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Sample records for latvian brain drain

  1. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  2. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  3. The brain drain.

    PubMed

    Rubin, I M

    1987-01-01

    The adult human brain weights around three pounds. Yet it is capable of feats that dwarf those of the most sophisticated computers. The sad fact is, those brains are largely wasted in modern organizations. Instead of tapping the full capacity of the human brains that could make our organizations more efficient and effective, we allow them to lapse into an inexcusably large amount of wasted activity. What is needed by the health care field, in a time that demands more with less, is more sensible use not only of its manpower but also of its brainpower. PMID:10312137

  4. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  5. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%. PMID:15375452

  6. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national affiliations,…

  7. Ethics and policy of medical brain drain: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Buyx, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Health-worker migration, commonly called "medical brain drain", refers to the mass migration of trained and skilled health professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives) from low-income to high-income countries. This is currently leaving a significant number of poor countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with critical staff shortages in the healthcare sector. A broad consensus exists that, where medical brain drain exacerbates such shortages, it is unethical, and this review presents the main arguments underpinning this view. Notwithstanding the general agreement, which policies are justifiable on ethical grounds to tackle brain drain and how best to go about implementing them remains controversial. The review offers a discussion of the specific ethical issues that have to be taken into account when deciding which policy measures to prioritise and suggests a strategy of policy implementation to address medical brain drain as a matter of urgency. PMID:24163012

  8. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the total…

  9. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among professionally…

  10. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  11. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  12. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  13. Some specifics on the brain drain from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Mckee, D L

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the brain drain from the Andean countries of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the United States is presented. The data are from a survey of 62 persons from those countries who are currently residing in the United States and are listed in the current edition of "American Men and Women of Science". The reasons why they left their country of origin and are staying in the United States are considered. (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159629

  14. Brain drain leads to more physicists heading to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2010-01-01

    If budgets are too tight at home, academics often flock abroad in what is known as a "brain drain". But now a study by economists in the UK has revealed that elite physicists seem to be more mobile than ever. Having ana lysed the career paths of 158 of the world's most highly cited physicists, Andrew Oswald of the University of Warwick and colleagues found that half do not now work in the countries where they were born (Economic Journal 119 F231).

  15. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    PubMed Central

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  16. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    PubMed

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  17. The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized…

  18. Beyond Brain Drain: The Dynamics of Geographic Mobility and Educational Attainment of B.C. Young Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Licker, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain drain," both…

  19. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Gbary, Akpa Raphael; Muthuri, Lenity Kainyu; Nyoni, Jennifer; Seddoh, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill

  20. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  1. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  2. Stopping the Brain Drain of Skilled Veteran Teachers: Retaining and Valuing Their Hard-Won Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Veteran educators are being encouraged to take early retirement in order to create jobs for less-experienced, lower-paid novices. Veteran educators are not alone: early retirement promotions have become the norm for aging workers in America. Consequently, there is a brain-drain of skilled workers at the national, state, and local levels. The early…

  3. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  4. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  5. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed. PMID:23336617

  6. Brain drain, illegal migration and capital exports from less developed economies: a neoclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1985-01-01

    This model shows that LDC's brain drain triggers emigration of unskilled labor and capital exports, skilled workers and agricultural capitalists gain, unskilled workers and industrial capitalists lose, and demodernization of the economy results. Demodernization of the economy occurs when labor force and output of the industrial sector decrease, and employment and production in agriculture increase. The problem analyzed in this model is what happens to the incomes of those who are left behind when some of the skilled workers migrate abroad. The results show that with the exodus of both skilled labor and capital, the marginal productivity of unskilled workers in industry also falls below the unskilled wage. Although one would expect a brain drain to result in gains for those skilled workers who remain in the source country, and for the capital owners who receive unskilled workers as a result of emigration, the losers are the unskilled workers and the capitalists in the sector where the migrants worked. PMID:12267428

  7. Is the medical brain drain beneficial? Evidence from overseas doctors in the UK.

    PubMed

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Winters, L Alan; Commander, Simon

    2007-09-01

    The 'beneficial brain drain' hypothesis suggests that skilled migration can be good for a sending country because the incentives it creates for obtaining training increase that country's net supply of skilled labour. Necessary conditions for this hypothesis to work are that the possibility of migration significantly affects decisions to take medical training and that migrants are not strongly screened by the host country. We conducted a survey among overseas doctors in the UK in 2002, which suggested that neither condition is likely to be fulfilled. Apart from the 'beneficial brain drain' argument, the survey findings also cast light on the backgrounds and motives of migrant doctors, and finds evidence that there could, nonetheless, be other benefits to sending countries via routes like remittances and return migration. PMID:17570573

  8. Managing health worker migration: a qualitative study of the Philippine response to nurse brain drain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The emigration of skilled nurses from the Philippines is an ongoing phenomenon that has impacted the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce, while strengthening the domestic economy through remittances. This study examines how the development of brain drain-responsive policies is driven by the effects of nurse migration and how such efforts aim to achieve mind-shifts among nurses, governing and regulatory bodies, and public and private institutions in the Philippines and worldwide. Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to elicit exploratory perspectives on the policy response to nurse brain drain. Interviews with key informants from the nursing, labour and immigration sectors explored key themes behind the development of policies and programmes that respond to nurse migration. Focus group discussions were held with practising nurses to understand policy recipients’ perspectives on nurse migration and policy. Results Using the qualitative data, a thematic framework was created to conceptualize participants’ perceptions of how nurse migration has driven the policy development process. The framework demonstrates that policymakers have recognised the complexity of the brain drain phenomenon and are crafting dynamic policies and programmes that work to shift domestic and global mindsets on nurse training, employment and recruitment. Conclusions Development of responsive policy to Filipino nurse brain drain offers a glimpse into a domestic response to an increasingly prominent global issue. As a major source of professionals migrating abroad for employment, the Philippines has formalised efforts to manage nurse migration. Accordingly, the Philippine paradigm, summarised by the thematic framework presented in this paper, may act as an example for other countries that are experiencing similar shifts in healthcare worker employment due to migration. PMID:23249411

  9. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-01-01

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized. PMID:23617992

  10. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  11. Developing Science: Scientific Performance and Brain Drains in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a strong scientific community is important as countries develop, which requires both producing and retaining of important scientists. We show that developing countries produce a sizeable number of important scientists, but that they experience a tremendous brain drain. Education levels, population, and per capita GDP are positively related to the number of important scientists born in and staying in a country. Our analysis indicates that democracy and urbanization are associated with the production of more important scientists although democracy is associated with more out-migration. PMID:27152061

  12. Latvian Education Informatization System LIIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicevskis, Janis; Andzans, Agnis; Ikaunieks, Evalds; Medvedis, Inga; Straujums, Uldis; Vezis, Viesturs

    2004-01-01

    The Latvian Education Informatization System LIIS project covers the whole information grid: education content, management, information services, infrastructure and user training at several levels--schools, school boards and Ministry of Education and Science. Informatization is the maintained process of creating the technical, economical and…

  13. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  14. More Than the Brain's Drain: Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Help the Brain Convey Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, John

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless liquid that constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord. Scientists argue that cerebrospinal fluid carries important signals for sleep, appetite, and sex. Evaluates past and current research documenting the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (CCM)

  15. Return of talent programs: rationale and evaluation criteria for programs to ameliorate a 'brain drain'.

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1986-03-01

    The term, brain drain, describes the loss of skilled professionals and the nonreturn of students from advanced study abroad. It is now used almost exclusively in reference to mobility from less developed countries to more developed countries. Controversy centers on whether needed skills are being drawn off unfairly at subsidized rates from developing to developed countries or whether excess capability is being utilized in developed countries rather than underemployed or wasted at home. Some causes of high level personnel migration include: 1) wage differentials between sending and receiving countries; 2) absence of opportunities for career development or mobility for reasons other than merit or accomplishment; 3) lack of high quality facilities, equipment, time, and other costly supports in developing countries; 4) employer's lack of knowledge of employee work and the resulting wages; and 5) political disagreement or persecution. Prospects for closing wage gaps and upgrading working conditions on a large scale in developing countries are dim. Growth of the labor force coupled with national needs that are not congruent with professions requiring costly facilities, supplies, and equipment make this a slim possibility. Increasing career mobility possibilities seems to be a more promising route to reducing brain drain. One form of preventive measure is offering study abroad which requires service at the end of the study period; a variation is to guarantee employment for university graduates or for certain sectors, such as scientists. Restructuring decisions on hiring and promotion would have a positive effect, as would developing a better evaluation of expected productivity by type of training. Successful return of talent programs will be relatively modest in terms of the number of people returning and should be thought of as a part of human capital investment. Programs that are concerned with filling positions rather than with luring talent home are more likely to be

  16. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps. PMID:22572198

  17. The Impact of Baby Boomer Retirement and Reverse Migration That Results in Corporate Brain Drain in Corporation in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Parker, Bobbie J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify whether the corporate brain drain that results as baby boomers retire and highly educated skilled immigrants return to their nations of origin, or to other developing nations, impact corporations in developed countries; and identify effective solutions firms are using to address the void of…

  18. Factors contributing to the brain drain in speech-language pathology: a New Zealand example.

    PubMed

    Tillard, Gina D A

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine what attracts students to speech-language pathology (SLP), and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on two types of "brain drain" in SLP: emigration and career shift. Fifty undergraduate students and 13 recent graduates completed a questionnaire that tapped three main areas, level of student debt, intentions to emigrate, and career intentions. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents were female, with a median age of 25 years. Most SLP students and graduates had high levels of debt on graduation. Debt contributed to levels of worry and the ability to participate in education. However, debt alone did not influence career choice or long-term career planning. Over half of the respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 2 years of graduation, citing salary, travel, and training opportunities as factors. Incentives to remain in the profession included increased salary, more training opportunities, and student debt repayment. SLP students' career decisions were mainly influenced by interest in the profession. The conclusion was that three main factors need to be explored in an effort to increase the likelihood that SLPs remain in New Zealand: salary levels, increased training opportunities, and contributions to reduce student debt. PMID:21793778

  19. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." PMID:12321147

  20. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    PubMed

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men. PMID:25621674

  1. Higher Education and Global Talent Flows: Brain Drain, Overseas Chinese Intellectuals, and Diasporic Knowledge Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony R.; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In the global era, transnational flows of highly skilled individuals are increasing. In the much-touted global knowledge economy, the contribution of such diasporic individuals and the knowledge networks that they sustain are recognized as being of increasing importance. Brain circulation is of critical importance to the "giant periphery" of…

  2. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  3. Brain Drain in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuppy, Annie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the increasing number of college presidents leaving their posts in Iowa for higher-paying positions at other major research universities. With the recent departure of yet another popular president at the University of Iowa, members of the state's Board of Regents, the news media, and even faculty members are arguing that the…

  4. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  5. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, Ilknur Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-06-15

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.

  6. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fabrice; Martin, Mathieu; Attias, Arie; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Gabriel, Inanna; Bekaert, Olivier; Bardon, Jean; Nebbad, Biba; Plaud, Benoît; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI) is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD) but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC), and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60%) vs 34 (29%), p = 0.023), and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001). Sixty-one (52%) and 32 (27%) skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1%) and 1 (1%) with pathogens, 8 (7%) and 1 (1%) with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5–56.8], p = 0.002) and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4–41.2], p = 0.001)) were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks. PMID:26555597

  7. Breaking Historical Silence through Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Latvian Curriculum Writers and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Lindquist, David H.; Misco, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the need for Holocaust curricula in Latvia, Latvians and Americans worked collaboratively to overcome the historical silence surrounding this event. During their project, Latvian curriculum writers worked with teachers and scholars at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This descriptive analysis of the Latvians' experience…

  8. Latvian scientists research into chemical uses of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-20

    Scientists of the Institute of Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of Sciences have developed two highly efficient processes for producing furfural, a feedstock for varnishes, synthetic resins and plastics. It is made of production wastes, including branches and small-dimension timber. By one process, the raw material is chipped, treated first with diluted sulphuric acid and then with steam heated to 250 degrees C. The other uses concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Besides furfural, this process also yields sugar solutions used in alcohol and nutrient yeast production.

  9. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  10. Improvement of Latvian Geoid Model Using GNSS/Levelling, GOCE Data and Vertical Deflection Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janpaule, Inese; Haritonova, Diana; Balodis, Janis; Zarins, Ansis; Silabriedis, Gunars; Kaminskis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Development of a digital zenith telescope prototype, improved zenith camera construction and analysis of experimental vertical deflection measurements for the improvement of the Latvian geoid model has been performed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (GGI), University of Latvia. GOCE satellite data was used to compute geoid model for the Riga region, and European gravimetric geoid model EGG97 and 102 data points of GNSS/levelling were used as input data in the calculations of Latvian geoid model.

  11. Bioaccumulation of hepatotoxins - a considerable risk in the Latvian environment.

    PubMed

    Barda, Ieva; Kankaanaää, Harri; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Sjövall, Olli; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Riga, river Daugava and several interconnected lakes around the City of Riga, Latvia, form adynamic brackish-freshwater system favouring occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria. We examined bioaccumulation of microcystins and nodularin-R in aquatic organisms in Latvian lakes, the Gulf of Riga and west coast of open Baltic Sea in 2002-2007. The freshwater unionids accumulated toxins efficiently,followed by snails. In contrast, Dreissena polymorpha and most lake fishes (except roach) accumulated much less hepatotoxins. Significant nodularin-R concentrations were detected also in marine clams and flounders. No transfer of nodularin-R and microcystins between lake and brackish water systems took place. Lake mussels can transfer hepatotoxins to higher organisms, and also effectively remove toxins from the water column. Obvious health risks to aquatic organisms and humans are discussed. PMID:25463728

  12. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  13. Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Context of the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Liana; Timša, Līga; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Pelnena, Inese; Zole, Egija; Puzuka, Agrita; Sabule, Areta; Rozane, Sandra; Lace, Baiba; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Krumina, Astrida; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the nonrecombining Y-chromosomal region were investigated in 159 unrelated Baltic-speaking ethnic Latvians from four different geographic regions, using 28 biallelic markers and 12 short tandem repeats. Eleven different haplogroups (hgs) were detected in a regionally homogeneous Latvian population, among which N1c, R1a, and I1 cover more than 85% of its paternal lineages. When compared its closest geographic neighbors, the composition of the Latvian Y-chromosomal gene pool was found to be very similar to those of Lithuanians and Estonians. Despite the comparable frequency distribution of hg N1c in Latvians and Lithuanians with the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations from the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the observed differences in allelic variances of N1c haplotypes between these two groups are in concordance with the previously stated hypothesis of different dispersal ways of this lineage in the region. More than a third of Latvian paternal lineages belong specifically to a recently defined R1a-M558 hg, indicating an influence from a common source within Eastern Slavic populations on the formation of the present-day Latvian Y-chromosome gene pool. PMID:26411886

  14. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  15. An Inevitable Moment: US Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brian Coppola begins by discussing the 2007 National Academies of Sciences (NAS) publication, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm" which called for for reprioritizing investments because "the world is changing rapidly, and our advantages are no longer unique. Without a renewed effort to bolster the foundations of our…

  16. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    PubMed

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed. PMID:12285393

  17. Is Ohio Experiencing "Brain Drain?" The Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is Ohio losing its best and brightest minds to other states? Is the state investing hundreds of millions of dollars in public higher education every year only to see graduates move out of state upon graduating in search of greener pastures? The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy (CHEE) commissioned a report about this issue…

  18. Quality Assurance Program and Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The number of colleges and universities in most developing countries has increased drastically over the past decades. The quality variation of these institutions is an alarming concern. Quality assurance programs are proposed and implemented. This paper evaluates the effects of quality assurance on the demand for college education, study abroad,…

  19. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  20. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  1. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  3. Closed suction drain with bulb

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  4. Risk factors for long-term mental and psychosomatic distress in Latvian Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed Central

    Viel, J F; Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Zvagule, T; Vincent, C

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl disaster have focused largely on physical health, whereas the psychological consequences have received little attention. The authors have assessed the associations of various exposure variables with mental and psychosomatic distress in a sample of 1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Registry. The outcome was a mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder occurring during 1986 to 1995. Comparisons among subgroups of the cohort classified according to exposure type or level were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (> or = 28 days) in a 10-km radius from the reactor (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.68), fresh fruit consumption (> or = 1 time/day) (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental-psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 0.89-3.72) is also associated with this outcome, although nonsignificantly. Distinguishing stress-related from radiation-induced effects in this data set was difficult and these findings should provide a basis for later hypothesis testing in other cohorts. PMID:9467079

  5. Trends in nutrient concentrations in Latvian rivers and the response to the dramatic change in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Grimvall, A.; Libiseller, C.; Laznik, M.; Kokorite, I.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years, the use of fertilisers in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) has decreased at an unprecedented rate. The import of mineral fertilisers and feed stuff became almost non-existent, and extensive slaughtering of livestock reduced the amount of manure. In Latvia, the purchase of mineral fertilisers decreased by a factor of 15 between 1987 and 1996 and the number of livestock decreased with a factor of almost 4 during the same time period. Such abrupt and comprehensive changes in land use have never before occurred in the history of modern European agriculture. Here, the impact that this dramatic reduction has had on concentrations of nutrients in Latvian rivers is examined. To discern temporal changes, statistical analyses were undertaken on time series of nutrient concentrations and relationships between concentrations and runoff at 12 sampling sites in ten Latvian rivers covering drainage areas from 334 to 64,000 km 2. Considering the study period 1987-1998, only four of the 12 sites showed statistically significant downward trends (one-sided test at the 5% level) in the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN=NO 3-N+NO 2-N+NH 4-N) data. There are probably two main explanations for the weak DIN trends. Firstly, long water-transit times in the soilwater and groundwater may have caused substantial time lag between changes in input and output of nitrate in the studied catchments. Secondly, the loss of DIN might have been dominated by mineralisation of large pools of organic nitrogen that have accumulated over several years. These inferences are supported by (i) a hydrograph recession analysis and (ii) indications of DIN transformation processes, presumably denitrification, in smaller streams and channels, based on measurements in small agricultural catchments (1-4 km 2) in Estonia and Latvia. Formal testing of trends in phosphorus data revealed that marked drops occurred in riverine concentrations at six sites in 1987-1998. A joint analysis

  6. Reappraisal of flow to tile drains III. Drains with limited flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Rushton, K. R.

    1996-09-01

    This third paper of the series on the reappraisal of flow to tile drains considers the time-variant situations in tile drain drainage systems when the quantity of water carried by tile drains is limited due to the capacity of the drains or the pumping equipment. Two categories of problem are analysed in this paper: (i) a series of parallel tile drains with a maximum specified flow and (ii) interceptor drains in the vicinity of canals. Complete details for satisfying the maximum specified flow conditions in tile drains are given. The effect of different capacities of tile drains on the performance of drainage system is explored.

  7. The Brain Rotation and Brain Diffusion Strategies of Small Islanders: Considering "Movement" in Lieu of "Place"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain" phenomenon is typically seen as a zero-sum game, where one party's gain is presumed to be another's drain. This corresponds to deep-seated assumptions about what is "home" and what is "away". This article challenges the view, driven by much "brain drain" literature, that the dynamic is an epi-phenomenon of the relationship…

  8. Heater drain system transient monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Voll, B.J.; Farsaci, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    Feedwater heater drain systems are susceptible to unstable, two phase flow conditions. These instabilities are difficult to predict and are dependent on plant-specific system designs and operating conditions. Therefore, significant vibrations and transient events can occur that the systems are not specifically designed for. This paper describes how heater drain system responses due to unanticipated transient events at a nuclear plant were captured and quantified using a digital data acquisition system. The setup of the data acquisition system, including the determination of what parameters to monitor and how to effectively capture potential transient events, is discussed. This paper also discusses the monitoring results and their relevance to system modification evaluations and root cause evaluations.

  9. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities remaining even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective ...

  10. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  11. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  12. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  13. Evaluation of the antibacterial and hemolytic activities of Latvian herbal preparation.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, F; Ali-Vehmas, T; Westermarck, T; Rizzo, A; Selga, G; Baltais, A; Linars, J; Saulite, V; Daukste, A

    2000-12-01

    Three extracts originating from a combination of various Latvian plant species were tested for their antibacterial activities by evaluating growth delays using a fully automated microturbidimetric method. Ten different human and bovine strains of the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were used as test microorganisms. The inhibitory effect in vitro was defined as the difference between the growth rate without herbs and the growth rate in the presence of an extract. Among the tested strains, Staphylococcus aureus was found sensitive to all 3 extracts. However, extract I was the most effective in slowing the growth of all strains tested. Using appropriate tester strains it should be possible to set up a broad-range microtubidimetry assay for individual herb screening in vitro. The hemolytic effects of the individual extracts on human erythrocytes were also studied at different concentrations. Two of the herbal extracts had minimal lytic effects on eurocaryotic cells. An additional hemolysis test was conducted in the presence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a free radical scavenger: CoQ10 had no effect on the hemolytic reaction. PMID:11111939

  14. [150th birth anniversary of Izidor Brennsohn, Latvian historian of medicine and researcher of Lithuanian anthropology].

    PubMed

    Andriusis, Aurimas; Viksna, Arnis

    2004-01-01

    This publication is dedicated to the 150th birth anniversary of a famous German-writing Latvian physician, historian of medicine, and anthropologist of Jewish descent Izidor Brennsohn, and to his ties with Lithuania. I. Brennsohn's works on physicians and the development of health care in Kurland, Livland, and Estland laid the foundations for the contemporary historiography of medicine in Latvia and Estonia. To a certain extent, these works could also be viewed as a digest of the sources of Lithuanian history of medicine, especially in regard to the regions on the boarder with Latvia, as well as to various personalities. However, Brennsohn's most important link with Lithuania was his doctoral thesis "On Lithuanian anthropology" ("Zur Anthropologie der Litauer"), defended at Dorpat (Tartu) University in 1883. It was one of the first works dealing with Lithuanian ethnic anthropology as a whole. Although, material of thesis could not be used for wider generalizations, still, it is one of rare and valuable 19th century sources of Lithuanian anthropology. Brennsohn's legacy deserves greater attention from people researching medical history in Lithuania. PMID:15456980

  15. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a 'never event'.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Nicola K; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B; Steyn, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  16. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  17. CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in Latvian melanoma patients: analysis of a clinic-based population.

    PubMed

    Pjanova, Dace; Engele, Ludmila; Randerson-Moor, Juliette A; Harland, Mark; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton Bishop, Julia A; Taylor, Claire; Debniak, Tadeusz; Lubinski, Jan; Kleina, Regina; Heisele, Olita

    2007-06-01

    Germline mutations of the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes explain a significant proportion of familial melanoma. To date, there have been few published estimations of the prevalence of such mutations in sporadic melanoma patients. In this study, we investigated CDKN2A and CDK4 exon 2 for germline mutations in 125 consecutive cutaneous malignant melanoma patients recruited through the Latvian Oncological Center, using amplicon melting analysis and sequencing. No disease-related CDKN2A germline mutations were identified in any of the melanoma patients analysed but the previously described CDK4 mutation, Arg24His, was found in one patient with a family history of melanoma. CDKN2A polymorphisms were studied as putative low penetrance susceptibility genes. The proportion of cases with polymorphisms in this Latvian melanoma population was Ala148Thr (c.442G>A) (6%), 500 C/G (c.*29C>G) (18%), and 540 C/T (c.*69C>T) (20%); however, only the frequency of the Ala148Thr polymorphism was higher in melanoma patients than in 203 controls (6 versus 1%, P=0.03). Ala148Thr has also been reported in association with melanoma in a Polish series but not in an English series. We therefore examined the Ala148Thr carrier's haplotype in 10 Latvian and 39 Polish samples. No significant difference was seen between these populations and the predominant haplotype observed in English samples, giving no indication that the discrepancy could be explained by population differences in linkage disequilibrium. In summary, our results show that germline mutations at the CDKN2A locus are rare in sporadic melanoma in Latvia. The study does, however, provide some additional evidence for a role for the CDKN2A polymorphism Ala148Thr as a low penetrance susceptibility gene. The detected CDK4 exon 2 mutation was found in only the seventh family identified worldwide with a germline CDK4 mutation. PMID:17505264

  18. Association between CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in a Latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Radovica, I.; Fridmanis, D.; Silamikelis, I.; Nikitina-Zake, L.; Klovins, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid levels are considered one of the most significant risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, two of the main causes of death worldwide. Apart from monogenic cases of hypercholesterolemia, most of the common dyslipidemias are caused by a number of low-impact polymorphisms. It has recently been reported that frequent polymorphisms at a large number of loci are significantly associated with one or more blood lipid parameters in many populations. Identifying these associations in different populations and estimating the possible interactions between genetic models are necessary to explain the underlying genetic architecture of the associated loci and their ultimate impact on lipid-associated traits. Methods We estimated the association between 144 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published genome-wide association studies and the levels of total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol, and triglycerides in 1273 individuals from the Genome Database of the Latvian Population. We analyzed a panel of 144 common SNPs with Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assays on the Illumina BeadXpress System. Results Ten SNPs at the CETP locus and two at the MLXIPL locus were associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels; one SNP at the TOMM40 locus was associated with increased low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol; and four SNPs at the MLXIPL locus were associated with increased log triglyceride levels. There was also a significant correlation between the number of risk alleles and all the lipid parameters, suggesting that the coexistence of many low-impact SNPs has a greater effect on the dyslipidemia phenotype than the individual effects of found SNPs. Conclusion We conclude that the CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 loci are the strongest genetic factors underlying the variability in lipid traits in our population. PMID:25606439

  19. How Students Learn to Teach? A Case Study of Instrumental Lessons Given by Latvian Undergraduate Performer Students without Prior Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez Gonzalez, Manuel Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and discuss the way students of the Latvian Academy of Music teach before having entered a teacher training programme. Five hours of students' teaching work was video-taped, analysed and discussed with them between the spring of 2010 and the winter of 2011. The descriptive and analytic results of this…

  20. Association of BMP4 polymorphisms with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate in Latvian and Lithuanian populations.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Inga; Ambrozaitytė, Laima; Stavusis, Janis; Akota, Ilze; Barkane, Biruta; Krumina, Astrida; Matulevičienė, Aušra; Utkus, Algirdas; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lace, Baiba

    2014-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP and CL, respectively) and isolated cleft palate (CP) represent one of the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 300-2500 depending on the population. Formation of non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP arises from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the BMP4 gene (encoding bone morphogenetic protein 4) and non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP in order to clarify the role of this gene in the aetiology of the malformation in Latvian and Lithuanian populations. We genotyped three markers of the BMP4 gene (rs17563, rs2071047 and rs1957860) in order to perform single marker and haplotype association analyses for Latvian and Lithuanian non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP patients and controls. Transmission disequilibrium test was also conducted for Latvian and Lithuanian proband-parent trios. The case-control analysis revealed that SNP rs2071047 allele A was associated with a decreased risk of CL/CLP in the Latvian population, which was confirmed by the haplotype analysis. A modest association was detected between SNP rs1957860 and CP in the Lithuanian population, where allele C was associated with a decreased risk of this cleft phenotype, corroborating haplotype analysis data. Our findings support a role of the BMP4 gene in the aetiology of non-syndromic CL/CLP and CP in the studied populations. PMID:25471993

  1. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  12. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  13. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  14. Urokinase-Treated Antithrombogenic Drains and Optimized Drain Placement in Endoscopic Lumbar Decompressive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shu; Ikeda, Shoji; Taguchi, Mitsuto

    2016-07-01

    Background Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) frequently occurs after microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy (MEDL), and a drain may not be functioning sufficiently. Objective To reduce the incidence of SEH after MEDL. Methods  A urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain, which is available only with a large diameter, was reduced in diameter and used after MEDL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed 36 to 48 hours after surgery. The size of the SEH was measured by MRI, and the location of the drain tip was assessed by CT scan. After imaging, the drain was removed. Results Use of the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain reduced the incidence of SEH. However, the drain was not adequately placed in many cases, limiting the effect of the drainage. When the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain was placed contralaterally to the approach side using an unsheathed endoscope, the incidence of SEH was further reduced. Conclusions The urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain prevented thrombus-related drain obstruction. In addition, unsheathed endoscopic contralateral placement of the drain was effective for SEH prevention. PMID:26935298

  15. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population. PMID:24722516

  16. How to remove a chest drain.

    PubMed

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26443174

  17. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future. PMID:27236516

  18. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  5. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  6. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  7. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the entire fuel system with the airplane in its normal ground attitude. (b) Each drain required by paragraph...

  8. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  9. 14 CFR 121.261 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 121.261 Section 121... drain lines. All vent and drain lines and their fittings, that are located in a designated fire zone... the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  10. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  11. Brain drain adds to AIDS crisis in developing world.

    PubMed

    Green, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of desperately needed doctors and other medical professionals leave poor countries because no one there can pay them, or provide safe and effective working conditions. Many go to English-speaking countries that do not train enough medical professionals themselves--such as the U.S., where a quarter of the doctors are foreign trained. PMID:16886261

  12. Marketing Educational Improvements via International Partnerships under Brain Drain Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Weslynne; Wagman, Liad

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics in an educational partnership between a university and a developing region. We examine how the university achieves its goals to improve and advertise its offerings while recruiting a cohort of students from the developing region and maintaining a sustainable relationship with the region and its students. We show that mutually…

  13. Tendencies of International Career of Romanian Researchers: Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Dan; Patrasca, Mihaela; Chivu, Iulia

    2006-01-01

    Recent economic and technological developments have led to a growing international demand for highly skilled human resources. The increased competition for human capital has determined numerous OECD countries to take special measures for attracting and retaining human capital in such fields as: information technology, biotechnology,…

  14. International Accreditation and Brain Drain: A Simple Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Assume that there are two types of knowledge, global and local. This paper considers a university in a developing country that allocates finite education resources to the delivery of these two types of knowledge. We provide the optimal resource allocation that maximizes social welfare. We show that, by imposing a minimum resource allocation to…

  15. The Migration of Highly Educated Asians: Brain Drain Boomerang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The heavy migration of highly educated Asians to the United States since the early 1970s is examined, noting advantages and disadvantages to the countries of origin and to the United States as well as the historical, educational, and economic factors causing this migration. It is concluded that, despite considerable loss, developing countries do…

  16. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm.

  17. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  18. Role of the draining lymph node in scrapie agent transmission from the skin.

    PubMed

    Glaysher, Bridget R; Mabbott, Neil A

    2007-03-15

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Diseases include scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Following peripheral exposure, TSE agents usually accumulate on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid tissues before neuroinvasion. Studies in mice have shown that TSE exposure through scarified skin is an effective means of transmission. Following inoculation by this route TSE agent accumulation upon FDCs is likewise essential for the subsequent transmission of disease to the brain. However, which lymphoid tissues are crucial for TSE pathogenesis following inoculation via the skin was not known. Mice were therefore created that lacked the draining inguinal lymph node (ILN), but had functional FDCs in remaining lymphoid tissues such as the spleen. These mice were inoculated with the scrapie agent by skin scarification to allow the role of draining ILN in scrapie pathogenesis to be determined. We show that following inoculation with the scrapie agent by skin scarification, disease susceptibility was dramatically reduced in mice lacking the draining ILN. These data demonstrate that following inoculation by skin scarification, scrapie agent accumulation upon FDCs in the draining lymph node is critical for the efficient transmission of disease to the brain. PMID:17292972

  19. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a ‘never event’

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Nicola K.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B.; Steyn, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  20. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  1. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  2. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  3. Coma due to malplaced external ventricular drain.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Farizal, Fadzil; Jegan, Thanabalan

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculostomy or external ventricular drain (EVD) placement by free-hand technique has a high malplacement rate. It is a blind procedure that often requires multiple attempts and revisions. To date, no neurological complication due to EVD malplacement has been reported in the literature. In this report, we present the first case of coma induced by a malplaced EVD and the patient regained consciousness after the drain was adjusted. Our discussion focused on various techniques that can improve the accuracy of EVD insertion. EVD insertion under image guidance provides better accuracy with limited disadvantages. We hypothesized that the patient's coma was due to the mass effect and irritation of the malplaced EVD exerted onto the ventral periaqueductal grey matter and the ascending neurons from upper brainstem. PMID:24101284

  4. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  5. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  9. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  11. U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the US and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. Under the US Department of Energy`s program of providing cooperative assistance to the FSU countries in the areas of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A), the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center (LNRC) near Riga, Latvia, was identified as a candidate site for a cooperative MPC and A project. The LNRC is the site of a 5-megawatt IRT-C pool-type research reactor. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contracting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades.

  12. Brominated, chlorinated and mixed brominated/chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in European eels (Anquilla anquilla) from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, Dzintars; Rjabova, Jekaterina; Fernandes, Alwyn; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-eight European eel (Anquilla anquilla) specimens collected from five Latvian lakes were investigated for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs, PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs), polychlorinated and mixed bromo-chloro biphenyls (PCBs and PXBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCDD/DFs and PCBs were found to occur in the range 0.85-15.8 pg Total-WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) f.w., and concentrations in most of the samples were below the maximum levels specified in European Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1259/2011. The summed concentrations of 27 PBDEs (∑PBDE) and 16 non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCB) were in the ranges of 0.28-26.7 and 6.37-320 ng g(-1) f.w., respectively. PBDD/DFs, PXDD/DFs and PXBs show average upper-bound concentrations of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.01 pg TEQ f.w. and collectively contributed 3.4% to the sum TEQ of dioxin-like compounds. The highest contaminant concentrations were measured in samples from lakes near the Baltic Sea and the industrialised area near Riga (Liepajas and Kisezers lakes). A correlation of POP concentration with the length of collected specimens was observed. PMID:26730547

  13. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively. PMID:26230525

  14. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  15. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  16. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  17. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  18. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  19. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  20. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  1. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  2. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  3. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  4. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  5. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  6. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  7. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  8. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum drained weights. 52.3755 Section 52.3755..., Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a) General. (1) The minimum drained weights for the various applicable styles in Table II and III are not incorporated in the grade of...

  10. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  12. 46 CFR 153.362 - Venting system drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system drain. 153.362 Section 153.362 Shipping... Systems § 153.362 Venting system drain. Unless a cargo vent system at every point is level or slopes back... system must have a drain valve at each low point (trap) in the vent line....

  13. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  14. 33 CFR 155.770 - Draining into bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draining into bilges. 155.770 Section 155.770 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.770 Draining into bilges. No person may intentionally drain oil...

  15. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  16. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  17. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  18. Teacher Drain from China's Higher Education Institutions and Some Consequences of This Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shufeng, Xu; Shihua, Cui; Zhaoping, Sun; Xianlei, Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are where the major strength of organizational control lies in the educational process; it is mainly they who restrict the quality of education and teaching and who are the irreplaceable factor in determining how well a school is run and its overall image. Therefore, once a teacher drain from higher education institutions begins, it is…

  19. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  20. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  1. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. A case of dural arteriovenous fistula draining to the diploic vein presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yako, Rie; Masuo, Osamu; Kubo, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2016-03-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) draining only to the diploic vein and causing intracerebral hemorrhage. A 62-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Brain CT scanning on admission showed a right frontal subcortical hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an arteriovenous shunt located in the region around the pterion, which connected the frontal branch of the right middle meningeal artery with the anterior temporal diploic vein and drained into cortical veins in a retrograde manner through the falcine vein. The dAVF was successfully obliterated by percutaneous transarterial embolization with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The mechanism of retrograde cortical venous reflux causing intracerebral hemorrhage is discussed. PMID:26295918

  3. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  4. Nitrate leaching to subsurface drains as affected by drain spacing and changes in crop production system.

    PubMed

    Kladivko, E J; Frankenberger, J R; Jaynes, D B; Meek, D W; Jenkinson, B J; Fausey, N R

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a beneficial water management practice in poorly drained soils but may also contribute substantial nitrate N loads to surface waters. This paper summarizes results from a 15-yr drainage study in Indiana that includes three drain spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) managed for 10 yr with chisel tillage in monoculture corn (Zea mays L.) and currently managed under a no-till corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation. In general, drainflow and nitrate N losses per unit area were greater for narrower drain spacings. Drainflow removed between 8 and 26% of annual rainfall, depending on year and drain spacing. Nitrate N concentrations in drainflow did not vary with spacing, but concentrations have significantly decreased from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Flow-weighted mean concentrations decreased from 28 mg L(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 8 mg L(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. The reduction in concentration was due to both a reduction in fertilizer N rates over the study period and to the addition of a winter cover crop as a "trap crop" after corn in the corn-soybean rotation. Annual nitrate N loads decreased from 38 kg ha(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 15 kg ha(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. Most of the nitrate N losses occurred during the fallow season, when most of the drainage occurred. Results of this study underscore the necessity of long-term research on different soil types and in different climatic zones, to develop appropriate management strategies for both economic crop production and protection of environmental quality. PMID:15356241

  5. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  6. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product. PMID:22980019

  7. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  8. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  9. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  10. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  11. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  12. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... III); and (2) There shall be no unreasonable shortage in any individual container. Table II—Acceptance... 5.75 163.0 49.0 1389.1 Table III—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Ounces) Water capacity oz...—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Grams) Water capacity Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL Chopped X d...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unreasonable shortage in any individual container. Table II—Acceptance Values for Drained Weights—Whole 211...—Acceptance Value for Drained Weights (Ounces) Water capacity oz. avdp. Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL... (Grams) Water capacity Halved, segmented, sliced X d LL Chopped X d LL 200 × 214 65.2 53.9 119.1...

  14. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  15. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  16. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  17. Determination of LDD MOSFET drain resistance from device simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudra, G. S.; Seah, B. P.; Ling, C. H.

    1996-05-01

    A simple, efficient and accurate technique for the determination of the drain resistance of LDD MOSFETs, using a two-dimensional device simulator, is presented. This method does not require the artificial introduction of constraints that would alter the normal operating conditions and geometry of the device. Comparison is made with a more elaborate technique, where the drain region is modelled as a network of resistances. For an appropriately chosen mesh size, good agreement to within 10% has been achieved for the two techniques. In terms of computational labour, the simple technique enjoys at least an order of magnitude advantage compared with the more elaborate model. The two techniques have also been used to study the dependence of the drain resistance on the gate and the drain bias, and to establish the accuracy over a broad bias range. An estimate is also made of the degradation of the drain resistance due to hot-carrier stress.

  18. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  19. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  20. Misconnections in the Critically Ill: Injection of High-Dose Gadolinium into an External Ventricular Drain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Rejai, Sepehr; Antongiorgi, Zarah; Gonzalez, Nestor; Stelzner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We report an unfortunate case of accidental administration of intrathecal gadolinium through an external ventricular drain in a postcraniotomy patient during magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The incident occurred after the venous contrast line was connected mistakenly to the ventricular drainage catheter. The patient subsequently developed confusion, aphasia, and right facial droop with new computed tomography evidence of diffuse cerebral edema and stroke. Review of the magnetic resonance image revealed the inappropriate presence of subarachnoid gadolinium. Despite all interventions, the patient developed irreversible neurologic disability. We address the clinical sequelae, management strategies, and factors contributing to the catheter misconnection that led to this event. PMID:26462163

  1. Sustainable Use Of Macro-Algae For Biogas Production In Latvian Conditions: A Preliminary Study Through An Integrated Mca And Lca Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastare, Laura; Romagnoli, Francesco; Lauka, Dace; Dzene, Ilze; Kuznecova, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    The study focuses on sustainability evaluation of an algae-based energy system in Latvia with a holistic and integrated approach of multi-criteria analysis combined with life cycle assessment (including a practical side - biogas yield experiments of locally available algae). The study shows potential for sustainable use of algae in Latvian conditions and thus that algal biomass can be utilized for the production of biogas. The most sustainable and feasible scenario of using algae for biogas energy production foresees the collection of algae biomass from natural water bodies. Important beneficial effects through the use of algae are related to avoiding global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication impacts. Biogas batch experiments carried out with the local macrophyte C.demersum have shown a methane yield of 554 l CH4/kg VS.

  2. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  3. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    PubMed

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  4. From "Brain Drain" to "Brain Bridging": Transnational Higher Education Development and Graduate Employment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the internationalisation of higher education has become an increasingly popular trend across different parts of the globe. The fierce global competition and the aggravating unemployment rate, coupled with low teaching and research quality revealed by universities in mainland China, have inevitably compelled a growing…

  5. Drain amylase aids detection of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin H.; Hill, Joshua S.; Reames, Mark K.; Symanowski, James; Hurley, Susie C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anastomotic leak following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As hospital length of stay decreases, the timely diagnosis of leak becomes more important. We evaluated CT esophagram, white blood count (WBC), and drain amylase levels in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Methods The diagnostic performance of CT esophagram, drain amylase >800 IU/L, and WBC >12,000/µL within the first 10 days after surgery in predicting leak at any time after esophagectomy was calculated. Results Anastomotic leak occurred in 13 patients (13%). CT esophagram performed within 10 days of surgery diagnosed six of these leaks with a sensitivity of 0.54. Elevation in drain amylase level within 10 days of surgery diagnosed anastomotic leak with a sensitivity of 0.38. When the CT esophagram and drain amylase were combined, the sensitivity rose to 0.69 with a specificity of 0.98. WBC elevation had a sensitivity of 0.92, with a specificity of 0.34. Among 30 patients with normal drain amylase and a normal WBC, one developed an anastomotic leak. Conclusions Drain amylase adds to the sensitivity of CT esophagram in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Selected patients with normal drain amylase levels and normal WBC may be able to safely forgo CT esophagram. PMID:27034784

  6. Chest drain care bundle: Improving documentation and safety.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joe; Graham, Selina

    2015-01-01

    Chest drain insertion is a common advanced procedure with a significant associated risk of pain, distress, and complications. Nationally, audit and recommendations from leading bodies have highlighted a number of safety concerns around chest drain insertion. Audit work has demonstrated poor levels of documentation; particularly around use of premedication, use of ultrasound guidance and consent. This has obvious potential consequences for patient safety and thus is an important target for improvement work. This project quantifies current standards of documentation and aims to improve this through a combination of accessible and easy to read guidelines, education, and the introduction of a chest drain insertion bundle. National best practice standards were identified through review of national guidance. Drain insertion was prospectively analysed over a three month period to establish baseline standards of documentation. This initial work was presented and a bundle and clinical guidelines produced. Chest drain insertion was then reaudited and assessed for improvement. Results demonstrated an improvement in many areas of documentation, pushing local results above the national average. However, only 40% of cases used the new bundle due to a mixture of staff rotation and an unexpectedly high proportion of drains inserted in non targeted areas including the emergency department, theatre, and intensive care. Despite this, the introduction of accessible guidance and bundle has significantly improved chest drain insertion documentation to the benefit of all. PMID:26734423

  7. Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, S; Ahmad, I; Younas, M; Zahid, M D; Khan, M H; Ijaz, A; Ali, K

    2000-08-01

    This paper examines the extent of pollution in Hudiara drain water due to untreated industrial and sewage waste of India and Pakistan. Ninety-nine surface water samples from the Pakistani side of the Hudiara drain were collected during September 1997, and April and June 1998. The analytical results of the Hudiara drain samples point out the industrial and sewage inputs from India and Pakistan. Higher values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand(COD), total organic carbon(TOC), and trace metals in drain samples from the Indo-Pak border clearly indicate the Indian industrial and sewage pollution. Large variations in the levels of various measured parameters (COD, BOD, TOC, pH, total soluble substances, and trace metals) were observed along the Hudiara drain in the Pakistani vicinity. These variations were due to different types of industrial effluents and small village drains. The study showed that suspended solids(SS), COD, and fecal coliform (FC) were the major pollutants. Accordingly, the most feasible alternative is to convert the drainage network to a sedimentation and temporary storage reservoir. If disinfected, the runoff water can be used for restricted irrigation. Groundwater samples taken from the drain's surrounding area have also been analyzed. Thirty percent of the samples are not fit for drinking purposes due to NO3-N, Se and FC counts as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A trilinear diagram clearly indicates the influence of surface water of the Hudiara drain on ground water; moreover, higher values of nitrate and FC clearly indicate the seepage from the Hudiara drain. PMID:11345744

  8. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  9. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... regarding the revocation of the prior definition of ``unblockable drain.'' (76 FR 62605). The Federal... gravity drain system or the underlying drain is unblockable. Accordingly, if a pool operator installed...

  11. Development of a 3D-printed external ventricular drain placement simulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Rooney, Deborah; Stephenson, Francesca; Liao, Peng-Siang; Sagher, Oren; Shih, Albert J; Savastano, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to simulate accurate external ventricular drain (EVD) placement with realistic haptic and visual feedbacks to serve as a platform for complete procedural training. Insertion of an EVD via ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor intracranial pressures and/or drain CSF. Currently, realistic training tools are scarce and mainly limited to virtual reality simulation systems. The use of 3D printing technology enables the development of realistic anatomical structures and customized design for physical simulators. In this study, the authors used the advantages of 3D printing to directly build the model geometry from stealth head CT scans and build a phantom brain mold based on 3D scans of a plastinated human brain. The resultant simulator provides realistic haptic feedback during a procedure, with visualization of catheter trajectory and fluid drainage. A multiinstitutional survey was also used to prove content validity of the simulator. With minor refinement, this simulator is expected to be a cost-effective tool for training neurosurgical residents in EVD placement. PMID:26115472

  12. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  13. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

  14. Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Valve House, Stilling Basin, and Deschutes River with toe drain visible as water fall on left bank, from top of dam embankment, view to north - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  15. MODULATING STORM DRAIN FLOWS TO REDUCE STREAM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogen and toxic chemical concentrations above the chemical and toxicity water quality standards in creeks and rivers pose risks to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Storm drains discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concen...

  16. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  17. Numerical simulation of spacecraft propellant tank draining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid have been investigated during the liquid hydrogen draining. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity ot lower reduced gravity. Flow fields with lower flow rates of liquid draining are responsible for the excitation higher wave amplitude slosh waves.

  18. Paleohydraulic reconstruction of the largest Glacial Lake Missoula draining(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Petteri; Baker, Victor R.; Smith, Larry N.

    2010-11-01

    Glacial Lake Missoula (GLM) was the source of Earth's largest known peak flood discharges onto the Channeled Scabland, northwestern United States. The original studies of GLM were based on geomorphological mapping of lake sediments and shorelines. More recently, studies have emphasized the computational fluid dynamics of downstream megaflood routing and characteristics in the Channeled Scabland and adjacent areas. However, actual details of the lake-draining processes GLM have received little scientific attention. In this paper, we employ two-dimensional hydraulic modelling to understand the paleoflow conditions for different scenarios of draining GLM at its highest stands. Values are calculated for three GLM drainage hydrographs (2.6; 13; 17 × 10 6 m 3 s -1) that previous studies had estimated for outlet flows. Consistent with regional mapping and with the original interpretation of fluvial geomorphology by other studies, the modelling shows that lake silt sequences in the gorges of GLM must postdate the most highly energetic outburst events from the lake. This is because the flows generated in the lake by megaflood outflows are sufficiently energetic to erode any accumulated silt deposits. In contrast, the gravels underlying the silts in these zones include boulder-sized clasts, large-scale cross stratification, and 70-100 m-high bars forms, all of which indicate very high-energy flood flow conditions. The modelling also shows that the paleohydraulic conditions which developed in the lake basin during the largest megaflood outflows would be capable of accounting for the observed bedrock scour at Rainbow Lake Pass, various "high eddy deposits" (eddy bars of flood gravel) in gorges, and the "giant ripple marks" (subaqueous gravel dunes) that were classically described in the 1940s. Previous studies interpreted the glacial lake silt/rhythmites and related deposits, such as the Ninemile Section, as evidence for numerous fillings and drainings of GLM. Our modelling

  19. Is Surgical Drain Useful for Lumbar Disc Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Seok; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Surgical drains are commonly used after the spine surgeries for minimizing hematoma formation, which can delay wound healing and may become a source of fibrosis, infection, and pain. The drain, however, may provide a direct route for infection if it is contaminated. Our objective was to survey the relationship between surgical drains and infection. Methods The 70 patients who had undergone single-level lumbar discectomy from April 2011 to March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient's medical chart and magnetic resonance image were thoroughly reviewed after all the patients had been divided into the drainage and the nondrainage groups. The amounts and durations of the surgical drains in the drainage group were analyzed. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein, rates of infection, scores of preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and lengths of hospital stay after operation were compared between the 2 groups. Results In this study, 70 patients were retrospectively analyzed; out of which, 42 and 28 patients were included in the drainage and the nondrainage groups, respectively. Two of the postoperative infection cases in the nondrainage group required to undergo repeated operations. The frequency of the postoperative infection cases was higher in the nondrainage group than in the drainage group; however, there was no significant statistical difference between the 2 groups (p=0.157). Conclusion Surgical drains did not elevate postoperative infection. Furthermore, drain tip cultures allowed us to detect postoperative infection at an early stage, and it led to faster initiation of antibiotics treatment. PMID:27123026

  20. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  1. Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M; Brum, D E

    2015-07-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3-week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18-month period. The smaller non-operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement. PMID:25640711

  2. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss. PMID:27332841

  3. PRACTICAL INSIGHT ON INSTALLATION AND USE OF A DUAL DRAIN / SWIRL SEPARATOR SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a properly designed dual drain tank, solids laden effluent exists through the bottom of drain of the tank and the cleaner mid-column tank water exists the side drain. Connecting the bottom drain line to a primary solids capture device , such as a swirl separator, has a number of benefits. Primar...

  4. Nonideality of drain electrode and ballistic performance of MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    The ideal drain electrode assumed in the analysis of MOSFETs accepts carriers from the channel without reflection. The realistic drain, however, backscatters some of the carriers into the channel once again, and the backscattering is intensified if elastic scattering is dominant within the drain. The backscattering strongly affects the ballistic performance of MOSFETs. The channel length dependence of the ballistic performance of MOSFETs is explored in consideration of the backscattering. It is concluded that the ballistic limit of MOSFETs is not realized in the short-channel limit of the device, but, on the contrary, in the comparatively long-channel device in which minimization of the elastic scattering is pursued. The tendency may possibly explain the observed result that the performance of a 0.1 µm MOSFET reported a quarter-century ago showed a good agreement with the ballistic MOSFET characteristics.

  5. [An ectopic ureter which drained into the perianal area].

    PubMed

    Delgado Chanis, G

    1992-05-01

    The author reviews the clinical record of a 6-year-old boy, who had urinary incontinence with wetting of his underwear in the posterior part. IVP, Cystoscopy, Cystogram, Left Retrograde Pyelogram and Surgery showed a double distal ureter on the left side. The normal ureter drained in the bladder in the orthotopic ureteral orifice. The medial dilated ectopic ureter, in the form of an H, was connected to the normal ureter and drained in the perianal area. The incontinence stopped after the resection of the ectopic ureter. PMID:1620895

  6. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Values for Drained Weights—Whole 211 × 304 Xd ounces Xd grams 300 × 407 Xd ounces Xd grams 603 × 700 Xd ounces Xd grams Small 4.5 127.5 7.75 219.7 66.0 1871.1 Medium 4.5 127.5 7.75 219.7 66.0 1871.1 Large 4.5... Table II—Acceptance Values for Drained Weights—Pitted 211 × 304 Xd ounces Xd grams 300 × 407 Xd...

  7. Analysis and suppression of drain current drift in graphene FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Mo; Lee, Dongho; Shim, Jeoyoung; Jeon, Taehan; Eom, Kunsun; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-10-01

    The cause of drain current (ID) drift in graphene field-effect transistors is analyzed and a method to suppress the drift is proposed. By analyzing ID-time characteristics, a condition of reasonable gate, drain and source biases (VG, VD, and VS) is proposed to suppress ID drift. Based on this result, we find a condition for VG during off-time (Vbase), VD, and VS in pulsed I-V measurement to obtain the intrinsic ID-VG curves, and analyze the effect of Vbase on the Dirac point shift. Through an analysis of ID-time characteristics depending on VG, ID drift according to the range of VG is explained.

  8. Spring active drain using bladder (50–60 ml) syringe (De Adotey’s drain)

    PubMed Central

    Igwe, Patrick Okechukwu; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra; Adotey, Jacob Molai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed active drainage system with a syringe is an accepted way to let out fluid in a surgical wound. We present a simple spring active (negative suction) drainage (SAD) system using locally improvised metallic spring and 60 ml (bladder syringe); SAD of Adotey, a newly designed compression–expansion spring mechanism which serves especially in situations where an active drainage system is of utmost importance. Conclusion De Adotey's drain is a 60 ml bladder syringe with spring mechanism which is used to provide a negative pressure as an active drain. PMID:26785081

  9. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  10. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  11. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  12. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  13. Drain discharge monitoring to estimate plot scale groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciacca, Antoine; Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Spatially and temporally distributed representation of groundwater recharge is known as an important issue in hydrogeological modelling. Therefore, monitored groundwater recharge data are crucial to parameterize and/or validate groundwater flow models. Generally, river base flow measurements are used for this purpose with the assumption that these catchment-scale spatially aggregated measurements are suitable to assess the internal catchment behaviour. However, the signal of different soil and vegetation types is lost and this limits our ability to validate mechanistic, process-based models used at the plot scale. A suitable alternative in lowland drained areas could lie in monitoring drain discharge. The present poster describes the set-up of such a monitoring device in a ditch drain located in the Kleine Nete catchment (Belgium). To calculate groundwater recharge rate from drain discharge monitoring, some intermediate steps are required. The contributing area has to be delimited and the contribution of recharge water from this area has to be separated from other possible sources (e.g. deeper groundwater flow, run-off). To handle this, some assumptions regarding the features of the plot and some additional measurements have been used.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAP GATES AT THE END OF DRAIN PIPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flap gates are commonly used at the end of pipe drains and pump outlets to prevent back flows of water and entry of small animals. Flap gates are relatively inexpensive, with low maintenance costs, but can trap debris in their hinge systems. Many texts refer to studies performed on flap gates at t...

  15. 38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking south from north side of the basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  16. Potential Methods for Reducing Nitrate Losses in Artificially Drained Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate in water removed from fields by subsurface drain ('tile') systems is often at concentrations exceeding the ten mg N/L maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the USEPA for drinking water and has been implicated in contributing to the hypoxia problem within the northern Gulf of Mexico. Because...

  17. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  18. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  19. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  20. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  1. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  3. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  4. JMU Refuses to Let Money Go down the Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia has embarked on a rational means to reduce energy costs and provides a sustainable approach to student housing. The investment to install a Drain Water Heat Recovery system (DWHR) at Wayland Hall is estimated to pay for itself in less than three years but will provide dividends for over 40.…

  5. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  6. Surface Water and Groundwater Nitrogen Dynamics in a Well Drained Riparian Forest within a Poorly Drained Agricultural Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrients in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well-drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a ri...

  7. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  8. Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals, western San Joaquin Valley, California: 1. Geochemical assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deverel, S.J.; Fio, John L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate the hydrologic processes affecting the chemical and isotopic composition of drain lateral water in a drained agricultural field in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The results elucidate the process of mixing of deep and shallow groundwater (below and within 6 m from land surface) entering the drain laterals. The deep groundwater was subject to evapoconcentration prior to drainage system installation and has been displaced downward (to depths greater than 6 m) in the groundwater system. The proportions of deep and shallow groundwater entering the drain laterals was calculated from the end-member oxygen 18 compositions determined in groundwater samples. The percentage of total drain lateral flow which is deep groundwater flow is about 30% for the shallow drain lateral (1.8 m below land surface) (drain lateral 1)) and 60% for the deep drain lateral (2.7 m below land surface (drain lateral 2)). During irrigation, the percentages of deep groundwater flow decrease to 0 and 30% for the shallow and deep drain laterals, respectively. Selenium concentrations in drain lateral waters decrease during irrigation but selenium loads increase. Total estimated annual loads were 1.1 and 5.4 kg of selenium for drain laterals 1 and 2, respectively. Substantial percentages of the annual load occurred during 8 days of irrigation, 23 and 9% for drain laterals 1 and 2, respectively.

  9. Viscous dampers cut vibration in heater drain line

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, B.; Rencher, D. ); Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.K.

    1993-06-01

    This article discusses the control of unacceptable vibration levels that persisted for about two years in a 400 F heater drain piping system at Comanche Peak's 1100-MW Unit 1. The system in this PWR nuclear power plant is made up of approximately 300 ft of 8-in., Schedule 40 piping that runs from the steam generator heater to two 10-ft-diameter horizontal drain tanks. During start-up and shut-down operations, flashing of the 400 F water to steam occurs at the intakes of the tanks. This flashing caused severe vibration in the 8-in. piping from the tanks to about 80 ft upstream. Peak displacements of approximately three inches were measured. Viscous dampers were installed to solve the problem.

  10. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  11. Brain Science, Brain Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Three big ideas from brain science have arisen during the past 20 to 30 years: neural connections form rapidly early in life; critical periods occur in development; and enriched environments profoundly affect brain development during the early years. Current brain research has little to offer educational practice or policy. (10 references) (MLH)

  12. Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin D; van Beinum, Wendy

    2009-12-01

    Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. PMID:19608317

  13. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  14. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  15. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  16. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  17. Inside-Out Trans-Arthroscopic Drain Application During Knee Joint Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Harder, Laurent P.; Naal, Florian D.

    2015-01-01

    Although knee joint arthroscopy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide, there is no consensus on how to apply a drain in the joint if it is decided to use one. Therefore we describe a simple technique to safely apply a drain intra-articularly under full arthroscopic control, avoiding placement of the drain through the arthroscopic portal. PMID:26870639

  18. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains,...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  20. 33 CFR 158.500 - Draining cargo area and piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draining cargo area and piping... and Terminal Operations § 158.500 Draining cargo area and piping systems. The person in charge shall... carrying NLS cargo is not drained back into the ship....

  1. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  2. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  3. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  4. Hydrology and hydraulics of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Heini; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Treatment wetlands are globally used for wastewater purification purposes. In Finland, these wetlands are commonly peatland-based and are used to treat runoff from peat extraction sites and peatland forestry. Wetlands are also used for polishing municipal wastewaters and mining waters. In peat extraction the structures are usually called overland flow areas (OFAs), which are traditionally established on pristine peatlands. However, nowadays establishing of new peat extraction sites is guided to drained peatland areas due to the Finnish Peat Use Strategy, which leads difficulties to find undisturbed peatland area for OFA. Therefore treatment wetlands have had to construct also on drained peatland areas. In drained areas peat physical properties have changed due to oxidation and subsidence and the water flow pathways differs from OFAs flow patterns, which maybe have effect on purification results. Thus in the present study we aim to clarify the hydrology and hydraulic properties of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatland areas. For this purposes, 20 treatment wetlands on drained peatland areas across Finland were detailed measured for peat hydraulic conductivity. In selected areas, runoff was continuously monitored, flow distribution at treatment areas was studied and water residence times measured with tracer tests using potassium iodide (KI). Generally, in the study areas, the ditches had been completely blocked, partly blocked e.g with peat dams or not blocked at all. The ditches were located partly parallel to the flow direction and partly perpendicular to it. The distribution of water to the wetlands has been implemented in many different ways e.g. by distribution ditch or by perforated pipes. Based on the results, in majority of the wetlands, the peat drainage has clearly affected the hydraulic properties of wetlands, but not on all sites. In more than half of the wetlands (12), the median hydraulic conductivity of peat drastically decreased at the

  5. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  6. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  7. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  8. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luís C. B.

    2010-06-01

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  9. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luis C. B.

    2010-06-15

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  10. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  11. Suppression of current collapse by hole injection from drain in a normally-off GaN-based hybrid-drain-embedded gate injection transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Morita, Tatsuo; Umeda, Hidekazu; Kaneko, Saichiro; Kuroda, Masayuki; Ikoshi, Ayanori; Yamagiwa, Hiroto; Okita, Hideyuki; Hikita, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Manabu; Uemoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ishida, Hidetoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo

    2015-10-01

    Current collapse is suppressed up to 800 V of drain voltage in our proposed device, Hybrid-Drain-embedded Gate Injection Transistor (HD-GIT), where an additional p-GaN layer is grown on the AlGaN barrier layer and is connected to the drain electrode. We present, based on a device simulation and electroluminescence study, that the hole injection from the additional drain-side p-GaN at the OFF state compensates the hole emission in the epilayer. As a result, the gate-drain access region is not negatively charged at the OFF state, resulting in the drastic suppression of current collapse in HD-GIT.

  12. Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Jae-Min; Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily. PMID:27226870

  13. Quantification of exposure to fecal contamination in open drains in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gretsch, Stephanie R; Ampofo, Joseph A; Baker, Kelly K; Clennon, Julie; Null, Clair A; Peprah, Dorothy; Reese, Heather; Robb, Katharine; Teunis, Peter; Wellington, Nii; Yakubu, Habib; Moe, Christine L

    2016-04-01

    In low-income countries, rapid urbanization adds pressure to already stressed water and sanitation systems that are critical to the health of communities. Drainage networks, designed for stormwater but commonly used for disposing of waste, are rarely covered completely, allowing residents to easily come into contact with their contents. This study used spatial mapping, documentation of physical drain characteristics, microbiological analysis of drain samples, and behavioral observation to comprehensively examine drains as a route of exposure to fecal contamination in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A stochastic model of six likely exposure scenarios was constructed to estimate children's exposure to drain water. Regardless of the age of the child, any exposure scenario considered resulted in exposure to a high level of fecal contamination. Fecal contamination levels in drains were high (Escherichia coli: geometric mean (GM), 8.60 cfu log(10)/100 mL; coliphage: GM, 5.56 pfu log(10)/100 mL), and did not differ by neighborhood or physical drain characteristics, indicating that frequency of contact with drains, and not drain type or location, drives exposure risk. To mitigate health risks associated with this exposure, drains should be covered, with priority given to large concrete and small to medium dirt-lined drains that children were most commonly observed entering. PMID:27105411

  14. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  15. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    ScienceCinema

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2009-09-01

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  16. Brain drain: Do economic conditions "push" doctors out of developing countries?

    PubMed

    Okeke, Edward N

    2013-12-01

    Health worker migration is an issue of first order concern in global health policy circles and continues to be the subject of much policy debate. In this paper, we contribute to the discussion by studying the impact of economic conditions on the migration of physicians from developing countries. To our knowledge, this is one of the first papers to do so. A major contribution of this paper is the introduction of a new panel dataset on migration to the US and the UK from 31 sub-Saharan Africa countries. The data spans the period 1975-2004. Using this data, we estimate the impact of changes in economic conditions on physician migration. In our preferred specification that allows for country-specific time trends, we find that a temporary one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by approximately. 3 percent. In our IV models a one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by between 3.4 and 3.6 percent. Overall, our results suggest a significant effect of developing country economic conditions on physician migration. PMID:24331896

  17. Brain Drain and the Disenchantment of Being a Higher Education Student in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Luísa; Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; Cabrito, Belmiro; Patrocínio, Tomás; Brites, Rui; Gomes, Rui; Lopes, João Teixeira; Vaz, Henrique; Peixoto, Paulo; Magalhães, Dulce; Silva, Sílvia; Ganga, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    The efforts made by most countries to accelerate economic development have included a significant investment in education. It has been argued that investment in education, particularly higher education, was itself a potential factor in economic development. Education has become a relatively easy means of improving access to the labour market.…

  18. APS 'Globalisation of Physics': The Brain Drain - America's Gain is Europe's Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfendale, Arnold

    2001-03-01

    With the collapse of Communism and easier migration from Central and Eastern Europe there is a danger that US recruitment of scientists will damage these countries irretrievably. The remedy is for finances to be transferred from the US (and from other wealthy countries) pro rata to the numbers of scientists so recruited. The funds should be channelled into the science bases of the countries affected. It will be argued that such a scheme is too difficult to organize. This is not a valid argument - all our science is 'difficult', but we do it.

  19. Examining the Association between Hazardous Waste Facilities and Rural "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M.; Sutton, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities are increasingly being faced with the prospect of accepting facilities characterized as "opportunity-threat," such as facilities that generate, treat, store, or otherwise dispose of hazardous wastes. Such facilities may offer economic gains through jobs and tax revenue, although they may also act as environmental "disamenities."…

  20. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2006-03-15

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  1. Carbon balance of a drained forested bog in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland were measured over multiple years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was measured with an eddy covariance method from a tower above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomasses and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by consequtive levelings of the peat surface. The data were used to estimate the ecosystem C pools and annual fluxes of carbon and GHGs of the peatland and to analyse the impact of periodical drought on the carbon fluxes. The drained peatland was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that also the soil was a sink of carbon in all studied years. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased GPP. Drought also decreased the ecosystem respiration, including soil respiration. Decreasing water table thus did not increase, but rather decreased CO2 efflux from the peat soil. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were included. N2O emissions were small from all surfaces. Despite of the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly (1.4 mm a-1) during the 10-year measurement period, which is interpreted to mean mainly compaction, rather than oxidation of the peat. It is concluded that this drained peatland acts as a continuous soil C sink similarly to an undrained peatland. The reason may be the relatively small water-level drawdown compared to an undrained situation, the consequently rather small changes in plant community structure and the significantly improved tree stand growth and litter production. The consequences of continuing production forestry vs. restoration of the site on the

  2. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  3. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. PMID:27460561

  4. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz

    2003-01-09

    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  5. Meltwater Temperature Variations in Rivers Draining Declining Alpine Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Marked patterns of seasonal and diurnal variations of discharge and temperature characterise meltwater rivers draining from large Alpine glaciers. Meltwater temperature warms with distance downstream, influenced both by energy availability and the volume of meltwater flowing. The amount of meltwater produced depends also on energy availability but also on the area of ice substrate over which melt occurs. As climate warms, meltwater production by ablation in summer will first increase with increasing energy for melting, before decreasing as the area of ice available for melt decreases, off-setting continuing increase in energy availability. Future meltwater temperature changes will depend on the inter-relationship between increasing energy availability and enhancing volume of meltwater produced. Relationships between rates of ice melt, reduction in ice area, and meltwater production will influence melt water temperature changes as climate warms. Meltwater temperature is inversely related to discharge whilst positively related to heat availability. Records of water temperature and discharge of meltwaters in rivers draining from three valley glaciers in Kanton Wallis, Switzerland have been examined. Hourly data for the Massa, Grosser Aletschgletscher, for the period 2003-2014, the Gornera, Gornergletscher , 2007-2014, and Findelenbach, Findelengletscher, 2007-2014 obtained at distances of a few kilometres from the glacier portals have been analysed, for summer months, during which more than 90% of discharge occurs. Distinctive seasonal temperature regimes have highest annual water temperatures during low flows in May., but then as discharge increased with first increasing radiation, increasing ice area as the transient snow line moved up glacier, and higher air temperatures, water temperatures decreased. On a diurnal basis, meltwater temperatures increased with rising radiation ahead of rising discharge (discharge being delayed by flow through time within the glacier

  6. Dissolved organic carbon losses from tile drained agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ruark, Matthew D; Brouder, Sylvie M; Turco, Ronald F

    2009-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage is commonly used in midwestern agriculture and drainage losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from such systems are an under-quantified portion of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of common agricultural management practices on DOC losses from subsurface tile drains and to assess patterns of loss as a function of year, time of year, and drainflow. Daily drainflow was collected across six water years (1999-2004) from a restored prairie grass system and cropping systems which include continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations fertilized with urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN) or swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent. The DOC concentrations in tile drainflow were low, typically <2 mg L(-1). Yearly DOC losses, which ranged from 1.78 to 8.61 kg ha(-1), were not affected by management practices and were small compared to organic C inputs. Spring application of lagoon effluent increased yearly flow-weighted (FW)-DOC concentrations relative to other cropping systems in three of the years and increased monthly FW-DOC concentrations when drainflow occurred within 1 mo of application. Drainflow was significantly and positively correlated with DOC loss. Drainflow also affected DOC concentrations as greater 6-yr cumulative drainflow was associated with lower 6-yr FW-DOC concentrations and greater daily drainflow was associated with higher daily DOC concentrations. Our results indicate that lagoon effluent application and fertilizer N rates do not affect long-term losses of DOC from tile drains and that drainflow is the main driver of DOC losses. PMID:19398518

  7. Draining of the SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Y.K.

    1980-05-01

    A program has been completed which demonstrates the capability of draining the present liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector. The benefits which are derived include the avoidance of potential problems associated with liquid boil-out during system failure and the avoidance of collector freeze up. Additional benefits derived from a fully drained collector are the avoidance of significant heat losses during overnight periods, safe access to the collector for maintenance at any time and ability to dissipate excess heat through dry stagnation of the collector during shut down periods. A simple modification to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector module arrangement was developed and demonstrated through the full scale testing of a two bank-six module arrangement. The necessary changes can be implemented at a minimum expenditure of time and cost. The extensive field service experience which has been accumulated with the liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector is directly applicable to the drainable configuration. The program included the investigation of an alternate approach to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ solution. The intra module parallel flow concept was demonstrated through the proof of concept phase of effort. The solution investigated incorporated a batch flow rather than a continuous flow mode of the cooling fluid. The solution required an extensive design modification of the existing SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector manifold. During the redesign effort, other desired mechanical features of the manifold were incorporated to improve the physical characteristics, to improve safety and reliability and to reduce the potential cost of future SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector arrays.

  8. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  9. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  10. Positional desaturation due to persistent left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Kousuke; Kawamura, Akio; Muraoka, Naoto; Murata, Mitsushige; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Aeba, Ryo; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare congenital anomaly whose prevalence is 0.3 % of general population. The majority of PLSVC drain into right atrium (RA) through the coronary sinus without clinical harm. However, in about 10 % of patients with PLSVC, it drains into left atrium (LA) causing right-to-left shunt. Here, we present a 60-year-old male patient with a PLSVC draining into LA, who developed dyspnea and desaturation depending on the body position after trans-catheter coil embolization of coronary to pulmonary artery fistulas. PLSVC draining into LA should be included in the differential diagnosis of positional desaturation. PMID:25656932

  11. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  12. Drain current modulation in a nanoscale field-effect-transistor channel by single dopant implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Tettamanzi, G. C.; Alves, A. D. C.; Thompson, S.; Yang, C.; Verduijn, J.; Mol, J. A.; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; Rogge, S.; Jamieson, D. N.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate single dopant implantation into the channel of a silicon nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor. This is achieved by monitoring the drain current modulation during ion irradiation. Deterministic doping is crucial for overcoming dopant number variability in present nanoscale devices and for exploiting single atom degrees of freedom. The two main ion stopping processes that induce drain current modulation are examined. We employ 500 keV He ions, in which electronic stopping is dominant, leading to discrete increases in drain current and 14 keV P dopants for which nuclear stopping is dominant leading to discrete decreases in drain current.

  13. Preferential flow estimates to an agricultural tile drain with implications for glyphosate transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, W.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural subsurface drains, commonly referred to as tile drains, are potentially significant pathways for the movement of fertilizers and pesticides to streams and ditches in much of the Midwest. Preferential flow in the unsaturated zone provides a route for water and solutes to bypass the soil matrix and reach tile drains faster than predicted by traditional displacement theory. This paper uses chloride concentrations to estimate preferential flow contributions to a tile drain during two storms in May 2004. Chloride, a conservative anion, was selected as the tracer because of differences in chloride concentrations between the two sources of water to the tile drain, preferential and matrix flow. A strong correlation between specific conductance and chloride concentration provided a mechanism to estimate chloride concentrations in the tile drain throughout the storm hydrographs. A simple mixing analysis was used to identify the preferential flow component of the storm hydrograph. During two storms, preferential flow contributed 11 and 51% of total storm tile drain flow; the peak contributions, 40 and 81%, coincided with the peak tile drain flow. Positive relations between glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] concentrations and preferential flow for the two storms suggest that preferential flow is an important transport pathway to the tile drain. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  14. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Brain abscesses commonly occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. As a result, swelling and irritation (inflammation) develop. Infected brain cells, white blood cells, live and dead bacteria, ...

  15. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  16. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  17. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  18. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  19. Surface water and groundwater nitrogen dynamics in a well drained riparian forest within a poorly drained agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer H; Griffith, Stephen M; Wigington, Parker J

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrient in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management, and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a river from N originating from a poorly drained grass seed cropping system. The study site was adjacent to the Calapooia River in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Water was found to move from the rapid drainage of swale surface water. During winter hydrological events, the riparian forest also received river water. Low nitrate (NO3-) concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg NO3- -NL(-1)) in the shallow groundwater of the cropping system were associated with low rates of mineralization and nitrification (33 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high grass seed crop uptake of N (155 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The riparian forest soil had higher rates of mineralization (117 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) that produced quantities of soil N that were within the range of literature values for plant uptake, leading to relatively low concentrations of shallow groundwater NO3 (0.6-1.8 mg NO3- -NL(-1)). The swale that dissected the cropping system and riparian area was found to have the highest rates of denitrification and to contribute dissolved organic C to the river. Given the dynamic nature of the hydrology of the Calapooia River study site, data suggest that the riparian forest plays a role not only in reducing export of NO3- from the cropping system to the river but also in processing nutrients from river water. PMID:21520758

  20. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  1. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  2. An Exact Solution to the Draining Reservoir Problem of the Incompressible and Non-Viscous Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In

    2009-01-01

    The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's…

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)

    SciTech Connect

    TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-05-11

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.

  4. The role of subgaleal suction drain placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Chourasia, Ishwar D.; Bajaj, Jitin; Namdev, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is lack of uniformity about the preferred surgical treatment, role of drain, and type of drain among various surgeons in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The present study is aimed to evaluate role of subgaleal drain. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 260 patients of CSDH treated surgically. Burr-hole irrigation with and without suction drain was done in 140 and 120 patients, respectively. Out of 120 patients without suction drain 60 each were managed by single and two burr holes. Pre- and postoperative GCS was recorded. Recurrent hematomas, CSDH secondary to tumor, due to intracranial hypotension, coagulopathy, children below 18 years, and patients treated by twist drill craniostomy or craniotomy were excluded. Subgaleal closed-system drainage with low negative pressure was used. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 75 years with mean age of 57 years. There were 9, 47, 204 patients in GCS of 3-8, 9-12, and 13-15, respectively. Both the groups were comparable in terms of age, etiology, gender, and neurological status. There was no difference in the mortality in both the group. The recurrence and postoperative pneumocephalus was significantly less in suction drain group as compared to without drain group. There was no infection or any other complication related to suction drainage. Conclusion: Subgaleal closed suction drainage was safe, simple, and effective in the management of CSDH. Recurrence rate was low in the suction drain group. PMID:27366247

  5. Treatment of phosphorus transported from tile and ditch-drained agricultural fields using sorption materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many flat, poorly drained soils, such as the Delmarva Peninsula, the upper Midwest, and certain areas of Europe such as Denmark and Netherlands, have been extensively drained through the construction of artificial drainage ditches and tiles to allow agriculture and other human activities. In additi...

  6. Contamination of raw poultry meat by airborne listeria originating from a floor drain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry processing plants can become colonized with Listeria resulting in long term residence in floor drains. Earlier work showed that an inadvertent two second water spray into a contaminated floor drain causes airborne dissemination of low numbers of Listeria cells. The objective of the current...

  7. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  13. PNPN tunnel FET with controllable drain side tunnel barrier width: Proposal and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Dawit Burusie; Jagadesh Kumar, M.

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study of a technique to realize a PNPN tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) with a controllable tunnel barrier width on the drain side is reported in this paper. By using the charge plasma concept on a doped N+/P- starting structure, we have demonstrated the possibility of realizing the PNPN TFET without the need for any additional chemically doped junctions. We have showed that using electrostatic doping on the drain side of TFETs provides a new design parameter, the gate-drain electrode gap. This gate-drain electrode gap can be used to control the ambipolar current in TFETs by controlling the tunneling barrier width at the channel-drain junction.

  14. Tunable photoresponse with small drain voltage in few-layer graphene-WSe2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Qin, Shiqiao; Long, Mingsheng; Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Zhou, Wei; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Renyan; Zhang, Xue-Ao

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional layered heterostructures show great potential to develop optoelectronic systems. Here, we have investigated the photoresponse properties of two contact interfaces in few-layer graphene-WSe2 heterostructures. The photoresponsivity of graphene-WSe2 contact interface is about 2.67 mA/W, and the photoresponsivity of WSe2-metal contact interface is about 0.2 mA/W. Photocurrent images show that the two contact interfaces behave differently under drain voltage from - 0.5 V to 0.5 V. The photoresponsivity of one contact interface increases with the drain voltage, and that of the other decreases with the drain voltage. Experimental results and band diagram studies prove that the photoresponse properties of contact interfaces are tuned by small drain voltage. This study will be beneficial for understanding the effect of drain voltage on the heterostructures.

  15. Heterogeneous solute transport in a tile-drained field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, A.; Comegna, A.; Coppola, A.; Hassan, S.; Haikal, M. A.; Kassab, M.; Lamaddalena, N.

    2009-04-01

    Preferential flow and its diverse attributes: i) macropore flow; ii) fingered flow; iii) funnel flow, cannot be described by a single process hypothesis and are unpredictable from a priori analysis of field characteristics due to the inability of sampling methods to capture minute features triggering such flows. Most solute transport techniques are expensive and require extensive soil disturbance. Moreover, solute transport in heterogeneous porous media cannot always be conceptualized as being either a convective-dispersive or a stochastic-convective process. One approach to predict subsurface leaching could be the coupling of near surface measurements with a generalized transport model. A steady state field tracer experiment was conducted on a tile-drained "Terra Rossa" plot located in Valenzano (Bari - Italy), to test whether TDR BTCs measured 1 m a part along a transect of 40 m can be used in such a way for accurate prediction of tile's BTC. A Generalized Transfer Function (GTF) (Zhang, 2000) was fitted to the observed concentration a three depths for each site along the transect to identify the transfer function parameters. To account for vertical transport in the unsaturated zone and lateral divergence near the tile, these parameters were used in a 2D model (Utermann, 1990) to predict earlier breakthrough of tile flux concentration. The 2D model predictions of the flux concentrations were similar to the observed values, nearly reproducing the channel-like nature of solute flow.

  16. Determining the Coefficient of Discharge for a Draining Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Ashley; Slaton, William

    2014-01-01

    The flow of fluids through open containers is a topic studied frequently in introductory physics classes. A fluid mechanics class delves deeper into the topic of fluid flow through open containers with holes or barriers. The flow of a fluid jet out of a sharp-edged orifice rarely has the same area as the orifice due to a fluid flow phenomenon known as the vena contracta. The area of a fluid jet out of an orifice is related to the actual area of the orifice by a value known as the coefficient of discharge, Cd. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for a draining open container and an experimental method that will efficiently determine the coefficient of discharge for such a system. Prior work in physics education literature has developed a method for measuring the flow of a fluid out of an orifice using ultrasonic motion detectors. In this paper we present data that show our method can be used to find the coefficient of discharge within the expected literature values for sharp-edged and rounded orifices.

  17. Observations of magnetite dissolution in poorly drained soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Arruda, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolution of strongly magnetic minerals is a common and relatively rapid phenomenon in poorly drained soils of the central United States, resulting in low magnetic susceptibility (MS). Low Eh reducing conditions are primarily responsible for magnetic mineral dissolution; a process likely mediated by iron-reducing bacteria in the presence of soil organic matter. Based on transects across drainage sequences from nine sites, natural magnetic minerals (>5 ??m) extracted from surface soil consist of 54% ?? 18% magnetite, 21% ?? 11% titanomagnetite, and 17% ?? 14% ilmenite. Magnetite and titanomagnetite dissolution, assessed by scanning electron microscopy on a 0-to-3 scale, inversely correlates with surface soil MS (r = 0.53), a proxy for soil drainage at studied transects. Altered magnetite typically displays etch pits 5 ??m) include 26% ?? 18% anthropogenic fly ash that also exhibits greater dissolution in low MS soils (r = 0.38), indicating detectable alteration can occur within 150 years in low Eh soils. Laboratory induced reduction of magnetite, titanomagnetite, and magnetic fly ash, with a citrate-bicarbonate- dithionite solution, resulted in dissolution textures similar to those of in situ soil particles. Although experiments indicate that reductive dissolution of magnetite can occur abiotically under extreme conditions, bacteria likely play an important role in the natural environment. ?? 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  18. Carbon export by rivers draining the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Material exports by rivers, particularly carbon exports, provide insight to basin geology, weathering, and ecological processes within the basin. Accurate accounting of those exports is valuable to understanding present, past, and projected basin-wide changes in those processes. We calculated lateral export of inorganic and organic carbon (IC and OC) from rivers draining the conterminous United States using stream gaging and water quality data from more than 100 rivers. Approximately 90% of land area and 80% of water export were included, which enabled a continental-scale estimate using minor extrapolation. Total carbon export was 41–49 Tg C yr−1. IC was >75% of export and exceeded OC export in every region except the southeastern Atlantic seaboard. The 10 largest rivers, by discharge, accounted for 66% of water export and carried 74 and 62% of IC and OC export, respectively. Watershed carbon yield for the conterminous United States was 4.2 and 1.3 g C m−2 yr−1 for IC and OC, respectively. The dominance of IC export was unexpected but is consistent with geologic models suggesting high weathering rates in the continental United States due to the prevalence of easily weathered sedimentary rock.

  19. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  20. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique. PMID:25945537

  1. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on arctic tundra lowlands, but their present-day dynamic states are seldom investigated. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area analyzed exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs analyzed exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on arctic coastal lowlands.

  2. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF{sub 6} and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF{sub 4} in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry.

  3. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  4. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions. PMID:26661597

  5. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants. PMID:20136194

  6. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

  7. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  8. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  9. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches. PMID:21786744

  10. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events. PMID:24793842

  11. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  12. Suction Drain Tip Culture after Spine Surgery: Can It Predict a Surgical Site Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Sung; Park, Eugene; Park, Il-Young; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective clinical study. Purpose To assess the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture in patients undergoing primary posterior spine surgery. Overview of Literature To date, the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture for predicting surgical site infection (SSI) has not been firmly established in orthopedic or spinal surgery. Methods In total, 133 patients who underwent primary posterior spine surgery from January 2013 to April 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patients diagnosed with infective disease or condition was excluded. The suction drain tip was cut off approximately 5 cm from its far end. The sample was sent to the microbiological laboratory of the hospital for culture analysis. Any signs of infection, such as wound discharge or dehiscence, fever, chills, or chronic pain, were recorded. The culture outcome, identification of bacteria, and postoperative transition of the serum C-reactive protein level were also recorded in all patients. The wounds were followed up for a minimum of 3 months. Results A positive drain tip culture was found in 48 patients (36.1%), of whom, 6 developed SSI. The sensitivity of drain tip culture for SSI after primary posterior spine surgery was 60.0%, and the specificity was 65.9%. The association between the incidence of positive suction tip culture and SSI was not statistically significant. Among the 48 positive drain tip cultures, there was no significant association between the occurrence of SSI and virulence of isolated bacteria. There was no significant association between drain tip culture positivity and the duration of drainage, or between the rate of SSI and duration of drainage. Conclusions Suction drain tip culture analysis is a poor predictor of SSI after primary posterior spine surgery. Routine use of a drain tip culture is not supported by the results of this study. PMID:26713117

  13. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  14. Reduction method of gate-to-drain capacitance by oxide spacer formation in tunnel field-effect transistor with elevated drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Park, Taehyung; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Sihyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    A novel fabrication method is proposed to reduce large gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) and to improve AC switching characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistor (TFETs) with elevated drain (TFETED). In the proposed method, gate oxide at drain region (GDOX) is selectively formed through oxide deposition and spacer-etch process. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the GDOX are simply controlled by the amount of the oxide deposition and etch. Mixed-mode device and circuit technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations are performed to verify the effects of the GDOX thickness on DC and AC switching characteristics of a TFETED inverter. As a result, it is found that AC switching characteristics such as output voltage pre-shoot and falling/rising delay are improved with nearly unchanged DC characteristics by thicker GDOX. This improvement is explained successfully by reduced C GD and positive shifted gate voltage (V G) versus C GD curves with the thicker GDOX.

  15. Scedosporium apiospermum causing brain abscess in a renal allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Singh, Divya

    2015-11-01

    Scedosporium apiospermum is the asexual form of a rare fungus Pseudallescheria boydii that is usually present in the soil, sewage and dirty water. In immunocompromised patients, it is a rare infection involving multiple organs. We present a case of renal allograft recipient who developed fever two weeks post renal transplant. He was initially found to have dengue fever. After five days, he became drowsy and developed right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple irregular masses with associated edema consistent with fungal brain abscesses. Left parietal abscess was drained and he was started on voriconazole. His cyclosporine was stopped. Drained pus revealed fungal hyphae on potassium hydroxide stain and Scedosporium apiospermum on culture. Unfortunately, the patient died after five days. Scedosporium infections should be kept as a possibility in transplant recipients with disseminated infections, especially with a brain abscess. Despite antifungal therapy and surgical drainage, mortality rates are high. PMID:26586067

  16. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Images Amebic brain ...

  17. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  18. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Before surgery, the hair on part of the scalp is shaved and the area is cleaned. The doctor makes ...

  19. Brain Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise, diet and nutrition, cognitive activity, and social engagement — can help keep your body and brain ... Stay Mentally Active > Mentally challenging activities and social engagement may support brain health. Learn More Plan ahead ...

  20. Infectious complications following 72 consecutive enteric-drained pancreas transplants.

    PubMed

    Berger, N; Wirmsberger, R; Kafka, R; Margreiter, C; Ebenbichler, C; Stelzmueller, I; Margreiter, R; Steurer, W; Mark, W; Bonatti, H

    2006-07-01

    New immunosuppressive protocols and advanced surgical technique resulted in an improved outcome of pancreatic transplantation (PTx) with infection remaining the most common complication. Seventy-two enteric-drained whole PTxs performed at the Innsbruck University Hospital between September 2002 and October 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Prophylactic immunosuppression consisted of either the standard protocol consisting of single bolus antithymocyteglobulin (ATG) (Thymoglobulin, Sangstat or ATG Fresenius) induction (9 mg/kg), tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenylate mofetil (MMF) and steroids (38 patients) or a 4-day course of ATG (4 mg/kg) tacrolimus and steroids with MMF (n = 19), or Sirolimus (n = 15). Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of Piperacillin/Tazobactam (4.5 g q 8 h) in combination with ciprofloxacin (200 mg q 12 h) and fluconazole (400 mg daily). Ganciclovir was used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis if donor was positive and recipient-negative. Patient, pancreas, and kidney graft survival at 1 year were 97.2%, 88.8%, and 93%, respectively, with no difference between the groups. All retransplants (n = 8) and single transplants (n = 8) as well as all type II diabetics and nine of 11 patients older 55 years received standard immunosuppression (IS). The rejection rate was 14% and infection rate 46% with no difference in terms of incidence or type according to the three groups. Severe infectious complications included intra-abdominal infection (n = 12), wound infection (n = 7), sepsis (n = 13), respiratory tract infection (n = 4), urinary tract infection (n = 12), herpes simplex/human herpes virus 6 infection (n = 5), CMV infection/disease (n = 7), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, n = 3), invasive filamentous fungal infection (n = 4), Clostridial/Rotavirus colitis (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). All four patients in this series died of infectious complications (invasive aspergillosis n = 2) (one with Candida glabrata

  1. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  2. Rational method for design of wick drain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Richard E.

    Laboratory and field testing was used to determine the magnitude and distribution of pore pressure induced by wick installation to evaluate its potential effect on consolidation of compressible soil by radial drainage. A single wick was installed in a prototype clay model to simulate a 4sp'(1.2m)c-c square grid spacing of drains. An array of piezometers was used to determine the configuration and duration of pore pressures induced by wick installation. The maximum induced pore pressure, which reflected total stress at the monitoring level, was offset radially from the mandrel used in wick installation. Induced pore pressures dropped sharply beyond the radial location of peak pressure. No load was applied to the clay for the 6 day pore pressure dissipation period after mandrel withdrawal, and no drainage occurred from the model during that time. Field tests were performed at a Buffalo New York site from which clay was supplied for the laboratory model. Pore pressure profiles were not developed as wick to piezometer offsets were not accurately established at the monitoring depth. No settlement occurred during the estimated 8 days it took for induced pore pressures to dissipate prior to surface loading. It took 3 to 4 weeks longer than theory indicated for 90% of primary consolidation to occur under subsequent embankment loading. Field test performed at a project site in Madison County, Illinois, permitted the development of a profile of pore pressures induced during wick installation. The maximum pore pressure, which occurred radially beyond the mandrel used, approximated total stress at the monitoring depth. Induced pore pressures dissipated in about 50 days with no measured settlement before embankment loading. It took about 5 months longer than theory indicated for 90% of primary consolidation to occur under subsequent embankment loading. An empirical relationship based on pore pressures induced in the during wick installation is proposed as a means of estimating

  3. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  4. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  5. Investigation of the novel attributes in double recessed gate SiC MESFETs at drain side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Razavi, S. M.; Ebrahim Hosseini, Seyed; Amini Moghadam, Hamid

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the potential impact of drain side-double recessed gate (DS-DRG) on silicon carbide (SiC)-based metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) is studied. We investigate the device performance focusing on breakdown voltage, threshold voltage, drain current and dc output conductance with two-dimensional and two-carrier device simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that the channel thickness under the gate in the drain side is an important factor in the breakdown voltage. Also, the positive shift in the threshold voltage for the DS-DRG structure is larger in comparison with that for the source side-double recessed gate (SS-DRG) SiC MESFET. The saturated drain current for the DS-DRG structure is larger compared to that for the SS-DRG structure. The maximum dc output conductance in the DS-DRG structure is smaller than that in the SS-DRG structure.

  6. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC'' or ``we'') is revoking its interpretation of the term ``unblockable drain'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (``VGB Act'').\\1\\...

  7. A rare case of left superior vena cava draining into left atrium demonstrated by MDCT.

    PubMed

    Ardilouze, Paul; Bricot, Vincent; Maurel, Christophe; Christiaens, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava draining directly into the left atrium with no associated anomaly of the coronary sinus or the atrial septum, discovered by multidetector computed tomography. PMID:17692952

  8. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  9. Highway filter drain waste arisings: a challenge for urban source control management?

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Rowlands, E G

    2007-01-01

    Essential maintenance activities on highway BMP drainage controls involve refurbishment of filter (French) drains which can generate substantial amounts of "controlled waste". An innovative procedure for their re-instatement is described which offers a more sustainable option for filter drain/trench management. The quality classification of these waste arisings is problematical and it is difficult to reliably identify the risks posed by such materials and the most effective forms of management and disposal options. PMID:18048985

  10. Hazard Assessment Report for Residual Uranium Concentrations in Storm Drains, Rapaport Building, Windsor, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Vitkus; Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program , ORISE

    2000-04-19

    A hazard assessment was conducted in the parking area of the Rapaport Building in Windsor Connecticut. The site had been a processing plant for nuclear fuels for the Navy's nuclear fuel program. The subject of the study was a storm drain that showed signs of increased radiation from enriched uranium products that had been produced or used in the adjacent building. The conclusion of the assessment is that there is no public hazard from radiation from the drain.

  11. Explicit drain current model of junctionless double-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an explicit drain current model for the junctionless double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Analytical relationships for the channel charge densities and for the drain current are derived as explicit functions of applied terminal voltages and structural parameters. The model is validated with 2D numerical simulations for a large range of channel thicknesses and is found to be very accurate for doping densities exceeding 1018 cm-3, which are actually used for such devices.

  12. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet is a basic introduction to the human brain. It may help you understand how the healthy ... largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum ( 2 ) and ...

  13. High Resolution Modeling of Tile-Drained Controls on Ecohydrologic Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Woo, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tile drains are widely used in the Midwestern United States to improve the productivity of poorly drained agricultural fields. Since tile drain reduces vadose zone soil moisture by lowering the water table, and its outlets feed directly into streams and ditches, tile flow can affect various hydrologic, biotic and biogeochemical processes in the watershed. However, the effects of tile flow on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics at scales dominated by microtopographic variability, such as depression and roadside ditches, remain poorly understood. Here we present an explicit model of tile flow and incorporate into the integrated ecohydrologic-flow model, MLCan-GCSFlow, to investigate the impacts of tile drain on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics in intensively managed agricultural fields at lidar-resolution scales. Explicit coupling between subsurface and tile flow is obtained by modifications of variably saturated Richards equation to capture the impacts of tile drain on soil moisture. The coupling between subsurface and overland flow is obtained by prescribing a boundary condition switching approach at the top surface of the computational domain. Model results for study sites in Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) show the significance of tile drain flow on the vertical and spatial soil moisture distribution and coupled surface - sub-surface flow dynamics.

  14. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  15. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  16. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  17. Safety of peritoneal and pleural drain placement in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients with severe veno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Arin L; Stetson, Alyssa; Weldon, Christopher B; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic VOD (veno-occlusive disease) is a serious complication of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and has historically been associated with high mortality. This obstruction to hepatic flow often results in fluid collections in the peritoneal and pleural cavities. Catheter placement to drain ascites or pleural fluid may reduce intra-abdominal hypertension and/or improve respiratory parameters. The safety of these interventions among critically ill, immunocompromised children is unknown. Among 32 HSCT recipients (2000-2012) with severe VOD, we assessed the primary outcome of procedural complication from peritoneal drain placement. Twenty-four (75%) patients underwent peritoneal drain placement. No patient sustained visceral perforation or hemorrhage with drain placement. Overall mortality was 47% (n = 15). The procedure was not associated with increased overall mortality (p > 0.99). Eight (25%) peritoneal drains required replacement for malfunction. Of 24 patients with peritoneal drains, one (4%) patient had a positive culture from ascitic fluid. Eight (25%) patients underwent pleural drain placement. No pleural drain-related procedural complication or infection occurred. Four (50%) of the eight patients with pleural drains had de-escalation in oxygen requirement at drain removal, compared to time of placement. In this study, peritoneal and pleural drains were safe interventions for children with severe VOD. PMID:27373552

  18. Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals, western San Joaquin Valley, California: 2. Quantitative hydrologic assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fio, John L.; Deverel, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater flow modeling was used to quantitatively assess the hydrologic processes affecting ground water and solute movement to drain laterals. Modeling results were used to calculate the depth distribution of groundwater flowing into drain laterals at 1.8 m (drain lateral 1) and 2.7 m (drain lateral 2) below land surface. The simulations indicated that under nonirrigated conditions about 89% of the flow in drain lateral 2 was from groundwater originating from depths greater than 6 m below land surface. The deep groundwater has higher selenium concentrations than shallow groundwater. Simulation of irrigated conditions indicates that as recharge (deep percolation) increases, the proportional contribution of deep groundwater to drain lateral flow decreases. Groundwater flow paths and travel times estimated from the simulation results indicate that groundwater containing high concentrations of selenium (greater than 780 μg L−1) probably will continue to enter drain lateral 2 for decades.

  19. Effectiveness of Postoperative Wound Drains in One- and Two-Level Cervical Spine Fusions

    PubMed Central

    Poorman, Caroline E.; Bianco, Kristina M.; Boniello, Anthony; Yang, Sun; Gerling, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical drains have historically been used to avoid postoperative wound and respiratory complications such as excessive edema, hematoma, infection, re-intubation, delayed extubation, or respiratory distress. Recently, some surgeons have ceased using drains because they may prolong hospital stay, operative time, or patient discomfort. The objective of this retrospective case-control series is to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative drains following one- and two-level cervical fusions. Methods A chart review was conducted at a single institution from 2010-2013. Outcome measures included operative time, hospital stay, estimated blood loss and incidence of wound complications (infection, hematoma, edema, and complications with wound healing or evacuation), respiratory complications (delayed extubation, re-intubation, and respiratory treatment), and overall complications (wound complications, respiratory complications, dysphagia, and other complications). Statistical analyses including independent samples t-test, chi-square, analysis of covariance, and linear regression were used to compare patients who received a postoperative drain to those who did not. Results The study population included 39 patients who received a postoperative drain and 42 patients who did not. There were no differences in demographics between the two groups. Patients with drains showed increased operative time (100.1 vs 69.3 min, p < 0.001), hospital stay (38.9 vs. 31.7 hrs, p = 0.021), and blood loss (62.7 vs 29.1 mL, p < 0.001) compared to patients without drains. The frequency of wound complications, respiratory complications, and overall complications did not vary significantly between groups. Conclusions/Level of Evidence Cervical drains may not be necessary for patients undergoing one- and two-level cervical fusion. While there were no differences in incidence of complications between groups, patients treated with drains had significantly longer operative time and

  20. Posterior foss avenous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, T.R.; Truwit, C.L. ); Dowd, C.F. ); Symonds, D.L. )

    1994-04-01

    To describe 11 cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem. Eleven cases of posterior fossa venous angioma with drainage through the brain stem were evaluated using MR. Correlation with known routes of venous drainage for the cerebellum and brain stem is made. Six of the 11 venous angiomas were found in the cerebellum, four in the brain stem; one involved both the cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebellar venous angiomas drained to subependymal veins about the fourth ventricle and dorsal pons. These then connected with an enlarged transmesencephalic or transpontine vein, to drain anteriorly to the anterior pontine veins. The brain stem angiomas had variable drainage depending on location. Evidence of hemorrhage was seen in five cases. Cerebellar and brain stem venous angiomas have several potential routes of drainage, including an enlarged vein traversing the pons, midbrain, or medulla. A knowledge of the normal venous anatomy of this region helps to understand the occurrence of these uncommon routes of venous drainage. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Soil carbon balance on drained and afforested transitional bog in forest research station Vesetnieki in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupiķis, Ainārs; Lazdiņš, Andis

    2015-04-01

    Around 0.8 mill. ha forests in Latvia are located on organic soils and 0.5 mill. ha of these forests are drained. Drainage of organic soils alters carbon stock and may has impact on the climate change. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of drainage on a soil carbon stock in transitional bog (average growing stock before drainage 50 m3*ha-1) located in central part of Latvia in research station "Vesetnieki". Drainage was done in 1960. Average peat thickness is around 4.5 m; dominant tree species are pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies Karst.) with average growing stock 226 m3*ha-1 and 213 m3*ha-1. Volumetric peat samples were taken from soil surface down to 80 cm depth in 30 sample plots in drained sites and non-drained areas (transitional bog), which have been left as a control. Bulk density, carbon content in peat was determined to evaluate carbon stock changes in soil. Ground surface levelling in drained sites was done before drainage and repeatedly in 1966, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1982 and 2014 to calculate peat subsidence. The rate of peat subsidence after drainage increased rapidly, and 14 years after drainage 15.8 cm decrease of the surface level was found. The rate of the peat subsidence decreased later, and the ground level reduced by 9.9 cm in the following 40 years, reaching 25.7±3.5 cm from initial ground surface level in the 2014. The rapid decrease of the surface level after drainage can be explained by physical alters and by decomposition of the peat surface layers, however, it is not possible to assess now, which of these processes dominated. However, the significant (α=0.05) increase of the peat bulk density and carbon content in upper layers (0-80 cm) in drained sites compared to non-drained leads to conclusion that the compaction was the dominating process. Average carbon stock (0-80 cm deep soil layer) in non-drained areas is 339±29 tons*ha-1 and 513±27 tons*ha-1 in drained sites. We compared carbon stock in upper 80 cm

  2. Role of drains in laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis at a busy county hospital.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Andrea M; Skinner, Ruby; Jones, Amber; Chung, Ray; Martin, Maureen

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has become the treatment of choice for acute appendicitis with equal or better outcomes than traditional open appendectomy (OA). LA in patients with a gangrenous or perforated appendicitis carries increased rate of pelvic abscess formation when compared with OA. We hypothesized routine placement of pelvic drains in gangrenous or perforated appendicitis decreases pelvic abscess formation after LA. Three hundred thirty-one patients undergoing LA between January 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. Patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis were included. Group I had a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain(s) placed and Group II had no JP drain. Data included patient demographics, emergency department laboratory values and vital signs, and computed axial tomography scan findings, intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess postoperatively, interventional radiology drainage, and length of stay. Clinic follow-up notes were reviewed. One hundred forty-eight patients were identified. Forty-three patients had placement of JP drains (Group I) and 105 patients had no JP drain (Group II). Three patients (three of 43 [6%]) in Group I developed pelvic abscess and 21 of 105 (20%) patients in Group II developed pelvic abscesses requiring subsequent drainage. This was statistically significant. Patient demographics, temperature, and mean white blood count before surgery were similar. Presurgery computed tomography (CT) with appendicolith and CT with abscess were more prevalent in Group I. The use of JP drainage in patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis during LA has decreased rates of pelvic abscess. This was demonstrated despite the drain group having appendicolith or abscess on preoperative CT. PMID:25264664

  3. No-drain DIEP Flap Donor-site Closure Using Barbed Progressive Tension Sutures

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Lee, Michael; Teotia, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of progressive tension sutures has been shown to be comparable to the use of abdominal drains in abdominoplasty. However, the use of barbed progressive tension sutures (B-PTSs) in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap donor-site closure has not been investigated. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with DIEP flap reconstruction in a 3-year period at 2 institutions by 2 surgeons. Patients were compared by method of DIEP donor-site closure. Group 1 had barbed running progressive tension sutures without drain placement. Group 2 had interrupted progressive tension closure with abdominal drain placement (PTS-AD). Group 3 had closure with only abdominal drain placement (AD). Data collected included demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients underwent DIEP reconstruction (25 B-PTS, 25 PTS-AD, and 25 AD). Patient characteristics—age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking status, and chemotherapy—were not significantly different between groups. Rate of seroma was 1.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 4%, AD = 0%), wound dehiscence 16% (B-PTS = 8%, PTS-AD = 16%, AD = 24%), and umbilical necrosis 5.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 0%, AD = 16%). No hematomas were observed in any patients. No statistically significant difference was found between complication rates across groups. Conclusions: Use of B-PTSs for abdominal closure after DIEP flap harvest can obviate the need for abdominal drains. Complication rates following this technique are not significantly different from closure using progressive tension suture and abdominal drain placement. This practice can prevent the use of abdominal drains, which can promote patient mobility, increase independence upon discharge, and contribute to patient satisfaction. PMID:27200234

  4. Source-drain burnout mechanism of GaAs power MESFETS: Three terminal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamiya, Saburo; Sonoda, Takuji; Yamanouchi, Masahide; Fujioka, Takashi; Kohno, Masaki

    1997-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for thermal and electrical feedback effects are derived. These limit the power capability of a power FET and lead a device to catastrophic breakdown (source-drain burnout) when the loop gain of the former reaches unity. Field emission of thermally excited electrons at the Schottky gate plays the key role in thermal feedback, while holes being impact ionized by the drain current play a similar role in the electrical feedback. Thermal feedback is dominant in a high temperature and low drain voltage area. Electrical feedback is dominant in a high drain voltage and low temperature area. In the first area, a high junction temperature is the main factor causing the thermal runaway of the device. In the second area, the electrcal feedback increases the drain current and the temperature and gives a trigger to the thermal feedback so that it reaches unity more easily. Both effects become significant in proportion to transconductance and gate bias resistance, and cause simultaneous runaway of the gate and drain currents. The expressions of the loop gains clearly indicate the safe operating conditions for a power FET. C-band 4 W (1 chip) and 16 W (4 chip) GaAs MESFETs were used as the experimental samples. With these devices the simultaneous runaway of the gate and the drain currents, apparent dependence of the three teminal breakdown voltage on the gate bias resistance in the region dominated by electrical feedback, the rapid increase of the field emitted current at the critical temperature and clear coincidence between the measured and calculated three terminal gate currents both in the thermal feedback dominant region, etc. are demonstrated. The theory explains the experimental results well.

  5. Impacts of drain blocking on the aquatic carbon export from a UK peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry; Carfrae, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Drainage ditches, which have historically been used across UK peatlands, provide a rapid pathway for carbon export between terrestrial and aquatic systems, potentially reducing or reversing the net uptake of carbon by peatlands. Currently, considerable investment is being made in Scotland to restore drained peatlands with the aim of raising water tables, restoring active vegetation cover, enhancing carbon uptake and reducing carbon losses via the aquatic pathway. However, monitoring of restoration and its impact is often restricted by a lack of pre-restoration data and typically does not cover the full range of fluvial carbon species. Drain blocking was carried out in March 2015 at the Auchencorth Moss peatland, SE Scotland, which has an extensive record of fluvial carbon measurements (from 2007 to present day). This study combines an intensive 12 month field monitoring campaign, during and after drain blocking works, with the long-term record to investigate the impacts of drain blocking on the dissolved and gaseous carbon export via the aquatic pathway. Post-restoration, concentrations and fluxes of all stream water dissolved and gaseous carbon species were in the range of values measured over the period 2007 to present; with no significant change in the 12 months post-restoration. The results from this study indicate that the drain blocking works did not have a significant impact on the concentration or speciation of carbon exported via the aquatic pathway which can be attributed to the largely overgrown nature of the drains and the large inter- and intra-annual variability in the system. This study raises questions on the suitability of some peatlands for drain blocking and the pre- and post-restoration monitoring required to accurately assess the impacts of peatland restoration activities.

  6. Overland flow and sediment transport in an agricultural lowland catchments: a focus on tile drain export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Manière, Louis; Salvador Blanes, Sébastien; Foucher, Anthony; Chapalain, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Rural landscapes have been extensively modified by human activities in Western Europe since the beginning of the 20th century in order to intensify agricultural production. Cultivated areas often expanded at the expense of grassland and wetlands located in lowland areas (de Groot et al., 2002). Therefore, large modifications were made to the agricultural landscapes: stream redesign, land consolidation, removal of hedges, and installation of tile drainage networks to drain the hydromorphic soils. These changes modified sediment processes and resulted in large morphological alterations (e.g. channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, channel bank erosion). Accordingly, these alterations threaten water quality and prevent to meet the requirements of the European directives. Improving water quality requires a clear understanding of the hydrosedimentary dynamics in these lowland cultivated catchments. However, few studies were conducted in drained environments. To fill this research gap, a pilot study was started in cultivated catchment of the Loire River basin, France, where tile drain densities are very high (> 1.5 km/km²). Six hydro-sedimentary monitoring stations were installed in the Louroux catchment (24 km²). One of them was specifically dedicated to measuring water/sediment fluxes from tile drains. Water level and turbidity were continuously monitored and sediments were sampled during floods and low stage periods. Samples were measured for particle size distribution, and sediment tracing studies are currently being developed to quantify the contribution of potential sources (e.g. surface vs subsurface, lithologies) to river sediment. Hydro-sedimentary fluxes were quantified and modelled for some selected events. The catchment hydrosedimentary fluxes and their properties were shown to be impacted by tile drain sediment transport, especially regarding particle size distribution, with the dominant export of very fine particles (< 2 μm) from tile drains

  7. The contribution of drained organic soils to the globally emitted greenhouse gases and emission hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: organic soils, peatlands, drainage, emissions, globally Peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface. Some 15% of these peatlands have been drained for agriculture, forestry and grazing, which leads to the release of huge amounts of carbon. The '2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands' (IPCC 2014) offers up-to-date default emission factors for different land use types on organic soil and thus enables proper reporting. For this, realistic area data of drained organic soils are needed at a national scale. We analysed the drained organic soil areas and related emissions as reported to the UNFCCC in 2014 for several Nordic-Baltic countries . The analysis revealed that the areas often seem to be underestimated and that several countries use outdated emission factors. The re-assessment of the drained area and the application of the IPCC (2014) default emission factors resulted in 5-10 x higher emissions from drained organic soils for some countries. Out of 9 Nordic-Baltic countries only 1 country seems to have overestimated the drainage related organic soil emissions. If adopting the default emission factors from IPCC (2014) globally, the emissions from drained and degrading organic soils (~ 1,600 Mt CO2-eq.) amount to almost double the amount of CO2 emissions from aviation, even when emissions from peat fires are not included . By far the top single emitter of drained peatland related greenhouse gases is Indonesia, followed by the European Union and Russia. 25 countries are together responsible for 95% of global emissions from peatland drainage, excluding fires. Fires raise the importance of particularly Indonesia and Russian Federation. In 25 countries emissions from peatland degradation are over 50% of the emissions from fossil fuels and cement production combined, hence peatland emissions are of national significance.

  8. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  9. On the extraction of the external drain and source resistors and effective channel length in Si-MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of drain/source resistance and effective channel length (Leff) of the silicon MOSFET in the linear drain current region. Leff is expressed as a function of drain/source resistance, drain current, threshold voltage, drain voltage, and body-effect coefficient. Using this definition, an additional component of drain/source resistance in the linear drain current region, inversion charge reduction resistance (RΔQ), is introduced which results from the influence of drain/source resistors, internal source/body voltage and drain voltage on the total inversion charge. Finally, a new method for extraction of the drain/source resistance is developed. In this method several parameters that have impact on device behavior are considered. The parameters include gate voltage dependency, short channel effects, and poly gate length dependency. The results presented here are not only very useful for accurate device modeling and characterization, but are also vital to better understanding of the device physics. Furthermore, they can describe shortcomings of the other methods which use devices of different gate lengths. The extracted linear model provides less than 1.07% and 3.3% average absolute error and maximum error, respectively, for all seven devices under test over the gate voltage range of 0.75-2 V.

  10. Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

    2002-10-01

    There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium. PMID:12674375

  11. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-01-01

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  12. DRAINING HAZARDOUS FLUIDS DURING BUILDING 221-1F DEACTIVATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, J.

    2010-05-11

    Several years ago, SRS completed a four year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS deactivated multiple facilities (e.g. Building 247-F, Naval Fuels Facility, and Building 211-F, Outside Facilities for F-Canyon) that contained extensive piping systems filled with hazardous material (e.g. nitric acid). Draining of hazardous materials from piping was successfully completed in all facilities without incident. In early 2009, the decommissioning program at SRS was restarted as a result of funding made available by the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Under ARRA, draining of piping containing hazardous material was initiated in multiple facilities including Building 221-1F (or A-Line). This paper describes and reviews the draining of piping containing hazardous materials at A-Line, with emphasis on an incident involving the draining of nitric acid. The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar draining challenges.

  13. Microbial Characterization of Biofilms in Domestic Drains and the Establishment of Stable Biofilm Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Bartolo, Robert G.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Charbonneau, Duane; Ledder, Ruth G.; Rickard, Alexander H.; Symmons, Sharon A.; Gilbert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We have used heterotrophic plate counts, together with live-dead direct staining and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to characterize the eubacterial communities that had formed as biofilms within domestic sink drain outlets. Laboratory microcosms of these environments were established using excised biofilms from two separate drain biofilm samples to inoculate constant-depth film fermentors (CDFFs). Drain biofilms harbored 9.8 to 11.3 log10 cells of viable enteric species and pseudomonads/g, while CDFF-grown biofilms harbored 10.6 to 11.4 log10 cells/g. Since live-dead direct staining revealed various efficiencies of recovery by culture, samples were analyzed by DGGE, utilizing primers specific for the V2-V3 region of eubacterial 16S rDNA. These analyses showed that the major PCR amplicons from in situ material were represented in the microcosms and maintained there over extended periods. Sequencing of amplicons resolved by DGGE revealed that the biofilms were dominated by a small number of genera, which were also isolated by culture. One drain sample harbored the protozoan Colpoda maupasi, together with rhabtidid nematodes and bdelloid rotifers. The microcosm enables the maintenance of stable drain-type bacterial communities and represents a useful tool for the modeling of this ecosystem. PMID:12513993

  14. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  15. Drain Current Characteristics of Ferroelectric Gate-All-Around Si Nanowire Transistors Based on Drift/Diffusion Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Masakazu; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    The drain current vs gate voltage (ID-VG) and drain current vs drain voltage (ID-VD) characteristics of ferroelectric gate-all-around Si nanowire transistors are derived using the drift/diffusion transport theory. It is pointed out that the nonsaturated polarization in the ferroelectric film, which occurs near the drain region in the channel owing to the influence of the applied drain voltage, plays an important role in the calculation of the drain current as well as the polarization near the source region, and a graphical method using analytical expressions for the minor polarization hysteresis loops is presented to calculate the mobile charge density in the nanowire. By numerical analysis, the gate voltage range suitable for memory operation is determined in Si nanowire transistors with ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate films.

  16. EFFECTS OF DRAIN ENVELOPE AND SLOPE ON PERFORMANCE OF A DRAINAGE-SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Marjorie S.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effect of fabric wrap envelope and drain slope on the performance of a combination drainage and subirrigation system. Data were analyzed by examining relationships between flow rate and midpoint water table elevations. An entry resistance was defined and its value for each pair of 9,100 data points for drain flow rate versus water table elevation midway between the drains. Analyses were conducted to determine if the entry resistance changed with time after the drainage system was installed. Results of the study showed that the effect of slope and envelope on drainage and subirrigation varied somewhat depending on field location. However, an analysis of the data led to conclusions that the paper discusses.

  17. Characterization of septic and drain system releases at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.R.; Galloway, R.B. |

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project is tasked with performing the assessment and remediation of environmental releases resulting from the almost 50 years of engineering development and testing activities. Operable Unit 1295, Septic Tanks and Drainfields, includes inactive septic and drain systems at 23 separate ER sites that were listed as Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) in the SNL/NM Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) Module Permit. These sites were identified, based on process histories and interviews with facility personnel, as the subset of all SNL/NM septic and drain systems that had the highest potential for releases of hazardous and radioactive wastes into the environment. An additional 101 septic and drain systems not currently classified as SWMUs also have been identified as needing future characterization.

  18. Enhancement of sub-terahertz detection by drain-to-source biasing on strained silicon MODFET devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziani, Y. M.; Morozov, S.; Delgado Notario, J. A.; Maremyanin, K.; Velázquez, J. E.; Fobelets, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report on non resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation (148-353 GHz) using strained silicon modulation field effect transistor with different gate lengths. The devices were excited at room temperature by a Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) source. Enhancement of the photoresponse signal by drain-to-source bias was observed. Increasing drain-to-source voltage leads to asymmetry between the boundary conditions at the source and drain contacts.

  19. Outcome in primary cemented total knee arthroplasty with or without drain: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kęska, Rafał; Paradowski, T Przemysław; Witoński, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suction drain insertion is a common practice in orthopedic surgery, especially after joint arthroplasty to prevent the formation of a hematoma. Theoretically the use of a drain should diminish the volume of hematoma; however the literature has conflicting data. Some authors state that drainage evacuates fluid from a limited area only and can be a cause of infection due to retrograde migration of bacteria. It can also impair the early postoperative rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome (especially postoperative pain) and intake of analgesics in patients who had undergone primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with or without a postoperative drain. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study of 108 consecutive patients (121 knees) was conducted. They were divided into two groups: A study group, with no drainage and a control group with drain inserted at the end of surgery. A total of 121 patients were recruited into two groups. A study group consisted of 59 knees, in which we did not use drainage after TKA and a control group with 62 knees, in which drain was inserted post surgery. Both groups were comparable in terms of preoperative characteristics. The indication for TKA was osteoarthritis (n = 105) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 16). Results: In patients without drainage we observed lower need for opioids, higher blood loss on the 1st postoperative day and a lower need for change of dressings. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of total blood loss, hidden blood loss, transfusion rate, range of motion, length of hospital stay or incidence of complications between the two groups. In 1 year observation there were no differences in clinical outcome between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study conclude that there is no rationale for the use of drain after primary TKA. There are benefits in terms of lower opioid intake, lower blood loss on the first postoperative day

  20. Using MODFLOW drains to simulate groundwater flow in a karst environment

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Tomasko, D.; Glennon, M.A.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1998-07-01

    Modeling groundwater flow in a karst environment is both numerically challenging and highly uncertain because of potentially complex flowpaths and a lack of site-specific information. This study presents the results of MODFLOW numerical modeling in which drain cells in a finite-difference model are used as analogs for preferential flowpaths or conduits in karst environments. In this study, conduits in mixed-flow systems are simulated by assigning connected pathways of drain cells from the locations of tracer releases, sinkholes, or other karst features to outlet springs along inferred flowpaths. These paths are determined by the locations of losing stream segments, ephemeral stream beds, geophysical surveys, fracture lineaments, or other surficial characteristics, combined with the results of dye traces. The elevations of the drains at the discharge ends of the inferred flowpaths are estimated from field data and are adjusted when necessary during model calibration. To simulate flow in a free-flowing conduit, a high conductance is assigned to each drain to eliminate the need for drain-specific information that would be very difficult to obtain. Calculations were performed for a site near Hohenfels, Germany. The potentiometric surface produced by the simulations agreed well with field data. The head contours in the vicinity of the karst features behaved in a manner consistent with a flow system having both diffuse and conduit components, and the sum of the volumetric flow out of the drain cells agreed closely with spring discharges and stream flows. Because of the success of this approach, it is recommended for regional studies in which little site-specific information (e.g., location, number, size, and conductivity of fractures and conduits) is available, and general flow characteristics are desired.

  1. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  2. In-Situ Measurement of Vertical Bypass Flow Using a Drain Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, W. L.; Brooks, E. S.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.

    2012-12-01

    With widespread technological advances in precision fertilizer application in agricultural production there is an increasing need to better understand the subsurface transport and vertical leaching of nitrate fertilizers. Optimizing fertilizer application reduces cost to the grower and improves downstream water supplies. In-situ measurement of nitrate flux is difficult and expensive. In this experiment nitrate transport was measured using a passive capillary drain gauge developed by Decagon Devices in Pullman, WA. The drain gauge measures water flux from a 30 cm diameter soil core 60 cm in length. In this study the drain gauge was installed 0.9 m to 1.5 m below the soil surface in a no-till field in cereal grain production. A potassium bromide tracer was applied using a rainfall simulator over a 5 day period to the drain gage roughly one year following installation of the drain gauge and approximately 3 months after being seeded to spring wheat. Bromide tracer movement was compared to measurements of stable oxygen/hydrogen isotopes, and nitrate in the leachate and from soil water extracted within the soil profile using suction lysimeters. Significant preferential flow occurred during the experiment. Vertical leaching initiated at the 1.5 m depth at a time when the wetting front had just reached the 0.3 cm depth. By the time the wetting front had reached a 1.5 m depth, 18 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer had leached beyond the root zone. Once the wetting front reached 1.5 m bromide and stable isotope data indicated that 60% of the total flow occurred through macropore flow. Stable isotope measurements responded similarly to the electrical conductivity and nitrate measurements suggesting their potential use as a groundwater tracer. The nitrate leaching observed in the drain gauge would not have been accounted for if soil moisture measurements alone were used to indicate potential nitrate transport.

  3. Surgical drain after open or laparoscopic splenectomy: is it needed or contraindicated?

    PubMed Central

    VECCHIO, R.; INTAGLIATA, E.; MARCHESE, S.; BATTAGLIA, S.; CACCIOLA, R.R.; CACCIOLA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Authors report their experience with the routine use of surgical drainage in a large series of splenectomies. Summary of background data Benefits and risks related to surgical drains have been always discussed, with some surgeons in favor of them and skeptic others considering not physiological their use. After splenectomy, their use is also largely debated, especially because of susceptibility of operated patients to infections. Patients and methods Two thousand nine cases have been reviewed. Indications for splenectomy, performed either by open or laparoscopic approach, included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 137 patients (65,4%), splenic lymphoma in 36 (17,2%), hereditary spherocytosis in 15 (7,4%), β-thalassemia in 8 (3,7%), other diseases in 13 (6,1%). Results “Active” or “passive” drains were placed in 80% and 20% of cases, respectively. Drains were removed 2–3 days after surgery in 90,2%, within 10 days in 4,3%, within 2 months in 0,4% of cases. In 2 cases a post-operative bleeding, detected through the drainage, required re-operation. One patient developed a subphrenic abscess, successfully treated by a percutaneous drainage. One case of pancreatic fistula was observed. Conclusions In Authors’ experience, the use of drains after splenectomy does not affect the risk of subsequent infectious complications, independently on the type of the drainage system used. Early removal of drains in this series might have played an important role in the very low incidence of abdominal infections reported. The use of surgical drains after splenectomy might play an important role to early detect post-operative bleeding, as it happened in 2 cases of this series. PMID:26188753

  4. Dielectric modulated overlapping gate-on-drain tunnel-FET as a label-free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Dawit Burusie; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, based on the concept of dielectric-modulation, we have proposed a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) biosensor with a nanogap created by overlapping the gate on the drain side. Sensing in the proposed device is due to a change in the ambipolar current of the transistor when biomolecules with different dielectric constant are immobilized in the nanogap. The maximum ratio of the drain current with absence and presence of biomolecules, which indicates the sensitivity, is as high as 1010. In comparison to other field effect transistor (FET) based biosensors, using TFET as a biosensor not only gives higher sensitivity but also the advantage of low leakage.

  5. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  6. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  7. A new drain current model for amorphous IGZO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Lei; Yao, Ruo-He

    2015-04-01

    Based on the conduction mechanisms of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors, generalized equations are derived which permit the determination of drain current characteristics. A geometry-independent definition for field effect mobility considering the ratio of free-to-trapped carriers is introduced, which conveys the properties of the active semiconducting layer. It is suggested that a drain current model that includes different charge transports gives a consistent and accurate description of the electrical behavior. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin-film circuits.

  8. Control of Listeria spp. by Competitive-Exclusion Bacteria in Floor Drains of a Poultry Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tong; Podtburg, Teresa C.; Zhao, Ping; Schmidt, Bruce E.; Baker, David A.; Cords, Bruce; Doyle, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    In previous studies workers determined that two lactic acid bacterium isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans 152 (competitive-exclusion bacteria [CE]), which were originally obtained from biofilms in floor drains, are bactericidal to Listeria monocytogenes or inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes both in vitro and in biofilms at 4 to 37°C. We evaluated the efficacy of these isolates for reducing Listeria spp. contamination of floor drains of a plant in which fresh poultry is processed. Baseline assays revealed that the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains sampled on six different dates (at approximately biweekly intervals) were 7.5 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 8, 4.9 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 3, 4.4 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 2, 4.1 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 4, 3.7 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 1, and 3.6 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 6. The drains were then treated with 107 CE/ml in an enzyme-foam-based cleaning agent four times in 1 week and twice a week for the following 3 weeks. In samples collected 1 week after CE treatments were applied Listeria sp. cells were not detectable (samples were negative as determined by selective enrichment culture) for drains 4 and 6 (reductions of 4.1 and 3.6 log10 CFU/100 cm2, respectively), and the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells were 3.7 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 8 (a reduction of 3.8 log10 CFU/100 cm2), <1.7 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 1 (detectable only by selective enrichment culture; a reduction of 3.3 log10 CFU/100 cm2), and 2.6 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for drain 3 (a reduction of 2.3 log10 CFU/100 cm2). However, the aerobic plate counts for samples collected from floor drains before, during, and after CE treatment remained approximately the same. The results indicate that application of the two CE can greatly reduce the number of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains at 3 to 26°C in a facility in which fresh poultry is processed. PMID:16672472

  9. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  10. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  11. Afferent and efferent immunological pathways of the brain. Anatomy, function and failure.

    PubMed

    Carare, R O; Hawkes, C A; Weller, R O

    2014-02-01

    Immunological privilege appears to be a product of unique lymphatic drainage systems for the brain and receptor-mediated entry of inflammatory cells through the blood-brain barrier. Most organs of the body have well-defined lymphatic vessels that carry extracellular fluid, antigen presenting cells, lymphocytes, neoplastic cells and even bacteria to regional lymph nodes. The brain has no such conventional lymphatics, but has perivascular pathways that drain interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space to cervical lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain along narrow, ∼100 nm-thick basement membranes within the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries to cervical lymph nodes; this pathway does not allow traffic of lymphocytes or antigen presenting cells from brain to lymph nodes. Although CSF drains into blood through arachnoid villi, CSF also drains from the subarachnoid space through channels in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone into nasal lymphatics and thence to cervical lymph nodes. This pathway does allow the traffic of lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from CSF to cervical lymph nodes. Efferent pathways by which lymphocytes enter the brain are regulated by selected integrins on lymphocytes and selective receptors on vascular endothelial cells. Here we review: (1) the structure and function of afferent lymphatic drainage of ISF and CSF, (2) mechanisms involved in the efferent pathways by which lymphocytes enter the brain and (3) the failure of lymphatic drainage of the brain parenchyma with age and the role of such failure in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24145049

  12. EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

    2012-03-08

    Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly

  13. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  14. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  15. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  16. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  17. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  18. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 406. Stippler M. Trauma of ...

  19. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2016-08-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  20. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  1. CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

  2. Occurrence and movement of antibiotic resistant bacxteria, in tile-drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might accelerate the transport of pathogen indicators such as e...

  3. Tylosin-resistant Enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in drained fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might introduce elevated levels of total and tylosin-resistant ...

  4. Phosphorous and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Drained Calcareous Wetland Soils of Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A freshwater marsh, created about one hundred years ago by artificially draining a 105-ha shallow lake (Rice Lake), is a suspected source of phosphorus (P) to the Detroit Lake watershed, a major recreational destination for northwestern Minnesota. P loadings to the main drainage canal increase durin...

  5. Scalability of Gate/N- Overlapped Lightly Doped Drain in Deep-Submicrometer Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Mitsui, Katsuyoshi; Inuishi, Masahide; Arima, Hideaki; Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    1998-12-01

    In this paper an experimental study of the scalability of a gate/N- overlapped lightly doped drain (OL-LDD) structure in the deep-submicrometer regime is presented. Devices were optimized for processes with a design rule down to 0.15 µm. The allowable power supply voltage is obtained by investigating the time-dependent dielectric breakdown reliability, the minimum operating voltage, the gate-induced-drain-leakage current, the drain-induced-barrier-lowering effect and the DC hot carrier reliability. It was found that the maximum allowable supply voltage is mainly limited by the DC hot carrier reliability even in the deep-submicrometer range. A higher current-driving ability in the OL-LDD structure is achieved in comparison to that in a single drain (SD) structure when VDmax is applied as a supply voltage. The OL-LDD structure has a smaller CGD in the inversion region as well as in the accumulated region, as compared with the SD structure, especially with smaller LG. Consequently, the performance of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices with the OL-LDD structure is superior to that with the SD structure in the deep-submicrometer regime. It is also confirmed that the OL-LDD structure has a scaling merit even for 0.15 µm CMOS devices.

  6. 33 CFR 158.500 - Draining cargo area and piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Draining cargo area and piping systems. 158.500 Section 158.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE...

  7. Compositional and functional stability of aerobic methane consuming communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sascha; Niklaus, Pascal A; Badwan Morcillo, Sara; Meima Franke, Marion; Lüke, Claudia; Reim, Andreas; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-11-01

    The restoration of peatlands is an important strategy to counteract subsidence and loss of biodiversity. However, responses of important microbial soil processes are poorly understood. We assessed functioning, diversity and spatial organization of methanotrophic communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows with different water table management and agricultural practice. Results show that the methanotrophic diversity was similar between drained and rewetted sites with a remarkable dominance of the genus Methylocystis. Enzyme kinetics depicted no major differences, indicating flexibility in the methane (CH4) concentrations that can be used by the methanotrophic community. Short-term flooding led to temporary elevated CH4 emission but to neither major changes in abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) nor major changes in CH4 consumption kinetics in drained agriculturally used peat meadows. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic imaging of intact soil cores revealed a markedly different spatial arrangement of the CH4 consuming zone in cores exposed to near-atmospheric and elevated CH4. The observed spatial patterns of CH4 consumption in drained peat meadows with and without short-term flooding highlighted the spatial complexity and responsiveness of the CH4 consuming zone upon environmental change. The methanotrophic microbial community is not generally altered and harbors MOB that can cover a large range of CH4 concentrations offered due to water-table fluctuations, effectively mitigating CH4 emissions. PMID:26449384

  8. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  9. The effect of random dopant fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in junctionless nanotransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezapour, Arash; Rezapour, Pegah

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effect of dopant random fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in a two-gate nanoscale transistor. We used a quantum-corrected technology computer aided design simulation to run the simulation (10000 randomizations). With this simulation, we could study the effects of varying the dimensions (length and width), and thicknesses of oxide and dopant factors of a transistor on the threshold voltage and drain current in subthreshold region (off) and overthreshold (on). It was found that in the subthreshold region the variability of the drain current and threshold voltage is relatively fixed while in the overthreshold region the variability of the threshold voltage and drain current decreases remarkably, despite the slight reduction of gate voltage diffusion (compared with that of the subthreshold). These results have been interpreted by using previously reported models for threshold current variability, load displacement, and simple analytical calculations. Scaling analysis shows that the variability of the characteristics of this semiconductor increases as the effects of the short channel increases. Therefore, with a slight increase of length and a reduction of width, oxide thickness, and dopant factor, we could correct the effect of the short channel.

  10. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...

  11. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  12. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  13. An analysis of molten-corium-induced failure of drain pipes in BWR Mark 2 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P. ); Podowski, M.Z. )

    1991-01-01

    This study has focused on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark 2 containment. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, and core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled and analyzed. The results of analysis have been used to assess the possibility of drain pipe failure and the resultant loss of pressure-suppression capability. Estimates have been made for the timing and amount of molten corium released to the wetwell. The study has revealed that significantly different melt progression sequences can result depending upon the failure characteristics of the frozen metallic crust which forms over the drain cover during the initial stages of debris pour. Another important result is that it can take several days for the molten fuel to ablate the frozen metallic debris layer -- if the frozen layer has cooled below 1100 K before fuel attack. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58.416 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...

  15. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  16. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  19. Escherichia coli Transport from Surface-Applied Manure to Subsurface Drains through Artificial Biopores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transport of pathogenic bacteria in soils primarily occurs through soil mesopores and macropores (e.g., biopores and cracks). Field research has demonstrated that biopores and subsurface drains can be hydraulically connected. This research was conducted to investigate the importance of surface conne...

  20. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... drain system shall be inspected initially, and semi- annually thereafter, for improper work practices... tightly fitting cap or plug shall be visually inspected initially, and semi-annually thereafter, to...

  1. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... drain system shall be inspected initially, and semi- annually thereafter, for improper work practices... tightly fitting cap or plug shall be visually inspected initially, and semi-annually thereafter, to...

  2. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... drain system shall be inspected initially, and semi- annually thereafter, for improper work practices... tightly fitting cap or plug shall be visually inspected initially, and semi-annually thereafter, to...

  3. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems. 63.136 Section 63.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  4. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater... drain system shall be inspected initially, and semi- annually thereafter, for improper work practices... tightly fitting cap or plug shall be visually inspected initially, and semi-annually thereafter, to...

  5. Protecting Baltimore`s waters from toxic substances in urban storm drains

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, W.; Belt, K.; Murphy, D.

    1995-12-31

    The City of Baltimore received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) municipal storm water permit in January 1994. A major effort under the permit was to develop a program to identify and eliminate illicit entries into the municipal storm water system. Approximately one third of the storm drain outfalls have been targeted under this program. The outfalls correspond to sections of the storm drain system inspected for the development of a storm drain infra-structure data base. During the infra-structure inspections, samples were collected and flow measurements were taken at storm water outfalls. Any suspended illicit discharges were sent to the laboratory where they were analyzed for a suite of toxicants and other pollutants include: surfactants, phenols, ammonia, copper, lead, zinc, residual chlorine and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The laboratory data provided the basis for ranking the subwatersheds from least to most polluted. These rankings were then used to design a dry weather sampling program so that the most polluted watersheds are sampled more frequently (e.g., monthly) than the least polluted (annually). Repeated high pollution levels initiate an investigation at sequential sampling points upstream until the pipe segment receiving the discharge is identified. A geographical information system is used to assist in identifying potential sources of contamination (e.g., industries) in the suspected drain segment.

  6. Fontal Sinus Mucocele Manifests as Persistent Draining Abscess of Upper Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, John D; Behrens, Alice; Salter, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Paranasal sinus mucocele and pyomucocele have a wide spectrum of symptomology and chronicity of clinical manifestations. We present a case of a 52-y/o previously healthy homeless male that presented with a 2-week history of a non-tender, persistently draining upper eyelid abscess, and 1-year history of nonspecific change of general appearance to his left eye. PMID:26552282

  7. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates, and comparing...

  8. A Physical Model for Shallow Groundwater Studies and the Simulation of Land Drain Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Robert; Reid, Ian

    1987-01-01

    Describes a two-dimensional sand-tank model that illustrates the influence of ground slope on tile drain discharge and the movement of groundwater in general. The model can be used to demonstrate the effect of topography on sub-surface water movement in agricultural catchments, thus it is a useful hydrological teaching aid. (Author/BSR)

  9. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  10. Verifiable metamodels for nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the corn belt, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metamodels (MMs) consisting of artificial neural networks were developed to simplify and upscale mechanistic fate and transport models for prediction of nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the Corn Belt, USA. The two final MMs predicted nitrate concentration and flux, respectively, in the sh...

  11. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  12. Genome sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, isolated from drain sediment from a pesticide factory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic environment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research. PMID:23209212

  13. 33 CFR 158.500 - Draining cargo area and piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Draining cargo area and piping systems. 158.500 Section 158.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE...

  14. 33 CFR 158.500 - Draining cargo area and piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Draining cargo area and piping systems. 158.500 Section 158.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE...

  15. Drainage water management for reducing nitrate losses from tile drained fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nitrate in surface waters increases the costs of water treatment for domestic use and each summer drives the formation of a hypoxic or low oxygen zone in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Much of the nitrate in surface waters comes from artificially drained row crop land in the Midwest. There a...

  16. A Channel Stop Defined, Barrier And Drain Antiblooming Structure For Virtual Phase Ccd Image Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, W. F.; Hosack, H. H.

    1987-04-01

    A new barrier and drain antiblooming architecture has been developed for virtual phase CCD image sensors. In this structure the drain is isolated from the pixel wells by the channel stop implant except in the antiblooming control region, where it is the same as the normal pixel barrier which exists along the direction of charge transfer. In addition, in this structure the drain is placed beneath the virtual electrode to eliminate low voltage breakdown effects. The unique organization of this structure allows the same potential levels to be used in both the antiblooming barrier and the transfer barrier. This multiple use of the same potential region greatly simplifies the processing needed for this type of device. The structure is formed by the process steps normally used to fabricate the sensor without antiblooming, except for one additional ion implant and pattern level to form the antiblooming drain. The antibooming action is continuous during integration and readout, and has extremely high overload tolerance. These features make this structure the preferred form of antiblooming for applications which have very high overload, such as flash lamp illumination. The process economy inherent in this anti-blooming structure results in higher sensor yields and lower manufacturing costs.

  17. The prostatic urethra as a Venturi effect urine-jet pump to drain prostatic fluid.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Several experiments show that prostatic fluid is continuously produced and it is drained from the prostate during urination and ejaculation. The mechanism which causes prostatic fluid to drain from the prostatic acini during urination is currently unclear. Also in current opinion such structures of the prostatic urethra as the urethral crest and the colliculus seminalis have no apparent functional significance. This article describes a mechanism for the draining of the prostatic acini that involves these prostatic urethral structures. It is hypothesized that the prostatic urethra works as a pump using the Venturi effect, in which urine is the carrying or motive liquid during voiding, in order to drain prostatic fluid (the carried liquid) from the acini. The urethral crest and the colliculus seminalis take part in controlling flow rates and liquid pressures for this pump to be effective. The calculated estimation of a pressure drop in the region of the colliculus seminalis during micturition was obtained using morphometric and uroflowmetric data and was used to confirm this hypothesis of prostatic acini drainage. As a consequence of this, a previously unknown function for these intra-prostatic urethral structures is described. PMID:24767941

  18. West Virginia State College, Drain-Jordan Library, Circulation Department Manual of Circulation Desk Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Monica A.

    This manual is designed to prepare and aid the staff for expected duties working at the circulation desk at Drain-Jordan Library at West Virginia State College. The manual is divided into sections to help with a quick review of procedures and policies. Topics discussed include an overview of the circulation department; patron registration;…

  19. CD73-generated Adenosine Restricts Lymphocyte Migration into Draining Lymph Nodes1

    PubMed Central

    Takedachi, Masahide; Qu, Dongfeng; Ebisuno, Yukihiko; Oohara, Hiroyuki; Joachims, Michelle L.; McGee, Stephanie T.; Maeda, Emiko; McEver, Rodger P.; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Murakami, Shinya; Krahn, Thomas; Blackburn, Michael R.; Thompson, Linda F.

    2009-01-01

    After an inflammatory stimulus, lymphocyte migration into draining lymph nodes increases dramatically to facilitate the encounter of naïve T cells with antigen-loaded dendritic cells. Here we show that CD73 (ecto-5′-nucleotidase) plays an important role in regulating this process. CD73 produces adenosine from AMP and is expressed on high endothelial venules (HEV) and subsets of lymphocytes. Cd73-/- mice have normal sized lymphoid organs in the steady state, but approximately 1.5-fold larger draining lymph nodes and 2.5-fold increased rates of L-selectin-dependent lymphocyte migration from the blood through HEV compared to wild type mice 24 hours after LPS administration. Migration rates of cd73+/+ and cd73-/- lymphocytes into lymph nodes of wild type mice are equal, suggesting that it is CD73 on HEV that regulates lymphocyte migration into draining lymph nodes. The A2B receptor is a likely target of CD73-generated adenosine, as it is the only adenosine receptor expressed on the HEV-like cell line KOP2.16 and it is up regulated by TNFα. Furthermore, increased lymphocyte migration into draining lymph nodes of cd73-/- mice is largely normalized by pretreatment with the selective A2B receptor agonist BAY 60-6583. Adenosine receptor signaling to restrict lymphocyte migration across HEV may be an important mechanism to control the magnitude of an inflammatory response. PMID:18424752

  20. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  1. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  2. Effects of a legal drain clean-out on wetlands and waterbirds: a recent case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Repairs to legal drains in the United States may be regulated to protect adjacent wetlands under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). However, few studies have examined effects of legal drain clean-outs on adjacent wetlands and associated migratory waterbird populations. I compare water regimes, cover-to-open water ratios, and waterbird use on Bruns, Big, Meszaros, and Kraft sloughs (BBMK) in Sargent County, North Dakota before and after the clean-out of Crete-Cogswell Drain No. 11, and relate wetland habitat loss to observed disease-related mortality among staging waterfowl in fall 1990 and spring 1991. Water regimes of BBMK were exceptionally stable, with few records of drawdowns before 1984 when the clean-out began. After the clean-out (1987-90), BBM were dry by mid-summer in all years and open area declined by 96% by 1990, whereas Kraft Slough (a control area) had water throughout all years and percent open area did not change. Numerous species of waterbirds nested in BBMK before the clean-out, and mean ranks of waterbird density were similar. After the clean-out, waterbirds failed to breed successfully in all years at BBM, and use as major waterfowl staging areas and for waterfowl hunting also ended. At Kraft Slough, use by breeding and staging waterbirds continued in all years, as did waterfowl hunting. Reduced access to fresh water after the Drain No. 11 clean-out may have contributed to a dieoff of 487 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) from necrotic enteritis in Kraft Slough in November 1990. Loss of three major staging areas in Sargent County as a result of the drain clean-out has further concentrated migrant waterfowl, particularly during drought periods, increasing the magnitude of risk when epizootics occur in southeastern North Dakota. Ducks and geese banded in Sargent County have been recovered from 34 and 14 states, 7 and 6 provinces of Canada, and 13 and 1 other countries

  3. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  4. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  5. Infiltration measurements and modeling in a soil-vertical drain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Siltecho, Siwaporn; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Lassabatere, Laurent; Robain, Henri; Winiarski, Thierry; Trelo-ges, Vidaya; Suvannang, Nopmanee

    2016-04-01

    Severe water logging problems occur in rubber tree plantations in NE Thailand during the rainy season and create adverse conditions for the development of the trees. Moreover this situation contributes to a waste of scarce rainfall and reduce it's efficiency, as 50% is lost by hypodermic water flow and superficial runoff. The presence of a clayey layer at 1m depth with low permeability, hindering the water infiltration that led to the occurrence of a perched water table. In order to drawdown the water level of the perched water table and to increase the efficiency of the rainfall by storing water in the underlying bedrock a vertical drainage system was developed. In order to test the feasibility of this solution we chose to use the numerical modelling of water flow in soil and to test different set-ups (size and spacing between the drains). The objective of this study was to characterise the hydraulic properties and of the soil-drain system in a rubber tree plantation. Therefore an experiment was set up in rubber tree plantation at Ban Non Tun, Khon Kaen Province (Northeast of Thailand). Infiltration experiments around the vertical drains with single ring of 1m diameter, were conducted in three different locations to measure infiltration rate. The infiltration experiments were also monitored with two complementary geophysical methods (ERT and GPR) to asses the progression ans at the geometry of the wetting front. The model Hydrus2D was used to adjust the computed infiltration curves and water level in the drain to the experimental data, by fitting effective unsaturated hydrodynamic parameters for the drain. These parameters were used to calibrate the model and to perform further predictive numerical simulations.

  6. Using stable isotope tracers to assess flow pathways for P transport in tile-drained landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; King, K.; Ford, W. I., III; Buda, A. R.; Kennedy, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Midwestern US and other poorly drained agricultural regions, phosphorus (P) transport in tile drainage is of increasing environmental concern. Significant P loads are often measured in subsurface drainage water despite the normally high P adsorption capacity of subsoils, which suggest that the high P loadings observed in tile drainage water during storm events are the result of P bypassing the soil matrix via macropore flow. The objectives of this study were to quantify event water delivery to tile drains via macropore flow paths during storm events and to determine the effect of tillage practices on event water and P delivery to tiles. Tile discharge, total dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) concentrations, and stable oxygen and deuterium isotopic signatures were measured from two adjacent tile-drained fields in Ohio, USA during seven spring storms. Fertilizer was surface-applied to both fields and disk tillage was used to incorporate the fertilizer on one field while the other remained in no-till. Results showed that event water accounted for between 26 and 69% of total tile discharge from both fields, with tillage substantially reducing the maximum contributions of event water. Following fertilizer application, median DP concentration was significantly greater in the no-tilled fields (1.19 mg/L) compared to the tilled field (0.66 mg/L). Concentrations remained significantly greater in the no-tilled field compared to the tilled field for the five monitored storms (>1 month) after fertilizer application. Both DP and TP concentrations in the no-tilled fields were significantly related to event water contributions to tile discharge, while only TP concentration was significantly related to event water in the tilled field. Collectively, results suggest that macropore flow is an important flow pathway in tile-drained landscapes and that incorporating surface-applied fertilizers has the potential to substantially reduce the risk of P loss from tile-drained

  7. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield. PMID:26718389

  8. Reach-scale geomorphic differences between headwater streams draining mountaintop mined and unmined catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.

    2015-05-01

    Mountaintop surface mining (MTM) is a controversial coal extraction method commonly practiced in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, that drastically reengineers previously steep, forested landscapes and alters sediment and water delivery processes to and along headwater channels draining mined areas. Although sediment delivery and hydrologic response from MTM operations remain highly variable and poorly resolved, the inherent close coupling between hillslopes and headwater channels is expected to result in geomorphic differences in stream channels draining MTM landscapes relative to unmined landscapes. Dedicated geomorphic studies are severely lacking in comparison to extensive research on water quality impacts of MTM. This study reports moderate geomorphic differences between headwater (catchment area <~ 6 km2) stream channels draining MTM and unmined catchments in tributaries of the Mud River in southern West Virginia. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that MTM streams are characterized by deeper maximum channel depths, smaller width-to-depth ratios, increased bedrock exposure along the streambed, and increased frequency of very fine silt and sand deposition relative to channels draining unmined catchments. Geomorphic differences are most pronounced for streams draining the smallest catchment areas (< 3.5 km2). Collectively, geomorphic differences provide evidence for relatively rapid channel adjustment of accelerated bedrock incision attributed to potential increased hydraulic driving forces and altered sediment regimes in MTM channels, notably sustained delivery of very fine sediment and potentially reduced coarse sediment delivery. More rapid delivery and transfer of water in addition to excess delivery of very fine sediments to and through headwater channels will have consequences to flooding and water quality in the short term and landscape evolution processes over longer time scales. Given the extent of MTM operations in this

  9. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands with different hydrologic regimes: Drivers, modeling, and storage functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Lung; Shukla, Sanjay; Shrestha, Niroj K.

    2016-07-01

    We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on evapotranspiration (ET) in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the subtropics. Hydro-climatic drivers causing the changes in drained wetlands were identified and used to develop a generic model to predict wetland ET. Eddy covariance (EC)-based ET measurements were made for two years at two differently drained but close by wetlands, a heavily drained wetland (SW) (97% reduced surface storage) and a more functional wetland (DW) (42% reduced storage). Annual ET for more intensively drained SW was 836 mm, 34% less than DW (1271 mm) and the difference was significant (p = 0.001). This difference was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two generic daily ET models, a regression model (MSE = 0.44 mm2, R2 = 0.80) and a machine learning-based Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (MSE = 0.36 mm2, R2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. The RVM model can predict changes in ET for different restoration scenarios; a 1.1 m rise in drainage level showed 7% increase ET (18 mm) at SW while the increase at DW was negligible. The additional ET, 28% of surface flow, can enhance water storage, flood protection, and climate mitigation services at SW compared to DW. More intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration for enhanced storage through increased ET. The models developed can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  10. [A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities].

    PubMed

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Hiroto; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tsukada, Masaru; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Kusama, Keiji; Tanaka, Mamoru; Namiki, Norio; Fuiimura, Youko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Inoue, Tomio; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: 1) scale of an institution, 2) presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, 3) system of a tank, 4) size and number of each tank, 5) a form of draining-water system, 6) a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, 7) a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, 8) planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, 9) an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m3, the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0. PMID:15354724

  11. Long-term tillage and drainage influences on greenhouse gas fluxes from a poorly-drained soil of central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive tillage practices and poorly-drained soils of Midwestern USA are the prime reasons for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from agriculture. The naturally poorly-drained soils prevalent in this region require subsurface drainage for improved aeration and improved crop productivity. Soil surface GH...

  12. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.

    2013-11-28

    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.

  13. Two-dimensional modeling of preferential water flow and pesticide transport from a tile-drained field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preferential flow through soil macropores in tile-drained soils can significantly increase the risk of pollution of surface water bodies by agricultural chemicals such as pesticides. While many field studies have shown the importance of preferential flow in tile-drained fields, few have included det...

  14. Novel pod for chlorine dioxide generation and delivery to control aerobic bacteria on the inner surface of floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floor drains in poultry processing and further processing plants are a harborage site for bacteria both free swimming and in biofilms. This population can include Listeria monocytogenes which has been shown to have potential for airborne spreading from mishandled open drains. Chlorine dioxide (ClO...

  15. 30 CFR 202.556 - How do I determine the value of avoidably lost, wasted, or drained gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensatory royalty is due, then you must determine the value of that volume of gas under 30 CFR part 206. ..., wasted, or drained gas? 202.556 Section 202.556 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... do I determine the value of avoidably lost, wasted, or drained gas? If BLM determines that a...

  16. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. PMID:24182378

  17. Development, testing and application of DrainFlow: A fully distributed integrated surface-subsurface flow model for drainage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, Ali; Bardsley, William Earl

    2016-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrogeological investigation of drained land is a complex and integrated procedure. The scale of drainage studies may vary from a high-resolution small scale project through to comprehensive catchment or regional scale investigations. This wide range of scales and integrated system behaviour poses a significant challenge for the development of suitable drainage models. Toward meeting these requirements, a fully distributed coupled surface-subsurface flow model titled DrainFlow has been developed and is described. DrainFlow includes both the diffusive wave equation for surface flow components (overland flow, open drain, tile drain) and Richard's equation for saturated/unsaturated zones. To overcome the non-linearity problem created from switching between wet and dry boundaries, a smooth transitioning technique is introduced to buffer the model at tile drains and at interfaces between surface and subsurface flow boundaries. This gives a continuous transition between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. DrainFlow is tested against five well-known integrated surface-subsurface flow benchmarks. DrainFlow as applied to some synthetic drainage study examples is quite flexible for changing all or part of the model dimensions as required by problem complexity, problem scale, and data availability. This flexibility enables DrainFlow to be modified to allow for changes in both scale and boundary conditions, as often encountered in real-world drainage studies. Compared to existing drainage models, DrainFlow has the advantage of estimating actual infiltration directly from the partial differential form of Richard's equation rather than through analytical or empirical infiltration approaches like the Green and Ampt equation.

  18. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  19. Policy Responses to Address Student "Brain Drain": An Assessment of Measures Intended to Reduce the Emigration of Singaporean International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…

  20. Brain Drain in the Rust Belt: Can Educational Reform Help to Build Civic Capacity in Struggling Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.; Movit, Marcela; Frick, William

    2008-01-01

    City leaders increasingly have hoped that school reform can spark a renaissance in struggling communities. Using the lens of building civic capacity, this article examines efforts to revitalize "Milltown"--a small urban community that has been devastated by the loss of manufacturing jobs. Analysis of interview and written documents identifies…

  1. Sending Off All Your Good Treasures: Rural Schools, Brain-Drain, and Community Survival in the Wake of Economic Collapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jennifer; Sage, Rayna

    2011-01-01

    Based in qualitative interviews and ethnographic research conducted in the remote rural town of "Golden Valley," California, this paper explores the roles of schools and education in structuring rural community life in the wake of economic devastation caused by the timber industry collapse in the region. We look in depth at the ways in which…

  2. Is New England Experiencing a "Brain Drain"? Facts about Demographic Change and Young Professionals. Discussion Paper 07-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brome, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Recent news articles and studies have generated concern among New England policy makers and others that the region's supply of young, highly educated professionals is disappearing. The fear is that comparatively high housing and other costs may be driving away many within this highly mobile group. This paper explores trends in the stocks and…

  3. The Brain Drain and Development Planning. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Thorkil

    This paper consists of two major sections, an address on development planning in developing nations and a discussion of the issues raised in the address by the speaker and individuals from several developing nations. The address was given by Dr. Thorkil Kristensen, Secretary General of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and…

  4. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  5. Can We Prevent a Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma by Using Larger Diameter Suction Drains?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious complication. According to previous studies, it is not prevented by suction drains. This study evaluated the following alternative hypothesis: the larger the diameter of a suction drain, the less the remaining epidural hematoma after spinal surgery. Methods This was a randomized prospective study. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into two groups: the large drain (LD, 2.8-mm-diameter tube) and small drain (SD, 1.6-mm-diameter tube) groups according to the diameter of the suction drains. All patients were consecutive and allocated alternately according to the date of operations. Suction drains were removed on day 3 and magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 7 postoperatively. The size of remaining hematomas was measured by the degree of thecal sac compression in cross section using the following 4-point numeric scale: G1, less than one quarter; G2, between one quarter and half; G3, more than half; and G4, more than subtotal obstruction. Results There were 39 patients with LDs and 38 with SDs. They did not differ significantly in terms of sex, number of fusion segments, revision or not, antiplatelet medication, intraoperative injection of tranexamic acid. However, patient age differed significantly between the two groups (LD, 63.3 years and < SD, 68.6 years; p = 0.007). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet number, blood loss, or operation duration. However, platelet function analysis exhibited a significant difference (LD, 164.7 seconds and < SD, 222.3 seconds; p = 0.002). The two blinded readers showed high consistency (Kappa value = 0.740; p = 0.000). The results of reader 1 were as follows: LD and SD had 21 and 21 cases of G1, 9 and 11 cases of G2, 6 and 6 cases of G3, and 3 and 0 cases of G4, respectively. The results of reader 2 were as follows: LD and SD had 22

  6. Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent confidence that the frequency of drain valve

  7. Metolachlor and its metabolites in tile drain and stream runoff in the canajoharie creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Eckhardt, D.A.; Vanhoesen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid) can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200 1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were always below 0.6 ??g/L except during a November storm, when concentrations reached 0.85 ??g/L. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA in the stream were 2 45 times higher than those of metolachlor, reflecting the greater relative concentrations of metolachlor in surface water runoff than in tile drain runoff. These results are consistent with findings in other studies that acetanilide herbicide degredates are found in much higher concentrations than parent compounds in both surface water and groundwater.Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid)-can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200-1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were

  8. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  9. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... need are: Two pairs of clean, unused medical gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean ... alcohol-based hand cleanser. Put on clean medical gloves. Loosen the tape carefully, and take off the ...

  10. Ferroelectric Schottky barrier tunnel FET with gate-drain underlap: Proposal and investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a novel ferroelectric schottky barrier tunnel FET (Fe SB-TFET) is proposed and investigated. The Fe SB-TFET consists of ferroelectric gate stack with highly doped pocket at the source/drain and channel interface. In addition, for the suppression of ambipolar leakage current (IAMB), gate-drain underlap is employed. By using ferroelectric gate stack, we effectively amplified the applied gate voltage to enhance electric field for the reduction of tunneling barrier width at the source side schottky barrier. As a result, the increased tunneling probability improves the device performance in terms of high ION, high ION/IOFF ratio, reduced IAMB and low subthreshold swing (SS) as compared to the conventional SB-TFET having double pocket. We also investigate the influence of highly doped pocket (HDP) doping concentration and length on the device performance.

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from drained and undrained loamy soils in Central France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossel, Agnes; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Rochette, Philippe; Guimbaud, Christophe; Chartier, Michel; Hénault, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Artificial drainage is extensively used in cropped areas to decrease soil hydromorphy. Soil drainage class is considered as a possible factor controlling nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Bouwman et al, 2002). Nevertheless, artificial drainage may have contrasting effects on N2O emissions depending on climatic conditions (Colbourn et al, 1987; Venterea et al, 2008). By decreasing anoxic periods in soils, artificial drainage could reduce N2O production by denitrification but it could also limit the reduction of N2O into N2. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of drainage on N2O emissions and to provide a better understanding of the control of emissions by soil factors in both situations. N2O emissions were measured in Central France on 4 tile-drained and 4 undrained loamy plots, all located in a rural area of 10 km2. 2 drained and 2 undrained plots were studied from December 2010 to June 2011 and 2 others drained and undrained plots were studied from November 2012 to June 2013. Fluxes were measured monthly before spring fertilizations and then weekly until the end of the measurement period. The closed chamber method (with 5 replicates per plot) was used and gas analysis was made by gas chromatography (ECD detector) during the first year and by the SPIRIT QCL spectrometer (Guimbaud et al., 2011) during the second year. Ancillary variables such as soil temperature, mineral nitrogen, water filled pore space (WFPS) in the top layer and groundwater table level were also measured. Undrained soils presented much larger emissions and higher soil water content than drained ones. WFPS ranged from 16 to 82.6% on drained plots and 14 to 100% on undrained plots. On average, WFPS was 9% smaller on drained soils. The mean daily N2O flux on drained soils (3.6 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1) was significantly smaller (T test, p=0.003) than on undrained ones (29.1 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1). Significant emissions were measured in nearly saturated conditions on undrained plots. The response

  12. A low specific on-resistance power trench MOSFET with a buried-interface-drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengdong; Chen, Yinhui; Jin, Jingjing; Zhou, Jianlin; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Zongze; Huang, Ye; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jian'an

    2015-09-01

    A novel trench power MOSFET with a buried-interface-drain (BID MOSFET) is proposed in this paper. The drain n+ region of BID MOSFET extends to the surface of p- substrate and is buried along the interface of the substrate-layer and epitaxy-layer, which shortens the motion-path in the high-resistance n- drift region for the carriers, and therefore, exhibits a lower specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) and a higher figure-of-merit. The influences of structure parameters on the device performances are investigated. An ultralow Ron,sp of 0.85 mΩ cm2 is obtained with a breakdown voltage (VB) of 133 V. BID MOSFET is compared with several previous-proposed trench MOSFETs, and a significantly optimized dependence of Ron,sp on VB is obtained.

  13. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C. |

    1999-01-05

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination.

  14. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  15. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  16. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  17. Vision's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie Ann

    1978-01-01

    The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

  18. Temperature-dependent electrical characterization of high-voltage AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMTs with Schottky and ohmic drain contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taube, Andrzej; Kaczmarski, Jakub; Kruszka, Renata; Grochowski, Jakub; Kosiel, Kamil; Gołaszewska-Malec, Krystyna; Sochacki, Mariusz; Jung, Wojciech; Kamińska, Eliana; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present results of electrical parameters characterization of high-voltage AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ohmic and Schottky drain electrodes on silicon substrates. The use of Schottky-drain contacts improves breakdown voltage (VBR), which was VBR = 900 V for LGD = 20 μm in contrast to VBR = 505 V for ohmic-drain contacts. Both types of transistors exhibit drain current density of 500 mA/mm and leakage current of 10 μA/mm. Temperature-dependent characterization reveals a drain current density decrease with increasing temperature. The Schottky-drain HEMTs are characterized by lower increase of the Ron (ΔRon = 250% at 200 °C) in comparison to ohmic drain contacts (ΔRon = 340% at 200 °C) relative to the room temperature due to decrease of on-set voltage of Schottky-drain HEMTs.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Flux from Rice Paddy Soils in Central China: Effects of Intermittent Flooding and Draining Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Tao, Yong; Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Li, Shuang-lai; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to (i) examine the diurnal and seasonal soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes pattern in rice paddy fields in central China and (ii) assess the role of floodwater in controlling the emissions of CO2 from soil and floodwater in intermittently draining rice paddy soil. The soil CO2 flux rates ranged from −0.45 to 8.62 µmol.m−2.s−1 during the rice-growing season. The net effluxes of CO2 from the paddy soil were lower when the paddy was flooded than when it was drained. The CO2 emissions for the drained conditions showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum efflux observed in the afternoon. When the paddy was flooded, daytime soil CO2 fluxes reversed with a peak negative efflux just after midday. In draining/flooding alternating periods, a sudden pulse-like event of rapidly increasing CO2 efflux occured in response to re-flooding after draining. Correlation analysis showed a negative relation between soil CO2 flux and temperature under flooded conditions, but a positive relation was found under drained conditions. The results showed that draining and flooding cycles play a vital role in controlling CO2 emissions from paddy soils. PMID:23437170

  20. Tests of oil scraper piston ring and piston fitted with oil drain holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdewell, H S

    1922-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether or not a properly located and properly designed oil scraper piston ring, installed on a piston provided with oil drain holes of sufficient area, would prevent the excessive oiling of the Liberty engine, particularly with the engine running at idling speed with full oil pressure. Results showed that excessive oiling was in fact prevented. It is strongly recommended that scraper rings and pistons be adopted for aircraft engines.

  1. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-07-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly, but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there was no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam river in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the two campaigns, respectively. Overall, we found that only 26 ± 15 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  2. Fish scales as indicators of wastewater toxicity from an international water channel Tung Dhab drain.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2012-05-01

    The effect of wastewater exposure on scales and chromatophores of freshwater fish Channa punctatus was studied using wastewater dilutions (60-100%) from an international water channel Tung Dhab drain at an interval of 15 and 30 days. The exposed fish showed significant alterations such as uprooted and damaged lepidonts and dispersal of chromatophores. These observations strongly suggest that fish scales can be successfully employed as indicators of wastewater pollution. PMID:21701892

  3. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-10-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  4. Field evaluation of a model for predicting nitrogen losses from drained lands.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed A; Skaggs, R Wayne; Chescheir, George M; Gilliam, J Wendell

    2006-01-01

    The N simulation model, DRAINMOD-N II, was field-tested using a 6-yr data set from an artificially drained agricultural site located in eastern North Carolina. The test site is on a nearly flat sandy loam soil which is very poorly drained under natural conditions. Four experimental plots, planted to a corn (Zea mays)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-soybean (Glycine max.) rotation and managed using conventional and controlled drainage, were used in model testing. Water table depth, subsurface drainage, and N concentration in drain flow were measured and meteorological data were recorded continuously. DRAINMOD-N II was calibrated using the data from one plot; data sets from the other three plots were used for model validation. Simulation results showed an excellent agreement between observed and predicted nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) losses in drainage water over the 6-yr period and a reasonable agreement on an annual basis. The agreement on a monthly basis was not as good. The Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiency (EF) for monthly predictions was 0.48 for the calibration plot and 0.19, 0.01, and -0.02 for the validation plots. The value of the EF for yearly predictions was 0.92 for the calibration plot and 0.73, 0.62, and -0.10 for the validation plots. Errors in predicting cumulative NO(3)-N losses over the 6-yr period were remarkably small; -1.3% for the calibration plot, -8.1%, -2.8%, and 4.0% for the validation plots. Results of this study showed the potential of DRAINMOD-N II for predicting N losses from drained agricultural lands. Further research is needed to test the model for different management practices and soil and climatological conditions. PMID:17071872

  5. Subcutaneous emphysema of the hand caused by the suction drain -- a case report.

    PubMed

    Saray, A; Tellioglu, A T; Cimen, K; Karaeminogullari, G

    2004-08-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema of the hand can be related to non-infectious causes and most commonly high-pressure injection injuries. Surgical emphysema of the hand is rare. We report a case of surgical emphysema of the dorsum of the hand following the excision of a dorsal wrist ganglion when the inserted suction drain did not work properly, accompanied by the inadvertent compression of the patient's body. Conservative management was adequate; oedema and emphysema subsided in several days. PMID:15368154

  6. Remote sensing for assessing the zone of benefit where deep drains improve productivity of land affected by shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kobryn, H T; Lantzke, R; Bell, R; Admiraal, R

    2015-03-01

    The installation of deep drains is an engineering approach to remediate land salinised by the influence of shallow groundwater. It is a costly treatment and its economic viability is, in part, dependent on the lateral extent to which the drain increases biological productivity by lowering water tables and soil salinity (referred to as the drains' zone of benefit). Such zones may be determined by assessing the biological productivity response of adjacent vegetation over time. We tested a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing method to analyse temporal and spatial changes in vegetation condition surrounding deep drainage sites at five locations in the Western Australian wheatbelt affected by dryland salinity-Morawa, Pithara, Beacon, Narembeen and Dumbleyung. Vegetation condition as a surrogate for biological productivity was assessed by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during the peak growing season. Analysis was at the site scale within a 1000 m buffer zone from the drains. There was clear evidence of NDVI increasing with elevation, slope and distance from the drain. After accounting for elevation, slope and distance from the drain, there was a significant increase in NDVI across the five locations after installation of deep drains. Changes in NDVI after drainage were broadly consistent with measured changes at each site in groundwater levels after installation of the deep drains. However, this study assessed the lateral extent of benefit for biological productivity and gave a measure of the area of benefit along the entire length of the drain. The method demonstrated the utility of spring NDVI images for rapid and relatively simple assessment of the change in site condition after implementation of drainage, but approaches for further improvement of the procedure were identified. PMID:25481499

  7. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  8. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  9. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  10. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  11. Draining T-Tube Jejunostomy: A Technique to Get Out of Trouble.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Oscar K; Solsky, Ian; Sandoval, Eduardo; Berlin, Arnold; Bellemare, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    A perforated viscus in the postpancreaticoduodenectomy setting is a rare phenomenon and a devastating complication. In this situation, adherence to damage-control principles demands minimizing the operative intervention while addressing the intestinal perforation as a way to mitigate the injurious effects on a complex gastrointestinal reconstruction. Herein, we describe our intraoperative decision-making with an unconventional approach in the management of a perforated viscus in the postpancreaticoduodenectomy setting using a draining T-tube jejunostomy. Our patient recovered remarkably well from this and was discharged from the hospital in six days with a controlled draining T-tube jejunostomy, which was subsequently removed on postoperative day 35. Our case illustrates an important option when dealing with a perforated viscus in the complex gastrointestinal surgery patient that has minimal morbidity, adequate source control, and the potential for an excellent clinical outcome. As surgical care continues to be delivered in a specialty-driven manner, a draining T-tube jejunostomy presents the ideal technique to get out of trouble for the general surgeon practicing in the community who may not be as experienced with complex gastrointestinal surgery. PMID:27305884

  12. Low Drain Fluid Amylase Predicts Absence of Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina W.; Pitt, Henry A.; Riall, Taylor S.; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean S.; Israel, Jacqueline S.; Leverson, Glen E.; Parmar, Abhishek D.; Kilbane, E. Molly; Hall, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in the ability to predict pancreatic fistula could enhance patient outcomes. Previous studies demonstrate that drain fluid amylase on postoperative day 1 (DFA1) is predictive of pancreatic fistula. We sought to assess the accuracy of DFA1 and to identify a reliable DFA1 threshold under which pancreatic fistula is ruled out. Methods Patients undergoing pancreatic resection from November 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 were selected from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pancreatectomy Demonstration Project data-base. Pancreatic fistula was defined as drainage of amylase-rich fluid with drain continuation >7 days, percutaneous drainage, or reoperation for a pancreatic fluid collection. Univariate and multi-variable regression models were utilized to identify factors predictive of pancreatic fistula. Results DFA1 was recorded in 536 of 2,805 patients who underwent pancreatic resection, including pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=380), distal pancreatectomy (n=140), and enucleation (n=16). Pancreatic fistula occurred in 92/536 (17.2 %) patients. DFA1, increased body mass index, small pancreatic duct size, and soft texture were associated with fistula (p<0.05). A DFA1 cutoff value of <90 U/L demonstrated the highest negative predictive value of 98.2 %. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve confirmed the predictive relationship of DFA1 and pancreatic fistula. Conclusion Low DFA1 predicts the absence of a pancreatic fistula. In patients with DFA1<90 U/L, early drain removal is advisable. PMID:25112411

  13. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  14. Detection of disseminated tumor cells in aspirative drains after neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Mastronicola, R; Berteau, C; Tu, Q; Cortese, S; Guillet, J; Phulpin, B; Gangloff, P; Bezdetnaya, L; Merlin, J-L; Faure, G; Dolivet, G

    2016-02-01

    The dissemination of individual tumor cells is a common phenomenon in solid cancers. Detection of tumor cells in bone marrow disseminated tumor cells (DTC) and in peripheral blood circulating tumor cells (CTC) in nonmetastatic situation is of high prognostic significance. Compared to breast, colon and prostate cancers, the studies on CTC and DTC in head and neck cancers are sparse. The objective of our study was to detect DTC in drains after neck dissection. Fourteen patients undergoing surgery for stages III and IV head and neck cancers were enrolled in this study--twelve presenting with squamous cell carcinoma and two with adenocarcinoma. Redon drain analysis was performed by the Cellsearch method using immunomagnetic and fluorescence approaches. A positivity threshold value was set at 2DTC/7.5 ml of the sample. Tumor cells were detected in drains of 69 % of patients a few days after surgery. The range of quantification was 3-2,094 DTC/5 ml and we showed morphological differences between the two types of carcinoma cells. DTC were detected after neck dissection both in squamous cell carcinoma and in adenocarcinoma. Potential clinical significance of tumor cells needs to be further investigated as their presence could affect pre-surgical and post-operative treatments. PMID:25634063

  15. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  16. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites. PMID:25592464

  17. Environmental Setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 Basins, Washington, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Karen L.; Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Granger Drain and DR2 basins are located in the Yakima River basin in south central Washington. These agricultural basins are one of five areas in the United States selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate Study. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Granger Drain and DR2 basins were selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because they represent the irrigated agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Washington. These basins are located in one of the most productive agricultural areas in the United States. This report describes the environmental setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 basins in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes.

  18. Slosh wave and geyser excitations due to liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining, and shut-off at the moment of the incipience of a suction dip have been investigated. It shows that a large amplitude surge is observed for liquid in the container at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off in reduced gravity. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by a strong geyser are developed for surge-related flow fields induced by liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of a suction dip. In the slosh wave excitation, both a lower gravity environment and higher flow rate before the shut-off of liquid draining are resonsible for the initiation of greater amplitude slosh waves. Slosh wave excitation, due to shut-off during liquid hydrogen draining, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in the spacecraft moment of inertia. This provides important information necessary for on-orbit guidance and attitude control of spacecraft.

  19. Topography and ultrasonographic identification of the equine pulmonary vein draining pattern.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, T; van Loon, G; Vandevelde, K; De Pauw, B; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2016-04-01

    Information on ultrasound examination of equine pulmonary veins is scarce due to a lack of in-depth anatomical information. Each pulmonary vein drains a specific lung lobe region, after which those veins merge into a collecting antrum, before opening into the left atrium through their respective ostia. The aim of this study was, by using anatomical dissection and silicone casting of equine cardiopulmonary sets, to study the venous drainage of both lungs and the position of the ostia and to investigate whether the ostia can be identified and differentiated using ultrasound. Three out of the four ostia could be observed echocardiographically in the standing horse. The ostium draining the most caudal aspects of both lungs showed little variability, while the ostium draining the rest of the right lung could be used as an easily recognisable landmark, since it was located adjacent to the interatrial septum. The identification of the equine pulmonary vein ostia using ultrasound might allow for the determination of size and flow patterns in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26876622

  20. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  1. Simulation of Sub-Drains Performance Using Visual MODFLOW for Slope Water Seepage Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, M. F. T.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation technique was used for investigating water seepage problem at the Botanic Park Kuala Lumpur. A proposed sub-drains installation in problematic site location was simulated using Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW) software. The results of simulation heads during transient condition showed that heads in between 43 m (water seepage occurred at level 2) until 45 m (water seepage occurred at level 4) which heads measurement are referred to mean sea level. However, elevations measurements for level 2 showed the values between 41 to 42 m from mean sea level and elevations for level 4 between 42 to 45 m from mean sea level. These results indicated an increase in heads for level 2 and level 4 between 1 to 2 m when compared to elevations slope at the level 2 and level 4. The head increases surpass the elevation level of the slope area that causing water seepage at level 2 and level 4. In order to overcome this problems, the heads level need to be decrease to 1 until 2 m by using two options of sub-drain dimension size. Sub-drain with the dimension of 0.0750 m (diameter), 0.10 m (length) and using 4.90 m spacing was the best method to use as it was able to decrease the heads to the required levels of 1 to 2 m.

  2. Internally Drained Supraglacial River Catchments on the Southwest Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Pitcher, L. H.; Gleason, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Internally drained catchments are the hydrologic units on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface that collect and drain meltwater into moulins or supraglacial lakes without out flows. Understanding the spatial pattern of these internal catchments is critical, which can provide key information about how supraglacial meltwater is transported and released on the ice surface. This study proposed an automatic approach to detect supraglacial hydrologic features (rivers, lakes, moulins, and internal catchments) located at southwest GrIS from Landsat-8 OLI panchromatic imagery. A total of 800 internal catchments are delineated and the average catchment size (river network length) is found to increase with elevations. In addition, moulins are the prime way to drain internal catchments and the average moulin densities decrease with elevations. Adaptive depression area thresholds are calculated to achieve optimal match between DEM-modeled and image-detected internal catchment patterns. The pattern of these image-detected internal catchments also indicates that: 1) not all the DEM-modeled topographic depressions act as meltwater sinks; 2) moulin distribution greatly impacts the internal catchment patterns; and 3) topographic depressions can be connected downstream without being fully filled, changing the fragmentary of the internal catchments.

  3. Management of penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

  4. The effect of drain blocking on dissolved organic carbon under the peak flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhang, zhuoli

    2014-05-01

    There are numerous studies that have shown increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration down stream of upland peat catchments (eg. Worrall et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2007; Gibson et al., 200). In the UK, upland peat soils are both an important water source and an important carbon store, therefore, the transportation of DOC from soil to the aquatic system remains a critical part of the impact that upland peat environments have on wider society. The majority of the DOC is delivered from the peat soil during the peak flow events (Clark et al., 2008), however, most of the storm events analysis has been developed for organo-mineral soil rather than for peat soil catchments. Worrall et al., (2007) suggested that drain blocking as a potential method for controlling DOC release from peat soil. An events analysis was conducted on the drain blocking data collected from 2008 to 2010 from Cronkley Fell (UK National grid reference NY 83800 26996). A total of 756 peak flow events were chosen to access the impact of drain blocking on DOC concentration and flux during the events. The data was analysed by the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and end member mixing analysis (EMMA). The results showed that during the peak flow events, the effects of drain blocking was minimised by the rapid flushing of the event water: the DOC concentration on storm events increased after blocking rather than decreased; DOC flux did decrease after blocking but rather as a result of the increased volume of the event water. Worrall, F., Armstrong, A., Holden, J., 2007. Short term impact of peat drain blocking on water color, dissolved organic carbon concentration and water table depth. Journal of Hydrology 337,315-325 Clark, J.M., Lane, S.N., Chapman, P.J., Adamson, J.K., 2007. Export of dissolved organic carbon from an upland peat during storm events: Implication for flux estimates. Journal of Hydrology 347, 438-447. Aitkenhead, J.A., McDowell, W. H., 2000. Soil C: N ratio

  5. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  6. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Droesler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73±38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha-1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short

  7. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was

  8. Use of Subperiosteal Drain Versus Subdural Drain in Chronic Subdural Hematomas Treated With Burr-Hole Trepanation: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Katharina; Schaedelin, Sabine; Mariani, Luigi; Fandino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is one of the most frequent neurosurgical conditions affecting elderly people and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The use of a subdural drain (SDD) after burr-hole trepanation for cSDH was proven to reduce recurrence and mortality at 6 months. To date in neurosurgery practice, evidence-based guidelines on whether an SDD or subperiosteal drain (SPD) should be used do not exist. Currently both methods are being practiced depending on the institute and/or the practicing neurosurgeon. Objective The aim of this study is to compare the reoperation rates after burr-hole trepanation and insertion of an SPD or SDD in patients with cSDH. Methods This is a prospective, noninferiority, multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to include 220 patients over the age of 18 years presenting with a symptomatic cSDH verified on cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging who are to undergo surgical evacuation with burr-hole trepanation. After informed consent is obtained, patients are randomly allocated to an SPD or SDD group. The primary endpoint is recurrence indicating a reoperation within 12 months. Results This research is investigator-initiated and has received ethics approval. Patient recruitment started in April 2013, and we expect all study-related activities to be completed by the end of 2016 or beginning of 2017. Conclusions To date, evidence-based recommendations concerning the operative treatment of cSDH are sparse. Results of this research are expected to have applications in evidence-based practice for the increasing number of patients suffering from cSDH and possibly lead to more efficient treatment of this disease with fewer postoperative complications. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01869855; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01869855 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fNK4Jlxk) PMID:27059872

  9. Establishment of an External Ventricular Drain Best Practice Guideline: The Quest for a Comprehensive, Universal Standard for External Ventricular Drain Care.

    PubMed

    Hepburn-Smith, Millie; Dynkevich, Irina; Spektor, Marina; Lord, Aaron; Czeisler, Barry; Lewis, Ariane

    2016-02-01

    External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used to facilitate removal of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurologic dysfunction. Despite a high risk for infection (upward of 45%), many hospitals lack strict protocols for EVD placement and maintenance. In addition, EVD infections are typically not tracked with the same diligence as central-line catheter infections, because there are no widely accepted standards for routine management of EVDs. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for the development of a standardized, best practice EVD protocol for catheter insertion, care, and maintenance to reduce ventriculostomy-related infections. A secondary goal of this review is to provide support for the future development of guidelines for the consistent tracking of EVD insertion and maintenance practices.At an academic medical center, an interdisciplinary team of nurses, advanced practice nurses, and neurointensivists reviewed recent medical and nursing literature as well as research-based institutional protocols on EVD insertion and maintenance from the United States and abroad to determine global best practices. The goal of this literature review was to identify key areas of focus in EVD insertion and maintenance as well as to identify recent studies that have shown success in managing EVDs with low rates of infection. The following terms were used in this search: EVD, externalized ventricular drains, EVD infections, EVD insertion, EVD Care and Maintenance, Nursing and EVDS. The following databases were utilized by each member of the interdisciplinary team to establish a state of the science on EVD management: American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, CINAHL, Cochrane, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, and PubMed. The following common EVD themes were identified: preinsertion hair removal and skin preparation, aseptic technique, catheter selection, monitoring of EVD insertion technique using a "bundle" approach, postinsertion dressing type and

  10. Multitracer Study of Flow to Tile Drains in Irrigated Macroporous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. M.; Callaghan, M. V.; Cey, E.; Bentley, L. R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple tracer experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of using irrigation along with a tile drain system for salt remediation in west central Alberta, Canada. The experiments were designed to characterize the shallow flow system as part of a salt flushing pilot study and to determine the role of macroporosity in groundwater flow and transport. Soils at the site are primarily silty glaciolacustrine material underlain by a relatively impermeable till layer at approximately 2.5 m below ground surface. A 20 m by 20 m infiltration test plot is underlain by two tile drains at 2 m depth that are separated by 10 m. The test plot contains a drip irrigation system and has been irrigated regularly in the summer months over the past three seasons (2008-2010). Two reportedly conservative tracers, 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid [2,6-DFBA] and pentafluorobenzoic acid [PFBA], have been used on the plot and the pre-existing soil salinity was also used as a tracer. In August of 2009 a 2,6-DFBA solution (865g/L) was applied to the surface of the plot. Irrigation of the study plot continued after tracer application on a schedule that averaged roughly 12mm/day, applied 3 days a week. During the 2010 field season, a PFBA solution (at 4.2 g/L) was injected into two separate monitoring wells. One monitoring well is situated 0.5 m directly above the north tile drain (in which samples were collected regularly). The other well is situated at 2 m depth in the center of the study plot and samples were collected from a down gradient well. Tracer concentrations in the subsurface were monitored through sampling of tile drain effluent and monitoring wells in and around the plot, in addition to soil core extractions taken at several locations within the test plot at the end of the 2009 field season. Initial breakthrough of the DFBA in the tile drains occurred 24 hours after application and remained in all subsequent water samples at concentrations of 2 to 6 mg/L. Results from the DFBA

  11. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  12. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  13. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  14. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  15. AN INTERREGIONAL COMPARISON OF CHANNEL STRUCTURE, TRANSIENT STORAGE AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN STREAMS DRAINING MANAGED AND OLD GROWTH WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared stream channel structure (width, depth, substrate composition) and riparian canopy with transient storage and nutrient uptake in 32 streams draining old-growth and managed watersheds in the Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina), Ouachita Mountains (Arkansas), Cascade...

  16. Geophysical investigations of French Drain 116-B-9, and Dry Well 116-B-10, 100 B/C Area

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Fassett, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    French Drain 116-B-9 and Dry Well 116-B-10 are both located within the 100 B/C-2 Operable Unit, 100 B/C Area (Figure 1). The 116-B-9 French Drain is approximately 4 ft in diameter by 3 ft deep. The exact location or use of the drain in not clear. The 116-B-10 Dry Well is a 3 ft-diameter, tile-lined well on a concrete slab, 7 ft below the surface, overlain by a manhole cover (DOE-RL 1991). The exact location of the well is uncertain. The objective of the survey was to locate the Dry Well and the French Drain. The area to be investigated had several buildings in the area which subsequently have been torn down. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was the geophysical method chosen for the investigation.

  17. 30 CFR 1202.556 - How do I determine the value of avoidably lost, wasted, or drained gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under 30 CFR part 1206. ..., wasted, or drained gas? 1202.556 Section 1202.556 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Gas Production...

  18. Determining optimal fluid and air leak cut off values for chest drain management in general thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Guzman, Miguel; Periklis, Perikleous; Niwaz, Zakiyah; Socci, Laura; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Adams, Ben; Gurung, Lokesh; Uzzaman, Mohsin

    2015-01-01

    Background Chest drain duration is one of the most important influencing aspects of hospital stay but the management is perhaps one of the most variable aspects of thoracic surgical care. The aim of our study is to report outcomes associated with increasing fluid and air leak criteria of protocol based management. Methods A 6-year retrospective analysis of protocolised chest drain management starting in 2007 with a fluid criteria of 3 mL/kg increasing to 7 mL/kg in 2011 to no fluid criteria in 2012, and an air leak criteria of 24 hours without leak till 2012 when digital air leak monitoring was introduced with a criteria of <20 mL/min of air leak for more than 6 hours. Patient data were obtained from electronic hospital records and digital chest films were reviewed to determine the duration of chest tube drainage and post-drain removal complications. Results From 2009 to 2012, 626 consecutive patients underwent thoracic surgery procedures under a single consultant. A total of 160 did not require a chest drain and data was missing in 22, leaving 444 for analysis. The mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 57±19 years and 272 (61%) were men. There were no differences in the incidence of pneumothoraces (P=0.191), effusion (P=0.344) or re-interventions (P=0.431) for drain re-insertions as progressively permissive criteria were applied. The median drain duration dropped from 1-3 days (P<0.001) and accordingly hospital stay reduced from 4-6 days (P<0.001). Conclusions Our results show that chest drains can be safely removed without fluid criteria and air leak of less than 20 mL/min with median drain duration of 1 day, associated with a reduced length of hospital stay. PMID:26716045

  19. The Parable of the Errant Chest Drain in the Heart: Is There Only 1 Option?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashish H; Simons, Martin; Amad, Hani; Soneji, Neilesh; Horlick, Eric M

    2016-07-01

    Accidental intraventricular placement of a pericardiocentesis catheter is a rare but well-recognized complication. Failure to achieve adequate hemostasis in the ventricular wall on removal of the catheter can potentially result in fatal consequences. Here we describe a case in which a chest drain (10.2F) accidentally entered into the right ventricle while attempting to drain pleural fluid, and the entry site was sealed using an Amplatzer VSD occluder device (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN). PMID:27343503

  20. Impact of a drain field plate on the breakdown characteristics of AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Kanjalochan; Swain, Raghunandan; Lenka, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel AlInN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOSHEMT) employing the drain field plate technique is proposed and the effect of a drain field plate on the breakdown voltage (BV) is investigated. A reduction of the peak electric field is required to achieve AlInN/GaN MOSHEMTs with a high BV. The proposed AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT with both gate and drain field plates simultaneously reduces the electric field concentration at the gate and the drain edge by decreasing the potential gradient along the channel for the 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The reduction in the peak electric field at the drain edge of the proposed device leads to a 57% increase in BV compared with the BV for an AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT with a gate field plate only. A significantly higher BV can be achieved by optimizing the gate-to-drain distance (L gd ), the length of the drain field plate (L dfp ) and the thickness of the SiN passivation layer thickness (T SiN ). A detailed breakdown analysis of the device was carried out using Silvaco Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). The detailed numerical simulations were done by using the non-local energy balance (EB) transport model, which was calibrated with the previously published experimental results. The results showed a great potential for applications of the drain-field-plated AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT to deliver high currents and high powers in microwave technologies.