainyu; Nyoni, Jennifer; Seddoh, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill

  20. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  1. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  2. Stopping the Brain Drain of Skilled Veteran Teachers: Retaining and Valuing Their Hard-Won Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Veteran educators are being encouraged to take early retirement in order to create jobs for less-experienced, lower-paid novices. Veteran educators are not alone: early retirement promotions have become the norm for aging workers in America. Consequently, there is a brain-drain of skilled workers at the national, state, and local levels. The early…

  3. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  4. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  5. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed. PMID:23336617

  6. Is the medical brain drain beneficial? Evidence from overseas doctors in the UK.

    PubMed

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Winters, L Alan; Commander, Simon

    2007-09-01

    The 'beneficial brain drain' hypothesis suggests that skilled migration can be good for a sending country because the incentives it creates for obtaining training increase that country's net supply of skilled labour. Necessary conditions for this hypothesis to work are that the possibility of migration significantly affects decisions to take medical training and that migrants are not strongly screened by the host country. We conducted a survey among overseas doctors in the UK in 2002, which suggested that neither condition is likely to be fulfilled. Apart from the 'beneficial brain drain' argument, the survey findings also cast light on the backgrounds and motives of migrant doctors, and finds evidence that there could, nonetheless, be other benefits to sending countries via routes like remittances and return migration. PMID:17570573

  7. Brain drain, illegal migration and capital exports from less developed economies: a neoclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1985-01-01

    This model shows that LDC's brain drain triggers emigration of unskilled labor and capital exports, skilled workers and agricultural capitalists gain, unskilled workers and industrial capitalists lose, and demodernization of the economy results. Demodernization of the economy occurs when labor force and output of the industrial sector decrease, and employment and production in agriculture increase. The problem analyzed in this model is what happens to the incomes of those who are left behind when some of the skilled workers migrate abroad. The results show that with the exodus of both skilled labor and capital, the marginal productivity of unskilled workers in industry also falls below the unskilled wage. Although one would expect a brain drain to result in gains for those skilled workers who remain in the source country, and for the capital owners who receive unskilled workers as a result of emigration, the losers are the unskilled workers and the capitalists in the sector where the migrants worked. PMID:12267428

  8. Managing health worker migration: a qualitative study of the Philippine response to nurse brain drain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The emigration of skilled nurses from the Philippines is an ongoing phenomenon that has impacted the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce, while strengthening the domestic economy through remittances. This study examines how the development of brain drain-responsive policies is driven by the effects of nurse migration and how such efforts aim to achieve mind-shifts among nurses, governing and regulatory bodies, and public and private institutions in the Philippines and worldwide. Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to elicit exploratory perspectives on the policy response to nurse brain drain. Interviews with key informants from the nursing, labour and immigration sectors explored key themes behind the development of policies and programmes that respond to nurse migration. Focus group discussions were held with practising nurses to understand policy recipients’ perspectives on nurse migration and policy. Results Using the qualitative data, a thematic framework was created to conceptualize participants’ perceptions of how nurse migration has driven the policy development process. The framework demonstrates that policymakers have recognised the complexity of the brain drain phenomenon and are crafting dynamic policies and programmes that work to shift domestic and global mindsets on nurse training, employment and recruitment. Conclusions Development of responsive policy to Filipino nurse brain drain offers a glimpse into a domestic response to an increasingly prominent global issue. As a major source of professionals migrating abroad for employment, the Philippines has formalised efforts to manage nurse migration. Accordingly, the Philippine paradigm, summarised by the thematic framework presented in this paper, may act as an example for other countries that are experiencing similar shifts in healthcare worker employment due to migration. PMID:23249411

  9. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-01-01

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized. PMID:23617992

  10. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  11. Developing Science: Scientific Performance and Brain Drains in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a strong scientific community is important as countries develop, which requires both producing and retaining of important scientists. We show that developing countries produce a sizeable number of important scientists, but that they experience a tremendous brain drain. Education levels, population, and per capita GDP are positively related to the number of important scientists born in and staying in a country. Our analysis indicates that democracy and urbanization are associated with the production of more important scientists although democracy is associated with more out-migration. PMID:27152061

  12. Latvian Education Informatization System LIIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicevskis, Janis; Andzans, Agnis; Ikaunieks, Evalds; Medvedis, Inga; Straujums, Uldis; Vezis, Viesturs

    2004-01-01

    The Latvian Education Informatization System LIIS project covers the whole information grid: education content, management, information services, infrastructure and user training at several levels--schools, school boards and Ministry of Education and Science. Informatization is the maintained process of creating the technical, economical and…

  13. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  14. More Than the Brain's Drain: Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Help the Brain Convey Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, John

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless liquid that constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord. Scientists argue that cerebrospinal fluid carries important signals for sleep, appetite, and sex. Evaluates past and current research documenting the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (CCM)

  15. Return of talent programs: rationale and evaluation criteria for programs to ameliorate a 'brain drain'.

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1986-03-01

    The term, brain drain, describes the loss of skilled professionals and the nonreturn of students from advanced study abroad. It is now used almost exclusively in reference to mobility from less developed countries to more developed countries. Controversy centers on whether needed skills are being drawn off unfairly at subsidized rates from developing to developed countries or whether excess capability is being utilized in developed countries rather than underemployed or wasted at home. Some causes of high level personnel migration include: 1) wage differentials between sending and receiving countries; 2) absence of opportunities for career development or mobility for reasons other than merit or accomplishment; 3) lack of high quality facilities, equipment, time, and other costly supports in developing countries; 4) employer's lack of knowledge of employee work and the resulting wages; and 5) political disagreement or persecution. Prospects for closing wage gaps and upgrading working conditions on a large scale in developing countries are dim. Growth of the labor force coupled with national needs that are not congruent with professions requiring costly facilities, supplies, and equipment make this a slim possibility. Increasing career mobility possibilities seems to be a more promising route to reducing brain drain. One form of preventive measure is offering study abroad which requires service at the end of the study period; a variation is to guarantee employment for university graduates or for certain sectors, such as scientists. Restructuring decisions on hiring and promotion would have a positive effect, as would developing a better evaluation of expected productivity by type of training. Successful return of talent programs will be relatively modest in terms of the number of people returning and should be thought of as a part of human capital investment. Programs that are concerned with filling positions rather than with luring talent home are more likely to be

  16. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps. PMID:22572198

  17. The Impact of Baby Boomer Retirement and Reverse Migration That Results in Corporate Brain Drain in Corporation in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Parker, Bobbie J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify whether the corporate brain drain that results as baby boomers retire and highly educated skilled immigrants return to their nations of origin, or to other developing nations, impact corporations in developed countries; and identify effective solutions firms are using to address the void of…

  18. Factors contributing to the brain drain in speech-language pathology: a New Zealand example.

    PubMed

    Tillard, Gina D A

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine what attracts students to speech-language pathology (SLP), and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on two types of "brain drain" in SLP: emigration and career shift. Fifty undergraduate students and 13 recent graduates completed a questionnaire that tapped three main areas, level of student debt, intentions to emigrate, and career intentions. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents were female, with a median age of 25 years. Most SLP students and graduates had high levels of debt on graduation. Debt contributed to levels of worry and the ability to participate in education. However, debt alone did not influence career choice or long-term career planning. Over half of the respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 2 years of graduation, citing salary, travel, and training opportunities as factors. Incentives to remain in the profession included increased salary, more training opportunities, and student debt repayment. SLP students' career decisions were mainly influenced by interest in the profession. The conclusion was that three main factors need to be explored in an effort to increase the likelihood that SLPs remain in New Zealand: salary levels, increased training opportunities, and contributions to reduce student debt. PMID:21793778

  19. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." PMID:12321147

  20. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    PubMed

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men. PMID:25621674

  1. Higher Education and Global Talent Flows: Brain Drain, Overseas Chinese Intellectuals, and Diasporic Knowledge Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony R.; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In the global era, transnational flows of highly skilled individuals are increasing. In the much-touted global knowledge economy, the contribution of such diasporic individuals and the knowledge networks that they sustain are recognized as being of increasing importance. Brain circulation is of critical importance to the "giant periphery" of…

  2. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  3. Brain Drain in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuppy, Annie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the increasing number of college presidents leaving their posts in Iowa for higher-paying positions at other major research universities. With the recent departure of yet another popular president at the University of Iowa, members of the state's Board of Regents, the news media, and even faculty members are arguing that the…

  4. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  5. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, Ilknur Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-06-15

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.

  6. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fabrice; Martin, Mathieu; Attias, Arie; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Gabriel, Inanna; Bekaert, Olivier; Bardon, Jean; Nebbad, Biba; Plaud, Benoît; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI) is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD) but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC), and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60%) vs 34 (29%), p = 0.023), and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001). Sixty-one (52%) and 32 (27%) skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1%) and 1 (1%) with pathogens, 8 (7%) and 1 (1%) with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5–56.8], p = 0.002) and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4–41.2], p = 0.001)) were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks. PMID:26555597

  7. Breaking Historical Silence through Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Latvian Curriculum Writers and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Lindquist, David H.; Misco, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the need for Holocaust curricula in Latvia, Latvians and Americans worked collaboratively to overcome the historical silence surrounding this event. During their project, Latvian curriculum writers worked with teachers and scholars at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This descriptive analysis of the Latvians' experience…

  8. Latvian scientists research into chemical uses of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-20

    Scientists of the Institute of Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of Sciences have developed two highly efficient processes for producing furfural, a feedstock for varnishes, synthetic resins and plastics. It is made of production wastes, including branches and small-dimension timber. By one process, the raw material is chipped, treated first with diluted sulphuric acid and then with steam heated to 250 degrees C. The other uses concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Besides furfural, this process also yields sugar solutions used in alcohol and nutrient yeast production.

  9. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  10. Improvement of Latvian Geoid Model Using GNSS/Levelling, GOCE Data and Vertical Deflection Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janpaule, Inese; Haritonova, Diana; Balodis, Janis; Zarins, Ansis; Silabriedis, Gunars; Kaminskis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Development of a digital zenith telescope prototype, improved zenith camera construction and analysis of experimental vertical deflection measurements for the improvement of the Latvian geoid model has been performed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (GGI), University of Latvia. GOCE satellite data was used to compute geoid model for the Riga region, and European gravimetric geoid model EGG97 and 102 data points of GNSS/levelling were used as input data in the calculations of Latvian geoid model.

  11. Bioaccumulation of hepatotoxins - a considerable risk in the Latvian environment.

    PubMed

    Barda, Ieva; Kankaanaää, Harri; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Sjövall, Olli; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Riga, river Daugava and several interconnected lakes around the City of Riga, Latvia, form adynamic brackish-freshwater system favouring occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria. We examined bioaccumulation of microcystins and nodularin-R in aquatic organisms in Latvian lakes, the Gulf of Riga and west coast of open Baltic Sea in 2002-2007. The freshwater unionids accumulated toxins efficiently,followed by snails. In contrast, Dreissena polymorpha and most lake fishes (except roach) accumulated much less hepatotoxins. Significant nodularin-R concentrations were detected also in marine clams and flounders. No transfer of nodularin-R and microcystins between lake and brackish water systems took place. Lake mussels can transfer hepatotoxins to higher organisms, and also effectively remove toxins from the water column. Obvious health risks to aquatic organisms and humans are discussed. PMID:25463728

  12. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  13. Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Context of the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Liana; Timša, Līga; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Pelnena, Inese; Zole, Egija; Puzuka, Agrita; Sabule, Areta; Rozane, Sandra; Lace, Baiba; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Krumina, Astrida; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the nonrecombining Y-chromosomal region were investigated in 159 unrelated Baltic-speaking ethnic Latvians from four different geographic regions, using 28 biallelic markers and 12 short tandem repeats. Eleven different haplogroups (hgs) were detected in a regionally homogeneous Latvian population, among which N1c, R1a, and I1 cover more than 85% of its paternal lineages. When compared its closest geographic neighbors, the composition of the Latvian Y-chromosomal gene pool was found to be very similar to those of Lithuanians and Estonians. Despite the comparable frequency distribution of hg N1c in Latvians and Lithuanians with the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations from the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the observed differences in allelic variances of N1c haplotypes between these two groups are in concordance with the previously stated hypothesis of different dispersal ways of this lineage in the region. More than a third of Latvian paternal lineages belong specifically to a recently defined R1a-M558 hg, indicating an influence from a common source within Eastern Slavic populations on the formation of the present-day Latvian Y-chromosome gene pool. PMID:26411886

  14. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  15. An Inevitable Moment: US Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brian Coppola begins by discussing the 2007 National Academies of Sciences (NAS) publication, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm" which called for for reprioritizing investments because "the world is changing rapidly, and our advantages are no longer unique. Without a renewed effort to bolster the foundations of our…

  16. Is Ohio Experiencing "Brain Drain?" The Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is Ohio losing its best and brightest minds to other states? Is the state investing hundreds of millions of dollars in public higher education every year only to see graduates move out of state upon graduating in search of greener pastures? The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy (CHEE) commissioned a report about this issue…

  17. Quality Assurance Program and Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The number of colleges and universities in most developing countries has increased drastically over the past decades. The quality variation of these institutions is an alarming concern. Quality assurance programs are proposed and implemented. This paper evaluates the effects of quality assurance on the demand for college education, study abroad,…

  18. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  19. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    PubMed

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed. PMID:12285393

  20. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  1. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  3. Closed suction drain with bulb

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  4. Risk factors for long-term mental and psychosomatic distress in Latvian Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed Central

    Viel, J F; Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Zvagule, T; Vincent, C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl disaster have focused largely on physical health, whereas the psychological consequences have received little attention. The authors have assessed the associations of various exposure variables with mental and psychosomatic distress in a sample of 1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Registry. The outcome was a mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder occurring during 1986 to 1995. Comparisons among subgroups of the cohort classified according to exposure type or level were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (> or = 28 days) in a 10-km radius from the reactor (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.68), fresh fruit consumption (> or = 1 time/day) (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 0.89-3.72) is also associated with this outcome, although nonsignificantly. Distinguishing stress-related from radiation-induced effects in this data set was difficult and these findings should provide a basis for later hypothesis testing in other cohorts. PMID:9467079

  5. Trends in nutrient concentrations in Latvian rivers and the response to the dramatic change in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Grimvall, A.; Libiseller, C.; Laznik, M.; Kokorite, I.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years, the use of fertilisers in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) has decreased at an unprecedented rate. The import of mineral fertilisers and feed stuff became almost non-existent, and extensive slaughtering of livestock reduced the amount of manure. In Latvia, the purchase of mineral fertilisers decreased by a factor of 15 between 1987 and 1996 and the number of livestock decreased with a factor of almost 4 during the same time period. Such abrupt and comprehensive changes in land use have never before occurred in the history of modern European agriculture. Here, the impact that this dramatic reduction has had on concentrations of nutrients in Latvian rivers is examined. To discern temporal changes, statistical analyses were undertaken on time series of nutrient concentrations and relationships between concentrations and runoff at 12 sampling sites in ten Latvian rivers covering drainage areas from 334 to 64,000 km 2. Considering the study period 1987-1998, only four of the 12 sites showed statistically significant downward trends (one-sided test at the 5% level) in the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN=NO 3-N+NO 2-N+NH 4-N) data. There are probably two main explanations for the weak DIN trends. Firstly, long water-transit times in the soilwater and groundwater may have caused substantial time lag between changes in input and output of nitrate in the studied catchments. Secondly, the loss of DIN might have been dominated by mineralisation of large pools of organic nitrogen that have accumulated over several years. These inferences are supported by (i) a hydrograph recession analysis and (ii) indications of DIN transformation processes, presumably denitrification, in smaller streams and channels, based on measurements in small agricultural catchments (1-4 km 2) in Estonia and Latvia. Formal testing of trends in phosphorus data revealed that marked drops occurred in riverine concentrations at six sites in 1987-1998. A joint analysis

  6. Reappraisal of flow to tile drains III. Drains with limited flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Rushton, K. R.

    1996-09-01

    This third paper of the series on the reappraisal of flow to tile drains considers the time-variant situations in tile drain drainage systems when the quantity of water carried by tile drains is limited due to the capacity of the drains or the pumping equipment. Two categories of problem are analysed in this paper: (i) a series of parallel tile drains with a maximum specified flow and (ii) interceptor drains in the vicinity of canals. Complete details for satisfying the maximum specified flow conditions in tile drains are given. The effect of different capacities of tile drains on the performance of drainage system is explored.

  7. The Brain Rotation and Brain Diffusion Strategies of Small Islanders: Considering "Movement" in Lieu of "Place"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain" phenomenon is typically seen as a zero-sum game, where one party's gain is presumed to be another's drain. This corresponds to deep-seated assumptions about what is "home" and what is "away". This article challenges the view, driven by much "brain drain" literature, that the dynamic is an epi-phenomenon of the relationship…

  8. Heater drain system transient monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Voll, B.J.; Farsaci, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    Feedwater heater drain systems are susceptible to unstable, two phase flow conditions. These instabilities are difficult to predict and are dependent on plant-specific system designs and operating conditions. Therefore, significant vibrations and transient events can occur that the systems are not specifically designed for. This paper describes how heater drain system responses due to unanticipated transient events at a nuclear plant were captured and quantified using a digital data acquisition system. The setup of the data acquisition system, including the determination of what parameters to monitor and how to effectively capture potential transient events, is discussed. This paper also discusses the monitoring results and their relevance to system modification evaluations and root cause evaluations.

  9. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities remaining even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective ...

  10. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  11. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  12. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  13. Evaluation of the antibacterial and hemolytic activities of Latvian herbal preparation.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, F; Ali-Vehmas, T; Westermarck, T; Rizzo, A; Selga, G; Baltais, A; Linars, J; Saulite, V; Daukste, A

    2000-12-01

    Three extracts originating from a combination of various Latvian plant species were tested for their antibacterial activities by evaluating growth delays using a fully automated microturbidimetric method. Ten different human and bovine strains of the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were used as test microorganisms. The inhibitory effect in vitro was defined as the difference between the growth rate without herbs and the growth rate in the presence of an extract. Among the tested strains, Staphylococcus aureus was found sensitive to all 3 extracts. However, extract I was the most effective in slowing the growth of all strains tested. Using appropriate tester strains it should be possible to set up a broad-range microtubidimetry assay for individual herb screening in vitro. The hemolytic effects of the individual extracts on human erythrocytes were also studied at different concentrations. Two of the herbal extracts had minimal lytic effects on eurocaryotic cells. An additional hemolysis test was conducted in the presence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a free radical scavenger: CoQ10 had no effect on the hemolytic reaction. PMID:11111939

  14. [150th birth anniversary of Izidor Brennsohn, Latvian historian of medicine and researcher of Lithuanian anthropology].

    PubMed

    Andriusis, Aurimas; Viksna, Arnis

    2004-01-01

    This publication is dedicated to the 150th birth anniversary of a famous German-writing Latvian physician, historian of medicine, and anthropologist of Jewish descent Izidor Brennsohn, and to his ties with Lithuania. I. Brennsohn's works on physicians and the development of health care in Kurland, Livland, and Estland laid the foundations for the contemporary historiography of medicine in Latvia and Estonia. To a certain extent, these works could also be viewed as a digest of the sources of Lithuanian history of medicine, especially in regard to the regions on the boarder with Latvia, as well as to various personalities. However, Brennsohn's most important link with Lithuania was his doctoral thesis "On Lithuanian anthropology" ("Zur Anthropologie der Litauer"), defended at Dorpat (Tartu) University in 1883. It was one of the first works dealing with Lithuanian ethnic anthropology as a whole. Although, material of thesis could not be used for wider generalizations, still, it is one of rare and valuable 19th century sources of Lithuanian anthropology. Brennsohn's legacy deserves greater attention from people researching medical history in Lithuania. PMID:15456980

  15. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a 'never event'.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Nicola K; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B; Steyn, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  16. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  17. CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in Latvian melanoma patients: analysis of a clinic-based population.

    PubMed

    Pjanova, Dace; Engele, Ludmila; Randerson-Moor, Juliette A; Harland, Mark; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton Bishop, Julia A; Taylor, Claire; Debniak, Tadeusz; Lubinski, Jan; Kleina, Regina; Heisele, Olita

    2007-06-01

    Germline mutations of the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes explain a significant proportion of familial melanoma. To date, there have been few published estimations of the prevalence of such mutations in sporadic melanoma patients. In this study, we investigated CDKN2A and CDK4 exon 2 for germline mutations in 125 consecutive cutaneous malignant melanoma patients recruited through the Latvian Oncological Center, using amplicon melting analysis and sequencing. No disease-related CDKN2A germline mutations were identified in any of the melanoma patients analysed but the previously described CDK4 mutation, Arg24His, was found in one patient with a family history of melanoma. CDKN2A polymorphisms were studied as putative low penetrance susceptibility genes. The proportion of cases with polymorphisms in this Latvian melanoma population was Ala148Thr (c.442G>A) (6%), 500 C/G (c.*29C>G) (18%), and 540 C/T (c.*69C>T) (20%); however, only the frequency of the Ala148Thr polymorphism was higher in melanoma patients than in 203 controls (6 versus 1%, P=0.03). Ala148Thr has also been reported in association with melanoma in a Polish series but not in an English series. We therefore examined the Ala148Thr carrier's haplotype in 10 Latvian and 39 Polish samples. No significant difference was seen between these populations and the predominant haplotype observed in English samples, giving no indication that the discrepancy could be explained by population differences in linkage disequilibrium. In summary, our results show that germline mutations at the CDKN2A locus are rare in sporadic melanoma in Latvia. The study does, however, provide some additional evidence for a role for the CDKN2A polymorphism Ala148Thr as a low penetrance susceptibility gene. The detected CDK4 exon 2 mutation was found in only the seventh family identified worldwide with a germline CDK4 mutation. PMID:17505264

  18. Association between CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in a Latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Radovica, I.; Fridmanis, D.; Silamikelis, I.; Nikitina-Zake, L.; Klovins, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid levels are considered one of the most significant risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, two of the main causes of death worldwide. Apart from monogenic cases of hypercholesterolemia, most of the common dyslipidemias are caused by a number of low-impact polymorphisms. It has recently been reported that frequent polymorphisms at a large number of loci are significantly associated with one or more blood lipid parameters in many populations. Identifying these associations in different populations and estimating the possible interactions between genetic models are necessary to explain the underlying genetic architecture of the associated loci and their ultimate impact on lipid-associated traits. Methods We estimated the association between 144 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published genome-wide association studies and the levels of total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol, and triglycerides in 1273 individuals from the Genome Database of the Latvian Population. We analyzed a panel of 144 common SNPs with Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assays on the Illumina BeadXpress System. Results Ten SNPs at the CETP locus and two at the MLXIPL locus were associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels; one SNP at the TOMM40 locus was associated with increased low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol; and four SNPs at the MLXIPL locus were associated with increased log triglyceride levels. There was also a significant correlation between the number of risk alleles and all the lipid parameters, suggesting that the coexistence of many low-impact SNPs has a greater effect on the dyslipidemia phenotype than the individual effects of found SNPs. Conclusion We conclude that the CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 loci are the strongest genetic factors underlying the variability in lipid traits in our population. PMID:25606439

  19. Association of BMP4 polymorphisms with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate in Latvian and Lithuanian populations.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Inga; Ambrozaitytė, Laima; Stavusis, Janis; Akota, Ilze; Barkane, Biruta; Krumina, Astrida; Matulevičienė, Aušra; Utkus, Algirdas; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lace, Baiba

    2014-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP and CL, respectively) and isolated cleft palate (CP) represent one of the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 300-2500 depending on the population. Formation of non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP arises from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the BMP4 gene (encoding bone morphogenetic protein 4) and non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP in order to clarify the role of this gene in the aetiology of the malformation in Latvian and Lithuanian populations. We genotyped three markers of the BMP4 gene (rs17563, rs2071047 and rs1957860) in order to perform single marker and haplotype association analyses for Latvian and Lithuanian non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP patients and controls. Transmission disequilibrium test was also conducted for Latvian and Lithuanian proband-parent trios. The case-control analysis revealed that SNP rs2071047 allele A was associated with a decreased risk of CL/CLP in the Latvian population, which was confirmed by the haplotype analysis. A modest association was detected between SNP rs1957860 and CP in the Lithuanian population, where allele C was associated with a decreased risk of this cleft phenotype, corroborating haplotype analysis data. Our findings support a role of the BMP4 gene in the aetiology of non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP in the studied populations. PMID:25471993

  20. How Students Learn to Teach? A Case Study of Instrumental Lessons Given by Latvian Undergraduate Performer Students without Prior Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez Gonzalez, Manuel Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and discuss the way students of the Latvian Academy of Music teach before having entered a teacher training programme. Five hours of students' teaching work was video-taped, analysed and discussed with them between the spring of 2010 and the winter of 2011. The descriptive and analytic results of this…

  1. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  12. Urokinase-Treated Antithrombogenic Drains and Optimized Drain Placement in Endoscopic Lumbar Decompressive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shu; Ikeda, Shoji; Taguchi, Mitsuto

    2016-07-01

    Background Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) frequently occurs after microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy (MEDL), and a drain may not be functioning sufficiently. Objective To reduce the incidence of SEH after MEDL. Methods  A urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain, which is available only with a large diameter, was reduced in diameter and used after MEDL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed 36 to 48 hours after surgery. The size of the SEH was measured by MRI, and the location of the drain tip was assessed by CT scan. After imaging, the drain was removed. Results Use of the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain reduced the incidence of SEH. However, the drain was not adequately placed in many cases, limiting the effect of the drainage. When the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain was placed contralaterally to the approach side using an unsheathed endoscope, the incidence of SEH was further reduced. Conclusions The urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain prevented thrombus-related drain obstruction. In addition, unsheathed endoscopic contralateral placement of the drain was effective for SEH prevention. PMID:26935298

  13. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  14. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  15. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population. PMID:24722516

  16. How to remove a chest drain.

    PubMed

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26443174

  17. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future. PMID:27236516

  18. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  6. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  7. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  8. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the entire fuel system with the airplane in its normal ground attitude. (b) Each drain required by paragraph...

  9. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  10. 14 CFR 121.261 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 121.261 Section 121... drain lines. All vent and drain lines and their fittings, that are located in a designated fire zone... the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  11. Brain drain adds to AIDS crisis in developing world.

    PubMed

    Green, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of desperately needed doctors and other medical professionals leave poor countries because no one there can pay them, or provide safe and effective working conditions. Many go to English-speaking countries that do not train enough medical professionals themselves--such as the U.S., where a quarter of the doctors are foreign trained. PMID:16886261

  12. Marketing Educational Improvements via International Partnerships under Brain Drain Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Weslynne; Wagman, Liad

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics in an educational partnership between a university and a developing region. We examine how the university achieves its goals to improve and advertise its offerings while recruiting a cohort of students from the developing region and maintaining a sustainable relationship with the region and its students. We show that mutually…

  13. International Accreditation and Brain Drain: A Simple Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Assume that there are two types of knowledge, global and local. This paper considers a university in a developing country that allocates finite education resources to the delivery of these two types of knowledge. We provide the optimal resource allocation that maximizes social welfare. We show that, by imposing a minimum resource allocation to…

  14. The Migration of Highly Educated Asians: Brain Drain Boomerang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The heavy migration of highly educated Asians to the United States since the early 1970s is examined, noting advantages and disadvantages to the countries of origin and to the United States as well as the historical, educational, and economic factors causing this migration. It is concluded that, despite considerable loss, developing countries do…

  15. Tendencies of International Career of Romanian Researchers: Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Dan; Patrasca, Mihaela; Chivu, Iulia

    2006-01-01

    Recent economic and technological developments have led to a growing international demand for highly skilled human resources. The increased competition for human capital has determined numerous OECD countries to take special measures for attracting and retaining human capital in such fields as: information technology, biotechnology,…

  16. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  17. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm.

  18. Role of the draining lymph node in scrapie agent transmission from the skin.

    PubMed

    Glaysher, Bridget R; Mabbott, Neil A

    2007-03-15

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Diseases include scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Following peripheral exposure, TSE agents usually accumulate on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid tissues before neuroinvasion. Studies in mice have shown that TSE exposure through scarified skin is an effective means of transmission. Following inoculation by this route TSE agent accumulation upon FDCs is likewise essential for the subsequent transmission of disease to the brain. However, which lymphoid tissues are crucial for TSE pathogenesis following inoculation via the skin was not known. Mice were therefore created that lacked the draining inguinal lymph node (ILN), but had functional FDCs in remaining lymphoid tissues such as the spleen. These mice were inoculated with the scrapie agent by skin scarification to allow the role of draining ILN in scrapie pathogenesis to be determined. We show that following inoculation with the scrapie agent by skin scarification, disease susceptibility was dramatically reduced in mice lacking the draining ILN. These data demonstrate that following inoculation by skin scarification, scrapie agent accumulation upon FDCs in the draining lymph node is critical for the efficient transmission of disease to the brain. PMID:17292972

  19. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a ‘never event’

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Nicola K.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B.; Steyn, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  20. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  1. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  2. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  3. Coma due to malplaced external ventricular drain.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Farizal, Fadzil; Jegan, Thanabalan

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculostomy or external ventricular drain (EVD) placement by free-hand technique has a high malplacement rate. It is a blind procedure that often requires multiple attempts and revisions. To date, no neurological complication due to EVD malplacement has been reported in the literature. In this report, we present the first case of coma induced by a malplaced EVD and the patient regained consciousness after the drain was adjusted. Our discussion focused on various techniques that can improve the accuracy of EVD insertion. EVD insertion under image guidance provides better accuracy with limited disadvantages. We hypothesized that the patient's coma was due to the mass effect and irritation of the malplaced EVD exerted onto the ventral periaqueductal grey matter and the ascending neurons from upper brainstem. PMID:24101284

  4. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  5. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  9. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  11. Brominated, chlorinated and mixed brominated/chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in European eels (Anquilla anquilla) from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, Dzintars; Rjabova, Jekaterina; Fernandes, Alwyn; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-eight European eel (Anquilla anquilla) specimens collected from five Latvian lakes were investigated for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs, PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs), polychlorinated and mixed bromo-chloro biphenyls (PCBs and PXBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCDD/DFs and PCBs were found to occur in the range 0.85-15.8 pg Total-WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) f.w., and concentrations in most of the samples were below the maximum levels specified in European Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1259/2011. The summed concentrations of 27 PBDEs (∑PBDE) and 16 non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCB) were in the ranges of 0.28-26.7 and 6.37-320 ng g(-1) f.w., respectively. PBDD/DFs, PXDD/DFs and PXBs show average upper-bound concentrations of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.01 pg TEQ f.w. and collectively contributed 3.4% to the sum TEQ of dioxin-like compounds. The highest contaminant concentrations were measured in samples from lakes near the Baltic Sea and the industrialised area near Riga (Liepajas and Kisezers lakes). A correlation of POP concentration with the length of collected specimens was observed. PMID:26730547

  12. U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the US and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. Under the US Department of Energy`s program of providing cooperative assistance to the FSU countries in the areas of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A), the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center (LNRC) near Riga, Latvia, was identified as a candidate site for a cooperative MPC and A project. The LNRC is the site of a 5-megawatt IRT-C pool-type research reactor. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contracting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades.

  13. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  14. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively. PMID:26230525

  15. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  16. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  17. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum drained weights. 52.3755 Section 52.3755..., Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a) General. (1) The minimum drained weights for the various applicable styles in Table II and III are not incorporated in the grade of...

  18. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  19. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  20. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  1. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  2. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  3. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  4. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  5. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  6. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  7. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  8. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  9. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  11. 46 CFR 153.362 - Venting system drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system drain. 153.362 Section 153.362 Shipping... Systems § 153.362 Venting system drain. Unless a cargo vent system at every point is level or slopes back... system must have a drain valve at each low point (trap) in the vent line....

  12. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  13. 33 CFR 155.770 - Draining into bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draining into bilges. 155.770 Section 155.770 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.770 Draining into bilges. No person may intentionally drain oil...

  14. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  15. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  16. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  17. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  18. Teacher Drain from China's Higher Education Institutions and Some Consequences of This Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shufeng, Xu; Shihua, Cui; Zhaoping, Sun; Xianlei, Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are where the major strength of organizational control lies in the educational process; it is mainly they who restrict the quality of education and teaching and who are the irreplaceable factor in determining how well a school is run and its overall image. Therefore, once a teacher drain from higher education institutions begins, it is…

  19. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  20. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  1. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. A case of dural arteriovenous fistula draining to the diploic vein presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yako, Rie; Masuo, Osamu; Kubo, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2016-03-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) draining only to the diploic vein and causing intracerebral hemorrhage. A 62-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Brain CT scanning on admission showed a right frontal subcortical hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an arteriovenous shunt located in the region around the pterion, which connected the frontal branch of the right middle meningeal artery with the anterior temporal diploic vein and drained into cortical veins in a retrograde manner through the falcine vein. The dAVF was successfully obliterated by percutaneous transarterial embolization with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The mechanism of retrograde cortical venous reflux causing intracerebral hemorrhage is discussed. PMID:26295918

  3. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  4. Nitrate leaching to subsurface drains as affected by drain spacing and changes in crop production system.

    PubMed

    Kladivko, E J; Frankenberger, J R; Jaynes, D B; Meek, D W; Jenkinson, B J; Fausey, N R

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a beneficial water management practice in poorly drained soils but may also contribute substantial nitrate N loads to surface waters. This paper summarizes results from a 15-yr drainage study in Indiana that includes three drain spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) managed for 10 yr with chisel tillage in monoculture corn (Zea mays L.) and currently managed under a no-till corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation. In general, drainflow and nitrate N losses per unit area were greater for narrower drain spacings. Drainflow removed between 8 and 26% of annual rainfall, depending on year and drain spacing. Nitrate N concentrations in drainflow did not vary with spacing, but concentrations have significantly decreased from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Flow-weighted mean concentrations decreased from 28 mg L(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 8 mg L(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. The reduction in concentration was due to both a reduction in fertilizer N rates over the study period and to the addition of a winter cover crop as a "trap crop" after corn in the corn-soybean rotation. Annual nitrate N loads decreased from 38 kg ha(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 15 kg ha(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. Most of the nitrate N losses occurred during the fallow season, when most of the drainage occurred. Results of this study underscore the necessity of long-term research on different soil types and in different climatic zones, to develop appropriate management strategies for both economic crop production and protection of environmental quality. PMID:15356241

  5. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  6. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product. PMID:22980019

  7. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... III); and (2) There shall be no unreasonable shortage in any individual container. Table II—Acceptance... 5.75 163.0 49.0 1389.1 Table III—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Ounces) Water capacity oz...—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Grams) Water capacity Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL Chopped X d...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unreasonable shortage in any individual container. Table II—Acceptance Values for Drained Weights—Whole 211...—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Ounces) Water capacity oz. avdp. Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL... (Grams) Water capacity Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL Chopped X d LL 200 × 214 65.2 53.9 119.1...

  9. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  10. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  11. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  12. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  13. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  14. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  15. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  16. Determination of LDD MOSFET drain resistance from device simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudra, G. S.; Seah, B. P.; Ling, C. H.

    1996-05-01

    A simple, efficient and accurate technique for the determination of the drain resistance of LDD MOSFETs, using a two-dimensional device simulator, is presented. This method does not require the artificial introduction of constraints that would alter the normal operating conditions and geometry of the device. Comparison is made with a more elaborate technique, where the drain region is modelled as a network of resistances. For an appropriately chosen mesh size, good agreement to within 10% has been achieved for the two techniques. In terms of computational labour, the simple technique enjoys at least an order of magnitude advantage compared with the more elaborate model. The two techniques have also been used to study the dependence of the drain resistance on the gate and the drain bias, and to establish the accuracy over a broad bias range. An estimate is also made of the degradation of the drain resistance due to hot-carrier stress.

  17. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  18. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  19. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  20. Misconnections in the Critically Ill: Injection of High-Dose Gadolinium into an External Ventricular Drain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Rejai, Sepehr; Antongiorgi, Zarah; Gonzalez, Nestor; Stelzner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We report an unfortunate case of accidental administration of intrathecal gadolinium through an external ventricular drain in a postcraniotomy patient during magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The incident occurred after the venous contrast line was connected mistakenly to the ventricular drainage catheter. The patient subsequently developed confusion, aphasia, and right facial droop with new computed tomography evidence of diffuse cerebral edema and stroke. Review of the magnetic resonance image revealed the inappropriate presence of subarachnoid gadolinium. Despite all interventions, the patient developed irreversible neurologic disability. We address the clinical sequelae, management strategies, and factors contributing to the catheter misconnection that led to this event. PMID:26462163

  1. Sustainable Use Of Macro-Algae For Biogas Production In Latvian Conditions: A Preliminary Study Through An Integrated Mca And Lca Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastare, Laura; Romagnoli, Francesco; Lauka, Dace; Dzene, Ilze; Kuznecova, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    The study focuses on sustainability evaluation of an algae-based energy system in Latvia with a holistic and integrated approach of multi-criteria analysis combined with life cycle assessment (including a practical side - biogas yield experiments of locally available algae). The study shows potential for sustainable use of algae in Latvian conditions and thus that algal biomass can be utilized for the production of biogas. The most sustainable and feasible scenario of using algae for biogas energy production foresees the collection of algae biomass from natural water bodies. Important beneficial effects through the use of algae are related to avoiding global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication impacts. Biogas batch experiments carried out with the local macrophyte C.demersum have shown a methane yield of 554 l CH4/kg VS.

  2. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  3. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    PubMed

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  4. From "Brain Drain" to "Brain Bridging": Transnational Higher Education Development and Graduate Employment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the internationalisation of higher education has become an increasingly popular trend across different parts of the globe. The fierce global competition and the aggravating unemployment rate, coupled with low teaching and research quality revealed by universities in mainland China, have inevitably compelled a growing…

  5. Drain amylase aids detection of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin H.; Hill, Joshua S.; Reames, Mark K.; Symanowski, James; Hurley, Susie C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anastomotic leak following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As hospital length of stay decreases, the timely diagnosis of leak becomes more important. We evaluated CT esophagram, white blood count (WBC), and drain amylase levels in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Methods The diagnostic performance of CT esophagram, drain amylase >800 IU/L, and WBC >12,000/µL within the first 10 days after surgery in predicting leak at any time after esophagectomy was calculated. Results Anastomotic leak occurred in 13 patients (13%). CT esophagram performed within 10 days of surgery diagnosed six of these leaks with a sensitivity of 0.54. Elevation in drain amylase level within 10 days of surgery diagnosed anastomotic leak with a sensitivity of 0.38. When the CT esophagram and drain amylase were combined, the sensitivity rose to 0.69 with a specificity of 0.98. WBC elevation had a sensitivity of 0.92, with a specificity of 0.34. Among 30 patients with normal drain amylase and a normal WBC, one developed an anastomotic leak. Conclusions Drain amylase adds to the sensitivity of CT esophagram in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Selected patients with normal drain amylase levels and normal WBC may be able to safely forgo CT esophagram. PMID:27034784

  6. Chest drain care bundle: Improving documentation and safety.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joe; Graham, Selina

    2015-01-01

    Chest drain insertion is a common advanced procedure with a significant associated risk of pain, distress, and complications. Nationally, audit and recommendations from leading bodies have highlighted a number of safety concerns around chest drain insertion. Audit work has demonstrated poor levels of documentation; particularly around use of premedication, use of ultrasound guidance and consent. This has obvious potential consequences for patient safety and thus is an important target for improvement work. This project quantifies current standards of documentation and aims to improve this through a combination of accessible and easy to read guidelines, education, and the introduction of a chest drain insertion bundle. National best practice standards were identified through review of national guidance. Drain insertion was prospectively analysed over a three month period to establish baseline standards of documentation. This initial work was presented and a bundle and clinical guidelines produced. Chest drain insertion was then reaudited and assessed for improvement. Results demonstrated an improvement in many areas of documentation, pushing local results above the national average. However, only 40% of cases used the new bundle due to a mixture of staff rotation and an unexpectedly high proportion of drains inserted in non targeted areas including the emergency department, theatre, and intensive care. Despite this, the introduction of accessible guidance and bundle has significantly improved chest drain insertion documentation to the benefit of all. PMID:26734423

  7. Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, S; Ahmad, I; Younas, M; Zahid, M D; Khan, M H; Ijaz, A; Ali, K

    2000-08-01

    This paper examines the extent of pollution in Hudiara drain water due to untreated industrial and sewage waste of India and Pakistan. Ninety-nine surface water samples from the Pakistani side of the Hudiara drain were collected during September 1997, and April and June 1998. The analytical results of the Hudiara drain samples point out the industrial and sewage inputs from India and Pakistan. Higher values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand(COD), total organic carbon(TOC), and trace metals in drain samples from the Indo-Pak border clearly indicate the Indian industrial and sewage pollution. Large variations in the levels of various measured parameters (COD, BOD, TOC, pH, total soluble substances, and trace metals) were observed along the Hudiara drain in the Pakistani vicinity. These variations were due to different types of industrial effluents and small village drains. The study showed that suspended solids(SS), COD, and fecal coliform (FC) were the major pollutants. Accordingly, the most feasible alternative is to convert the drainage network to a sedimentation and temporary storage reservoir. If disinfected, the runoff water can be used for restricted irrigation. Groundwater samples taken from the drain's surrounding area have also been analyzed. Thirty percent of the samples are not fit for drinking purposes due to NO3-N, Se and FC counts as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A trilinear diagram clearly indicates the influence of surface water of the Hudiara drain on ground water; moreover, higher values of nitrate and FC clearly indicate the seepage from the Hudiara drain. PMID:11345744

  8. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  9. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... regarding the revocation of the prior definition of ``unblockable drain.'' (76 FR 62605). The Federal... gravity drain system or the underlying drain is unblockable. Accordingly, if a pool operator installed...

  11. Development of a 3D-printed external ventricular drain placement simulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Rooney, Deborah; Stephenson, Francesca; Liao, Peng-Siang; Sagher, Oren; Shih, Albert J; Savastano, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to simulate accurate external ventricular drain (EVD) placement with realistic haptic and visual feedbacks to serve as a platform for complete procedural training. Insertion of an EVD via ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor intracranial pressures and/or drain CSF. Currently, realistic training tools are scarce and mainly limited to virtual reality simulation systems. The use of 3D printing technology enables the development of realistic anatomical structures and customized design for physical simulators. In this study, the authors used the advantages of 3D printing to directly build the model geometry from stealth head CT scans and build a phantom brain mold based on 3D scans of a plastinated human brain. The resultant simulator provides realistic haptic feedback during a procedure, with visualization of catheter trajectory and fluid drainage. A multiinstitutional survey was also used to prove content validity of the simulator. With minor refinement, this simulator is expected to be a cost-effective tool for training neurosurgical residents in EVD placement. PMID:26115472

  12. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

  13. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  14. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  15. MODULATING STORM DRAIN FLOWS TO REDUCE STREAM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogen and toxic chemical concentrations above the chemical and toxicity water quality standards in creeks and rivers pose risks to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Storm drains discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concen...

  16. Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain visible as water fall on left bank, from top of dam embankment, view to north - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  17. Numerical simulation of spacecraft propellant tank draining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid have been investigated during the liquid hydrogen draining. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity ot lower reduced gravity. Flow fields with lower flow rates of liquid draining are responsible for the excitation higher wave amplitude slosh waves.

  18. Paleohydraulic reconstruction of the largest Glacial Lake Missoula draining(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Petteri; Baker, Victor R.; Smith, Larry N.

    2010-11-01

    Glacial Lake Missoula (GLM) was the source of Earth's largest known peak flood discharges onto the Channeled Scabland, northwestern United States. The original studies of GLM were based on geomorphological mapping of lake sediments and shorelines. More recently, studies have emphasized the computational fluid dynamics of downstream megaflood routing and characteristics in the Channeled Scabland and adjacent areas. However, actual details of the lake-draining processes GLM have received little scientific attention. In this paper, we employ two-dimensional hydraulic modelling to understand the paleoflow conditions for different scenarios of draining GLM at its highest stands. Values are calculated for three GLM drainage hydrographs (2.6; 13; 17 × 10 6 m 3 s -1) that previous studies had estimated for outlet flows. Consistent with regional mapping and with the original interpretation of fluvial geomorphology by other studies, the modelling shows that lake silt sequences in the gorges of GLM must postdate the most highly energetic outburst events from the lake. This is because the flows generated in the lake by megaflood outflows are sufficiently energetic to erode any accumulated silt deposits. In contrast, the gravels underlying the silts in these zones include boulder-sized clasts, large-scale cross stratification, and 70-100 m-high bars forms, all of which indicate very high-energy flood flow conditions. The modelling also shows that the paleohydraulic conditions which developed in the lake basin during the largest megaflood outflows would be capable of accounting for the observed bedrock scour at Rainbow Lake Pass, various "high eddy deposits" (eddy bars of flood gravel) in gorges, and the "giant ripple marks" (subaqueous gravel dunes) that were classically described in the 1940s. Previous studies interpreted the glacial lake silt/rhythmites and related deposits, such as the Ninemile Section, as evidence for numerous fillings and drainings of GLM. Our modelling

  19. Is Surgical Drain Useful for Lumbar Disc Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Seok; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Surgical drains are commonly used after the spine surgeries for minimizing hematoma formation, which can delay wound healing and may become a source of fibrosis, infection, and pain. The drain, however, may provide a direct route for infection if it is contaminated. Our objective was to survey the relationship between surgical drains and infection. Methods The 70 patients who had undergone single-level lumbar discectomy from April 2011 to March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient's medical chart and magnetic resonance image were thoroughly reviewed after all the patients had been divided into the drainage and the nondrainage groups. The amounts and durations of the surgical drains in the drainage group were analyzed. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein, rates of infection, scores of preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and lengths of hospital stay after operation were compared between the 2 groups. Results In this study, 70 patients were retrospectively analyzed; out of which, 42 and 28 patients were included in the drainage and the nondrainage groups, respectively. Two of the postoperative infection cases in the nondrainage group required to undergo repeated operations. The frequency of the postoperative infection cases was higher in the nondrainage group than in the drainage group; however, there was no significant statistical difference between the 2 groups (p=0.157). Conclusion Surgical drains did not elevate postoperative infection. Furthermore, drain tip cultures allowed us to detect postoperative infection at an early stage, and it led to faster initiation of antibiotics treatment. PMID:27123026

  20. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  1. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss. PMID:27332841

  2. Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M; Brum, D E

    2015-07-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3-week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18-month period. The smaller non-operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement. PMID:25640711

  3. PRACTICAL INSIGHT ON INSTALLATION AND USE OF A DUAL DRAIN / SWIRL SEPARATOR SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a properly designed dual drain tank, solids laden effluent exists through the bottom of drain of the tank and the cleaner mid-column tank water exists the side drain. Connecting the bottom drain line to a primary solids capture device , such as a swirl separator, has a number of benefits. Primar...

  4. Nonideality of drain electrode and ballistic performance of MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    The ideal drain electrode assumed in the analysis of MOSFETs accepts carriers from the channel without reflection. The realistic drain, however, backscatters some of the carriers into the channel once again, and the backscattering is intensified if elastic scattering is dominant within the drain. The backscattering strongly affects the ballistic performance of MOSFETs. The channel length dependence of the ballistic performance of MOSFETs is explored in consideration of the backscattering. It is concluded that the ballistic limit of MOSFETs is not realized in the short-channel limit of the device, but, on the contrary, in the comparatively long-channel device in which minimization of the elastic scattering is pursued. The tendency may possibly explain the observed result that the performance of a 0.1 µm MOSFET reported a quarter-century ago showed a good agreement with the ballistic MOSFET characteristics.

  5. [An ectopic ureter which drained into the perianal area].

    PubMed

    Delgado Chanis, G

    1992-05-01

    The author reviews the clinical record of a 6-year-old boy, who had urinary incontinence with wetting of his underwear in the posterior part. IVP, Cystoscopy, Cystogram, Left Retrograde Pyelogram and Surgery showed a double distal ureter on the left side. The normal ureter drained in the bladder in the orthotopic ureteral orifice. The medial dilated ectopic ureter, in the form of an H, was connected to the normal ureter and drained in the perianal area. The incontinence stopped after the resection of the ectopic ureter. PMID:1620895

  6. Analysis and suppression of drain current drift in graphene FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Mo; Lee, Dongho; Shim, Jeoyoung; Jeon, Taehan; Eom, Kunsun; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-10-01

    The cause of drain current (ID) drift in graphene field-effect transistors is analyzed and a method to suppress the drift is proposed. By analyzing ID-time characteristics, a condition of reasonable gate, drain and source biases (VG, VD, and VS) is proposed to suppress ID drift. Based on this result, we find a condition for VG during off-time (Vbase), VD, and VS in pulsed I-V measurement to obtain the intrinsic ID-VG curves, and analyze the effect of Vbase on the Dirac point shift. Through an analysis of ID-time characteristics depending on VG, ID drift according to the range of VG is explained.

  7. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Values for Drained Weights—Whole 211 × 304 Xd ounces Xd grams 300 × 407 Xd ounces Xd grams 603 × 700 Xd ounces Xd grams Small 4.5 127.5 7.75 219.7 66.0 1871.1 Medium 4.5 127.5 7.75 219.7 66.0 1871.1 Large 4.5... Table II—Acceptance Values for Drained Weights—Pitted 211 × 304 Xd ounces Xd grams 300 × 407 Xd...

  8. Spring active drain using bladder (50–60 ml) syringe (De Adotey’s drain)

    PubMed Central

    Igwe, Patrick Okechukwu; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra; Adotey, Jacob Molai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed active drainage system with a syringe is an accepted way to let out fluid in a surgical wound. We present a simple spring active (negative suction) drainage (SAD) system using locally improvised metallic spring and 60 ml (bladder syringe); SAD of Adotey, a newly designed compression–expansion spring mechanism which serves especially in situations where an active drainage system is of utmost importance. Conclusion De Adotey's drain is a 60 ml bladder syringe with spring mechanism which is used to provide a negative pressure as an active drain. PMID:26785081

  9. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  10. 38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking south from north side of the basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. Potential Methods for Reducing Nitrate Losses in Artificially Drained Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate in water removed from fields by subsurface drain ('tile') systems is often at concentrations exceeding the ten mg N/L maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the USEPA for drinking water and has been implicated in contributing to the hypoxia problem within the northern Gulf of Mexico. Because...

  12. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  13. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  14. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  15. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  16. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  17. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  18. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  19. Drain discharge monitoring to estimate plot scale groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciacca, Antoine; Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Spatially and temporally distributed representation of groundwater recharge is known as an important issue in hydrogeological modelling. Therefore, monitored groundwater recharge data are crucial to parameterize and/or validate groundwater flow models. Generally, river base flow measurements are used for this purpose with the assumption that these catchment-scale spatially aggregated measurements are suitable to assess the internal catchment behaviour. However, the signal of different soil and vegetation types is lost and this limits our ability to validate mechanistic, process-based models used at the plot scale. A suitable alternative in lowland drained areas could lie in monitoring drain discharge. The present poster describes the set-up of such a monitoring device in a ditch drain located in the Kleine Nete catchment (Belgium). To calculate groundwater recharge rate from drain discharge monitoring, some intermediate steps are required. The contributing area has to be delimited and the contribution of recharge water from this area has to be separated from other possible sources (e.g. deeper groundwater flow, run-off). To handle this, some assumptions regarding the features of the plot and some additional measurements have been used.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAP GATES AT THE END OF DRAIN PIPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flap gates are commonly used at the end of pipe drains and pump outlets to prevent back flows of water and entry of small animals. Flap gates are relatively inexpensive, with low maintenance costs, but can trap debris in their hinge systems. Many texts refer to studies performed on flap gates at t...

  1. JMU Refuses to Let Money Go down the Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia has embarked on a rational means to reduce energy costs and provides a sustainable approach to student housing. The investment to install a Drain Water Heat Recovery system (DWHR) at Wayland Hall is estimated to pay for itself in less than three years but will provide dividends for over 40.…

  2. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  3. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  4. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  6. Surface Water and Groundwater Nitrogen Dynamics in a Well Drained Riparian Forest within a Poorly Drained Agricultural Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrients in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well-drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a ri...

  7. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  8. Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals, western San Joaquin Valley, California: 1. Geochemical assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deverel, S.J.; Fio, John L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate the hydrologic processes affecting the chemical and isotopic composition of drain lateral water in a drained agricultural field in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The results elucidate the process of mixing of deep and shallow groundwater (below and within 6 m from land surface) entering the drain laterals. The deep groundwater was subject to evapoconcentration prior to drainage system installation and has been displaced downward (to depths greater than 6 m) in the groundwater system. The proportions of deep and shallow groundwater entering the drain laterals was calculated from the end-member oxygen 18 compositions determined in groundwater samples. The percentage of total drain lateral flow which is deep groundwater flow is about 30% for the shallow drain lateral (1.8 m below land surface) (drain lateral 1)) and 60% for the deep drain lateral (2.7 m below land surface (drain lateral 2)). During irrigation, the percentages of deep groundwater flow decrease to 0 and 30% for the shallow and deep drain laterals, respectively. Selenium concentrations in drain lateral waters decrease during irrigation but selenium loads increase. Total estimated annual loads were 1.1 and 5.4 kg of selenium for drain laterals 1 and 2, respectively. Substantial percentages of the annual load occurred during 8 days of irrigation, 23 and 9% for drain laterals 1 and 2, respectively.

  9. Brain Science, Brain Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Three big ideas from brain science have arisen during the past 20 to 30 years: neural connections form rapidly early in life; critical periods occur in development; and enriched environments profoundly affect brain development during the early years. Current brain research has little to offer educational practice or policy. (10 references) (MLH)

  10. Viscous dampers cut vibration in heater drain line

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, B.; Rencher, D. ); Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.K.

    1993-06-01

    This article discusses the control of unacceptable vibration levels that persisted for about two years in a 400 F heater drain piping system at Comanche Peak's 1100-MW Unit 1. The system in this PWR nuclear power plant is made up of approximately 300 ft of 8-in., Schedule 40 piping that runs from the steam generator heater to two 10-ft-diameter horizontal drain tanks. During start-up and shut-down operations, flashing of the 400 F water to steam occurs at the intakes of the tanks. This flashing caused severe vibration in the 8-in. piping from the tanks to about 80 ft upstream. Peak displacements of approximately three inches were measured. Viscous dampers were installed to solve the problem.

  11. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  12. Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin D; van Beinum, Wendy

    2009-12-01

    Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. PMID:19608317

  13. Inside-Out Trans-Arthroscopic Drain Application During Knee Joint Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Harder, Laurent P.; Naal, Florian D.

    2015-01-01

    Although knee joint arthroscopy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide, there is no consensus on how to apply a drain in the joint if it is decided to use one. Therefore we describe a simple technique to safely apply a drain intra-articularly under full arthroscopic control, avoiding placement of the drain through the arthroscopic portal. PMID:26870639

  14. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  15. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  16. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  17. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  18. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains,...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  20. 33 CFR 158.500 - Draining cargo area and piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draining cargo area and piping... and Terminal Operations § 158.500 Draining cargo area and piping systems. The person in charge shall... carrying NLS cargo is not drained back into the ship....

  1. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  2. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  3. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  4. Hydrology and hydraulics of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Heini; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Treatment wetlands are globally used for wastewater purification purposes. In Finland, these wetlands are commonly peatland-based and are used to treat runoff from peat extraction sites and peatland forestry. Wetlands are also used for polishing municipal wastewaters and mining waters. In peat extraction the structures are usually called overland flow areas (OFAs), which are traditionally established on pristine peatlands. However, nowadays establishing of new peat extraction sites is guided to drained peatland areas due to the Finnish Peat Use Strategy, which leads difficulties to find undisturbed peatland area for OFA. Therefore treatment wetlands have had to construct also on drained peatland areas. In drained areas peat physical properties have changed due to oxidation and subsidence and the water flow pathways differs from OFAs flow patterns, which maybe have effect on purification results. Thus in the present study we aim to clarify the hydrology and hydraulic properties of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatland areas. For this purposes, 20 treatment wetlands on drained peatland areas across Finland were detailed measured for peat hydraulic conductivity. In selected areas, runoff was continuously monitored, flow distribution at treatment areas was studied and water residence times measured with tracer tests using potassium iodide (KI). Generally, in the study areas, the ditches had been completely blocked, partly blocked e.g with peat dams or not blocked at all. The ditches were located partly parallel to the flow direction and partly perpendicular to it. The distribution of water to the wetlands has been implemented in many different ways e.g. by distribution ditch or by perforated pipes. Based on the results, in majority of the wetlands, the peat drainage has clearly affected the hydraulic properties of wetlands, but not on all sites. In more than half of the wetlands (12), the median hydraulic conductivity of peat drastically decreased at the

  5. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luís C. B.

    2010-06-01

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  6. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  7. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  8. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  9. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luis C. B.

    2010-06-15

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  10. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.