These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The Launch Test of the Hybrid Rocket and Its Range Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The educational hybrid-rocket was successfully launched and it also landed within the predicted area. Aerodynamic characteristics of the rocket designed by students of Tsukuba University were evaluated by the wind tunnel testing with the support of Tokai University. The flight path affected by the environmental condition, especially wind direction and velocity, was simulated with the original calculation program. The altitude

Hiroto Habu; Eiichi Wada; Takahiro Niwa; Yasuo Kondo; Takafumi Kawamura; Shinya Maruyama; Ayano Okamura; Saera Yamashina; Yasuhito Nagai; Tatsuya Nakamichi; Akane Uemichi; Naruaki Tanaka; Naoki Kobayashi; Jiro Kasahara; Yasuhiro Morita

2010-01-01

2

Rocket Launch Trajectory Simulations Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of a Trajectory Simulation Mechanism (TSM) for the Launch Systems Testbed (LST) is outlined. In addition to being one-of-a-kind facility in the world, TSM serves as a platform to study the interaction of rocket launch-induced environments and subsequent dynamic effects on the equipment and structures in the close vicinity of the launch pad. For the first time, researchers and academicians alike will be able to perform tests in a laboratory environment and assess the impact of vibroacoustic behavior of structures in a moving rocket scenario on ground equipment, launch vehicle, and its valuable payload or spacecraft.

Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul E.; Hauss, Sharon; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

3

Static firing test of the H-2 launch vehicle solid rocket booster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) conducted the first static firing test of the H-2 Launch Vehicle solid rocket booster (SRB) on April 15, 1988 at the static firing test facility for solid motors in the Tanegashima Space Center using a full-size SRB. The firing test was intended to verify the basic firing characteristics of the solid motor

Yukio Fukushima

1988-01-01

4

Water Rocket Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore rocketry and the principals of space flight. Learners work in teams with adult supervision and construct and launch a rocket from a soda bottle and everyday materials powered by an air pump. Learners observe their own achievements and challenges, as well as those of other teams, complete a reflection sheet, and present their experiences to the class.

IEEE

2014-06-18

5

The Launch Test of the Hybrid Rocket and Its Range Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The educational hybrid-rocket was successfully launched and it also landed within the predicted area. Aerodynamic characteristics of the rocket designed by students of Tsukuba University were evaluated by the wind tunnel testing with the support of Tokai University. The flight path affected by the environmental condition, especially wind direction and velocity, was simulated with the original calculation program. The altitude of the rocket was measured with the optical equipment and the apex was 123 m although the calculation indicated 198 m. We expected that the insufficient filling or the volatilization of Nitrous oxide as an oxidizer led to this result. And then, the apex was verified with a function of the oxidizer filling ratio. The results showed that 81.2 % of the oxidizer volume in comparison with the firing test condition was accumulated in the tank at the launch.

Habu, Hiroto; Wada, Eiichi; Niwa, Takahiro; Kondo, Yasuo; Kawamura, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shinya; Okamura, Ayano; Yamashina, Saera; Nagai, Yasuhito; Nakamichi, Tatsuya; Uemichi, Akane; Tanaka, Naruaki; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kasahara, Jiro; Morita, Yasuhiro

6

Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

2013-01-01

7

17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY HERMANN OBERTH AND RUDOLF NEBEL FOR THE MOVIE DIE FRAU IM MOND (THE WOMAN ON THE MOON). THE LAUNCH STAND WAS MODIFIED BY THE VFR FOR THE FIRST TEST STAND AT RAKETENFLUGPLATZ NEAR BERLIN. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

8

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from two local universities, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Alabama Agricultural Mechanical University (AM), counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) Program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides the students with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, the university students prepare their rocket for flight on the launch pad. Students at UAH built the rocket and AM students developed its scientific payload, an experiment that measures the amount of hydrogen produced during electroplating with nickel in a brief period of micrgravity.

2002-01-01

9

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from two local universities, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Alabama Agricultural Mechanical University (AM), counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides the students with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, the University students prepare their rocket for launch. Students at UAH built the rocket and AM students developed its scientific payload, an experiment that measures the amount of hydrogen produced during electroplating with nickel in a brief period of micrgravity.

2002-01-01

10

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from two local universities, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Alabama Agricultural Mechanical University (AM), counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides the students with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, the combined efforts of students from UAH and AM sent this rocket soaring into flight. Students at UAH built the rocket and AM students developed its scientific payload, an experiment that measures the amount of hydrogen produced during electroplating with nickel in a brief period of micrgravity.

2002-01-01

11

Development, flight performance, and test results for two single-stage Malemute rocket vehicles launched at Tonopah Test Range. [Analysis of rocket engine failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent Malemute rocket motor failures had been attributed to a change in the internal ballistics of the rocket motor induced by vehicle spin. After the second failure a correlation between the outcome of all previous tests and the time history of the orientation of the total acceleration vector angle was observed. In an effort to obtain additional data to

W. A. Millard; W. R. Barton; E. J. Steinkraus

1977-01-01

12

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from two local universities, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Alabama Agricultural Mechanical University (AM), counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides the students with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. UAH students designed and built the rocket and AM students designed the payload. In this picture, AM students prepare their payload, an experiment that measures the amount of hydrogen produced during electroplating with nickel in a brief period of micrgravity, prior to launch.

2002-01-01

13

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.21 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges Jr. addresses an audience that included members of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc., and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

14

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10365.28 Workers set up some of the 50 model rockets that are to be launched in honor of the 50th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit, who is commander of the 45th Space Wing. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

15

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10365.32 From a safe distance away, spectators watch the launch of 50 model rockets in honor of the 50th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit, who is commander of the 45th Space Wing. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

16

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.16 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit addresses an audience that included members of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

17

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

18

Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.

2014-01-01

19

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from two local universities, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Alabama Agricultural Mechanical University (AM), counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides the students with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, a student from AM and his mentor install their payload into the launch vehicle which was built by the team of UAH students. The scientific payload, developed and built by the team of AM students, measured the amount of hydrogen produced during electroplating with nickel in a brief period of micrgravity.

2002-01-01

20

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10365.09 At the 50th anniversary ceremony of the first rocket launch, known as Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit, who is commander of the 45th Space Wing, addresses attendees. Next to him on the dais are (left to right) , Major Gen. Jimmey Morrell, USAF (Ret), Maxwell King and Dick Jolley. Morrell is chairman of the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc., which hosted the event. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

21

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10365.06 At the 50th anniversary ceremony of the first rocket launch, known as Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Major Gen. Jimmey Morrell, USAF (Ret), addresses attendees. Morrell is chairman of the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc., which hosted the event. Next to Morrell on the dais is (left to right) Maxwell King, Dick Jolley and Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit, who is commander of the 45th Space Wing. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

22

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.33 Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick addresses attendees of the 50th anniversary ceremony of the first rocket launch, known as Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. Sen. Kirkpatrick was presented with the Bumper Award by Winston 'Bud' Gardner, chairman of the Florida Space Business Roundtable, for the senator's long-time support of the space program. The anniversary ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

23

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10367.13 At the 50th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick (right) stands next to a model of the Bumper 8. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of the Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Sen. Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit, who is commander of the 45th Space Wing. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

24

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From a safe distance away, spectators watch the launch of 50 model rockets in honor of the 50th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The original launch occurred July 24, 1950. The anniversary ceremony included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Bridges, and Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

25

Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

2014-01-01

26

Launch Excitement with Water Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable launchers and rockets for experiments while learning fundamental principles of physics.

John Penick

2007-10-01

27

Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

Rogers, J.D.

1999-03-31

28

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

29

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

30

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

31

Aerial Videography From Locally Launched Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of quickly collecting digital imagery of ground areas from video cameras carried aboard locally launched rockets has been developed. The method can be used, for example, to record rare or episodic events or to gather image data to guide decisions regarding treatment of agricultural fields or fighting wildfires. The method involves acquisition and digitization of a video frame at a known time along with information on the position and orientation of the rocket and camera at that time. The position and orientation data are obtained by use of a Global Positioning System receiver and a digital magnetic compass carried aboard the rocket. These data are radioed to a ground station, where they are processed, by a real-time algorithm, into georeferenced position and orientation data. The algorithm also generates a file of transformation parameters that account for the variation of image magnification and distortion associated with the position and orientation of the camera relative to the ground scene depicted in the image. As the altitude, horizontal position, and orientation of the rocket change between image frames, the algorithm calculates the corresponding new georeferenced position and orientation data and the associated transformation parameters. The output imagery can be rendered in any of a variety of formats. The figure presents an example of one such format.

Lyle, Stacey D.

2007-01-01

32

Artist's Concept of Magnetic Launch Assisted Air-Breathing Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle in orbit. Formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, the Magnetic Launch Assist system is a launch system developed and tested by engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

33

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

34

Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2005-01-01

35

TA01 Launch Solid Rocket PRoPulSion  

E-print Network

TA01 · Launch ProPuLsion systems Solid Rocket PRoPulSion SyStemS · Propellants · CaseMaterials · NozzleSystems · HybridRocketPropulsion Systems · FundamentalSolidPropulsion Technologies liquid RocketCollaboration · CommonHuman-Systems Interfaces · Safety,Trust,&Interfacingof Robotic/HumanProximity Operations Autonomy

36

Kauai Test Facility two experiment rocket campaign. [Kauai Test Facility; Two Experiment Rocket Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The Kauai Test Facility (KTF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility located at Barking Sands, on the west coast of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF has a rocket preparation and launching capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched rockets. Launches primarily support high altitude scientific research and re-entry vehicle systems and carry experimental non-nuclear payloads. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared for the Two Experiment Rocket Campaign, during which the STRYPI/LACE (STRYPI is not an acronym -- its the name of the rocket; LACE is the acronym for Low Altitude Compensation Experiment) and the RAP-501 (Rocket Accelerated Penetration) will be flown in conjunction from the KTF in February 1991 to reduce costs. There have been numerous rocket campaigns at the KTF in prior years that have used the same motors to be used in the current two experiment rocket campaign. The main difference noted in this environmental documentation is that the two rockets have not previously been flown in conjunction. Previous National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) approvals of launches using these motors were limited to different and separate campaigns with diverse sources of funding. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

37

Rocket Launch-Induced Vibration and Ignition Overpressure Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket-induced vibration and ignition overpressure response environments are predicted in the low-frequency (5 to 200 hertz) range. The predictions are necessary to evaluate their impact on critical components, structures, and facilities in the immediate vicinity of the rocket launch pad.

Caimi, Raoul; Margasahayam, Ravi; Nayfeh, Jamal; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

38

Deep Space 1 is launched aboard a Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographed at Launch Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Station, just after midnight on launch day, Boeing's Delta II rocket is bathed in light as it awaits its destiny, hurling NASA's Deep Space 1 into space. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the ion propulsion engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

1998-01-01

39

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 solid rocket motor at the ATK test facility in Utah in support of the Ares/CLV first stage. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

40

Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

41

NASA, Orbital Launch Antares Rocket Hearing a Speck of Dirt  

E-print Network

.m. EDT on April 21 from the new Mid-Atlantic Re- gional Spaceport Pad-0A at Wallops Flight Facility America's newest spaceport capable of launching to the space station, opening up additional opportunities Corporation launched its Antares rocket on Sunday, April 21, from the new Mid-Atlantic Re- gional Spaceport

42

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

43

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellaton/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

44

2Saturn V Rocket Launch Speed and Height The Saturn V rocket carrying the Apollo-11  

E-print Network

2Saturn V Rocket Launch Speed and Height Time (Sec) Altitude (m) Speed (m/s) 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 4 4 3 13 15 269 39 16 321 43 17 367 46 18 406 49 19 465 53 20 510 56 The Saturn V rocket carrying the Apollo was the Saturn V traveling at the time the rocket engines just cleared the top of the gantry in A) meters

45

Bumper 8 model rocket launched at 50th anniversary celebration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 50th Anniversary Ceremony was held today in honor of the first rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from Pad 3 at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. Among the activities was the launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket (seen here), presentation of a Bumper Award to the Honorable George Kirkpatrick, State Senator, District 5; remarks by Center Director Roy Bridges and Commander, 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit; and a reception at Hangar C. Bumper consisted of a German V-2 missile acting as the booster and a U.S. Army WAC Corporal rocket as the second stage. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

46

Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

2014-01-01

47

Small Solid Rocket Motor Test - Duration: 1:27.  

NASA Video Gallery

It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

48

Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1999-01-01

49

Space Place: Launch a Rocket from a Spinning Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This playground demonstration (using a merry-go-round) shows angular momentum and why rockets are launched in a certain direction and at a certain time. From a moving merry-go-round, participants attempt to throw small balls into a basket on the ground. It includes an explanation, with animated graphics.

NASA JPL

50

NSSDC index of international scientific rocket launches ordered by sponsering country/agency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International scientific rocket launches are listed by discipline codes and by sponsoring country/agencies identifications. Launch sites, experiments, approximate apogee, success and principle experimenters are also shown.

1972-01-01

51

24 Inch Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scaled-down 24-inch version of the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor was successfully fired for 21 seconds at a Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand. The motor was tested to ensure a replacement material called Lycocel would meet the criteria set by the Shuttle's Solid Motor Project Office. The current material is a heat-resistant, rayon-based, carbon-cloth phenolic used as an insulating material for the motor's nozzle. Lycocel, a brand name for Tencel, is a cousin to rayon and is an exceptionally strong fiber made of wood pulp produced by a special 'solvent-spirning' process using a nontoxic solvent. It will also be impregnated with a phenolic resin. This new material is expected to perform better under the high temperatures experienced during launch. The next step will be to test the material on a 48-inch solid rocket motor. The test, which replicates launch conditions, is part of Shuttle's ongoing verification of components, materials, and manufacturing processes required by MSFC, which oversees the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project. Manufactured by the ATK Thiokol Propulsion Division in Promontory, California, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor measures 126 feet (38.4 meters) long and 12 feet (3.6 meters) in diameter. It is the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the first designed for reuse. During its two-minute burn at liftoff, each motor generates an average thrust of 2.6 million pounds (1.2 million kilograms).

2002-01-01

52

Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

Hills, H. K.

1984-01-01

53

Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance  

E-print Network

Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

Beerer, Ingrid Mary

2013-01-01

54

Technology Requirements for Affordable Single-Stage Rocket Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of manned Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle options for replacing or complementing the current Space Transportation System are being examined under the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The introduction of a reusable single-stage vehicle (SSV) into the U.S. launch vehicle fleet early in the next century could greatly reduce ETO launch costs. As a part of the AMLS study, the conceptual design of an SSV using a wide variety of enhancing technologies has recently been completed and is described in this paper. This paper also identifies the major enabling and enhancing technologies for a reusable rocket-powered SSV and provides examples of the mission payoff potential of a variety of important technologies. This paper also discusses the impact of technology advancements on vehicle margins, complexity, and risk, all of which influence the total system cost.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Piland, William M.

2004-01-01

55

Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

2000-01-01

56

Monitoring Shuttle Burns and Rocket Launches with GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on different GPS analysis techniques that can be used to examine the effects of rocket exhaust on the upper atmosphere. GPS observations of artificially produced electron density holes created by chemical releases from Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine burns will be discussed. The percentage drop in total electron content (TEC) and the temporal and spatial scales observed in the electron density hole for different Shuttle burn experiments will be compared. We will also report on observations of TEC depletions associated with Titan rocket launches on 8 April 2003 and on 19 October 2005. Finally we will discuss the use of GPS measurements of precipitable water vapor from time periods before, during, and after Shuttle burns.

Coster, A. J.; Bhatt, A.; O'Hanlon, B.; Rideout, W.

2009-12-01

57

Further Results of Grossversuch IV: The Effect of the First Rocket Launched into a Potential Hail Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data obtained in Grossversuch IV about hail prevention triggered the hypothesis that only the first rocket launched into a potential hail cell decreases hail kinetic energy in an effect-time interval around 10 min after launching time. Several variations of a randomization test were applied to substantiate this hypothesis. All showed a tendency to confirm the hypothesis, the most significant

J. Bader; W. A. Stahel; W. Schmid

1992-01-01

58

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket - High Angle View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

59

SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

2003-01-01

60

Safe testing nuclear rockets economically  

SciTech Connect

Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

Howe, S. D. (Steven D.); Travis, B. J. (Bryan J.); Zerkle, D. K. (David K.)

2002-01-01

61

Atmospheric Ascent Guidance for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket- powered launch vehicles is developed. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through main engine cutoff. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode until high dynamic pressure (including the critical max-Q) portion of the trajectory is over, at which time guidance operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic acceleration (i.e., vacuum dynamics). The initial costate guess is corrected based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Judicious approximations are made to reduce the order and complexity of the state/costate system. Results comparing guided launch vehicle trajectories with POST open-loop trajectories are given verifying the basic formulation of the algorithm. Multiple shooting is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. In particular, just one intermediate shooting point, in addition to the initial shooting point, is sufficient to significantly reduce sensitivity to the guessed initial costates. Simulation results from a high-fidelity trajectory simulation are given for the case of launch to sub-orbital cutoff conditions as well as launch to orbit conditions. An abort to downrange landing site formulation of the algorithm is presented.

Dukeman, Greg A.

2002-01-01

62

UN strongly condemns NKorea rocket launch Monday 16 April 2012  

E-print Network

another launch or a new nuclear test. Acting swiftly, the 15-member council, including North Korea to and from the country. "The swift and unanimous adoption of this strong presidential statement shows against North Korea, despite their close ties. North Korea's attempt to launch a satellite ended

63

Solid rocket motor witness test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

Welch, Christopher S.

1991-01-01

64

Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

2007-01-01

65

Pop Rocket Variables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the concept of variables in relation to launching pop rockets. Learners will work in teams to test a single variable involved in launching a rocket and learn the variables involved with constructing and launching a water rocket. This is activity 1 of 7 in Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion.

2012-08-03

66

Low thrust rocket test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

1990-01-01

67

RANDOM VIBRATION RESPONSE OF A CANTILEVER BEAM TO ACOUSTIC FORCING BY SUPERSONIC ROCKET EXHAUSTS DURING A SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief overview of recently completed research in the area of rocket noise and resulting dynamic behavior of launch pad structures. To gain accurate insight into the vibratory behav- ior of these structures, dynamic tests were integrated into the design process. Aspects of the acoustic load characterization procedure and the test-analysis correlation of random vibration structural response

R. N. Margasahayam; R. E. Caimi

68

J-2X Rocket Engine, 40-Second Test - Duration: 1:01.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA conducted a 40-second test of the J-2X rocket engine Sept. 28, the most recent in a series of tests of the next-generation engine selected as part of the Space Launch System architecture that ...

69

Launch of 2014 RockOn Sounding Rocket - Duration: 0:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

Students and teachers designed experiments which were included in the payload of the RockOn sounding rocket, seen here launching from NASA Wallops Flight Facility on June 26, 2014, at 7:21 a.m. EDT...

70

Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-test test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) flights were conducted during the summer of 1972 over the White Sands Missile Range. The purpose of these tests was to qualify the Viking disk-gap band parachute system behind a full-scale simulator of the Viking Entry Vehicle over the maximum range of entry conditions anticipated in the Viking '75 soft landing on Mars. Test concerns centered on the ability of a minimum weight parachute system to operate without structural damage in the turbulent wake of the blunt-body entry vehicle (140 deg, 11.5 diameter cone). This is the first known instance of parachute operation at supersonic speeds in the wake of such a large blunt body. The flight tests utilized the largest successful balloon-payload weight combination known to get to high altitude (120kft) where rocket engines were employed to boost the test vehicle to supersonic speeds and dynamic pressures simulating the range of conditions on Mars.

Dickinson, D.; Schlemmer, J.; Hicks, F.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

1972-01-01

71

Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

72

Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

2001-01-01

73

Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

74

Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

75

Mercury-Atlas Test Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Project Mercury spacecraft was test launched at 11:15 AM EST on April 25, 1961 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in a test designed to qualify the Mercury Spacecraft and all systems, which must function during orbit and reentry from orbit. The Mercury-Atlas vehicle was destroyed by Range Safety Officer about 40 seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft was recovered and appeared to be in good condition. Atlas was designed to launch payloads into low Earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. NASA first launched Atlas as a space launch vehicle in 1958. Project SCORE, the first communications satellite that transmitted President Eisenhower's pre-recorded Christmas speech around the world, was launched on an Atlas. For all three robotic lunar exploration programs, Atlas was used. Atlas/ Centaur vehicles launched both Mariner and Pioneer planetary probes. The current operational Atlas II family has a 100% mission success rating. For more information about Atlas, please see Chapter 2 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

1961-01-01

76

Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

1986-01-01

77

Rocket Plume Scaling for Orion Wind Tunnel Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel test program was undertaken to assess the jet interaction effects caused by the various solid rocket motors used on the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). These interactions of the external flowfield and the various rocket plumes can cause localized aerodynamic disturbances yielding significant and highly non-linear control amplifications and attenuations. This paper discusses the scaling methodologies used to model the flight plumes in the wind tunnel using cold air as the simulant gas. Comparisons of predicted flight, predicted wind tunnel, and measured wind tunnel forces-and-moments and plume flowfields are made to assess the effectiveness of the selected scaling methodologies.

Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Greathouse, James S.; White, Molly E.

2011-01-01

78

Numerical Simulations of an Unsteady Rocket Launch from the AH-64D Apache Longbow Helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket and missile firings from attack helicopters can cause main engine compressor stall. Studies of this phenomenon suggest that the main engine ingests either the plume from the rockets or the rocket blast waves. This creates surges at the inlet face, causing a loss of power in the main engine. The objective of this project is to set-up a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopter during a rocket launch, in order to qualitatively study the fluid dynamics of the problem. This project presents a progression of three unsteady Navier-Stokes solutions. The first unsteady solution involves only a rocket launch from its launch canister. The second solution is a launch from a canister mounted on the Apache's wing-pylon assembly. The last solution includes the Apache main engine and fuselage. The computations use a series of structured, overset grid systems, which allow for a rocket moving in a prescribed path. The method implements a Roe upwind scheme with LU-SGS (lower-upper factored symmetric Gauss-Seidel). A rotor pressure disk model approximates the helicopter rotor, while the rocket engine exit properties are applied as a prescribed boundary condition. Although the project is only at the half-way point, the first and second CFD simulations suggest the possibility of pressure wave interference. Sudden surges in pressure occur from two sources: at rocket start-up, and as the rocket leaves the canister. Wave patterns set-up by these sources appear to propagate to the location of the engine inlet. However the simplified geometry simulation with the main engine needs to be performed before coming to a conclusion.

Okamoto, Kevin; Dugue, Earl P. N.; Ahmad, Jasim; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

79

Parametric Testing of Launch Vehicle FDDR Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a software system to detect and identify failures, provide real-time diagnostics, and to initiate fault recovery and mitigation. The ERIS (Evaluation of Rocket Integrated Subsystems) failure simulation is a unified Matlab/Simulink model of the Ares I Launch Vehicle with modular, hierarchical subsystems and components. With this model, the nominal flight performance characteristics can be studied. Additionally, failures can be injected to see their effects on vehicle state and on vehicle behavior. A comprehensive test and analysis of such a complicated model is virtually impossible. In this paper, we will describe, how parametric testing (PT) can be used to support testing and analysis of the ERIS failure simulation. PT uses a combination of Monte Carlo techniques with n-factor combinatorial exploration to generate a small, yet comprehensive set of parameters for the test runs. For the analysis of the high-dimensional simulation data, we are using multivariate clustering to automatically find structure in this high-dimensional data space. Our tools can generate detailed HTML reports that facilitate the analysis.

Schumann, Johann; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

2011-01-01

80

Detailed modal testing of a solid rocket motor using a portable test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern analytical techniques have expended the ability to evaluate solid rocket motors used in launch vehicles. As more detailed models of solid rocket motors were developed, testing methods were required to verify the models. Experimental modal analysis (modal testing) of space structures and launch vehicles has been a requirement for model validation for many years. However, previous testing of solid rocket motors has not typically involved dynamic modal testing of full scale motors for verification of solid propellant or system assembly properties. Innovative approaches to the testing of solid rocket motors were developed and modal testing of a full scale, two segment Titan 34D Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) was performed to validate detailed computer modeling. Special modifications were made to convert an existing facility into a temporary modal test facility which would accommodate the test article. The assembly of conventional data acquisition equipment into a multiple channel count portable system has made modal testing in the field feasible. Special purpose hydraulic exciters were configured to apply the dynamic driving forces required. All instrumentation and data collection equipment were installed at the test site for the duration of the test program and removed upon completion. Conversion of an existing test facility into a temporary modal test facility, and use of a multiple channel count portable test data acquisition system allowed all test objectives to be met and resulted in validation of the computer model in a minimum time.

Glozman, Vladimir; Brillhart, Ralph D.

1990-01-01

81

Monitoring Shuttle Burns and Rocket Launches with GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on different GPS analysis techniques that can be used to examine the effects of rocket exhaust on the upper atmosphere. GPS observations of artificially produced electron density holes created by chemical releases from Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine burns will be discussed. The percentage drop in total electron content (TEC) and the temporal and spatial scales

A. J. Coster; A. Bhatt; B. O'Hanlon; W. Rideout

2009-01-01

82

Qualitative risk assessment of Sandia`s rocket preparation and launch facility at Barking Sands, Kauai  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates the application of a qualitative methodology for performing risk assessments using the consequence and probability binning criteria of DOE Order 5481.1B. The particular application that is the subject of this paper is a facility risk assessment conducted for Sandia National Laboratories` Kauai Test Facility (KTF). The KTF is a rocket preparation and launch facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy and is located on the US Navy`s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF consists of an administrative compound and main launch facility located on the north end of the PMRF, as well as the small Kokole Point launch facility located on the south end of the PMRF. It is classified as a moderate hazard facility in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B. As such, its authorization basis for operations necessitates a safety/risk assessment. This paper briefly addresses the hazards associated with KTF operations and the accidents selected for evaluation, introduces the principal elements of the accident assessment methodology, presents analysis details for two of the selected accidents, and provides a summary of results for all of the accidents evaluated.

Mahn, J.A.

1997-12-31

83

Solid rocket motor integration on the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural design, development, and verification testing required to integrate solid rocket motors (SRM) on the Atlas IIAS launch vehicle is described. It is concluded that the next generation Atlas Centaur based on four strap-on Castor IVA SRMs and capable of lifting 7700 pounds to geosynchronous orbit has undergone a rigorous development program. A new system intended to mount and jettison the SRMs from the core vehicle is characterized by robustness and ease of installation. To insulate the aft end of the vehicle against increased SRM-induced heat fluxes and to seal against ingress of potentially hazardous base gases extensive measures were undertaken. They include nonporous engine boots and a thrust section compartment passive pressurization system.

Arnett, Stephen E.

1993-06-01

84

Performance of Air-Launched T-40 Rocket Motors with Two Types of Igniter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-launched firings of eight T-40 rockets have been made. An average total impulse of 22,870 pound-seconds was observed for four of the rounds mounted in cone-cylinder vehicles. Maximum velocities of over 5000 feet per second were observed for two of the rounds with approximately 70-pound pay loads.

Disher, J.H.

1954-01-01

85

A3 Subscale Rocket Hot Fire Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives a description of the methodology and results of J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) hot fire testing supporting the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) project at the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The A3 subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude simulating rocket test facility. This paper focuses on the methods used to operate the facility and obtain the data to support the aerodynamic verification of the A3 rocket diffuser design and experimental data quantifying the heat flux throughout the facility. The JSS was operated at both 80% and 100% power levels and at gimbal angle from 0 to 7 degrees to verify the simulated altitude produced by the rocket-rocket diffuser combination. This was done with various secondary GN purge loads to quantify the pumping performance of the rocket diffuser. Also, special tests were conducted to obtain detailed heat flux measurements in the rocket diffuser at various gimbal angles and in the facility elbow where the flow turns from vertical to horizontal upstream of the 2nd stage steam ejector.

Saunders, G. P.; Yen, J.

2009-01-01

86

Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on NASA's attempts to develop an air-breathing propulsion in an effort to make future space transportation safer, more reliable and significantly less expensive than today's missions. Spacecraft powered by air-breathing rocket engines would be completely reusable, able to take off and land at airport runways and ready to fly again within days. A radical new engine project is called the Integrated System Tests of an Air-breathing Rocket, or ISTAR.

Mack, Gregory; Beaudry, Charles; Ketchum, Andrew; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

87

At Launch Pad 17-A, CCAS, tower rollback reveals the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, as tower rollback begins, a Boeing Delta II rocket undergoes final preparations for launch. The targeted launch time is 4:06 p.m. EST. The Delta II rocket is carrying the Stardust spacecraft, destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

88

An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

2010-01-01

89

Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or development, the appropriate plan and strategy must be put in place at the outset of the development effort. A deferment of this test planning, or inattention to strategy, will compromise the ability of the development program to achieve its systems reliability requirements and/or its development milestones. It is important for the government leadership and support team, as well as the vehicle and propulsion development team, to give early consideration to this aspect of space propulsion and space transportation work.

Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

2005-01-01

90

Novel rocket design flight tested October 23, 2014  

E-print Network

- 1 - Novel rocket design flight tested October 23, 2014 New rocket propellant and motor design scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design sensitivity curve, and make a rocket that's both very high-energy, as well as very safe," said Bryce Tappan

91

Apollo 11 Launched Via the Saturn V Rocket-High Angle View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

92

Features of optical phenomena connected with launches of solid-propellant ballistic rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific optical phenomena observed in the upper atmosphere layers and connected with launches of powerful solid-propellant rockets are considered: the development of spherically symmetric gas-dust formations having the shape of an extending torus in the image plane and the formation of regions with intense blue-green (turquoise) glow observed under twilight conditions along a rocket's flight path. The development of clouds can be represented by the model of a strong explosion occurring at the stage separation of solid-propellant rockets in the upper atmosphere. A turquoise glow arises as a result of resonance scattering of solar radiation on AlO molecules that are formed when metallic aluminum in the composition of fuel interacts with atmosphere components and combustion products.

Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.; Alpatov, V. V.

2013-04-01

93

Static Test of the Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a static firing test of the Solid Rocket Qualification Motor-8 (QM-8) at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah. The twin solid rocket boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

1989-01-01

94

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft, attached to the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket, is lifted up the launch tower. The second and third stages of the rocket will be mated next as preparations continue for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

95

Technologies for Thrust Chambers of Future Launch Vehicle Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Astrium (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle rocket engines are presently being performed within the frame of German national technology programs sponsored by the German Aerospace Center. The main focus of these technology developments is on thrust chamber technologies for future, reusable or semi-reusable high performance launch vehicle liquid rocket engines. This paper shows the present status and the results of the following thrust chamber technologies investigated experimentally on subscale chamber level: - Development of technologies for increased heat transfer to the thrust chamber wall for - Developments of thermal barrier coatings for the thrust chamber hot gas wall for - For future staged combustion cycle engines a subscale chamber program with a new

Immich, Hans; Alting, Jan; Kretschmer, Joachim; Preclik, Dieter

2002-01-01

96

Evaluation of abort capabilities of rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. A fully reusable SSTO vehicle would be quite desirable from an operational standpoint; however, such a vehicle cannot be designed without accompanying technological advances in structure, propulsion, and subsystems. The conceptual design of such a vehicle has recently been completed. This paper examines the abort capabilities of an advanced SSTO launch vehicle which has five main engines. In the event of a single or dual main engine shutdown it was determined when the vehicle could execute return-to-launch-site, abort-to-orbit, or down-range abort maneuvers. Throughout each abort maneuver, vehicle loads are kept within nominal ascent and entry design values.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Powell, Richard W.

1990-01-01

97

Crew Launch Vehicle Mobile Launcher Solid Rocket Motor Plume Induced Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plume-induced environment created by the Ares 1 first stage, five-segment reusable solid rocket motor (RSRMV) will impose high heating rates and impact pressures on Launch Complex 39. The extremes of these environments pose a potential threat to weaken or even cause structural components to fail if insufficiently designed. Therefore the ability to accurately predict these environments is critical to assist in specifying structural design requirements to insure overall structural integrity and flight safety. This paper presents the predicted thermal and pressure environments induced by the launch of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from Launch Complex (LC) 39. Once the environments are predicted, a follow-on thermal analysis is required to determine the surface temperature response and the degradation rate of the materials. An example of structures responding to the plume-induced environment will be provided.

Vu, Bruce T.; Sulyma, Peter

2008-01-01

98

Ascent performance issues of a vertical-takeoff rocket launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced manned launch systems studies under way at the NASA Langley Research Center are part of a broader effort that is examining options for the next manned space transportation system to be developed by the United States. One promising concept that uses near-term technologies is a fully reusable, two-stage vertical-takeoff rocket vehicle. This vehicle features parallel thrusting of the booster

Richard W. Powell; J. C. Naftel; Christopher I. Cruz

1991-01-01

99

Seal testing of large diameter rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigative program examines leakage testing of elastomeric O-ring seals for a solid rocket casing and provides direction towards an improved nondestructive postassembly test. It also details test equipment for the Space Shuttle systems solid rocket boosters (SRB). The results are useful to designers of hardware for pressure containment vessels which use O-ring seals. Using several subscale seal and groove configuration test fixtures equipped with either two or three O-ring seals in series, seal integrity is investigated with both a pressure decay and flowmeter methods. Both types of test equipment adequately detect the practical range of expected seal leak rates of 1 to 0.0001 sccs. The flowmeter leak test equipment appears to reduce testing time substantially. Limited seal leakage testing is performed on full-sized rocket motor segment seals, a pre-Challenger short stack, providing comparison of bore seals to test specimen bore and face seals. The conclusions are that seal reliability, verified via a performance pressure test, can be affected by temperature, quantity of grease, test pressure, and seal pressure load direction. Potential seal failure scenarios including contamination, seal damage, and sealing surface damage are discussed. Recommendations are made for an improved test procedure.

Moore, N. B.; Hellums, John W.; Bechtel, Thomas; Kittredge, Ken; Crossfield, Craig

1991-01-01

100

7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

101

Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test - Duration: 29 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

102

Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

1968-01-01

103

Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

1992-01-01

104

Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

1992-08-01

105

Experimental measurements of the ground cloud growth during the 11 February 1974, Titan-Centaur launch at Kennedy Space Center. [(measurement of rocket exhaust from rocket launching)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan-Centaur was launched from Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1974 at 0948 eastern daylight time. Ground level effluent measurements were obtained from the solid rocket motors for comparison with NASA diffusion models for predicting effluent ground level concentrations and cloud behavior. The results obtained provide a basis for an evaluation of such key model inputs such as cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, crosswind growth, volume expansion, and cloud trajectory. Ground level effluent measurements were limited because of changing meteorological conditions, incorrect instrument location, and operational problems. Based on the measurement results, operational changes are defined. Photographs of the ground exhaust clouds are shown. The chemical composition of the exhaust gases was analyzed and is given.

Stewart, R. B.; Sentell, R. J.; Gregory, G. L.

1976-01-01

106

Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

107

Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested  

ScienceCinema

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

Tappan, Bryce

2015-01-05

108

Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the launch and propulsion of the Genesis spacecraft. Students will become familiar with how rockets are launched, learn how and why specific rockets are chosen for varying payloads, learn about the history of rocketry, and work with variables that might affect the performance of a launch vehicle. They will work in teams to test a single variable involved in launching a rocket and learn the variables involved with constructing and launching a water rocket. Each activity includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided.

109

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, guide the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket, and the Stardust spacecraft connected to it, through an opening to the second stage of the rocket below. The second and third stages of teh rocket will be mated next as preparations continue for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

110

Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Panel Successfully Tested in Rocket Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Actively cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are enabling or enhancing for a broad range of hypersonic and reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems. Teaming with other NASA centers, the Air Force, and industry, the Glenn Ceramics Branch has successfully tested multiple cooled CMC panel concepts in high-heat-flux, high-pressure, flowing rocket engine combustion gas environments. Sub-element components survived multiple cycles and the severe thermal gradients imposed by combustion gas temperatures in excess of 5500 F and cryogenic hydrogen or ambient temperature water internal coolants. These demonstrations are critical for the continued development of this class of materials, and the research is expected to continue with additional concepts and increasingly larger and more complex geometries being fabricated and tested in a broad range of engine operating conditions.

Eckel, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

111

System Development of an Experimental Rocket for a Launch Campaign Organized by The Association of Planete Sciences, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the system development of an experimental rocket for a launch campaign organized by the Association of Planete Sciences in France (http://www.planete-sciences.org). A two-stage experimental rocket was developed by 'Space Club Gifu' and the principal author's laboratory at Gifu University. It incorporates GPS, acceleration and pressure sensors as well as two cameras, one omni-directional. The goals of our experiment are as follows: 1. Constant video monitoring of motor combustion and activity during launch and flight. 2. Acquisition of accelerometer, pressure and GPS data for comparison with simulated results. 3. Developing a new mechanism for stage separation in order to build a future vehicle with two rocket motors. 4. The launch and return of a quasi-satellite to a pre-selected location using GPS data. The rocket launched successfully at La Courtine, France in 1st August of 2007, but unfortunately, the first stage could not be recovered. It along with the video footage of the rocket motor burn was lost. However, the second stage and the quasi-satellite were safely found. This project provides excellent training for engineering students in the fundamentals of engineering design and manufacturing.

Sasaki, Minoru; Nakano, Noriaki; Ohmayu, Satoru; Ogushi, Naoki

112

Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile mission scope.

Ables, Brett

2014-01-01

113

Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

2001-01-01

114

Pegasus air-launched space booster flight test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

1995-03-01

115

Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly steer the beam. The array of phased ring radiators is unique in that it provides improved gain for a small rocket or missile that uses spin stabilization for stability. The antenna pattern created is symmetric about the roll axis (like an omnidirectional wraparound), and is thus capable of providing continuous coverage that is compatible with very fast spinning rockets. For larger ELVs with roll control, a linear array of elements can be used for the 1D scanned beamformer and phased array, or a 2D scanned beamformer can be used with an NxN element array.

Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

2012-01-01

116

At Launch Pad 17-A, CCAS, tower rollback reveals the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, a Boeing Delta II rocket is poised for liftoff after tower rollback. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. The targeted launch time is 4:06 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

117

Nitric acid oxide mixing ratio measurements using a rocket launched chemiluminescent instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 18 rocket launched parachute borne nitric oxide instruments were launched from 1977 to 1985. A very precise instrument for the measurement of the nitric oxide mixing ratio was fabricated. No changes were made in the main body of the instruments, i.e., things associated with the reaction volume. Except for the last 4 launches, however, it did not yield the required absolute values that was hoped for. Two major problems were encountered. First, the wrong choice of the background calibration gas, nitrogen, caused the first 10 data sets to be too low in the absolute mixing ratio by nearly the order of 2 to 5 ppbv. The error was realized, and air was substituted for the bias gas measurement. Second, in the desire to extend the measurement to higher altitudes, the problem of contaminating the inlet flow tube with ozone from the reagent gas was encountered. The ozone valve was opened too early in the flight and this caused the pressure in the reaction volume to exceed the pressure at the flow tube entrance, permitting the ozone to migrate backwards. This problem was restricted to an altitude above 45 km.

Horvath, Jack J.

1989-01-01

118

30. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, looking down from elevated location, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45872. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

119

29. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45870. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

120

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing 20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-02-01

121

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

122

Numerical simulation of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle flowfield with real gas solid rocket plume effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical simulation of the external ascent flowfield of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) was carried out at the freestream Mach number 1.25, the angle of attack -5.1 deg, and the flight Reynolds number 3.25 x 10 exp 6/ft. The simulation is an extension of the solution by Kandula et al. (1991) and incorporates variable gamma effects with a high fidelity grid appropriate for a flight Reynolds number flow solution. Three-dimensional SSLV steady-state simulations with either perfect-gas or variable-gamma-gas Redesigned-Solid-Rocket-Motor (RSRM) plumes are computed on a 14-grid overlapping body-conforming grid system, and the influence of the RSRM exhaust plumes on the SSLV component pressure distributions and integrated loads is examined.

Slotnick, J. P.; Kandula, M.; Buning, P. G.; Martin, F. W., Jr.

1993-01-01

123

Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

1973-01-01

124

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers guide the Stardust spacecraft toward an opening to a Boeing Delta II rocket below. The spacecraft is already connected to the third stage of the rocket that will be mated with the second stage in preparation for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

125

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, watch as the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket is lowered for mating with the second stage below it. The Stardust spacecraft, above it out of sight, is connected to the rocket's third stage. Stardust, targeted for liftoff on Feb. 6, is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

126

RADARSAT-1 Antarctic Mapping Project Carried aloft by a NASA rocket launched from Vandenburg Air Force Base on  

E-print Network

RADARSAT-1 Antarctic Mapping Project Carried aloft by a NASA rocket launched from Vandenburg Air to rotate the normally right-looking SAR to a left-looking mode. This 'Antarctic Mode' provides capability mappings. The first, Antarctic Mapping Mission (AMM-1) began on September 9, 1997 and was successfully

Howat, Ian M.

127

Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

Bowyer, J. M.

1977-01-01

128

Safety aspects of ground testing for large nuclear rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present nuclear rocket reactors under test in Nevada are operated at nominal power levels of 1000 Mw. It does not seem unreasonable in the future to anticipate reactors with power levels in the range up to 5,000 Mw for space applications. It has been shown that the normal testing of large nuclear rocket engines at NRDS could impose some restrictions

Goldman

2012-01-01

129

11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-74433. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

130

5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test facility, June 18, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45264. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

131

9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

132

6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 complex in operation at night, September 12, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45924. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

133

8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

134

10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, April 28, 1964. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-69472. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

135

13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

136

Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable data on aerodynamics. By conducting experiments in a piggyback mode on Pegasus, some critical and secondary design and development issues were addressed at hypersonic speeds. The vehicle was also used to develop hypersonic flight instrumentation and test techniques. NASA's B-52 carrier-launch vehicle was used to get the Pegasus airborne during six launches from 1990 to 1994. Thereafter, an Orbital Sciences L-1011 aircraft launched the Pegasus. The Pegasus launch vehicle itself has a 400- to 600-pound payload capacity in a 61-cubic-foot payload space at the front of the vehicle. The vehicle is capable of placing a payload into low earth orbit. This vehicle is 49 feet long and 50 inches in diameter. It has a wing span of 22 feet. (There is also a Pegasus XL vehicle that was introduced in 1994. Dryden has never launched one of these vehicles, but they have greater thrust and are 56 feet long.)

1997-01-01

137

Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

Smith, C. L.

2003-01-01

138

Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

2002-01-01

139

Options for flight testing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While NASA's current next-generation launch vehicle research has largely focused on advanced all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles (i.e. the X-33 and it's RLV operational follow-on), some attention is being given to advanced propulsion concepts suitable for 'next-generation-and-a-half' vehicles. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines combining rocket and airbreathing elements are one candidate concept. Preliminary RBCC engine development was undertaken by the United States in the 1960's. However, additional ground and flight research is required to bring the engine to technological maturity. This paper presents two options for flight testing early versions of the RBCC ejector scramjet engine. The first option mounts a single RBCC engine module to the X-34 air-launched technology testbed for test flights up to about Mach 6.4. The second option links RBCC engine testing to the simultaneous development of a small-payload (220 lb.) two-stage-to-orbit operational vehicle in the Bantam payload class. This launcher/testbed concept has been dubbed the W vehicle. The W vehicle can also serve as an early ejector ramjet RBCC launcher (albeit at a lower payload). To complement current RBCC ground testing efforts, both flight test engines will use earth-storable propellants for their RBCC rocket primaries and hydrocarbon fuel for their airbreathing modes. Performance and vehicle sizing results are presented for both options.

Olds, John

1996-01-01

140

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched from a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a Black Brant XII rocket. This vehicle was launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in January 1999 from the Poker Flats Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska. The Black Brant XII is a sub-orbital rocket designed to carry payloads of 100 to 500 kg into the upper atmosphere. Flight time is generally in the order of 10-20 minutes. In this experiment, a GPS receiver and antenna was attached to each of the four payloads. One of the GPS receivers was assigned as the "base station", while the other 3 receivers were designated as remotes. GPS time, code and phase measurements were telemetered to a ground station for real-time processing and storage. The object of the mission was to re-compute the position and velocity of the remote units with respect to the base station during the launch phase and after the payloads separated. During the launch segment the 3 baseling distances between the 4 antennas are known from plans and are constant values until each payload is released. On the fly ambiguity determination was used to establish local coordinates from the base antenna to each of the other 3 GPS units during flight. Distance computations were made from the GPS-derived coordinates and compared to plan distances. Using this methodology an error analysis of the relative GPS accuracies has been presented and in addition a description given of the respective payload behaviour following separation from the vehicle.

Martell, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

141

Closed-loop nominal and abort atmospheric ascent guidance for rocket-powered launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket-powered launch vehicles is developed. The ascent guidance function is responsible for commanding attitude, throttle and setting during the powered ascent phase of flight so that the vehicle attains target cutoff conditions in a near optimal manner while satisfying path constraints such as maximum allowed bending moment and maximum allowed axial acceleration. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through orbit insertion. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in an open-loop mode until the high dynamic pressure portion of the trajectory is over, at which time there is a switch to a closed loop guidance mode that operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic forces. The main contribution of this research is an algorithm of the predictor-corrector type wherein the state/costate system is propagated with known (navigated) initial state and guessed initial costate to predict the state/costate at engine cutoff. The initial costate guess is corrected, using a multi-dimensional Newton's method, based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Path constraints are enforced within the propagation process. A modified multiple shooting method is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. Results for a single stage to orbit launch vehicle are given. In addition, the formulation for the free final time multi-arc trajectory optimization problem is given. Results for a two-stage launch vehicle burn-coast-burn ascent to orbit in a closed-loop guidance mode are shown. An abort to landing site formulation of the algorithm and numerical results are presented. A technique for numerically treating the transversality conditions is discussed that eliminates part of the analytical and coding burden associated with optimal control theory.

Dukeman, Greg A.

2005-07-01

142

Rocket nozzle thermal shock tests in an arc heater facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket motor nozzle thermal structural test technique that utilizes arc heated nitrogen to simulate a motor burn was developed. The technique was used to test four heavily instrumented full-scale Star 48 rocket motor 2D carbon/carbon segments at conditions simulating the predicted thermal-structural environment. All four nozzles survived the tests without catastrophic or other structural failures. The test technique demonstrated promise as a low cost, controllable alternative to rocket motor firing. The technique includes the capability of rapid termination in the event of failure, allowing post-test analysis.

Painter, James H.; Williamson, Ronald A.

1986-01-01

143

Chemical rocket propulsion and the environment  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from the examination by the Chemical Rocket Propulsion and the Environment Workshop conducted by AIAA in June 1991 of the impact of rocket launches and ground testing on the earth's environment. The major conclusions of this workshop were: (1) at projected rocket launch rates, neither the liquid- nor the solid-rocket motors will significantly impact stratospheric ozone; (2) there is no global acid rain problem associated with rocket exhaust; and (3) the local launch site and static test site acidification is a minor problem and can be managed.

Mcdonald, A.J. (Thiokol Corp., Brigham City, UT (United States))

1992-03-01

144

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 ...43 Emission testingrocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient...during and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in...

2014-07-01

145

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 ...43 Emission testingrocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient...during and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in...

2012-07-01

146

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 ...43 Emission testingrocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient...during and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in...

2010-07-01

147

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 ...43 Emission testingrocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient...during and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in...

2011-07-01

148

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 ...43 Emission testingrocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient...during and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in...

2013-07-01

149

The acceleration and the deceleration of the tumbling period of Rocket Intercosmos 11 during the first two years after launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the tumbling period of Rocket Intercosmos 11 (1974-34-B) during the first two years after launch is analyzed. It is shown that the period increase observed from August 1974 to June 1976 can be interpreted to be due to torque moments caused by eddy currents induced in the hollow cylinder by the magnetic field of the earth. The tumbling acceleration that was observed in June 1974 is interpreted as an outgassing effect of the rest propellant which remained inside the rocket after burn-off. A model of the outgassing acceleration is developed, showing reasonably good agreement of calculated periods with observed ones.

Boehnhardt, H.; Koehnhke, H.; Seidel, A.

1989-12-01

150

Past and Present Large Solid Rocket Motor Test Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to identify the current and historical trends in the capability of solid rocket motor testing in the United States. The study focused on test positions capable of testing solid rocket motors of at least 10,000 lbf thrust. Top-level information was collected for two distinct data points plus/minus a few years: 2000 (Y2K) and 2010 (Present). Data was combined from many sources, but primarily focused on data from the Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center s Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities Database, and heritage Chemical Propulsion Information Agency/M8 Solid Rocket Motor Static Test Facilities Manual. Data for the Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities Database and heritage M8 Solid Rocket Motor Static Test Facilities Manual is provided to the Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center directly from the test facilities. Information for each test cell for each time period was compiled and plotted to produce a graphical display of the changes for the nation, NASA, Department of Defense, and commercial organizations during the past ten years. Major groups of plots include test facility by geographic location, test cells by status/utilization, and test cells by maximum thrust capability. The results are discussed.

Kowalski, Robert R.; Owen, David B., II

2011-01-01

151

An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is generally performed within two arenas: (1) Production testing for certification and acceptance, and (2) Developmental testing for prototype or experimental purposes. The customer base consists of NASA programs, DOD programs, and commercial programs. Resources in place to perform on-site testing include both civil servants and contractor personnel, hardware and software including data acquisition and control, and 6 test stands with a total of 14 test positions/cells. For several business reasons there is the need to augment understanding of the test costs for all the various types of test campaigns. Historical propulsion test data was evaluated and analyzed in many different ways with the intent to find any correlation or statistics that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost estimates and projections. The analytical efforts included timeline trends, statistical curve fitting, average cost per test, cost per test second, test cost timeline, and test cost envelopes. Further, the analytical effort includes examining the test cost from the perspective of thrust level and test article characteristics. Some of the analytical approaches did not produce evidence strong enough for further analysis. Some other analytical approaches yield promising results and are candidates for further development and focused study. Information was organized for into its elements: a Project Profile, Test Cost Timeline, and Cost Envelope. The Project Profile is a snap shot of the project life cycle on a timeline fashion, which includes various statistical analyses. The Test Cost Timeline shows the cumulative average test cost, for each project, at each month where there was test activity. The Test Cost Envelope shows a range of cost for a given number of test(s). The supporting information upon which this study was performed came from diverse sources and thus it was necessary to build several intermediate databases in order to understand, validate, and manipulate data. These intermediate databases (validated historical account of schedule, test activity, and cost) by themselves are of great value and utility. For example, for the Project Profile, we were able to merged schedule, cost, and test activity. This kind of historical account conveys important information about sequence of events, lead time, and opportunities for improvement in future propulsion test projects. The Product Requirement Document (PRD) file is a collection of data extracted from each project PRD (technical characteristics, test requirements, and projection of cost, schedule, and test activity). This information could help expedite the development of future PRD (or equivalent document) on similar projects, and could also, when compared to the actual results, help improve projections around cost and schedule. Also, this file can be sorted by the parameter of interest to perform a visual review of potential common themes or trends. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test data encountered a lot of difficulties which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future data gathering and analysis.

Ramirez-Pagan, Carmen P.; Rahman, Shamim A.

2009-01-01

152

Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team(s). Trade studies are identified and conducted, leading to a Preliminary Design Review (PDR) at the end of the first semester. A detailed design follows, culminating in a Critical Design Review (CDR), etc. A general process suitable for a two-semester course sequence will be outlined. The project is conducted in an Integrated Product Team (IPT) environment, which includes a project manager, a systems engineer, and the various disciplines needed for the project (propulsion, aerodynamics, structures and materials, mass, CAD, thermal, fluids, etc.). Each student works with a Faculty member or industry advisor who is a specialist in his/her area. This design curriculum enhances the education of the graduates and provides future employers with engineers cognizant of and experienced in the application of Systems Engineering to a full-scale project over the entire product development cycle. For the AY01-02, the curriculum is being applied to the development of a gimbaled aerospike engine and its integration into P-3, scheduled to fly in May 2002. The paper ends with a summary of "lessons learned" from this experience. Budget issues are also addressed to demonstrate the ability to replicate such projects at other institutions with minimal costs, provided that it can be taken advantages of possible synergies between existing programs, in-house resources, and cooperation with other institutions or organizations.

Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

2002-01-01

153

The TEST Pilot Sounding Rocket Payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transition Edge Sensor Telescope Pilot project (TEST Pilot) is a soft x-ray (0.15-2.0 keV) imaging spectrograph that is a suborbital testbed for the next generation of x-ray detectors. A simple Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope composed of flat silicon mirrors defines a 3?x3? focus and a 6?x6? field of view, while the detector array of 1,024 microcalorimeters with sub-eV resolution is the first flight demonstration of a kilopixel x-ray microcalorimeter array and of the code-domain multiplexing readout. The configuration provides an effective area of 400 cm2 and a spectral resolution (R=E/?E) of 800 at the oxygen K lines even from extended sources -- and over 500 cm2 and R=1,000 at 1 keV -- in a low-cost sounding rocket program. Scientific targets for TEST Pilot include galaxy clusters, ISM absorption lines toward the Crab nebula, solar wind charge exchange in comet tails, and historical supernova remnants or SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Zeiger, Benjamin R.; Cash, W. C.; Swetz, D.

2013-04-01

154

Sandia Laboratories rocket program - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical review of Sandia Laboratories rocket programs is presented. From the 60 rocket systems developed at Sandia since 1957, 1225 rockets have been launched at 19 sites, worldwide. Typical rockets developed for the nuclear readiness test program are the Terrier-Sandhawk sounding rocket (boosts a 91-kg, 33-cm-diam payload to an altitude of 427 km) and the Strypi II warhead carrier

G. A. Fowler; R. C. Maydew; W. R. Barton

1976-01-01

155

Thorad-Agena Launch vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thorad-Agena launch vehicle with the SERT-2 (Space Electric Rocket Test-2) spacecraft on launch pad at the Western Test Range in California. The SERT-2 was launched on February 4, 1970 and tested the capability of an electric ion thruster system.

1970-01-01

156

The acceleration and the deceleration of the tumbling period of Rocket Intercosmos 11 during the first two years after launch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analysed the development of the tumbling period of Rocket Intercosmos 11 (1974-34-B) during the first 2 years after launch. We interpret the period increase, observed from August 1974 to June 1976, as being caused by torque moments due to eddy currents induced in the hollow cylinder by the magnetic field of the Earth. The spin-decay time of 1974-34-B

H. Boehnhardt; H. Koehnhke; A. Seidel

1989-01-01

157

Commercial Rocket Engine Readied for Test - Duration: 1:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA?s John C. Stennis Space Center recently installed an Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine for qualification testing as part of a partnership that highlights the space agency?s commitment to...

158

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

159

Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

Rnningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

2005-08-01

160

Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, has begun a series of engine tests on the Reaction Control Engine developed by TRW Space and Electronics for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI). SLI is a technology development effort aimed at improving the safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for reusable launch vehicles. The engine in this photo, the first engine tested at MSFC that includes SLI technology, was tested for two seconds at a chamber pressure of 185 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). Propellants used were liquid oxygen as an oxidizer and liquid hydrogen as fuel. Designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit, the engine is used as an auxiliary propulsion system for docking, reentry, fine-pointing, and orbit transfer while the vehicle is in orbit. The Reaction Control Engine has two unique features. It uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, which creates a safer environment with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions, and it operates in dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The force of low level thrust allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock, while the force of the high level thrust is used for reentry, orbital transfer, and course positioning.

2002-01-01

161

Testing the Equivalence Principle 10,000 Times Better on a Sounding Rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sounding-Rocket Principle Of Equivalence Measurement (SR-POEM) will test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) to 2 10-17 g in an experiment launched into free fall by a sounding rocket. The high sensitivity is possible in a short time because: (1) our laser distance gauges measure to 0.1 pm in 1 second; (2) the high measurement speed allows us to keep the temperature of the critical region stable to within a few ?K using two cascaded thermal low-pass filters; (3) the spacing between the physics package and the test masses is kept constant by virtue of a servo (but not a drag-free satellite); (4) the test masses (TMs) are unconstrained during drops, avoiding constraint-force imperfections; and (5) the position measurement is to a plate that is almost stationary with respect to the TMs (by virtue of the position servo and the initialization of the TMs).

Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.

2014-01-01

162

Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (ISTAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion system development and ground test is being conducted as part of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (ISTAR) program. Rocketdyne, Aerojet and Pratt & Whitney have teamed as the Rocket Based Combined Cycle Consortium (RBC3) to work the propulsion system development. Each company offered unique RBCC propulsion concepts as candidates for the ISTAR propulsion system. A team of engine contractor, vehicle contractor and NASA representatives reviewed the concepts proposed by each company, reviewed the available data and selected the Aerojet RBCC propulsion system concept as the team propulsion system baseline for the ISTAR program. The ISTAR program is currently in a "Jumpstart" phase for development of the engine system leading to ground test of a thermally and power balanced RBCC propulsion system at Stennis Space Center in 2005. A parallel flight test demonstration of this propulsion system is anticipated to lead to first flight in the 2007 timeframe.

Faulkner, Robert F.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

163

Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how and why engineers design satellites to benefit life on Earth, as well as explore motion, rockets and rocket motion. Through six lessons and 10 associated hands-on activities, students discover that the motion of all objectseverything from the flight of a rocket to the movement of a canoeis governed by Newton's three laws of motion. This unit introduces students to the challenges of getting into space for the purpose of exploration. The ideas of thrust, weight and control are explored, helping students to fully understand what goes into the design of rockets and the value of understanding these scientific concepts. After learning how and why the experts make specific engineering choices, students also learn about the iterative engineering design process as they design and construct their own model rockets. Then students explore triangulation, a concept that is fundamental to the navigation of satellites and global positioning systems designed by engineers; by investigating these technologies, they learn how people can determine their positions and the locations of others.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

164

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

SciTech Connect

Fission product release from nuclear rocket propulsion reactor fuel is an important consideration for nuclear rocket development and application. Fission product data from the last six reactors of the Rover program are collected in this paper to provide as basis for addressing development and testing issues. Fission product loss from the fuel will depend on fuel composition and reactor design and operating parameters. During ground testing, fission products can be contained downstream of the reactor. The last Rover reactor tested, the Nuclear Furnance, was mated to an effluent clean-up system that was effective in preventing the discharge of fission products into the atmosphere.

Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS E550, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA))

1991-01-10

165

Reverse engineering of the multiple launch rocket system. Human factors, manpower, personnel, and training in the weapons system acquisition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a briefing format, this report on the Multiple Launch Rocket System summarizes an examination of human factors, manpower, personnel and training (HMPT) issues during the systems acquisition process. The report is one of four reverse engineering studies prepared at the request of Gen. M. R. Thurman, Army Vice Chief of Staff. The four systems were studied as a representative sample of Army weapons systems. They serve as the basis for drawing conclusions about aspects of the weapons system acquisition process which most affect HMPT considerations. A synthesis of the four system studies appears in the final report of the Reverse Engineering Task Force U.S. Army Research Institute.

Arabian, J. M.; Hartel, C. R.; Kaplan, J. D.; Marcus, A.; Promisel, D. M.

1984-06-01

166

Rocket Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By making and testing simple balloon rockets, students acquire a basic understanding of Newton's third law of motion as it applies to rockets. Using balloons, string, straws and tape, they see how rockets are propelled by expelling gases, and test their rockets in horizontal and incline conditions. They also learn about the many types of engineers who design rockets and spacecraft.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

167

Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

Davidian, Kenneth J.

1987-01-01

168

Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

2010-01-01

169

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

170

Commercial Rocket Test Helps Prep for Journey to Mars - Duration: 2:38.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA successfully captured thermal images of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on its descent after it launched in September from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The data from these thermal ima...

171

Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear (fission) thermal propulsion has been identified as a critical technology for a manned mission to Mars by the year 2019. Facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design, which must support a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power for a

Charles D. Harmon; Cathy A. Ottinger; Lawrence C. Sanchez; Larry R. Shipers

1992-01-01

172

Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

Hynes, Michael V.

1993-01-01

173

Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

Vibbart, Charles M.

1988-01-01

174

Space shuttle solid rocket booster redesign and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The redesigned solid rocket motor of the Space Shuttle is described. Improvements over the model that led to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger are outlined. Scale and full-size tests carried out to verify the quality of the redesign are described. A unique feature of the test program is the introduction of deliberate flaws into some test articles. Post-flight evaluation of the redesigned boosters show excellent results.

Mitchell, R. E.

1989-01-01

175

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing - Historical Lecture: Simulated Altitude Testing at AEDC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The span of history covered is from 1958 to the present. The outline of this lecture draws from historical examples of liquid propulsion testing done at AEDC primarily for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) in the Saturn/Apollo Program and for USAF Space and Missile Systems dual-use customers. NASA has made dual use of Air Force launch vehicles, Test Ranges and Tracking Systems, and liquid rocket altitude test chambers / facilities. Examples are drawn from the Apollo/ Saturn vehicles and the testing of their liquid propulsion systems. Other examples are given to extend to the family of the current ELVs and Evolved ELVs (EELVs), in this case, primarily to their Upper Stages. The outline begins with tests of the XLR 99 Engine for the X-15 aircraft, tests for vehicle / engine induced environments during flight in the atmosphere and in Space, and vehicle staging at high altitude. The discussion is from the author's perspective and background in developmental testing.

Dougherty, N. S.

2010-01-01

176

Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

2012-01-01

177

Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

1992-08-01

178

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

SciTech Connect

The experience base regarding fission product behavior developed during the Rover program, the nuclear rocket development program of 1955--1972, will be useful in planning a renewed nuclear rocket program. During the Rover program, 20 reactors were tested at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada. Nineteen of these discharged effluent directly into the atmosphere; the last reactor tested, a non-flight-prototypic, fuel-element-testing reactor called the Nuclear Furnace (NF-1) was connected to an effluent cleanup system that removed fission products before the hydrogen coolant (propellant) was discharged to the atmosphere. In general, we are able to increase both test duration and fuel temperature during the test series. Therefore fission product data from the later part of the program are more interesting and more applicable to future reactors. We have collected fission product retention (and release) data reported in both formal and informal publications for six of the later reactor tests; five of these were Los Alamos reactors that were firsts of a kind in configuration or operating conditions. We have also, with the cooperation of Westinghouse, included fission product data from the NRX-A6 reactor, the final member of series of developmental reactors with the same basic geometry, but with significant design and fabrication improvements as the series continued. Table 1 lists the six selected reactors and the test parameters for each.

Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

1991-01-01

179

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experience base regarding fission product behavior developed during the Rover program, the nuclear rocket development program of 1955 to 1972 will be useful in planning a renewed nuclear rocket program. During the Rover program, 20 reactors were tested at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada. Nineteen of these discharged effluent directly into the atmosphere; the last reactor tested, a non-flight-prototypic, fuel-element-testing reactor called the Nuclear Furnace (NF-1) was connected to an effluent cleanup system that removed fission products before the hydrogen coolant (propellant) was discharged to the atmosphere. In general, we are able to increase both test duration and fuel temperature during the test series. Therefore fission product data from the later part of the program are more interesting and more applicable to future reactors. We have collected fission product retention (and release) data reported in both formal and informal publications for six of the later reactor tests; five of these were Los Alamos reactors that were firsts of a kind in configuration or operating conditions. We have also, with the cooperation of Westinghouse, included fission product data from the NRX-A6 reactor, the final member of a series of developmental reactors with the same basic geometry, but with significant design and fabrication improvements as the series continued. Table 1 lists the six selected reactors and the test parameters for each.

Bokor, Peter C.; Kirk, William L.; Bohl, Richard J.

180

Solid Rocket Booster Qualification Motor in Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photograph of the solid rocket booster's (SRB's) Qualification Motor-1 (QM-1) being prepared for a static firing in a test stand at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah, showing the aft end of the booster. The twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

1979-01-01

181

Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

Finseth, J. L.

1991-01-01

182

Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

183

Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Being Prepared for Stress Loads Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technician adjusts the Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove before a loads-test at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. For the test, technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. PHYSX was launched aboard a Pegasus rocket on October 22, 1998. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable data on aerodynamics. By conducting experiments in a piggyback mode on Pegasus, some critical and secondary design and development issues were addressed at hypersonic speeds. The vehicle was also used to develop hypersonic flight instrumentation and test techniques. NASA's B-52 carrier-launch vehicle was used to get the Pegasus airborne during six launches from 1990 to 1994. Thereafter, an Orbital Sciences L-1011 aircraft launched the Pegasus. The Pegasus launch vehicle itself has a 400- to 600-pound payload capacity in a 61-cubic-foot payload space at the front of the vehicle. The vehicle is capable of placing a payload into low earth orbit. This vehicle is 49 feet long and 50 inches in diameter. It has a wing span of 22 feet. (There is also a Pegasus XL vehicle that was introduced in 1994. Dryden has never launched one of these vehicles, but they have greater thrust and are 56 feet long.)

1997-01-01

184

Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.

Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

2007-01-01

185

Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear (fission) thermal propulsion has been identified as a critical technology for a manned mission to Mars by the year 2019. Facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design, which must support a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power for a flight weight reactor/engine. This paper describes the design of a fuel element ground test facility, with a strong emphasis on safety and economy. The details of major structures and support systems of the facility are discussed, and a design diagram of the test facility structures is presented.

Harmon, Charles D.; Ottinger, Cathy A.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Shipers, Larry R.

1992-07-01

186

ASRM subscale plume deflector testing. [advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

1992-01-01

187

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. In this report, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within plus or minus 1.17%.

Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

188

Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

2014-01-01

189

Determination of the availability of appropriate aged flight rocket motors. [captive tests to determine case bond separation and grain bore cracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.

Martin, P. J.

1974-01-01

190

Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete for Rocket Test Facility Flame Deflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume environments. This project was developed as a continuation of on-going collaborations between LTU and SSC, where test sections of a formulation of high temperature geopolymer binder were cast in the floor and walls of Test Stand E-1 Cell 3, an active rocket engine test stand flame trench. Additionally, geopolymer concrete panels were tested using the NASA-SSC Diagnostic Test Facility (DTF) thruster, where supersonic plume environments were generated on a 1ft wide x 2ft long x 6 inch deep refractory panel. The DTF operates on LOX/GH2 propellants producing a nominal thrust of 1,200 lbf and the combustion chamber conditions are Pc=625psig, O/F=6.0. Data collected included high speed video of plume/panel area and surface profiles (depth) of the test panels measured on a 1-inch by 1-inch giving localized erosion rates during the test. Louisiana Tech conducted a microstructure analysis of the geopolymer binder after the testing program to identify phase changes in the material.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Montes, Carlos; Islam, Rashedul; Allouche, Erez

2014-01-01

191

Ionospheric hole made by a North Korean rocket launched in 2012 December: Observation with the Russian GNSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unha-3 rocket was launched due southward at 00:49:46UT on Dec. 12, 2012, from the Tongchang-ri.launch pad on the Yellow Sea side of North Korea. We converted the RINEX format GPS data of the launch day to TEC, and looked for the ionospheric hole signatures. We could not find clear electron depletion signals simply because no GPS satellites were available in the northwestern skies. GPS is the American GNSS system, and other systems are becoming operational. GEONET receivers have been replaced with the new models capable of receiving multiple GNSS, and about 10 percent of them could observe GLONASS and QZSS, the Russian and the Japanese GNSS, respectively, at the time of the Unha-3 launch. More than 20 GLONASS satellites are already in operation, and we used the number 13 satellite to detect the ionospheric hole formation above the Yellow Sea (see Figure). We modified the software to convert RINEX file into TEC time series [Heki et al., JGSJ 2010] in order to handle RINEX v.2.12 files including GLONASS/QZSS data. The broadcast orbits of the GLONASS satellites are given in the geocentric Cartesian coordinates instead of the Keplerian elements like GPS and QZSS. GLONASS uses different microwave frequencies for different satellites, which also required the modification for the original software to calculate TEC. Ozeki & Heki [2010] compared the thrust of the 1998 and 2009 Taepodong missiles by comparing the sizes/depths of the ionospheric holes, and here we compare the hole made by the 2012 December Unha-3 launch with the past cases. The onset times of the depletion are the same, suggesting similar ascending speeds of the three rockets (missiles). Depth of the hole depends both on the amount of water vapor in the exhaust and the background TEC. The hole of the Unha-3 is similar to the 2009 case (or somewhat deeper/larger), which would reflect the vertical TEC in the 2012 case about 1/3 larger than that in 2009. The hole seems to last longer in the 2012 case possibly because the hole is elongated N-S and the ionospheric piercing point of the line-of-sight took more time to go through the hole. Next we compared the size the holes at various time epochs for the three cases. The 1998 case shows clearly small size, but the other two showed similar hole sizes. In the 2009 case, the hole did not extend to the NE Japan (it remains above the Japan Sea). Likewise, the 2012 hole does not extend further south beyond the 33N line. In the both cases, the second stage engine would have stopped at similar heights and horizontal distances from the launch pads.

Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.

2013-12-01

192

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched From a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a rocket in a sub-orbital NASA science mission. It is shown that the sub-decimetre level were achieved with single frequency GPS receivers.

Martel, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

193

Hot Water Propulsion for Horizontal Rocket Assisted Take-Off Systems for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other concepts, reusable space transportation systems that comprise winged reusable launch vehicles (RLV) with horizontal take-off and horizontal landing (HTHL) are under worldwide investigation, e.g. the respective concepts within ESA's FESTIP-Study (Future European Space Transportation Integration Program) or the HOPPER concept by EADS-ST. The payload of these RLVs could be significantly increased by means of a ground-based take-off assistance

N. Pilz; H. Adirim; R. Lo; A. Schildknecht

2004-01-01

194

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merion M.

2002-01-01

195

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merlon M.

2004-01-01

196

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merlon M.

2003-01-01

197

Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

2011-01-01

198

Testing of electroformed deposited iridium/powder metallurgy rhenium rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials offer the thermal margin for high performance and extended lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets. Rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (Ir) allow hours of operation at 2200 C on Earth-storable propellants. One process for manufacturing Ir/Re rocket chambers is the fabrication of Re substrates by powder metallurgy (PM) and the application of Ir coatings by using electroformed deposition (ED). ED Ir coatings, however, have been found to be porous and poorly adherent. The integrity of ED Ir coatings could be improved by densification after the electroforming process. This report summarizes the testing of two 22-N, ED Ir/PM Re rocket chambers that were subjected to post-deposition treatments in an effort to densify the Ir coating. One chamber was vacuum annealed, while the other chamber was subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP). The chambers were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants, at mixture ratios that simulated the oxidizing environments of Earth-storable propellants. ne annealed ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 24 firings and 4.58 hr at a mixture ratio of 4.2. After only 9 firings, the annealed ED Ir coating began to blister and spall upstream of the throat. The blistering and spalling were similar to what had been experienced with unannealed, as-deposited ED Ir coatings. The HIP ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 91 firings and 11.45 hr at mixture ratios of 3.2 and 4.2. The HIP ED Ir coating remained adherent to the Re substrate throughout testing; there were no visible signs of coating degradation. Metallography revealed, however, thinning of the HIP Ir coating and occasional pores in the Re layer upstream of the throat. Pinholes in the Ir coating may have provided a path for oxidation of the Re substrate at these locations. The HIP ED Ir coating proved to be more effective than vacuum annealed and as-deposited ED Ir. Further densification is still required to match the integrity of chemically vapor deposited Ir coatings. Despite this, the successful long duration testing of the HIP ED Ir chamber, in an oxidizing environment comparable to Earth-storable propellants, demonstrated the viability of this Ir/Re rocket fabrication process.

Reed, Brian D.; Dickerson, Robert

1996-01-01

199

Ground Vibration Testing Options for Space Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New NASA launch vehicles will require development of robust systems in a fiscally-constrained environment. NASA, Department of Defense (DoD), and commercial space companies routinely conduct ground vibration tests as an essential part of math model validation and launch vehicle certification. Although ground vibration testing must be a part of the integrated test planning process, more affordable approaches must also be considered. A study evaluated several ground vibration test options for the NASA Constellation Program flight test vehicles, Orion-1 and Orion-2, which concluded that more affordable ground vibration test options are available. The motivation for ground vibration testing is supported by historical examples from NASA and DoD. The approach used in the present study employed surveys of ground vibration test subject-matter experts that provided data to qualitatively rank six test options. Twenty-five experts from NASA, DoD, and industry provided scoring and comments for this study. The current study determined that both element-level modal tests and integrated vehicle modal tests have technical merits. Both have been successful in validating structural dynamic math models of launch vehicles. However, element-level testing has less overall cost and schedule risk as compared to integrated vehicle testing. Future NASA launch vehicle development programs should anticipate that some structural dynamics testing will be necessary. Analysis alone will be inadequate to certify a crew-capable launch vehicle. At a minimum, component and element structural dynamic tests are recommended for new vehicle elements. Three viable structural dynamic test options were identified. Modal testing of the new vehicle elements and an integrated vehicle test on the mobile launcher provided the optimal trade between technical, cost, and schedule.

Patterson, Alan; Smith, Robert K.; Goggin, David; Newsom, Jerry

2011-01-01

200

Safety aspects of ground testing for large nuclear rockets  

SciTech Connect

Present nuclear rocket reactors under test in Nevada are operated at nominal power levels of 1000 Mw. It does not seem unreasonable in the future to anticipate reactors with power levels in the range up to 5,000 Mw for space applications. It has been shown that the normal testing of large nuclear rocket engines at NRDS could impose some restrictions on the fuel performance which would not otherwise be required by space flight operation. The only apparent alternative would require a capability for decontaminating effluent gases prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition to the source restrictions, tests will almost certainly be controlled by wind and atmospheric stability conditions, and the requirements for monitoring and control of off-site exposures will be much more stringent than those presently in force. An analysis of maximum accidents indicates that projections of present credible occurrences cannot be tolerated in larger engine tests. The apparent alternatives to a significant (order of magnitude or better) reduction in credible accident consequences, are the establishment of an underground test facility, a facility in an area equivalent to the Pacific weapons proving ground, or in space.

Goldman, M.I.

1988-02-01

201

High-Aspect-Ratio Cooling Channel Concept Tested in Lewis' Rocket Engine Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket combustion chamber walls are exposed to the high-temperature environment caused by the combustion of propellants. Even with the walls actively cooled by the fuel, the hot gases can deteriorate the walls severely and limit any possibility for reusing the combustion chamber. For many years, the NASA Lewis Research Center has performed subscale investigations of potential improved cooling concepts to extend the life and reliability of the combustion chamber. Results from previous subscale tests have shown that, by increasing the coolant channel height-to-width aspect ratio, the rocket combustion chamber hot gas side wall temperature can be reduced by as much as 28 percent, without an increase in the coolant pressure drop. Recently, a series of experiments were completed in Lewis' Rocket Engine Test Facility (RETF) to validate the benefits of high aspect ratio cooling channels with a high-pressure, contoured rocket combustion chamber.

1995-01-01

202

Deimos Methane-Oxygen Rocket Engine Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the first DEIMOS Liquid Methane/Oxygen rocket engine test campaign. DEIMOS is an acronym for `Delft Experimental Methane Oxygen propulsion System'. It is a project performed by students under the auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). The engine provides a theoretical design thrust of 1800 N and specific impulse of 287 s at a chamber pressure of 40 bar with a total mass flow of 637 g/s. It has links to sustainable development, as the propellants used are one of the most promising so-called `green propellants'-combinations, currently under scrutiny by the industry, and the engine is designed to be reusable. This paper reports results from the provisional tests, which had the aim of verifying the engine's ability to fire, and confirming some of the design assumptions to give confidence for further engine designs. Measurements before and after the tests are used to determine first estimates on feed pressures, propellant mass flows and achieved thrust. These results were rather disappointing from a performance point of view, with an average thrust of a mere 3.8% of the design thrust, but nonetheless were very helpful. The reliability of ignition and stability of combustion are discussed as well. An initial assessment as to the reusability, the flexibility and the adaptability of the engine was made. The data provides insight into (methane/oxygen) engine designs, leading to new ideas for a subsequent design. The ultimate goal of this project is to have an operational rocket and to attempt to set an amateur altitude record.

Engelen, S.; Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.

203

Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

2011-01-01

204

Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Oxygen materials compatibility testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle impact and frictional heating tests of metals in high pressure oxygen, are conducted in support of the design of an advanced rocket engine oxygen turbopump. Materials having a wide range of thermodynamic properties including heat of combustion and thermal diffusivity were compared in their resistance to ignition and sustained burning. Copper, nickel and their alloys were found superior to iron based and stainless steel alloys. Some materials became more difficult to ignite as oxygen pressure was increased from 7 to 21 MPa (1000 to 3000 psia).

Schoenman, Leonard

1989-01-01

205

Objectives and Progress on Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has conducted dynamic tests on each of its major launch vehicles during the past 45 years. Each test has provided invaluable data to correlate and correct analytical models used to predict structural responses to differing dynamics for these vehicles. With both Saturn V and Space Shuttle, hardware changes were also required to the flight vehicles to ensure crew and vehicle safety. The Ares I IVGVT will undoubtedly provide similar valuable test data to support successful flights of the Constellation Program. The IVGVT will provide test determined natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping for the Ares I. This data will be used to support controls analysis by providing this test data to reduce uncertainty in the models. The value of this testing has been proven by past launch vehicle successes and failures. Performing dynamic testing on the Ares vehicles will provide confidence that the launch vehicles will be safe and successful in their missions. In addition, IVGVT will provide the following benefits for the Ares rockets: a) IVGVT data along with Ares development flights like Ares I-X, Ares I-Y, Ares I-X Prime, and Orion-1 or others will reduce the risk to the Orion-2 crew. IVGVT will permit anchoring the various analytical and operational models used in so many different aspects of Ares operations. b) IVGVT data will permit better understanding of the structural and GN&C margins of the spacecraft and may permit mass savings or expanded day-of-launch opportunities or fewer constraints to launch. c) Undoubtedly IVGVT will uncover some of the "unknown unknowns" so often seen in developing, launching, and flying new spacecraft vehicles and data from IVGVT may help prevent a loss of vehicle or crew. d) IVGVT also will be the first time Ares I flight-like hardware is transported, handled, rotated, mated, stacked, and integrated. e) Furthermore, handling and stacking the IVGVT launch vehicle stacks will be an opportunity to understand certain aspects of vehicle operability much better (for example, handling procedures, touch-labor time to accomplish tasks, access at interfaces, access to stage mating bolts, access to avionics boxes, access to the Interstage, GSE functionality, and many other important aspects of Ares I operability). All of these results will provide for better vehicle safety and better stewardship of national resources as NASA begins its next phase of human space exploration.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.; Chenevert, Donald J.

2009-01-01

206

Design of Electrical Systems for Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities at the John C. Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the design of the electrical systems that are required for the testing of rockets at the Rocket Propulsion Facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (NASA SSC). NASA/SSC s Mission in Rocket Propulsion Testing Is to Acquire Test Performance Data for Verification, Validation and Qualification of Propulsion Systems Hardware. These must be accurate reliable comprehensive and timely. Data acquisition in a rocket propulsion test environment is challenging: severe temporal transient dynamic environments, large thermal gradients, vacuum to 15 ksi pressure regimes SSC has developed and employs DAS, control systems and control systems and robust instrumentation that effectively satisfies these challenges.

Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Bakker, Henry J.; Jensen, Scott L.

2007-01-01

207

Magnetic Launch Assist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this program are to: (1) To develop a safe, reliable, inexpensive, and minimum operation launch assist system for sending payloads into orbit using ground powered, magnetic suspension and propulsion technologies; (2) Improve safety, reliability, operability for third generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV); (3) Reduce vehicle weight and increase payload capacity; and (4) Support operational testing of Rocket Based Combine Cycle (RBCC) engines.

Perez, Jose

2000-01-01

208

Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A\\/S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A\\/S has for almost 40 years designed

Jan-Erik Rnningen; Nils Kubberud

2005-01-01

209

Use of Atomic Fuels for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles Analyzed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the NASA Lewis Research Center, the launch vehicle gross lift-off weight (GLOW) was analyzed for solid particle feed systems that use high-energy density atomic propellants (ref. 1). The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum, boron, carbon, and hydrogen stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents for the liquid carrier were investigated, and the GLOW values of vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with that of a conventional oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant vehicle. Atomic propellants, such as boron, carbon, and hydrogen, have an enormous potential for high specific impulse Isp operation, and their pursuit has been a topic of great interest for decades. Recent and continuing advances in the understanding of matter, the development of new technologies for simulating matter at its most basic level, and manipulations of matter through microtechnology and nanotechnology will no doubt create a bright future for atomic propellants and an exciting one for the researchers exploring this technology.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1999-01-01

210

Unsteady Analyses of Valve Systems in Rocket Engine Testing Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses simulation technology used to support the testing of rocket propulsion systems by performing high fidelity analyses of feed system components. A generalized multi-element framework has been used to perform simulations of control valve systems. This framework provides the flexibility to resolve the structural and functional complexities typically associated with valve-based high pressure feed systems that are difficult to deal with using traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. In order to validate this framework for control valve systems, results are presented for simulations of a cryogenic control valve at various plug settings and compared to both experimental data and simulation results obtained at NASA Stennis Space Center. A detailed unsteady analysis has also been performed for a pressure regulator type control valve used to support rocket engine and component testing at Stennis Space Center. The transient simulation captures the onset of a modal instability that has been observed in the operation of the valve. A discussion of the flow physics responsible for the instability and a prediction of the dominant modes associated with the fluctuations is presented.

Shipman, Jeremy; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet

2004-01-01

211

28. HISTORIC VIEW OF A3 ROCKET IN TEST STAND NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. HISTORIC VIEW OF A-3 ROCKET IN TEST STAND NO. 3 AT KUMMERSDORF (THE LARGEST TEST STAND AT KUMMERSDORF). THE STAND WAS MOBILE, SINCE IT MOVED ALONG RAILS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

212

Education\\/Public Outreach, and IDEAS grant in support of the NASA HEX sounding rocket mission launched March 2003 in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education\\/Public Outreach materials were developed in conjuncation with K-12 classroom teachers for the NASA sounding rocket Horizontal E-Region Experiment launched in March 2003 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The science coordinator for the Yukon-Koyukuk school district and HEX principal investigator Mark Conde of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks also carried out a NASA funded

N. B. Brown

2003-01-01

213

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Implementation in Rocket Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot operational ISHM capability has been implemented for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand (RETS) and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article at NASA Stennis Space Center. The implementation currently includes an ISHM computer and a large display in the control room. The paper will address the overall approach, tools, and requirements. It will also address the infrastructure and architecture. Specific anomaly detection algorithms will be discussed regarding leak detection and diagnostics, valve validation, and sensor validation. It will also describe development and use of a Health Assessment Database System (HADS) as a repository for measurements, health, configuration, and knowledge related to a system with ISHM capability. It will conclude with a discussion of user interfaces, and a description of the operation of the ISHM system prior, during, and after testing.

Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera

2010-01-01

214

The 260: The Largest Solid Rocket Motor Ever Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerojet in the mid 1960s, under contract to NASA, built and static hot fire tested the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) in history for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of utilizing large SRMs for space exploration. This program successfully fabricated two high strength steel chambers, loaded each with approximately 1,68 million pounds of propellant, and static test fired these giants with their nozzles up from an underground silo located adjacent to the Florida everglades. Maximum thrust and total impulse in excess of 5,000,000 lbf and 3,470,000,000 lbf-sec were achieved. Flames from the second firing, conducted at night, were seen over eighty miles away. For comparative purposes: the thrust developed was nearly 100 times that of a Minuteman III second stage and the 260 in.-dia cross-section was over 3 times that of the Space Shuttle SRM.

Crimmins, P.; Cousineau, M.; Rogers, C.; Shell, V.

1999-01-01

215

Wireless Data-Acquisition System for Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless data-acquisition system has been developed as a potential replacement for a wired data-acquisition system heretofore used in testing rocket engines. The traditional use of wires to connect sensors, signal-conditioning circuits, and data acquisition circuitry is time-consuming and prone to error, especially when, as is often the case, many sensors are used in a test. The system includes one master and multiple slave nodes. The master node communicates with a computer via an Ethernet connection. The slave nodes are powered by rechargeable batteries and are packaged in weatherproof enclosures. The master unit and each of the slave units are equipped with a time-modulated ultra-wide-band (TMUWB) radio transceiver, which spreads its RF energy over several gigahertz by transmitting extremely low-power and super-narrow pulses. In this prototype system, each slave node can be connected to as many as six sensors: two sensors can be connected directly to analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in the slave node and four sensors can be connected indirectly to the ADCs via signal conditioners. The maximum sampling rate for streaming data from any given sensor is about 5 kHz. The bandwidth of one channel of the TM-UWB radio communication system is sufficient to accommodate streaming of data from five slave nodes when they are fully loaded with data collected through all possible sensor connections. TM-UWB radios have a much higher spatial capacity than traditional sinusoidal wave-based radios. Hence, this TM-UWB wireless data-acquisition can be scaled to cover denser sensor setups for rocket engine test stands. Another advantage of TM-UWB radios is that it will not interfere with existing wireless transmission. The maximum radio-communication range between the master node and a slave node for this prototype system is about 50 ft (15 m) when the master and slave transceivers are equipped with small dipole antennas. The range can be increased by changing to larger antennas and/or greater transmission power. The battery life of a slave node ranges from about six hours during operation at full capacity to as long as three days when the system is in a "sleep" mode used to conserve battery charge during times between setup and rocket-engine testing. Batteries can be added to prolong operational lifetimes. The radio transceiver dominates the power consumption.

Lin, Chujen; Lonske, Ben; Hou, Yalin; Xu, Yingjiu; Gang, Mei

2007-01-01

216

Electrets used in measuring rocket exhaust effluents from the space shuttle's solid rocket booster during static test firing, DM-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experimental research was to compare Marshall Space Flight Center's electrets with Thiokol's fixed flow air samplers during the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Demonstration Model-3 static test firing on October 19, 1978. The measurement of rocket exhaust effluents by Thiokol's samplers and MSFC's electrets indicated that the firing of the Solid Rocket Booster had no significant effect on the quality of the air sampled. The highest measurement by Thiokol's samplers was obtained at Plant 3 (site 11) approximately 8 km at a 113 degree heading from the static test stand. At sites 11, 12, and 5, Thiokol's fixed flow air samplers measured 0.0048, 0.00016, and 0.00012 mg/m3 of CI. Alongside the fixed flow measurements, the electret counts from X-ray spectroscopy were 685, 894, and 719 counts. After background corrections, the counts were 334, 543, and 368, or an average of 415 counts. An additional electred, E20, which was the only measurement device at a site approximately 20 km northeast from the test site where no power was available, obtained 901 counts. After background correction, the count was 550. Again this data indicate there was no measurement of significant rocket exhaust effluents at the test site.

Susko, M.

1979-01-01

217

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle is lowered into the waters of the Atlantic during a test of a new booster retrieval method. A one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

218

The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

Gilbert, Michael G.

2014-01-01

219

Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormhlen, P.

2004-10-01

220

Ares Launch Vehicles Development Awakens Historic Test Stands at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper chronicles the rebirth of two national rocket testing assets located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: the Dynamic Test Stand (also known as the Ground Vibration Test Stand) and the Static Test Stand (also known as the Main Propulsion Test Stand). It will touch on the historical significance of these special facilities, while introducing the requirements driving modifications for testing a new generation space transportation system, which is set to come on line after the Space Shuttle is retired in 2010. In many ways, America's journey to explore the Moon begins at the Marshall Center, which is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, along with managing the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program and leading the Lunar Lander descent stage work, among other Constellation Program assignments. An important component of this work is housed in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, which manages more than 40 facilities capable of a full spectrum of rocket and space transportation technology testing - from small components to full-up engine systems. The engineers and technicians who operate these test facilities have more than a thousand years of combined experience in this highly specialized field. Marshall has one of the few government test groups in the United States with responsibility for the overall performance of a test program from conception to completion. The Test Laboratory has facilities dating back to the early 1960s, when the test stands needed for the Apollo Program and other scientific endeavors were commissioned and built along the Marshall Center's southern boundary, with logistics access by air, railroad, and barge or boat on the Tennessee River. NASA and its industry partners are designing and developing a new human-rated system based on the requirements for safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation solutions. Given below are summaries of the Dynamic Test Stand and the Static Test Stand capabilities, along with an introduction to the new missions that these sleeping giants will be fulfilling as NASA readies the Ares I for service in the 2015 timeframe, and plans the development work for fielding the Ares V late next decade (fig. 1). Validating modern computer design models and techniques requires the sorts of data that can only be generated by these one-of-a-kind facilities.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Burt, Richard K.

2008-01-01

221

Launch summary for 1978  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

Vostreys, R. W.

1978-01-01

222

Launch It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners use a balloon and other simple materials to design an air-powered rocket that can hit a distant target. Learners are encouraged to consider how rocket length, number of fins, additional weight and launch angle will affect travel distance. The associated leader's guide relates this challenge to NASA and lunar spacecraft.

WGBH

2010-01-01

223

Effluent monitoring of the December 10, 1974, Titan 3-E launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface and airborne field measurements of the cloud behavior and effluent dispersion from a solid rocket motor launch vehicle are presented. The measurements were obtained as part of a continuing launch vehicle effluent monitoring program to obtain experimental field measurements in order to evaluate a model used to predict launch vehicle environmental impact. Results show that the model tends to overpredict effluent levels.

Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.

1978-01-01

224

Rehabilitation of the Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand at Edwards Air Force Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since initial use in 1958 for the X-15 rocket-powered research airplane, the Rocket Engine Test Facility has proven essential for testing and servicing rocket-powered vehicles at Edwards Air Force Base. For almost two decades, several successful flight-test programs utilized the capability of this facility. The Department of Defense has recently demonstrated a renewed interest in propulsion technology development with the establishment of the National Aerospace Initiative. More recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is undergoing a transformation to realign the organization, focusing on the Vision for Space Exploration. These initiatives provide a clear indication that a very capable ground-test stand at Edwards Air Force Base will be beneficial to support the testing of future access-to-space vehicles. To meet the demand of full integration testing of rocket-powered vehicles, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, the Air Force Flight Test Center, and the Air Force Research Laboratory have combined their resources in an effort to restore and upgrade the original X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility to become the new Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand. This report describes the history of the X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility, discusses the current status of the facility, and summarizes recent efforts to rehabilitate the facility to support potential access-to-space flight-test programs. A summary of the capabilities of the facility is presented and other important issues are discussed.

Jones, Daniel S.; Ray, Ronald J.; Phillips, Paul

2005-01-01

225

Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document describes the method and results of the LDA EVA Neutral Buoyancy Development Test to ensure that the LDA hardware support the deployment of the cargo items from the pallet. This document includes the test objectives, flight and mockup hardware description, descriptions of procedures and data collection used in the testing, and the results of the development test at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).

Loughead, T.

1996-01-01

226

Future X Pathfinder: Quick, Low Cost Flight Testing for Tomorrow's Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DC-X and DC-XA Single Stage Technology flight program demonstrated the value of low cost rapid prototyping and flight testing of launch vehicle technology testbeds. NASA is continuing this important legacy through a program referred to as Future-X Pathfinder. This program is designed to field flight vehicle projects that cost around $100M each, with a new vehicle flying about every two years. Each vehicle project will develop and extensively flight test a launch vehicle technology testbed that will advance the state of the art in technologies directly relevant to future space transportation systems. There are currently two experimental, or "X" vehicle projects in the Pathfinder program, with additional projects expected to follow in the near future. The first Pathfinder project is X-34. X-34 is a suborbital rocket plane capable of flights to Mach 8 and 75 kilometers altitude. There are a number of reusable launch vehicle technologies embedded in the X-34 vehicle design, such as composite structures and propellant tanks, and advanced reusable thermal protection systems. In addition, X-34 is designed to carry experiments applicable to both the launch vehicle and hypersonic aeronautics community. X-34 is scheduled to fly later this year. The second Pathfinder project is the X-37. X-37 is an orbital space plane that is carried into orbit either by the Space Shuttle or by an expendable launch vehicle. X-37 provides NASA access to the orbital and orbital reentry flight regimes with an experimental testbed vehicle. The vehicle will expose embedded and carry-on advanced space transportation technologies to the extreme environments of orbit and reentry. Early atmospheric approach and landing tests of an unpowered version of the X-37 will begin next year, with orbital flights beginning in late 2001. Future-X Pathfinder is charting a course for the future with its growing fleet of low-cost X- vehicles. X-34 and X-37 are leading the assault on high launch costs and enabling the flight testing of technologies that will lead to affordable access to space.

London, John, III; Sumrall, Phil

1999-01-01

227

Film Canister Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct and launch rockets using simple materials and their understanding of chemical reactions. Learners can experiment by modifying their rocket designs (shapes) or "fuel packets" (baking soda).

WGBH Boston

2002-01-01

228

Ares Launch Vehicle Transonic Buffet Testing and Analysis Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. In order to obtain these forcing functions, the accepted method is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. The buffet wind-tunnel test program for the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle employed 3.5 percent scale rigid models of the Ares I and Ares I-X launch vehicles instrumented with 256 unsteady pressure transducers each. These models were tested at transonic conditions at the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The ultimate deliverable of the Ares buffet test program are buffet forcing functions (BFFs) derived from integrating the measured fluctuating pressures on the rigid wind-tunnel models. These BFFs are then used as input to a multi-mode structural analysis to determine the vehicle response to buffet and the resulting buffet loads and accelerations. This paper discusses the development of the Ares I and I-X rigid buffet model test programs from the standpoint of model design, instrumentation system design, test implementation, data analysis techniques to yield final products, and presents normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-squared levels.

Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

2010-01-01

229

Acoustic-Structure Interaction in Rocket Engines: Validation Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While analyzing a rocket engine component, it is often necessary to account for any effects that adjacent fluids (e.g., liquid fuels or oxidizers) might have on the structural dynamics of the component. To better characterize the fully coupled fluid-structure system responses, an analytical approach that models the system as a coupled expansion of rigid wall acoustic modes and in vacuo structural modes has been proposed. The present work seeks to experimentally validate this approach. To experimentally observe well-coupled system modes, the test article and fluid cavities are designed such that the uncoupled structural frequencies are comparable to the uncoupled acoustic frequencies. The test measures the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and forced response of cylindrical test articles in contact with fluid-filled cylindrical and/or annular cavities. The test article is excited with a stinger and the fluid-loaded response is acquired using a laser-doppler vibrometer. The experimentally determined fluid-loaded natural frequencies are compared directly to the results of the analytical model. Due to the geometric configuration of the test article, the analytical model is found to be valid for natural modes with circumferential wave numbers greater than four. In the case of these modes, the natural frequencies predicted by the analytical model demonstrate excellent agreement with the experimentally determined natural frequencies.

Davis, R. Benjamin; Joji, Scott S.; Parks, Russel A.; Brown, Andrew M.

2009-01-01

230

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At left, a manipulator arm on a one-man submarine demonstrates its ability to cut tangled parachute riser lines and place a Diver Operator Plug (top right) inside a mock solid rocket booster nozzle (center). Known as DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

231

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Diver Operator Plug (DOP) is being pulled down into the ocean by a newly designed one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000. The activity is part of an operation to attach the plug to a mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle. DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

232

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

233

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a successful dive, the one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is lifted from Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla., onto the deck of the Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. Inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

234

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships, a crane lowers a one-man submarine into the ocean near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Called DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

235

Rockets Away!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in teams to construct and test fly drinking straw rockets. Learners explore how changing the rockets' fins affect flight distance. Learners also practice teaching others in a way that lets others learn by doing before being told or shown how. At the end, learners have a "Rocket Blast-Off Contest" to see who can design a rocket that flies the furthest.

University of Wisconsin Extension

2002-01-01

236

Start Me Up! J-2X Rocket Test - Duration: 59 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA engineers conducted the first in a new round of tests on the next-generation J-2X rocket engine Feb. 15 at Stennis Space Center. The 35-second test continued progress in development of the eng...

237

Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

2011-01-01

238

Reliability assessment of MEMS switches for space applications: laboratory and launch testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel combination of ground-based and flight tests was employed to examine the reliability of capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical switches for use in space applications. Laboratory tests were initially conducted to examine the thermomechanical effects of packaging and space-like thermal stresses on the pull-in voltage of the devices; during this process it was observed that operational stability is highly dependent on the geometrical design of the switch and this must be taken in to account during the design stage. To further expose the switches to acceleration levels experienced during a space mission, they were launched on board a sounding rocket and then subjected to free-fall from a height of over 1.3?km with a resulting impact of over 3500g. Post launch analysis indicates that the switches are remarkably resilient to high levels of acceleration. Some evidence is also present to indicate that time-dependent strain relaxation in die attach epoxy materials may contribute to minor variations in device shape and performance.

OMahony, Conor; Olszewski, Oskar; Hill, Ronan; Houlihan, Ruth; Ryan, Cormac; Rodgers, Ken; Kelleher, Carmel; Duane, Russell; Hill, Martin

2014-12-01

239

Free-flight Performance of a Rocket-boosted, Air-launched 16-inch-diameter Ram-jet Engine at Mach Numbers up to 2.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of air-launched ram-jet engines has been extended to include a study of models with a nominal design free-stream Mach number of 2.40. These models require auxiliary thrust in order to attain a flight speed at which the ram jet becomes self-accelerating. A rocket-boosting technique for providing this auxiliary thrust is described and time histories of two rocket-boosted ram-jet flights are presented. In one flight, the model attained a maximum Mach number of 2.20 before a fuel system failure resulted in the destruction of the engine. Performance data for this model are presented in terms of thrust and drag coefficients, diffuser pressure recovery, mass-flow ratio, combustion efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and over-all engine efficiency.

Disher, John H; Kohl, Robert C; Jones, Merle L

1953-01-01

240

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

2010-01-01

241

Current and Future Rocket Propulsion Testing at NASA Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Year 2000 has been an active one for large-scale propulsion testing at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. This paper highlights several of the current-year test programs conducted at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) including the X-33 Aerospike Engine, Ultra Low Cost Engine (ULCE) program, and the Hybrid Sounding Rocket (HYSR) program. Future directions in propulsion test are also introduced including the development of a large-scale Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) test facility.

Ryan, H. M.; Rahman, S.; Gilbrech, R.

2000-01-01

242

Status review of liquid rocket static test range at Iowa State University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid rocket static test range of the Iowa State University incorporates an Aerobee sustainer propulsion system consisting of a pressure fed (helium) liquid bipropellant (hypergolic) rocket engine with a regeneratively fuel-cooled thrust chamber assembly. The paper covers test results to date (including results of four test firings in the water expulsion mode), construction details of the test stand, the laboratory course syllabus, and the environmental impact statement.

Brodsky, R. F.

1976-01-01

243

Cracking Codes & Launching Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To engage students, many teachers wish to connect the mathematics they are teaching to other branches of mathematics or to real-world applications. The lesson presented in this article, which uses the algebraic skill of finding the equation of a line between two points and the geometric axiom that any two points define a line, does both. A

Paoletti, Teo J.

2013-01-01

244

Sea Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

245

Launch summary for 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

Vostreys, R. W.

1981-01-01

246

ALSAT-2A power subsystem behavior during launch, early operation, and in-orbit test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) decided to design and built two optical Earth observation satellites. The first one, ALSAT-2A, was integrated and tested as a training and cooperation program with EADS Astrium. The second satellite ALSAT-2B will be integrated by ASAL engineers in the Satellite Development Center (CDS) at Oran in Algeria. On 12th July 2010, Algeria has launched ALSAT-2A onboard an Indian rocket PSLV-C15 from the Sriharikota launch base, Chenna. ALSAT-2A is the first Earth observation satellite of the AstroSat-100 family; the design is based on the Myriade platform and comprising the first flight model of the New Astrosat Observation Modular Instrument (NAOMI). This Instrument offers a 2.5m ground resolution for the PAN channel and a 10m ground resolution for four multi-spectral channels which provides high imaging quality. The operations are performed from ALSAT-2 ground segment located in Ouargla (Algeria) and after the test phase ALSAT-2A provides successful images. ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem (EPS) is composed of a Solar Array Generator (SAG ), a Li-ion battery dedicated to power storage and energy source during eclipse or high consumption phases and a Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU). This paper focuses primarily on ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem behavior during Launch and Early OPeration (LEOP) as well as In Orbit Test (IOT). The telemetry data related to the SAG voltage, current and temperature will be analyzed in addition to battery temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current. These parameters will be studied in function of satellite power consumption.

Larbi, N.; Attaba, M.; Beaufume, E.

2012-09-01

247

Aerodynamic Tests of the Space Launch System for Database Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerosciences Branch (EV33) at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been responsible for a series of wind tunnel tests on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) vehicles. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain aerodynamic data during the ascent phase and establish databases that can be used by the Guidance, Navigation, and Mission Analysis Branch (EV42) for trajectory simulations. The paper describes the test particulars regarding models and measurements and the facilities used, as well as database preparations.

Pritchett, Victor E.; Mayle, Melody N.; Blevins, John A.; Crosby, William A.; Purinton, David C.

2014-01-01

248

Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

2011-01-01

249

Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

2003-01-01

250

Solid Rocket Booster Hydraulic Pump Port Cap Joint Load Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solid rocket booster uses hydraulic pumps fabricated from cast C355 aluminum alloy, with 17-4 PH stainless steel pump port caps. Corrosion-resistant steel, MS51830 CA204L self-locking screw thread inserts are installed into C355 pump housings, with A286 stainless steel fasteners installed into the insert to secure the pump port cap to the housing. In the past, pump port cap fasteners were installed to a torque of 33 Nm (300 in-lb). However, the structural analyses used a significantly higher nut factor than indicated during tests conducted by Boeing Space Systems. When the torque values were reassessed using Boeing's nut factor, the fastener preload had a factor of safety of less than 1, with potential for overloading the joint. This paper describes how behavior was determined for a preloaded joint with a steel bolt threaded into steel inserts in aluminum parts. Finite element models were compared with test results. For all initial bolt preloads, bolt loads increased as external applied loads increased. For higher initial bolt preloads, less load was transferred into the bolt, due to external applied loading. Lower torque limits were established for pump port cap fasteners and additional limits were placed on insert axial deformation under operating conditions after seating the insert with an initial preload.

Gamwell, W. R.; Murphy, N. C.

2004-01-01

251

Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

2012-01-01

252

The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for rocket engine component testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of PLCs to the rocket engine component testing at a new Stennis Space Center Component Test Facility is suggested as an alternative to dedicated specialized computers. The PLC systems are characterized by rugged design, intuitive software, fault tolerance, flexibility, multiple end device options, networking capability, and built-in diagnostics. A distributed PLC-based system is projected to be used for testing LH2/LOx turbopumps required for the ALS/NLS rocket engines.

Nail, William; Scheuermann, Patrick; Witcher, Kern

1991-01-01

253

Launch Summary for 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

Vostreys, R. W.

1980-01-01

254

Launching Genesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about the various facets of launching a spacecraft into space. Learners will look at the launch vehicle requirements for the Genesis spacecraft, then decide which rocket should be used from a list of several Delta rockets. Next, they will model the thrusters used for course corrections on the spacecraft, using a milk carton and water. In the third part of this activity, learners investigate how the size of the exit nozzle affects the force of a thruster. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This is lesson 4 of 8 from the Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion module.

255

NASA, ATK Successfully Test Solid Rocket Motor - Duration: 4:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

With a loud roar and mighty column of flame, NASA and ATK Aerospace Systems successfully completed a two-minute, full-scale test of the largest and most powerful solid rocket motor designed for fli...

256

Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the May 12, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne effluent measurements and cloud physical behavior for the May 21, 1977, Titan 3 launch from the Air Force Eastern Test Range, Fla. are presented. The monitoring program included airborne effluent measurements in situ in the launch cloud, visible and infrared photography of cloud growth and physical behavior, and limited surface collection of rain samples. Airborne effluent measurements included concentrations of HCl, NO, NOx, and aerosols as a function of time in the exhaust cloud. For the first time in situ particulate mass concentration and aerosol number density were measured as a function of time and size in the size range of 0.05 to 25 micro meters diameter. Measurement results were similar to those of earlier launch monitorings. Maximum HCl and NOx concentrations ranged from 10 ppm and 500 ppb, respectively, several minutes after launch to about 1 ppm and 100 ppb at 45 minutes after launch.

Gregory, G. L.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D. C.

1979-01-01

257

Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Appendix F: Performance and trajectory for ALS/LRB launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By simply combining two baseline pump-fed LOX/RP-1 Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) with the Denver core, a launch vehicle (Option 1 Advanced Launch System (ALS)) is obtained that can perform both the 28.5 deg (ALS) mission and the polar orbit ALS mission. The Option 2 LRB was obtained by finding the optimum LOX/LH2 engine for the STS/LRB reference mission (70.5 K lb payload). Then this engine and booster were used to estimate ALS payload for the 28.5 deg inclination ALS mission. Previous studies indicated that the optimum number of STS/LRB engines is four. When the engine/booster sizing was performed, each engine had 478 K lb sea level thrust and the booster carried 625,000 lb of useable propellant. Two of these LRBs combined with the Denver core provided a launch vehicle that meets the payload requirements for both the ALS and STS reference missions. The Option 3 LRB uses common engines for the cores and boosters. The booster engines do not have the nozzle extension. These engines were sized as common ALS engines. An ALS launch vehicle that has six core engines and five engines per booster provides 109,100 lb payload for the 28.5 deg mission. Each of these LOX/LH2 LRBs carries 714,100 lb of useable propellant. It is estimated that the STS/LRB reference mission payload would be 75,900 lb.

1989-01-01

258

Air-Breathing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

1998-01-01

259

Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

2010-01-01

260

Launch vehicle test and checkout plan. - Volume 2: Saturn 1B launch vehicle Skylab R (rescue) and AS-208 flow plan and listings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch operations test and checkout plan is a planning document that establishes all launch site checkout activity, including the individual tests and sequence of testing required to fulfill the development center and KSC test and checkout requirements. This volume contains the launch vehicle test and checkout plan encompassing S-1B, S-4B, IU stage, and ground support equipment tests. The plan is based upon AS-208 flow utilizing a manned spacecraft, LUT 1, and launch pad 39B facilities.

1973-01-01

261

Development Status of Reusable Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 30-kN rocket engine, a pilot engine, is being developed in Japan. Development of this pilot engine has been initiated in relation to a reusable sounding rocket, which is also being developed in Japan. This rocket takes off vertically, reaches an altitude of 100 km, lands vertically at the launch site, and is launched again within several days. Due to advantage of reusability, successful development of this rocket will mean that observation missions can be carried out more frequently and economically. In order to realize this rocket concept, the engines installed on the rocket should be characterized by reusability, long life, deep throttling and health monitoring, features which have not yet been established in Japanese rocket engines. To solve the engineering factors entitled by those features, a new design methodology, advanced engine simulations and engineering testing are being focused on in the pilot engine development stage. Especially in engineering testing, limit condition data is acquired to facilitate development of new diagnostic techniques, which can be applied by utilizing the mobility of small-size hardware. In this paper, the development status of the pilot engine is described, including fundamental design and engineering tests of the turbopump bearing and seal, turbine rig, injector and combustion chamber, and operation and maintenance concepts for one hundred flights by a reusable rocket are examined.

Yoshida, Makoto; Takada, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Niu, Kenichi

262

Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

263

Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

2010-01-01

264

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the pressurization system, including regulator blowdown and propellant ullage performance, measure system pressure drops for comparison to analysis of tubing and components, and validate system activation and re-activation procedures for the helium pressurant system. Secondary objectives included: validating system processes for loading, unloading, and purging, validating procedures and system response for multiple failure scenarios, including relief valve operation, and evaluating system performance for contingency scenarios. The test results of the cold flow development test program are essential in validating the performance and interaction of the Roll Control System and anchoring analysis tools and results to a Critical Design Review level of fidelity.

Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

2010-01-01

265

MSFC Skylab ATM calibration rocket project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Calibration Rocket (CALROC) performances and anomalies encountered are discussed. The performance period included six CALROC flights during the Skylab 2, 3 and 4 missions as well as those rocket flights prior to the Skylab mission which carried CALROC hardware for test purposes. Background material such as project purpose, management, launch facilities, booster and payload configuration is included for better understanding of the CALROC payload and its mission objectives.

1974-01-01

266

Rocket Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is lab based competition. The students engineer a 2-litter rocket to have the maximum hang time. After the initial launch, the students are given an opportunity to re-engineer to produce a better time. The activity finishes with a lab write-up.

267

Balloon Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experiment with force and pressure by building a balloon rocket. When launched, the balloon will run a track wherever you place the string. All you need is a balloon, clothespin, a straw, some tape, and some string, then get ready for take off!

2012-06-26

268

Gravity Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners attempt to send a rocket ship to various targets. Learners can adjust the angle and thrust of the rocket before it is launched. The game simulates the pull of gravity on the rocket from the Earth and Moon. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

2009-01-01

269

Building Bottle Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be investigating the physics behind the launching of a bottle rocket that you will design and build. Go to Air resistance definition and answer the following questions: 1. What is air resistance? 2. How will you design your rocket to reduce the effect of the air resistance? Go to Aerodynamic Forces and list the 4 forces that act on a rocket in motion. Which ones propel the rocket upward and which ...

Mr. Benenati

2008-03-23

270

Validation and Simulation of Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test - 2 - Simulations at 5 Foot Elevation for Evaluation of Launch Mount Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test (ASMAT) is a series of live-fire tests of scaled rocket motors meant to simulate the conditions of the Ares I launch configuration. These tests have provided a well documented set of high fidelity measurements useful for validation including data taken over a range of test conditions and containing phenomena like Ignition Over-Pressure and water suppression of acoustics. Expanding from initial simulations of the ASMAT setup in a held down configuration, simulations have been performed using the Loci/CHEM computational fluid dynamics software for ASMAT tests of the vehicle at 5 ft. elevation (100 ft. real vehicle elevation) with worst case drift in the direction of the launch tower. These tests have been performed without water suppression and have compared the acoustic emissions for launch structures with and without launch mounts. In addition, simulation results have also been compared to acoustic and imagery data collected from similar live-fire tests to assess the accuracy of the simulations. Simulations have shown a marked change in the pattern of emissions after removal of the launch mount with a reduction in the overall acoustic environment experienced by the vehicle and the formation of highly directed acoustic waves moving across the platform deck. Comparisons of simulation results to live-fire test data showed good amplitude and temporal correlation and imagery comparisons over the visible and infrared wavelengths showed qualitative capture of all plume and pressure wave evolution features.

Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Putman, Gabriel C.

2011-01-01

271

Loads analysis and testing of flight configuration solid rocket motor outer boot ring segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loads testing on in-house-fabricated flight configuration Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) outer boot ring segments. The tests determined the bending strength and bending stiffness of these beams and showed that they compared well with the hand analysis. The bending stiffness test results compared very well with the finite element data.

Ahmed, Rafiq

1990-01-01

272

Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility with both paraffin and RDX, the mixture will be combined with the melted paraffin. With the melting point of the paraffin far below the decomposition temperature of the RDX, the solvent will be boiled off, leaving the crystallized RDX embedded in the paraffin. At low percentages of RDX additive and with crystallized RDX surrounded by paraffin, the fuel grains will remain inert, maintaining a key benefit of hybrids in the safety of the solid fuel.

Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

2012-01-01

273

Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

2011-01-01

274

The Optimal Bottle Rocket Lauch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a computer and outdoor lab based activity in which students design two bottle rockets that are designed to reach maximum height. Students will calculate maximum height and terminal velocity for each rocket launched.

Margaret Menzies

275

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

Pagan, B.

1979-01-01

276

Reusable launch vehicle: Technology development and test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) assess the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology development and test programs in the most critical component technologies. At a time when discretionary government spending is under close scrutiny, the RLV program is designed to reduce the cost of access to space through a combination of robust vehicles and a streamlined infrastructure. Routine access to space has obvious benefits for space science, national security, commercial technologies, and the further exploration of space. Because of technological challenges, knowledgeable people disagree about the feasibility of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The purpose of the RLV program proposed by NASA and industry contractors is to investigate the status of existing technology and to identify and advance key technology areas required for development and validation of an SSTO vehicle. This report does not address the feasibility of an SSTO vehicle, nor does it revisit the roles and responsibilities assigned to NASA by the National Transportation Policy. Instead, the report sets forth the NRC committee's findings and recommendations regarding the RLV technology development and test program in the critical areas of propulsion, a reusable cryogenic tank system (RCTS), primary vehicle structure, and a thermal protection system (TPS).

1995-01-01

277

The Micro-X Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeter Sounding Rocket Payload: Final Design and Performance Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first operating set of transition edge sensors (TES) microcalorimeters in space will launch on a sounding rocket carrying the Micro-X imaging X-ray telescope in 2012. We present the final instrument flight design, as well as the results from initial performance tests. A spectral resolution of 2 eV is targeted across the science band of 0.3-2.5 keV. The 12x12 spectrometer array contains 128 active pixels on a 600 micron pitch, consisting of Au/Bi absorbers and Mo/Au bilayer TESs with a transition temperature of 100 mK. A SQUID time-division multiplexer will read out the array at 30 kHz, which is limited by the rocket telemetry. The TESs have been engineered with a 2 ms time constant to match the multiplexer. The detector array and two SQUID stages of the TDM readout system are accommodated in a lightweight Mg enclosure, which is mounted to the 50 mK stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A third SQUID amplification stage is located on the 1.6 K liquid He stage of the cryostat. An on-board 55-Fe source will fluoresce a Ca target, providing 3.7 and 4.0 keV calibration lines that will not interfere with the scientifically interesting energy band.

Rutherford, John; Micro-X Collaboration

2011-09-01

278

World Data Center A (rockets and satellites) catalogue of data. Volume 1, part A: Sounding rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cumulative listing of all scientifically successful rockets that have been identified from various sources is presented. The listing starts with the V-2 rocket launched on 7 March 1947 and contains all rockets identified up to 31 December 1971.

1972-01-01

279

Volume 1 Issue 5 www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis May 2006 Stennis marks rocket engine testing,  

E-print Network

) stage, a cluster of five J-2 engines that powered the Saturn V rockets that took America's Apollo for the project. The non-profit MAST Inc., made up of area business leaders, spearheaded the effort to convince state legislators of the merits of the project, and have also launched an aggressive private

280

Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

281

Andoya Rocket Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) has sponsored the Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experimental Rocket, CAPER, campaign. The objective of this mission is to "probe a fountain of ions that is always blowing into space." Scientists have launched this project just after a solar storm tore apart a part of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CAPER Rocket launch will take place at the Andoya Rocket Range in January, 1999. This Website offers more information about the CAPER project as well as the launch site.

282

Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

283

The space shuttle advanced solid rocket motor: Quality control and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Congressional committees that authorize the activities of NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) review the testing and quality assurance programs for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. The proposed ASRM design incorporates numerous features that are significant departures from the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The NRC review concentrated mainly on these features. Primary among these are the steel case material, welding rather than pinning of case factory joints, a bolted field joint designed to close upon firing the rocket, continuous mixing and casting of the solid propellant in place of the current batch processes, use of asbestos-free insulation, and a lightweight nozzle. The committee's assessment of these and other features of the ASRM are presented in terms of their potential impact on flight safety.

1991-01-01

284

Internal Ballistic Calculation and Test Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interior ballistic model of spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) and a method of internal ballistic calculation were presented in this paper. The internal ballistic calculation equations were solved by fourth-order runge-kutta method. The calculation program and the law of pressure along with time were obtained. Through contrasting with test data, correctness of the theoretical model was verified. Finally, experimental methods

Heng Xue; Chunlan Jiang; Zaicheng Wang

2009-01-01

285

Testing of Paraffin-Based Hybrid Rocket Fuel Using Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to determine regression characteristics of paraffin- based hybrid rocket fuels at the United States Air Force Academy. Regression rates were the main focus of the study because of the historically poor performance of hybrids in this area. Five test runs were conducted with varying fuel lengths of 8.64 to 13.72 cm. The motors consisted of 95%

Timothy R. Brown; Michael C. Lydon

286

Testing of the failure of a solid rocket propellant with tomography methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the proposition of non destructive testing (NDT) of the rocket engine propellant rod. It presents the actual state of the research and perspectives of its continuation. In this research, capacitance tomography system was used. The method was compared with the radiological and radiometric methods. Experiments were done with the use of solid propellant with different pyrotechnic mass

Krzysztof Tomkiewicz; A Pl; Maurice S. Beck; Malcolm Byars

2000-01-01

287

14 CFR 417.125 - Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...powered flight. A caliber, for a rocket configuration, is defined as...largest frontal diameter of the rocket configuration. (f) Tracking...launch operator's wind weighting safety system, and to obtain rocket performance data for...

2013-01-01

288

14 CFR 417.125 - Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...powered flight. A caliber, for a rocket configuration, is defined as...largest frontal diameter of the rocket configuration. (f) Tracking...launch operator's wind weighting safety system, and to obtain rocket performance data for...

2014-01-01

289

Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Industry/NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

1996-01-01

290

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has conducted dynamic tests on each major launch vehicle during the past 45 years. Each test provided invaluable data to correlate and correct analytical models. GVTs result in hardware changes to Saturn and Space Shuttle, ensuring crew and vehicle safety. Ares I IVGT will provide test data such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping to support successful Ares I flights. Testing will support controls analysis by providing data to reduce model uncertainty. Value of testing proven by past launch vehicle successes and failures. Performing dynamic testing on Ares vehicles will provide confidence that the launch vehicles will be safe and successful in their missions.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

2009-01-01

291

Long Life Testing of Oxide-Coated Iridium/Rhenium Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

22-N class rockets, composed of a rhenium (Re) substrate, an iridium (Ir) coating, and an additional composite coating consisting of Ir and a ceramic oxide, were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) propellants. Two rockets were tested, one for nearly 39 hours at a nominal mixture ratio (MR) of 4.6 and chamber pressure (Pc) of 469 kPa, and the other for over 13 hours at a nominal MR of 5.8 and 621 kPa Pc. Four additional Ir/Re rockets, with a composite Ir-oxide coating fabricated using a modified process, were also tested, including one for 1.3 hours at a nominal MR of 16.7 and Pc of 503 kPa. The long lifetimes demonstrated on low MR GO2/GH2 suggest greatly extended chamber lifetimes (tens of hours) in the relatively low oxidizing combustion environments of Earth storable propellants. The oxide coatings could also serve as a protective coating in the near injector region, where a still-mixing flowfield may cause degradation of the Ir layer. Operation at MR close to 17 suggests that oxide-coated Ir/Re rockets could be used in severely oxidizing combustion environments, such as high MR GO2/GH2, oxygen/hydrocarbon, and liquid gun propellants.

Reed, Brian D.

1995-01-01

292

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

293

Design, construction, test and field support of a containerless payload package for rocket flight. [electromagnetic heating and confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a device for electromagnetically heating and positioning containerless melts during space processing was evaluated during a 360 second 0-g suborbital sounding rocket flight. Components of the electromagnetic containerless processing package (ECPP), its operation, and interface with the rocket are described along with flight and qualification tests results.

1977-01-01

294

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique physical characteristics include items such as mass distribution and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system behaves under given loading conditions and different methods of control. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured by certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified by testing before the vehicle becomes operational. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. NASA manned launch vehicles have undergone ground vibration testing leading to the development of successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the inaugural launch of the unmanned Delta III which was lost during launch. Subsequent analyses indicated had a GVT been performed, it would have identified instability issues avoiding loss of the vehicle. This discussion will address GVT planning, set-up, execution and analyses, for the Saturn and Shuttle programs, and will also focus on the current and on-going planning for the Ares I and V Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT).

Askins, Bruce R.; Davis, Susan R.; Salyer, Blaine H.; Tuma, Margaret L.

2008-01-01

295

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control V-2 off-nominal testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the V-2 off nominal test sequence performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control (SRB TVC) system are reported. The TVC subsystem was subjected to 19 off nominal test conditions. The test sequence consisted of: 8 burp starts, 30 hot firings, 14 GN2 spin tests, and 3 servicing passive system tests. It is concluded that the TVC subsystem operated nominally in response to the given commands and test conditions. Test objectives, detail results, and data are included.

Pagan, B.

1981-01-01

296

The Ares I-1 Flight Test--Paving the Road for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first of two new launch vehicle systems. The Ares I-1 flight test vehicle (FTV) will incorporate a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a configuration similar in mass, weight, and shape (outer mold line or OML) to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will be modified to include a fifth, inert segment that makes it approximately the same size and weight as the five segment RSRB, which will be available for the second flight test in 2012. The Ares I-1 vehicle configuration is shown. Each test flight has specific objectives appropriate to the design analysis cycle in progress. The Ares I-1 demonstration test, slated for April 2009, gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack, understand how to control its roll during flight, and other characterize the severe stage separation environment that the upper stage will experience during future operational flights. NASA also will begin the process of modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operational scenarios, as NASA transitions from the Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg

2007-01-01

297

Ignition and Performance Tests of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground testing of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine implementing the Simultaneous Mixing and Combustion scheme was performed at the direct-connect facility of Purdue University's High Pressure Laboratory. The fuel-rich exhaust of a JP-8/H2O2 thruster was mixed with compressed, metered air in a constant area, axisymmetric duct. The thruster was similar in design and function to that which will be used in the flight test series of Dryden's Ducted-Rocket Experiment. The determination of duct ignition limits was made based on the variation of secondary air flow rates and primary thruster equivalence ratios. Thrust augmentation and improvements in specific impulse were studied along with the pressure and temperature profiles of the duct to study mixing lengths and thermal choking. The occurrence of ignition was favored by lower rocket equivalence ratios. However, among ignition cases, better thrust and specific impulse performance were seen with higher equivalence ratios owing to the increased fuel available for combustion. Thrust and specific impulse improvements by factors of 1.2 to 1.7 were seen. The static pressure and temperature profiles allowed regions of mixing and heat addition to be identified. The mixing lengths were found to be shorter at lower rocket equivalence ratios. Total pressure measurements allowed plume-based calculation of thrust, which agreed with load-cell measured values to within 6.5-8.0%. The corresponding Mach Number profile indicated the flow was not thermally choked for the highest duct static pressure case.

Anderson, William E.

2005-01-01

298

Space Launch or Missile Test?: North Korea's Intentions in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly one month after Iran joined the ranks of space-faring nations, North Korea announced its intention to place a communications satellite into orbit. The timing of Pyongyang's launch is not clear, but a spokesman for North Korea's Space Technology Committee said preparations are in \\

Jeff Kueter; James Mazol

299

Fabrication and Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composite Rocket Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has established goals for Second and Third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles. Emphasis has been placed on significantly improving safety and decreasing the cost of transporting payloads to orbit. Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) components are being developed by NASA to enable significant increases in safety and engineer performance, while reducing costs. The development of the following CMC components are being pursued by NASA: (1) Simplex CMC Blisk; (2) Cooled CMC Nozzle Ramps; (3) Cooled CMC Thrust Chambers; and (4) CMC Gas Generator. These development efforts are application oriented, but have a strong underpinning of fundamental understanding of processing-microstructure-property relationships relative to structural analyses, nondestructive characterization, and material behavior analysis at the coupon and component and system operation levels. As each effort matures, emphasis will be placed on optimizing and demonstrating material/component durability, ideally using a combined Building Block Approach and Build and Bust Approach.

Effinger, M. R.; Clinton, R. C., Jr.; Dennis, J.; Elam, S.; Genge, G.; Eckel, A.; Jaskowiak, M. H.; Kiser, J. D.; Lang, J.

2001-01-01

300

General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

301

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem test report (D-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the sequence of tests performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. The operational characteristics of the thrust vector control subsystem components, as determined from the tests, are discussed. Special analyses of fuel consumption, basic steady state characteristics, GN2 spin, and actuator displacement were reviewed which will aid in understanding the performance of the auxiliary power unit. The possibility of components malfunction is also discussed.

Pagan, B.

1978-01-01

302

Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

2004-01-01

303

A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenges of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Due to budgetary and schedule constraints, NASA and industry customers are pushing to test more components, for less money, in a shorter period of time. As these new rocket engine component test programs are undertaken, the lack of technology maturity in the test articles, combined with pushing the test facilities capabilities to their limits, tends to lead to an increase in facility breakdowns and unsuccessful tests. Over the last five years Stennis Space Center's propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and broken numerous test facility and test article parts. While various initiatives have been implemented to provide better propulsion test techniques and improve the quality, reliability, and maintainability of goods and parts used in the propulsion test facilities, unexpected failures during testing still occur quite regularly due to the harsh environment in which the propulsion test facilities operate. Previous attempts at modeling the lifecycle of a propulsion component test project have met with little success. Each of the attempts suffered form incomplete or inconsistent data on which to base the models. By focusing on the actual test phase of the tests project rather than the formulation, design or construction phases of the test project, the quality and quantity of available data increases dramatically. A logistic regression model has been developed form the data collected over the last five years, allowing the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion component test to be calculated. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),..,X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure. Logistic regression has primarily been used in the fields of epidemiology and biomedical research, but lends itself to many other applications. As indicated the use of logistic regression is not new, however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from the models provide project managers with insight and confidence into the affectivity of rocket engine component ground test projects. The initial success in modeling rocket propulsion ground test projects clears the way for more complex models to be developed in this area.

Messer, Bradley P.

2004-01-01

304

Pop! Rocket Launcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a simple air pressure launcher for paper rockets. Learners stomp or jump on an empty 2-liter bottle and force the air inside through connected plastic pipes to propel a paper rocket. The launching activity should be done in an open space like a gymnasium or cafeteria or can be conducted outside on a calm day.

Deborah A. Shearer

2013-01-30

305

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety

James R. Claycomb; Christopher Zachary; Quoc Tran

2009-01-01

306

Objectives and Progress on Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA begins design and development of the Ares launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and explore beyond low Earth orbit, Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component of ensuring that those vehicles can perform the missions assigned to them. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. This data is then used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2011 to 2012 using the venerable Test Stand (TS) 4550, which supported similar tests for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicle stacks.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Asloms. Brice R.

2009-01-01

307

Rocket research and test at the NACA/NASA Wallops Island flight test range 1945-1959  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) to function under the supervision of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) of the Langley Research Center, the Wallops Island flight test range began operations in 1945. Before the end of the decade, researchers at Wallops Island had developed two techniques for studying transonic problems - the free-falling body technique and the wing-flow technique - accomplishments which won NACA the needed funds to develop a guided missile for the Army Armed Forces. PARD kept abreast of developments in solid rocket motor technology and added new rockets to its inventory as they became available, and by 1955 Wallops Island programs encompassed sounding-rocket and spaceflight research. By 1959, after the Wallops range had become a NASA facility, it had played essential roles in the development of such satellite programs as Echo and Project Mercury.

Shortal, J. A.

1980-01-01

308

Small rocket research and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion

Steven Schneider; James Biaglow

1993-01-01

309

Dynamic Tow Maneuver Orbital Launch Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbital launch system and its method of operation use a maneuver to improve the launch condition of a booster rocket and payload. A towed launch aircraft, to which the booster rocket is mounted, is towed to a predetermined elevation and airspeed. The towed launch aircraft begins the maneuver by increasing its lift, thereby increasing the flight path angle, which increases the tension on the towline connecting the towed launch aircraft to a towing aircraft. The increased tension accelerates the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket, while decreasing the speed (and thus the kinetic energy) of the towing aircraft, while increasing kinetic energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket by transferring energy from the towing aircraft. The potential energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket is also increased, due to the increased lift. The booster rocket is released and ignited, completing the launch.

Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

310

From the Rocket Equation to Maxwell's Equations: Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion Nears Space Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The US space program is facing a growing challenge to its decades-long, global leadership position, as current launch costs consume valuable resources and limit achievements in science, exploration, and commercial development. More than 40% of projected launches over the next 10 years have payloads with intended destinations beyond low-Earth orbit. Therefore, more cost-effective upper stages and on-board propulsion systems are critical elements in reducing total space transportation costs. A new type of space propulsion, using electrodynamic tethers, may be capable of performing multiple sequential missions without resupply and have a potential usable lifetime of several years. They may provide an in-space infrastructure that has a very low life cycle cost and greatly enhanced mission flexibility, thus supporting the goal of reducing the cost of access to space. Electrodynamic tether thrusters work by virtue of the force the Earth's magnetic field exerts on a wire carrying an electrical current. The effect is the basis for electric motors and generators. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment, planned for launch in the summer of 2000, will demonstrate the use electrodynamic tether thrust by lowering the altitude of a Delta-H rocket's upper stage on which it will be flying. Applications of the technology include a passive deorbit system for spacecraft at their end-of-life, reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicles, propellantless reboost of the International Space Station, and propulsion and power generation for future missions to Jupiter.

Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert

1999-01-01

311

Simulated and rocket-triggered lightning testing of the Lightning-Invulnerable Device System (LIDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Lightning Invulnerable Device System (LIDS) has been developed to protect nuclear explosive test device systems at the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) against accidental detonation by lightning. In a series of full threat-level tests of a prototype LIDS canister, high-energy storage capacitor banks were used to generate high current rate of rise (di/dt = 200 kA/microsec) and high-peak-current (200 kA), simulated-lightning, transient inputs to the LIDS. Subsequently, researchers participated in the NASA Rocket-Triggered Lightning Program (RTLP). In these experiments, a grounded wire is carried into a highly electrified cloud by a small rocket, causing the canister to be struck by actual lightning. Results indicate that the LIDS provides an extremely effective way to prevent threat-level lightning transients from reaching the safety-critical components within the canister.

Hasbrouck, Richard T.

312

Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall  

SciTech Connect

Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

Michael Kruzic

2007-09-01

313

Design, Development and Testing of the GMI Launch Locks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball Aerospace will deliver the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), to NASA as one of the 3 instruments to fly on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, for launch in 2013. The radiometer, when deployed, is over 8 feet tall and rotates at 32 revolutions per minute (RPM) can be described as a collection of mechanisms working to achieve its scientific objectives. This collection precisely positions a 1.2 meter reflector to a 48.5 degree off nadir angle while rotating, transferring electrical power and signals to and from the RF receivers, designs two very stable calibration sources, and provides the structural integrity of all the components. There are a total of 7 launch restraints coupling across the moving and stationary elements of the structure,. Getting from design to integration will be the focus of this paper.

Sexton, Adam; Dayton, Chris; Wendland, Ron; Pellicciotti, Joseph

2011-01-01

314

A Brief Historical Survey of Rocket Testing Induced Acoustic Environments at NASA SSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted of all the various rocket test programs that have been performed since the establishment of NASA Stennis Space Center. The relevant information from each of these programs were compiled and used to quantify the theoretical noise source levels using the NASA approved methodology for computing "acoustic loads generated by a propulsion system" (NASA SP ]8072). This methodology, which is outlined in Reference 1, has been verified as a reliable means of determining the noise source characteristics of rocket engines. This information is being provided to establish reference environments for new government/business residents to ascertain whether or not their activities will generate acoustic environments that are more "encroaching" in the NASA Fee Area. In this report, the designation of sound power level refers to the acoustic power of the rocket engine at the engine itself. This is in contrast to the sound pressure level associated with the propagation of the acoustic energy in the surrounding air. The first part of the survey documents the "at source" sound power levels and their dominant frequency bands for the range of engines tested at Stennis. The second part of the survey discusses how the acoustic energy levels will propagate non ]uniformly from the test stands. To demonstrate this, representative acoustic sound pressure mappings in the NASA Stennis Fee Area were computed for typical engine tests on the B ]1 and E ]1 test stands.

Allgood, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

315

Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

1975-01-01

316

Comparison of the Effects of using Tygon Tubing in Rocket Propulsion Ground Test Pressure Transducer Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents acoustics environments data collected during liquid oxygen- ethanol hot-fire rocket testing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in November- December 2003. The test program was conducted during development testing of the RS-88 development engine thrust chamber assembly in support of the Orbital Space Plane Crew Escape System Propulsion Program Pad Abort Demonstrator. In addition to induced environments analysis support, coincident data collected using other sensors and methods has allowed benchmarking of specific acoustics test measurement methodologies during propulsion tests. Qualitative effects on data characteristics caused by using tygon sense lines of various lengths in pressure transducer measurements is discussed here.

Farr, Rebecca A.; Wiley, John T.; Vitarius, Patrick

2005-01-01

317

Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-2, Viking 1975 project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-2 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anomalies encounters during the mission is included.

Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

1972-01-01

318

Reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

319

Micro-Rockets for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people are fascinated with rocketry, as evidenced by hundreds of thousands of visitors to the Kennedy Space Center for Space Shuttle launches. Rockets demonstrate important basic principles of chemistry, engineering, and physics 1-5. Even model rockets are exciting to launch. Many physics teachers take advantage of this and use model solid fuel, 6 - 10 and water rockets 11-14

Alice S Fletcher; Julia A Cato; Jennifer A Barrett; Jay S Huebner

2001-01-01

320

Thermal-Mechanical Cyclic Test of a Composite Cryogenic Tank for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of thermal-mechanical cyclic tests conducted on a composite cryogenic tank designed for reusable launch vehicles. Topics covered include: a structural analysis of the composite cryogenic tank, a description of Marshall Space Flight Center's Cryogenic Structure Test Facility, cyclic test plans and accomplishments, burst test and analysis and post-testing evaluation.

Messinger, Ross; Pulley, John

2003-01-01

321

Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket Sounding Launch Program (RSLP). The new mission tenets include shortened operational response periods criteria for the warfighter, while reducing the life-cycle development, production and launch costs of space launch systems. This presentation will focus on the technical challenges in transforming and integrating space launch vehicles and space craft vehicles for small space launch missions.

Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

2010-09-01

322

DESIGN AND TEST OF A LAB-SCALE N2O\\/HTPB HYBRID ROCKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MaCH-SR1 project involved the design of a 1000- lb thrust hybrid rocket with the effort being undertaken during two semesters by 8 senior aerospace engineering students at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The 2002-2003 team was the second year for the project, as the previous team built two static engines and performed test burns on both. The hybrid

Otto Krauss

323

HYDROGEN-OXYGEN ROCKETS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity students build a plastic pipette rocket. The first concept will to learn how igniting varying mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen will affect how far the rocket will fly. Second students will observe and manipulate variables to better understand the fundamental chemistry concepts: principles of combustion reactions, kinetics, stoichiometry, gas mixtures, rocketry, and different types of chemical reactions. Finally, students will assess their own understanding of these chemistry concepts by investigating how NASA scientists launch real rockets into space. One follow-up activity would be to investigate and collect data on a launching a heavier object at the school football field.

David Reierson

324

A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion test. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),.., X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure of accomplishing a full duration test. The use of logistic regression modeling is not new; however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from this type of model provide project managers with insight and confidence into the effectiveness of rocket propulsion ground testing.

Messer, Bradley

2007-01-01

325

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2004-05-01

326

AJ26 Rocket Engine Test - Duration: 1:25.  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA??s John C. Stennis Space Center conducts the second in a series of verification tests on an Aerojet AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of the Orbital Sciences Corporatio...

327

Design margin testing of Peacekeeper solid rocket boosters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Design Margin Test program performed on the three solid propulsion stages of the Peacekeeper ICBM. The objective of the Design Margin Tests was to validate structural models used to establish the margins of safety for two of the most critical environments in the life of a solid booster: long term storage and motor ignition. The critical failure modes evaluated by these tests were inner bore cracking and propellant/insulation debonding. Full scale motors with special imbedded instrumentation were exposed to two separate environments: (1) slow rate cool-down to validate the thermal structural models and to assess margins of safety under long term storage conditions; and (2) high rate pressurization using an inert medium to validate ignition structural models and to assess margins of safety under motor ignition conditions. These models were subsequently adjusted and validated by comparing actual test measurements to predictions and utilizing the actual material properties extracted from the test articles by means of dissection of plugging techniques. The results of the program revealed a number of corrections required to the initial margin of safety analysis in the area of induced strains and stresses as well as actual propellant and bond properties in full scale motors.

Samsonov, A. E.; Betzen, V. R.

1993-11-01

328

Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada Test Site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent NASA\\/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER\\/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER\\/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the

G. Chandler; D. Collins; K. Dye; C. Eberhart; M. Hynes; R. Kovach; R. Ortiz; J. Perea; D. Sherman

2012-01-01

329

Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada test site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent NASA\\/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER\\/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER\\/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the

George Chandler; Donald Collins; Ken Dye; Craig Eberhart; Michael Hynes; Richard Kovach; Robert Ortiz; Jake Perea; Donald Sherman

1993-01-01

330

Plasma tests of sprayed coatings for rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several plasma-sprayed coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in hydrogen plasma and in oxygen plasma mixed with hydrogen plasma. The principal test heat flux was 15 Btu per inch squared seconds. The system consisted of a number of thin 0.002 to 0.020 in. layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The principal materials included are molybdenum nichrome, alumina, and zirconia. The study identifies important factors in coating system fabrication and describes the durability of the coating systems in the test environments. Values of effective thermal conductivity for some of the systems are indicated.

Curren, A. N.; Love, W. K.

1974-01-01

331

Mars Flyer Rocket Propulsion Risk Assessment: ARC Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the investigation of a 10-N, bipropellant thruster, operating at -40 C, with monomethy1hydrazine (MMH) and 25% nitric oxide in nitrogen tetroxide (MON-25). The thruster testing was conducted as part of a risk reduction activity for the Mars Flyer, a proposed mission to fly a miniature airplane in the Martian atmosphere. Testing was conducted using an existing thruster, designed for MMH and MON-3 propellants. MON-25 oxidizer was successfully manufactured from MON-3 by the addition of nitric oxide. The thruster was operated successfully over a range of propellant temperatures (-40 to 21 C and feed pressures (6.9 to 20.7 kPa). The thruster hardware was always equal or lower than the propellant temperature. Most tests were 30- and 60-second durations, with 600- and 1200-second duration and pulse testing also conducted. When operating at -40 C, the mixture ratio of the thruster shifted from the nominal value of 1.65 to about 1.85, probably caused by an increase in MMH viscosity, with a corresponding reduction in MMH flowrate. Specific impulse at - 40 C (at nominal feed pressures) was 267 sec, while performance was 277 sec at 21 C. This difference in performance was due, in part, to the mixture ratio shift.

2001-01-01

332

Artificial intelligence techniques for ground test monitoring of rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system is being developed which can detect anomalies in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data significantly earlier than the redline algorithm currently in use. The training of such an expert system focuses on two approaches which are based on low frequency and high frequency analyses of sensor data. Both approaches are being tested on data from SSME tests and their results compared with the findings of NASA and Rocketdyne experts. Prototype implementations have detected the presence of anomalies earlier than the redline algorithms that are in use currently. It therefore appears that these approaches have the potential of detecting anomalies early eneough to shut down the engine or take other corrective action before severe damage to the engine occurs.

Ali, Moonis; Gupta, U. K.

1990-01-01

333

Test report for 120-inch-diameter Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) model tests. [floating and towing characteristics of space shuttle boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB's) will be jettisoned to impact in the ocean within a 200-mile radius of the launch site. Tests were conducted at Long Beach, California, using a 12-inch diameter Titan 3C model to simulate the full-scale characteristics of the prototype SRB during retrieval operations. The objectives of the towing tests were to investigate and assess the following: (1) a floating and towing characteristics of the SRB; (2) need for plugging the SRB nozzle prior to tow; (3) attach point locations on the SRB; (4) effects of varying the SRB configuration; (5) towing hardware; and (6) difficulty of attaching a tow line to the SRB in the open sea. The model was towed in various sea states using four different types and varying lengths of tow line at various speeds. Three attach point locations were tested. Test data was recorded on magnetic tape for the tow line loads and for model pitch, roll, and yaw characteristics and was reduced by computer to tabular printouts and X-Y plots. Profile and movie photography provided documentary test data.

Jones, W. C.

1973-01-01

334

Brief, Why the Launch Equipment Test Facility Needs a Laser Tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF) supports a wide spectrum of testing and development activities. This capability was originally established in the 1970's to allow full-scale qualification of Space Shuttle umbilicals and T-O release mechanisms. The LETF has leveraged these unique test capabilities to evolve into a versatile test and development area that supports the entire spectrum of operational programs at KSC. These capabilities are historically Aerospace related, but can certainly can be adapted for other industries. One of the more unique test fixtures is the Vehicle Motion Simulator or the VMS. The VMS simulates all of the motions that a launch vehicle will experience from the time of its roll-out to the launch pad, through roughly the first X second of launch. The VMS enables the development and qualification testing of umbilical systems in both pre-launch and launch environments. The VMS can be used to verify operations procedures, clearances, disconnect systems performance &margins, and vehicle loads through processing flow motion excursions.

Yue, Shiu H.

2011-01-01

335

ISRO's solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellantemployed for providing a spin to the apogee motorsto the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satelliteAPPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

1989-08-01

336

Launch Condition Deviations of Reusable Launch Vehicle Simulations in Exo-Atmospheric Zoom Climbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has proposed a two-stage system to deliver a small payload to orbit. The proposal calls for an airplane to perform an exo-atmospheric zoom climb maneuver, from which a second-stage rocket is launched carrying the payload into orbit. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has conducted an in-house generic simulation study to determine how accurately a human-piloted airplane can deliver a second-stage rocket to a desired exo-atmospheric launch condition. A high-performance, fighter-type, fixed-base, real-time, pilot-in-the-loop airplane simulation has been modified to perform exo-atmospheric zoom climb maneuvers. Four research pilots tracked a reference trajectory in the presence of winds, initial offsets, and degraded engine thrust to a second-stage launch condition. These launch conditions have been compared to the reference launch condition to characterize the expected deviation. At each launch condition, a speed change was applied to the second-stage rocket to insert the payload onto a transfer orbit to the desired operational orbit. The most sensitive of the test cases was the degraded thrust case, yielding second-stage launch energies that were too low to achieve the radius of the desired operational orbit. The handling qualities of the airplane, as a first-stage vehicle, have also been investigated.

Urschel, Peter H.; Cox, Timothy H.

2003-01-01

337

Dragonfly directional sensor versus rocket-propelled grenades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dragonfly directional sensor was deployed at the Army's Yuma Proving Grounds for preliminary field tests against rocket-propelled grenades. This wide-field (nonimaging) sensor's purpose was to angularly locate the latter's launch plume. These tests successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept.

Geary, Joseph; Blackwell, Lisa

2015-02-01

338

Solar Thermal Propulsion Optical Figure Measuring and Rocket Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar thermal propulsion has been an important area of study for four years at the Propulsion Research Center. Significant resources have been devoted to the development of the UAH Solar Thermal Laboratory that provides unique, high temperature, test capabilities. The facility is fully operational and has successfully conducted a series of solar thruster shell experiments. Although presently dedicated to solar thermal propulsion, the facility has application to a variety of material processing, power generation, environmental clean-up, and other fundamental research studies. Additionally, the UAH Physics Department has joined the Center in support of an in-depth experimental investigation on Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS) concentrators. Laboratory space has been dedicated to the concentrator evaluation in the UAH Optics Building which includes a vertical light tunnel. Two, on-going, research efforts are being sponsored through NASA MSFC (Shooting Star Flight Experiment) and the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Ground Demonstrator).

Bonometti, Joseph

1997-01-01

339

Theoretical Tools and Software for Modeling, Simulation and Control Design of Rocket Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket test stand and associated subsystems are complex devices whose operation requires that certain preparatory calculations be carried out before a test. In addition, real-time control calculations must be performed during the test, and further calculations are carried out after a test is completed. The latter may be required in order to evaluate if a particular test conformed to specifications. These calculations are used to set valve positions, pressure setpoints, control gains and other operating parameters so that a desired system behavior is obtained and the test can be successfully carried out. Currently, calculations are made in an ad-hoc fashion and involve trial-and-error procedures that may involve activating the system with the sole purpose of finding the correct parameter settings. The goals of this project are to develop mathematical models, control methodologies and associated simulation environments to provide a systematic and comprehensive prediction and real-time control capability. The models and controller designs are expected to be useful in two respects: 1) As a design tool, a model is the only way to determine the effects of design choices without building a prototype, which is, in the context of rocket test stands, impracticable; 2) As a prediction and tuning tool, a good model allows to set system parameters off-line, so that the expected system response conforms to specifications. This includes the setting of physical parameters, such as valve positions, and the configuration and tuning of any feedback controllers in the loop.

Richter, Hanz

2004-01-01

340

Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous tests of liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastropic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed here.

Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

1986-01-01

341

Laser holographic nondestructive testing of the NASA X-248 rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to apply holography for nondestructive testing of the X-248 rocket motor was undertaken. The objective was to establish the capability of holography in detecting known unbonding between liner and propellant. Holography was performed employing stressing techniques: (1) acoustical, (2) thermal, (3) radiative, and (4) static loading. Radiative stressing was successful in locating a large area of liner/propellant unbond. The results were correlated with destructive testing. Theoretical analysis provided an understanding of motor case holography in conjunction with radiative stressing.

Harris, W. J.

1973-01-01

342

Testing the neutrino annihilation model for launching GRB jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the launching of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets remains debated resulting in large uncertainty over the jet composition. Both magnetohydrodynamical and neutrino annihilation models have been proposed for the energy extraction in a black hole/accretion-disc central engine. In particular, for the extreme accretion rates dot{M} 0.1-1 M? s-1 expected for bursts of duration T ? 100 s, the disc can be an efficient neutrino emitter. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation results in an energy deposition rate at the jet that can, in principle, account for the burst's energetics. Recent discoveries of X-ray flares hours after the burst and of ultra-long GRBs suggest that GRB activity can last for 104 s or longer. These long-lived events have fluence similar to that of classical GRBs. In view of these findings, we re-evaluate the neutrino annihilation model. We derive the maximum possible energy of a neutrino-powered jet as a function of the burst duration and show that the available energy drops fast for longer bursts. For a standard choice of the parameters, the model falls short by three to four orders of magnitude in explaining the observed energetics of events that last longer than 103 s.

Leng, Mingbin; Giannios, Dimitrios

2014-11-01

343

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem - Air drop test vehicle/B-52 design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air drop development test program for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System required the design of a large drop test vehicle that would meet all the stringent requirements placed on it by structural loads, safety considerations, flight recovery system interfaces, and sequence. The drop test vehicle had to have the capability to test the drogue and the three main parachutes both separately and in the total flight deployment sequence and still be low-cost to fit in a low-budget development program. The design to test large ribbon parachutes to loads of 300,000 pounds required the detailed investigation and integration of several parameters such as carrier aircraft mechanical interface, drop test vehicle ground transportability, impact point ground penetration, salvageability, drop test vehicle intelligence, flight design hardware interfaces, and packaging fidelity.

Runkle, R. E.; Drobnik, R. F.

1979-01-01

344

Launch site payload test configurations for Space Shuttle scientific payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the test configurations which are utilized in prelaunch testing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for those scientific payloads which are flown in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle. A generalized view of the payload prelaunch processing is provided and the major types of payload configurations are described. The majority of the prelaunch test activity involves the verification of experiment functions, compatibility of experiment-to-carrier interfaces and payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The Shuttle's avionics system is presented as it relates to payloads. The testing of Spacelab experiments and the experiment-to-Spacelab compatibility verification is described as is the test activity for partial payloads and their experiments. Test operations which involve simulated orbiter interface verification and actual payload-to-orbiter testing are discussed. An overview of the Space Station payload processing concept is presented.

Schuiling, Roelof L.; Mayer, Maynette S.

1989-01-01

345

Integrated System Test Approaches for the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide crew access to the International Space Station (ISS) and, together with the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV), serves as one component of a future launch capability for human exploration of the Moon. During the system requirements definition process and early design cycles, NASA defined and began implementing plans for integrated ground and flight testing necessary to achieve the first human launch of Ares I. The individual Ares I flight hardware elements: the first stage five segment booster (FSB), upper stage, and J-2X upper stage engine, will undergo extensive development, qualification, and certification testing prior to flight. Key integrated system tests include the Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA), acceptance tests of the integrated upper stage and upper stage engine assembly, a full-scale integrated vehicle dynamic test (IVDT), aerodynamic testing to characterize vehicle performance, and integrated testing of the avionics and software components. The Ares I-X development flight test will provide flight data to validate engineering models for aerodynamic performance, stage separation, structural dynamic performance, and control system functionality. The Ares I-Y flight test will validate ascent performance of the first stage, stage separation functionality, and a highaltitude actuation of the launch abort system (LAS) following separation. The Orion-1 flight test will be conducted as a full, un-crewed, operational flight test through the entire ascent flight profile prior to the first crewed launch.

Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Askins, Bruce R.; Bland, Jeffrey; Davis, Stephan; Holladay, Jon B.; Taylor, James L.; Taylor, Terry L.; Robinson, Kimberly F.; Roberts, Ryan E.; Tuma, Margaret

2007-01-01

346

Thruster Injector Faceplate Testing in Support of the Aerojet Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To satisfy RBCC rocket thruster requirements of high performance and a minimum amount of free hydrogen at plume boundary, a new impinging injector element using gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen as the propellants has been designed. Analysis has shown that this injector design has potential to provide a high specific impulse (Isp) while minimizing the amount of free hydrogen that is available to be burned with incoming secondary flow. Past studies and test programs have shown that gas/gas-impinging elements typically result in high injector face temperatures due to combustion occurring close to the face. Since this design is new, there is no hot fire experience with this element. Objectives of this test program were to gain experience and hot fire test data on this new rocket thruster element design and injector faceplate pattern. Twenty-two hot fire tests were run with maximum mixture ratio (MR) and chamber pressure (Pc) obtained at 7.25 and 1,822 psia, respectively. Post-test scanning microscope (SEM) images show only slight faceplate erosion during testing. This injector element design performed well and can be operated at design conditions: (1) Pc of 2,000 psia and MR of 7.0 and (2) Pc of 1,000 psia and MR of 5.0.

Fazah, M. M.; Cramer, J. M.

1998-01-01

347

Adhesion Testing of Firebricks from Launch Pad 39A Flame Trench after STS-124  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesion testing was performed on the firebricks in the flame trench of Launch Complex 39A to determine the strength of the epoxy/firebrick bond to the backing concrete wall. The testing used an Elcometer 110 pneumatic adhesion tensile testing instrument (PATTI).

Hintze, Paul E.; Curran, Jerome P.

2009-01-01

348

Test and evaluation for an air-launched guided missile program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis evaluates the Navy's test and evaluation (T and E) process for air-launched guided missiles, identifies T and E management problems, and proposes utilization of a particular test program strategy. Many changes have been made to improve the T and E process, but some of these have resulted in costly inefficiencies. Contributing problems include: the operational test agencies do

K. W. Funk; R. Loraine

1977-01-01

349

Ground Handling of Batteries at Test and Launch-site Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground handling of flight as well as engineering batteries at test facilities and launch-site facilities is a safety critical process. Test equipment interfacing with the batteries should have the required controls to prevent a hazardous failure of the batteries. Test equipment failures should not induce catastrophic failures on the batteries. Transportation requirements for batteries should also be taken into consideration for safe transportation. This viewgraph presentation includes information on the safe handling of batteries for ground processing at test facilities as well as launch-site facilities.

Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Hohl, Alan R.

2008-01-01

350

Ground cloud effluent measurements during the May 30, 1974, Titan 3 launch at the Air Force eastern test range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface-level exhaust effluent measurements of HCl, CO, and particulates, ground-cloud behavior, and some comparisons with model predictions for the launch of a Titan 3 rocket are presented along with a limited amount of airborne sampling measurements of other cloud species (O3, NO, NOX). Values above background levels for these effluents were obtained at 20 of the 30 instrument sites; these values were lower than model predictions and did not exceed public health standards. Cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, and volume are compared with results from previous launches.

Bendura, R. J.; Crumbly, K. H.

1977-01-01

351

Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

1993-01-01

352

A Review of Large Solid Rocket Motor Free Field Acoustics, Part I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the ATK facility in Utah, large full scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five segment version of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, which is for use on future launch vehicles. Since 2006, Acoustic measurements have been taken on large solid rocket motors at ATK. Both the four segment RSRM and the five segment RSRMV have been instrumented. Measurements are used to update acoustic prediction models and to correlate against vibration responses of the motor. Presentation focuses on two major sections: Part I) Unique challenges associated with measuring rocket acoustics Part II) Acoustic measurements summary over past five years

Pilkey, Debbie; Kenny, Robert Jeremy

2011-01-01

353

Redstone Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle awaits test-firing in the Redstone Test Stand during the late 1950s. Between 1953 and 1960, the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama performed hundreds of test firings on the Redstone rocket, over 200 on the Mercury-Redstone vehicle configuration alone. It was this configuration which launched America's first two marned space missions, Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7,in 1961.

1950-01-01

354

Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB) is a real-time web-based command and control, communication, and intelligent simulation environment of ground-vehicle, launch and range operation activities. ILRO-VTB consists of a variety of simulation models combined with commercial and indigenous software developments (NASA Ames). It creates a hybrid software/hardware environment suitable for testing various integrated control system components of launch and range. The dynamic interactions of the integrated simulated control systems are not well understood. Insight into such systems can only be achieved through simulation/emulation. For that reason, NASA has established a VTB where we can learn the actual control and dynamics of designs for future space programs, including testing and performance evaluation. The current implementation of the VTB simulates the operations of a sub-orbital vehicle of mission, control, ground-vehicle engineering, launch and range operations. The present development of the test bed simulates the operations of Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed supports a wide variety of shuttle missions with ancillary modeling capabilities like weather forecasting, lightning tracker, toxic gas dispersion model, debris dispersion model, telemetry, trajectory modeling, ground operations, payload models and etc. To achieve the simulations, all models are linked using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The test bed provides opportunities for government, universities, researchers and industries to do a real time of shuttle launch in cyber space.

Bardina, Jorge; Rajkumar, T.

2003-01-01

355

RocketCam systems for providing situational awareness on rockets, spacecraft, and other remote platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-borne imaging systems derived from commercial technology have been successfully employed on launch vehicles for several years. Since 1997, over sixty such imagers - all in the product family called RocketCamTM - have operated successfully on 29 launches involving most U.S. launch systems. During this time, these inexpensive systems have demonstrated their utility in engineering analysis of liftoff and ascent events, booster performance, separation events and payload separation operations, and have also been employed to support and document related ground-based engineering tests. Such views from various vantage points provide not only visualization of key events but stunning and extremely positive public relations video content. Near-term applications include capturing key events on Earth-orbiting spacecraft and related proximity operations. This paper examines the history to date of RocketCams on expendable and manned launch vehicles, assesses their current utility on rockets, spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles (e.g., UAVs), and provides guidance for their use in selected defense and security applications. Broad use of RocketCams on defense and security projects will provide critical engineering data for developmental efforts, a large database of in-situ measurements onboard and around aerospace vehicles and platforms, compelling public relations content, and new diagnostic information for systems designers and failure-review panels alike.

Ridenoure, Rex

2004-09-01

356

Preliminary study of a hydrogen peroxide rocket for use in moving source jet noise tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation was made of using a hydrogen peroxide rocket to obtain pure moving source jet noise data. The thermodynamic cycle of the rocket was analyzed. It was found that the thermodynamic exhaust properties of the rocket could be made to match those of typical advanced commercial supersonic transport engines. The rocket thruster was then considered in combination with a streamlined ground car for moving source jet noise experiments. When a nonthrottlable hydrogen peroxide rocket was used to accelerate the vehicle, propellant masses and/or acceleration distances became too large. However, when a throttlable rocket or an auxiliary system was used to accelerate the vehicle, reasonable propellant masses could be obtained.

Plencner, R. M.

1977-01-01

357

A life test of a 22-Newton (5-lbf) hydrazine rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life tests were conducted on a 22-N (5-lb) hydrazine rocket thruster which incorporates the latest technology to obtain long life from the catalyst bed. A spring mechanism surrounding the catalyst bed continually applies compression to the catalyst bed to prevent the formation of any void channels. The research rocket thruster was tested over an operational cycle of both steady state and pulse firing which simulated a possible space station duty cycle. The thruster ran as expected for about 40 hours, or 3.2 times 10 to the 6th power N-sec (7.2 times 10 to the 5th power lb-sec) total impulse. Subsequently, some thrust chamber pressure decreases were noted during long steady state test periods. After 60.2 hours of run time, tests had to be terminated due to a blockage in the propellant injector tube which occurred during heating of the thruster by a heat lamp. A chemical analysis of the catalyst indicated that iron and nickel metals had poisoned some of the catalyst, thereby causing a degradation in performance. It was determined that a contaminated barrel of hydrazine was the source of the metal poisoning.

Meng, P. R.; Schneider, S. J.; Morgan, C. J.; Jones, R. E.; Pahl, D. A.

1987-01-01

358

INTELSAT III LIFTS OFF FROM LC 17A ABOARD A DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Delta launch vehicle carrying the Intelsat III spacecraft was launched from Complex 17 at 8:09 p.m. EDT. A malfunction in flight resulted in the rocket breaking up some 102 seconds into the mission. Destruct action was initiated by the Air Force East Test Range some six seconds later when it was apparent that the mission could not succeed.

1968-01-01

359

Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical predictions. A detailed comparison was not performed, however, due to the lack of test data resulting from a failure of the test article. Some theoretical and experimental aspects such as fin effect and round corner were found to reduce the discrepancy between prediction and test results.

Sung, In-Kyung

360

Ablation Performance of Carbon/Carbon Composite Throat after a Solid Rocket Motor Ground Ignition Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ablation performances of a fine-woven, pierced carbon/carbon (C/C) composite throats for solid rocket motor were investigated by a ground ignition test. The ablation surface morphologies of three regions (entrance, throat and exit) of the throats were examined in detail by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the C/C composite throats retain smooth inner surface, experiencing ablation rates of 0.142-0.146 mm/s under a pressure of about 6.0 MPa. But ablation morphologies of the three regions are different, due to the continuously changing of temperatures, velocities, and oxidant concentrations of combustion gas plume.

Yin, Jian; Zhang, Hongbo B.; Xiong, Xiang; Zuo, Jinlv L.; Huang, Baiyun Y.

2012-06-01

361

June 13-17 ROCKETRY CAMP: Level I 4 & Up 9am-12pm Explore the principles of flight; build and launch a model rocket! Each session  

E-print Network

an underwater microgravity simulation. * Learn teamwork like NASA * Learn Newton's Laws of Motion * Learn by creating model airplanes and rockets. Participants experience Newton's Laws of Motion as they navigate

Moore, Paul A.

362

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of NASA Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ares Projects Office (APO) is continuing to make progress toward the final design of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and V will form the space launch capabilities necessary to fulfill NASA's exploration strategy of sending human beings to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As with all new space vehicles there will be a number of tests to ensure the design can be Human Rated. One of these is the Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) that will be measuring responses of the Ares I as a system. All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique characteristics include items such as mass distribution, frequency and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system like the Ares I launch vehicle behaves under given loading conditions. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured through certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified through testing before the vehicle is Human Rated. The IVGVT is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of Ares I during various phases of operational/flight. This testing includes excitations of the vehicle in lateral, longitudinal, and torsional directions at vehicle configurations representing different trajectory points. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C) analysis models for verifying analyses of Ares I. NASA launch vehicles from Saturn to Shuttle have undergone Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) leading to successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the unmanned Delta III. This vehicle was lost during launch. Subsequent analyses indicated that had a GVT been conducted on the vehicle, problems with vehicle modes and control may have been discovered and corrected, avoiding loss of the vehicle/mission. This paper will address GVT planning, set-up, conduction and analyses, for the Saturn and Shuttle programs, and also focus on the current and on-going planning for the Ares I and V IVGVT.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Davis, Susan R.; Askins, Bruce R.; Salyer, Blaine H.

2008-01-01

363

Integrated Testing Approaches for the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I crew launch vehicle is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) and, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, serves as a critical component of NASA's future human exploration of the Moon. During the preliminary design phase, NASA defined and began implementing plans for integrated ground and flight testing necessary to achieve the first human launch of Ares I. The individual Ares I flight hardware elements - including the first stage five segment booster (FSB), upper stage, and J-2X upper stage engine - will undergo extensive development, qualification, and certification testing prior to flight. Key integrated system tests include the upper stage Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA), acceptance tests of the integrated upper stage and upper stage engine assembly, a full-scale integrated vehicle ground vibration test (IVGVT), aerodynamic testing to characterize vehicle performance, and integrated testing of the avionics and software components. The Ares I-X development flight test will provide flight data to validate engineering models for aerodynamic performance, stage separation, structural dynamic performance, and control system functionality. The Ares I-Y flight test will validate ascent performance of the first stage, stage separation functionality, validate the ability of the upper stage to manage cryogenic propellants to achieve upper stage engine start conditions, and a high-altitude demonstration of the launch abort system (LAS) following stage separation. The Orion 1 flight test will be conducted as a full, un-crewed, operational flight test through the entire ascent flight profile prior to the first crewed launch.

Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charles E.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.; Bland, Jeff D.; Davis, Stephan R.; Patterson, Alan F.; Taylor, Terry L.; Robinson, Kimberly L.

2008-01-01

364

Molded nozzle technology for large solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trade studies conducted during the Advanced Launch System and National Launch System Programs selected nozzles manufactured from PAN based carbon cloth phenolic molding compound. This was one component of large solid rocket boosters that could provide for significant cost reduction and still maintain high reliability. Molded nozzle technology is not new and is currently employed in several small tactical systems now in production. What is needed is to determine the feasibility of this technology in larger systems such as NLS. The NASA's MNASAM solid rocket motor was chosen as a 1/4 to 1/2 scale representation of a proposed future ALS/NLS size solid rocket booster nozzle. Design and fabrication accomplishments, process development, acceptance testing, structural load testing, char motor testing results, and thermal and mechanical property data are presented and discussed. Also, cost reduction is discussed relative to the conventional tape wrapped nozzle technology currently employed for the MNASAM.

Fox, Mark L.; Laramee, R. C.

1992-02-01

365

Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

1992-01-01

366

Analysis of Flame Deflector Spray Nozzles in Rocket Engine Test Stands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a unified tightly coupled multi-phase computational framework is described for the analysis and design of cooling spray nozzle configurations on the flame deflector in rocket engine test stands. An Eulerian formulation is used to model the disperse phase and is coupled to the gas-phase equations through momentum and heat transfer as well as phase change. The phase change formulation is modeled according to a modified form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Various simple test cases are presented to verify the validity of the numerical framework. The ability of the methodology to accurately predict the temperature load on the flame deflector is demonstrated though application to an actual sub-scale test facility. The CFD simulation was able to reproduce the result of the test-firing, showing that the spray nozzle configuration provided insufficient amount of cooling.

Sachdev, Jai S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel C.

2010-01-01

367

Development of a liquid oxygen facility for rocket engine injector performance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrated the successful operation of a new liquid oxygen-gaseous methane rocket engine test facility to characterize the performance of a swirl coaxial injector. In support of safe system functional development, an oxygen compatibility and hazards assessment was completed to identify and minimize operational risks. Facility changes were implemented to create a more fault tolerant system. Major upgrades included initiatives to manage the oxygen risk and mitigate specific oxygen ignition mechanisms. Oxygen compatible materials and facility configuration changes were instituted to achieve safer experimentation. The demonstration testing of the cryogenic propellant system employed the swirl coaxial injector element in an ongoing program to study liquid oxygen-methane injectors. The injector performance was evaluated by experimental determination of combustion efficiency. The combustion efficiency determined for the injector arrangement during the single operational test was 80% with a 95% confidence systematic standard uncertainty estimate of 4%. Random uncertainty estimation must await repeated tests.

Mulkey, Henry W.

368

Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

1992-07-01

369

A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

1987-01-01

370

The development of space solid rocket motors in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China has undertaken to research and develop composite solid propellant rocket motors since 1958. At the request of the development of space technology, composite solid propellant rocket motor has developed from small to large, step by step. For the past thirty eight years, much progress has made, many technical obstacles, such as motor design, case materials and their processing technology, propellant formulations and manufacture, nozzles and thrust vector control, safe ignition, environment tests, nondestructive inspection and quality assurance, static firing test and measurement etc. have been solved. A serial of solid rocket motors have been offered for China's satellites launch. The systems of research, design, test and manufacture of solid rocket motors have been formed.

Jianding, Huang; Dingyou, Ye

1997-01-01

371

Suomi Npp and Jpss Pre-Launch Test Data Collection and Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development of each Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) instrument, significant testing was performed, both in ambient and simulated orbital (thermal-vacuum) conditions, at the instrument factory, and again after integration with the spacecraft. The NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), and later the NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office, defined two primary objectives with respect to capturing instrument and spacecraft test data during these test events. The first objective was to disseminate test data and auxiliary documentation to an often distributed network of scientists to permit timely production of independent assessments of instrument performance, calibration, data quality, and test progress. The second goal was to preserve the data and documentation in a catalogued government archive for the life of the mission, to aid in the resolution of anomalies and to facilitate the comparison of on-orbit instrument operating characteristics to those observed prior to launch. In order to meet these objectives, Suomi NPP pre-launch test data collection, distribution, processing, and archive methods included adaptable support infrastructures to quickly and completely transfer test data and documentation from the instrument and spacecraft factories to sensor scientist teams on-site at the factory and around the country. These methods were unique, effective, and low in cost. These efforts supporting pre-launch instrument calibration permitted timely data quality assessments and technical feedback from contributing organizations within the government, academia, and industry, and were critical in supporting timely sensor development. Second, in parallel to data distribution to the sensor science teams, pre-launch test data were transferred and ingested into the central Suomi NPP calibration and validation (cal/val) system, known as the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE), where they will reside for the life of the mission. As a result, data and documentation are available for query, analysis, and download by the cal/val community via the command-line GRAVITE Transfer Protocol (GTP) tool or via the NOAA-collaborative website "CasaNOSA". Instrument and spacecraft test data, telemetry, and ground support equipment information were collected and organized with detailed test procedures, logs, analyses, characterizations, and reports. This 45 Terabyte archive facilitates the comparison of on-orbit Suomi NPP operating characteristics with that observed prior to launch, and will serve as a resource to aid in the assessment of pre-launch JPSS-1 sensor performance. In summary, this paper will present the innovative pre-launch test data campaign infrastructures employed for Suomi NPP and planned for JPSS-1.

Denning, M.; Ullman, R.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Chandler, C.; Adameck, J.

2012-12-01

372

Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

1993-01-01

373

Modeling and Testing of Non-Nuclear, Highpower Simulated Nuclear Thermal Rocket Reactor Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the President offered his new vision for space exploration in January of 2004, he said, "Our third goal is to return to the moon by 2020, as the launching point for missions beyond," and, "With the experience and knowledge gained on the moon, we will then be ready to take the next steps of space exploration: human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond." A human mission to Mars implies the need to move large payloads as rapidly as possible, in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, with the scientific advancements possible with Project Prometheus and its Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), (these use electric propulsion), there is a renewed interest in deep space exploration propulsion systems. According to many mission analyses, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), with its relatively high thrust and high specific impulse, is a serious candidate for such missions. Nuclear rockets utilize fission energy to heat a reactor core to very high temperatures. Hydrogen gas flowing through the core then becomes superheated and exits the engine at very high exhaust velocities. The combination of temperature and low molecular weight results in an engine with specific impulses above 900 seconds. This is almost twice the performance of the LOX/LH2 space shuttle engines, and the impact of this performance would be to reduce the trip time of a manned Mars mission from the 2.5 years, possible with chemical engines, to about 12-14 months.

Kirk, Daniel R.

2005-01-01

374

Test data from small solid propellant rocket motor plume measurements (FA-21)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is described for obtaining a reliable, parametric set of measurements in the exhaust plumes of solid propellant rocket motors. Plume measurements included pressures, temperatures, forces, heat transfer rates, particle sampling, and high-speed movies. Approximately 210,000 digital data points and 15,000 movie frames were acquired. Measurements were made at points in the plumes via rake-mounted probes, and on the surface of a large plate impinged by the exhaust plume. Parametric variations were made in pressure altitude, propellant aluminum loading, impinged plate incidence angle and distance from nozzle exit to plate or rake. Reliability was incorporated by continual use of repeat runs. The test setup of the various hardware items is described along with an account of test procedures. Test results and data accuracy are discussed. Format of the data presentation is detailed. Complete data are included in the appendix.

Hair, L. M.; Somers, R. E.

1976-01-01

375

Enhanced Large Solid Rocket Motor Understanding Through Performance Margin Testing: RSRM Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) is an extended length reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) intended to increase motor performance and internal environments above the current four-segment RSRM flight motor. The principal purpose of ETM-3 is to provide a test article for RSRM component margin testing. As the RSRM and Space Shuttle in general continue to age, replacing obsolete materials becomes an ever-increasing issue. Having a five-segment motor that provides environments in excess of normal opera- tion allows a mechanism to subject replacement materials to a more severe environment than experienced in flight. Additionally, ETM-3 offers a second design data point from which to develop and/or validate analytical models that currently have some level of empiricism associated with them. These enhanced models have the potential to further the understanding of RSRM motor performance and solid rocket motor (SRM) propulsion in general. Furthermore, these data could be leveraged to support a five-segment booster (FSB) development program should the Space Shuttle program choose to pursue this option for abort mode enhancements during the ascent phase. A tertiary goal of ETM-3 is to challenge both the ATK Thiokol Propulsion and NASA MSFC technical personnel through the design and analysis of a large solid rocket motor without the benefit of a well-established performance database such as the RSRM. The end result of this undertaking will be a more competent and experienced workforce for both organizations. Of particular interest are the motor design characteristics and the systems engineering approach used to conduct a complex yet successful large motor static test. These aspects of ETM-3 and more will be summarized.

Huppi, Hal; Tobias, Mark; Seiler, James

2003-01-01

376

Acquisition, interfacing and analysis of sensor measurements in a VR environment for integrated systems health management in rocket engine tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our ongoing work in the area of using virtual reality (VR) environments for the integrated systems health management of complex test environments, such as those found in a rocket engine test stand. Specifically, the paper focuses on the design, development and implementation of a hardware-software framework for acquiring, interfacing, integrating and analyzing multiple sensor measurements for display

Michael Russell; George D. Lecakes; Shreekanth Mandayam; Jonathan A. Morris; Mark Turowski; J. L. Schmalzel

2009-01-01

377

Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

378

Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

2005-01-01

379

Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

2010-01-01

380

Challenging Pneumatic Requirements for Acoustic Testing of the Cryogenic Second Stage for the New Delta 3 Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the unique pneumatic test requirements for the acoustic and shock separation testing of the Second Stage for the new Delta III Rocket at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The testing was conducted in the 45,000 cu ft (25-feet wide by 30-feet deep by 50-foot high) Acoustic Facility. The acoustic testing required that the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks be filled with enough liquid nitrogen (LN2) to simulate launch fuel masses during testing. The challenge for this test dealt with designing, procuring, and fabricating the pneumatic supply systems for quick assembly while maintaining the purity requirements and minimizing costs. The pneumatic systems were designed to fill and drain the both LOX and LH2 tanks as well as to operate the fill/drain and vent valves for each of the tanks. The test criteria for the pneumatic sub-systems consisted of function, cleanliness, availability, and cost. The first criteria, function, required the tanks to be filled and drained in an efficient manner while preventing them from seeing pressures greater than 9 psig which would add a pressure cycle to the tank. An LN2 tanker, borrowed from another NASA facility, served as the pre-cool and drain tanker. Pre-cooling the tanks allowed for more efficient and cost effective transfer from the LN2 delivery tankers. Helium gas, supplied from a high purity tube trailer, was used to pressurize the vapor space above the LN2 pushing it into the drain tanker. The tube trailer also supplied high pressure helium to the vehicle for valve control and component purges. Cleanliness was maintained by proper component selection, end-use particle filtration, and any on-site cleaning determined necessary by testing. In order to meet the availability/cost juggling act, products designed for LOX delivery systems were procured to ensure system compatibility while off the shelf valves and tubing designed for the semiconductor industry were procured for the gas systems.

Webb, Andrew T.

1998-01-01

381

Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle second stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives, facilities, articles, and results are presented of a series of battleship tank firing tests on the second stage propulsion systems of the H-II launch vehicle. The test series included 11 hot firing tests under first burn conditions, restart conditions, and idle mode conditions. Oscillatory perturbations were added to the LOX flow in some cases to obtain data concerning POGO oscillation. The results verify the functions of the second stage propulsion system.

Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshihiko

382

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

Mitchell, Royce E.

1992-08-01

383

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

Mitchell, Royce E.

1992-01-01

384

Parametric studies with an atmospheric diffusion model that assesses toxic fuel hazards due to the ground clouds generated by rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric studies were made with a multilayer atmospheric diffusion model to place quantitative limits on the uncertainty of predicting ground-level toxic rocket-fuel concentrations. Exhaust distributions in the ground cloud, cloud stabilized geometry, atmospheric coefficients, the effects of exhaust plume afterburning of carbon monoxide CO, assumed surface mixing-layer division in the model, and model sensitivity to different meteorological regimes were studied. Large-scale differences in ground-level predictions are quantitatively described. Cloud alongwind growth for several meteorological conditions is shown to be in error because of incorrect application of previous diffusion theory. In addition, rocket-plume calculations indicate that almost all of the rocket-motor carbon monoxide is afterburned to carbon dioxide CO2, thus reducing toxic hazards due to CO. The afterburning is also shown to have a significant effect on cloud stabilization height and on ground-level concentrations of exhaust products.

Stewart, R. B.; Grose, W. L.

1975-01-01

385

Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the backpressure. This paper provides a short review of the appropriate literature, as well as descriptions of plans for experimental hardware, test chamber instrumentation, diagnostics, and testing.

Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

2006-01-01

386

Empirical Scaling Laws of Rocket Exhaust Cratering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When launching or landing a space craft on the regolith of a terrestrial surface, special attention needs to be paid to the rocket exhaust cratering effects. If the effects are not controlled, the rocket cratering could damage the spacecraft or other surrounding hardware. The cratering effects of a rocket landing on a planet's surface are not understood well, especially for the lunar case with the plume expanding in vacuum. As a result, the blast effects cannot be estimated sufficiently using analytical theories. It is necessary to develop physics-based simulation tools in order to calculate mission-essential parameters. In this work we test out the scaling laws of the physics in regard to growth rate of the crater depth. This will provide the physical insight necessary to begin the physics-based modeling.

Donahue, Carly M.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

2005-01-01

387

A rocket-borne airglow photometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a rocket-borne photometer to measure the airglow emission of ionized molecular nitrogen in the 391.4 nm band is presented. This airglow is a well known and often observed phenomenon of auroras, where the principal source of ionization is energetic electrons. It is believed that at some midlatitude locations energetic electrons are also a source of nighttime ionization in the E region of the ionosphere. If this is so, then significant levels of 391.4 nm airglow should be present. The intensity of this airglow will be measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measure energetic electron differential flux and the ambient electron density. An intercomparison of the 3 experiments in a nightime launch will allow a test of the importance of energetic electrons as a nighttime source of ionization in the upper E region.

Paarmann, L. D.; Smith, L. G.

1977-01-01

388

Rippin' Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in pairs to conduct a series of experiments using a balloon, drinking straw, and paper. Learners record their observations on an Experiment Log and eventually build and test a balloon rocket. During the tests, learners are asked to compare their findings with the findings of their partner. Although this activity can be used to introduce aerodynamics, learners will also learn how to conduct simple experiments and the value of science in helping to solve problems.

University of Wisconsin Extension

2002-01-01

389

Marshall Team Fires Recreated Goddard Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In honor of the Centernial of Flight Celebration and commissioned by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a team of engineers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) built a replica of the first liquid-fueled rocket. The original rocket, designed and built by rocket engineering pioneer Robert H. Goddard in 1926, opened the door to modern rocketry. Goddard's rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet while its flight lasted only 2.5 seconds. The Marshall design team's plan was to stay as close as possible to an authentic reconstruction of Goddard's rocket. The same propellants were used - liquid oxygen and gasoline - as available during Goddard's initial testing and firing. The team also tried to construct the replica using the original materials and design to the greatest extent possible. By purposely using less advanced techniques and materials than many that are available today, the team encountered numerous technical challenges in testing the functional hardware. There were no original blueprints or drawings, only photographs and notes. However, this faithful adherence to historical accuracy has allowed the team to experience many of the same challenges Goddard faced 77 years ago, and more fully appreciate the genius of this extraordinary man. In this photo, the replica is shown firing in the A-frame launch stand in near-flight configuration at MSFC's Test Area 116 during the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 39th Joint Propulsion Conference on July 23, 2003.

2003-01-01

390

Ion Propulsion Development Projects in US: Space Electric Rocket Test I to Deep Space 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations are reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) I, which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technologies employed on the early cesium engine flights, the applications technology satellite series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space 1 flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high level of flight readiness.

Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

2001-01-01

391

Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

1990-01-01

392

Testing and environmental exposure of parachute materials for the solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static tests and evaluation of nonmetallic materials for use in parachutes for recovery of solid rocket boosters used in the space shuttle program are reported. Literature survey and manufacturer and vendor contacts led to the choice of nylon as the fabric most capable of withstanding the extreme loads and environmental conditions during repeated use. The material tests included rupture strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, shrinkage, environmental exposure, and degradation levels. Rinsing and drying procedures were also investigated and a salt-free level for nylon recommended in preparation for reuse. In all possible cases, worst-case conditions were used (e.g., inflation loads, seawater exposure for 3 days per drop-recovery, etc.).

Tannehill, B. K.

1978-01-01

393

Atlas V Launch Incorporated NASA Glenn Thermal Barrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Spring of 2002, Aerojet experienced a major failure during a qualification test of the solid rocket motor that they were developing for the Atlas V Enhanced Expendable Launch Vehicle. In that test, hot combustion gas reached the O-rings in the nozzle-to-case joint and caused a structural failure that resulted in loss of the nozzle and aft dome sections of the motor. To improve the design of this joint, Aerojet decided to incorporate three braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The thermal barriers were used to block the searing-hot 5500 F pressurized gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-rings that seal the joint. Glenn originally developed the thermal barriers for the nozzle joints of the space shuttle solid rocket motors, and Aerojet decided to use them on the basis of the results of several successful ground tests of the thermal barriers in the shuttle rockets. Aerojet undertook an aggressive schedule to redesign the rocket nozzle-to-case joint with the thermal barriers and to qualify it in time for a launch planned for the middle of 2003. They performed two successful qualification tests (Oct. and Dec. 2002) in which the Glenn thermal barriers effectively protected the O-rings. These qualification tests saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in development costs and put the Lockheed-Martin/Aerojet team back on schedule. On July 17, 2003, the first flight of an Atlas V boosted with solid rocket motors successfully launched a commercial satellite into orbit from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Aero-jet's two 67-ft solid rocket boosters performed flawlessly, with each providing thrust in excess of 250,000 lbf. Both motors incorporated three Glenn-developed thermal barriers in their nozzle-to-case joints. The Cablevision satellite launched on this mission will be used to provide direct-to-home satellite television programming for the U.S. market starting in late 2003. The Atlas V is a product of the military's Enhanced Expendable Launch Vehicle program designed to provide assured military access to space. It can lift payloads up to 19,100 lb to geosynchronous transfer orbit and was designed to meet Department of Defense, commercial, and NASA needs. The Atlas V and Delta IV are two launch systems being considered by NASA to launch the Orbital Space Plane/Crew Exploration Vehicle. The launch and rocket costs of this mission are valued at $250 million. Successful application of the Glenn thermal barrier to the Atlas V program was an enormous breakthrough for the program's technical and schedule success.

Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2004-01-01

394

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build handheld rockets and launchers out of PVC pipes and plastic bottles. Use this activity to demonstrate acceleration, air pressure, and Newton's Laws of Motion. Note: a PVC cutter, side cutters, PVC cement glue and other tools are required to build this project.
Safety note: These rockets should only be launched in large, open, outdoor areas.

2014-09-12

395

Apollo experience report: Launch escape propulsion subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo launch escape propulsion subsystem contained three solid rocket motors. The general design, development, and qualification of the solid-propellant pitch-control, tower-jettison, and launch-escape motors of the Apollo launch escape propulsion subsystem were completed during years 1961 to 1966. The launch escape system components are described in general terms, and the sequence of events through the ground-based test programs and flight-test programs is discussed. The initial ground rules established for this system were that it should use existing technology and designs as much as possible. The practicality of this decision is proved by the minimum number of problems that were encountered during the development and qualification program.

Townsend, N. A.

1973-01-01

396

Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

1988-01-01

397

Large-Scale Cryogenic Testing of Launch Vehicle Ground Systems at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new launch vehicle to support NASA's future exploration plans requires significant redesign and upgrade of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) launch pad and ground support equipment systems. In many cases, specialized test equipment and systems will be required to certify the function of the new system designs under simulated operational conditions, including propellant loading. This paper provides an overview of the cryogenic test infrastructure that is in place at KSC to conduct development and qualification testing that ranges from the component level to the integrated-system level. An overview of the major cryogenic test facilities will be provided, along with a detailed explanation of the technology focus area for each facility

Ernst, E. W.; Sass, J. P.; Lobemeyer, D. A.; Sojourner, S. J.; Hatfield, W. H.; Rewinkel, D. A.

2007-01-01

398

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

399

Use value engineering concepts for spaceport launching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In simple terms, value engineering (VE) identifies the function of a system with a verb\\/noun and assigns it a value. This paper provides a background phase that briefly identifies the Soviet's launching capability. A lesson has been learned from the former U.S.S.R.'s success with massive booster rockets. Their version of the shuttle has been tested and will become an integral

Richard A. Kaden

1993-01-01

400

Experimental Investigation of Launch Vehicle Transient Input Simulation in Payload Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of electronically simulating the structural dynamics of a launch vehicle in transient tests of payloads using multiple vibration excitation systems was investigated. The development of computer programs to determine transfer functions, synthesize shaker forcing functions, and control vibration exciters is described. A demonstration test using the techniques was described and results are presented. The evaluation of the potential for applying this technique to large Shuttle payloads is discussed.

Rader, P.; Berry, R.

1979-01-01

401

Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

402

Development and Testing of a Methane/Oxygen Catalytic Microtube Ignition System for Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study sought to develop a catalytic ignition advanced torch system with a unique catalyst microtube design that could serve as a low energy alternative or redundant system for the ignition of methane and oxygen rockets. Development and testing of iterations of hardware was carried out to create a system that could operate at altitude and produce a torch. A unique design was created that initiated ignition via the catalyst and then propagated into external staged ignition. This system was able to meet the goals of operating across a range of atmospheric and altitude conditions with power inputs on the order of 20 to 30 watts with chamber pressures and mass flow rates typical of comparable ignition systems for a 100 lbf engine.

Deans, Matthew

2012-01-01

403

Development and Testing of a Methane/Oxygen Catalytic Microtube Ignition System for Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study sought to develop a catalytic ignition advanced torch system with a unique catalyst microtube design that could serve as a low energy alternative or redundant system for the ignition of methane and oxygen rockets. Development and testing of iterations of hardware was carried out to create a system that could operate at altitude and produce a torch. A unique design was created that initiated ignition via the catalyst and then propagated into external staged ignition. This system was able to meet the goals of operating across a range of atmospheric and altitude conditions with power inputs on the order of 20 to 30 watts with chamber pressures and mass flow rates typical of comparable ignition systems for a 100 Ibf engine.

Deans, Matthew C.; Schneider, Steven J.

2012-01-01

404

Results of the Flight Test of a Dummy of the MX-656 Rocket-Propelled Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data obtained from the flight of a simplified (dummy) rocket-propelled model of the MX-656 have been analyzed to determine the booster-model characteristics and the model-alone characteristics up to a Mach number of 1.3. The data indicate that the model-booster combination is satisfactory. The model alone is longitudinally stable i n the Mach number range covered by the test (0.9 to 1.3) with the center of gravity at -15 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. With the stabilizer setting at 0 deg. the variation of normal-force coefficient with Mach number is not large. The total-drag-coefficient variation with Mach number is not unusual. About 12 percent of the total drag at a Mach number of 1.3 can be attributed to body base drag.

Mitchell, Jesse L.; Peck, Robert F.

1950-01-01

405

IRIS Launch Animation - Duration: 1:48.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

406

14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hazardous materials on the launch vehicle and must include propellants, explosives, and toxic materials; and (2) A drawing...an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center of pressure in relation to its center of...

2014-01-01

407

14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazardous materials on the launch vehicle and must include propellants, explosives, and toxic materials; and (2) A drawing...an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center of pressure in relation to its center of...

2011-01-01

408

14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hazardous materials on the launch vehicle and must include propellants, explosives, and toxic materials; and (2) A drawing...an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center of pressure in relation to its center of...

2013-01-01

409

14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazardous materials on the launch vehicle and must include propellants, explosives, and toxic materials; and (2) A drawing...an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center of pressure in relation to its center of...

2012-01-01

410

Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

2012-07-01

411

Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines  

SciTech Connect

This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-11-01

412

Saturn V Vehicle for Apollo 4 at the Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image of the first test flight of a giant Saturn V rocket for the Apollo 4 mission at the Kennedy Space Center's launch complex 39A, photographed at the dawn of November 8 during the pre-launch alert. Designated as Apollo 4, this mission was the first launch of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Objectives of the unmanned Apollo 4 test flight were to obtain flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, and subsystems operation including testing of restart of the S-IVB stage, and to evaluate the Apollo command module heat shield.

1967-01-01

413

Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

414

Characterization of Space Shuttle Reusable Rocket Motor Static Test Stand Thrust Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) are static tested at two ATK Thiokol Propulsion facilities in Utah, T-24 and T-97. The newer T-97 static test facility was recently upgraded to allow thrust measurement capability. All previous static test motor thrust measurements have been taken at T-24; data from these tests were used to characterize thrust parameters and requirement limits for flight motors. Validation of the new T-97 thrust measurement system is required prior to use for official RSRM performance assessments. Since thrust cannot be measured on RSRM flight motors, flight motor measured chamber pressure and a nominal thrust-to-pressure relationship (based on static test motor thrust and pressure measurements) are used to reconstruct flight motor performance. Historical static test and flight motor performance data are used in conjunction with production subscale test data to predict RSRM performance. The predicted motor performance is provided to support Space Shuttle trajectory and system loads analyses. Therefore, an accurate nominal thrust-to-pressure (F/P) relationship is critical for accurate RSRM flight motor performance and Space Shuttle analyses. Flight Support Motors (FSM) 7, 8, and 9 provided thrust data for the validation of the T-97 thrust measurement system. The T-97 thrust data were analyzed and compared to thrust previously measured at T-24 to verify measured thrust data and identify any test-stand bias. The T-97 FIP data were consistent and within the T-24 static test statistical family expectation. The FSMs 7-9 thrust data met all NASA contract requirements, and the test stand is now verified for future thrust measurements.

Cook, Mart L.; Gruet, Laurent; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

415

Flamenco sounding rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flamenco system developed by the Spanish government is described. Results of flight trials are incorporated in the general performance data presented. Mechanical details of the two-stage rocket include strong spin motors and alternative dwell times between the stages. Two further launches carrying scientific payloads are scheduled for late 1976.

J. Simon; A. Mateo; M. Vazquez

1976-01-01

416

14 CFR 437.95 - Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. 437.95 ...437.95 Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. A permittee may launch or reenter additional reusable suborbital rockets of the same...

2010-01-01

417

Flight and Integrated Testing: Blazing the Trail for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors that will carry the next generation of astronauts into space safer and more efficiently than ever and send them to the Moon to develop a permanent outpost. NASA's Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Ares I-X Mission Management Office have primary responsibility for developing and conducting critical ground and flight tests for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. These tests will draw upon Saturn and the Space Shuttle experiences, which taught the value of using sound systems engineering practices, while also applying aerospace best practices such as "test as you fly" and other lessons learned. FITO will use a variety of methods to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks of flying humans safely aboard a launch vehicle.

Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charlie; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

2007-01-01

418

Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use

In-Kyung Sung

2006-01-01

419

Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program has been planned at the NASA Lewis Research Center to build confidence in the feasibility of liquid oxygen cooling for hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. Although liquid oxygen cooling has previously been incorporated in test hardware, more runtime is necessary to gain confidence in this concept. In the previous tests, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot-gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastrophic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed in this report. Four thrust chambers, three with cracks and one without, should be tested. The axial location of the cracks should be varied parametrically. Each chamber should be instrumented to determine the effects of the cracks, as well as the overall performance and durability of the chambers.

Armstrong, E. S.

1986-01-01

420

Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

1999-01-01

421

The effects of solid rocket motor effluents on selected surfaces and solid particle size, distribution, and composition for simulated shuttle booster separation motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of three tests was conducted using solid rocket propellants to determine the effects a solid rocket plume would have on thermal protective surfaces (TPS). The surfaces tested were those which are baselined for the shuttle vehicle. The propellants used were to simulate the separation solid rocket motors (SSRM) that separate the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the shuttle launch vehicle. Data cover: (1) the optical effects of the plume environment on spacecraft related surfaces, and (2) the solid particle size, distribution, and composition at TPS sample locations.

Jex, D. W.; Linton, R. C.; Russell, W. M.; Trenkle, J. J.; Wilkes, D. R.

1976-01-01

422

Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

2008-01-01

423

Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

1984-01-01

424

Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the August 20, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne effluent measurements within the launch cloud and visible and infrared measurements of cloud physical behavior are discussed. Airborne effluent measurements include concentrations of HCl, Cl2, NO, NOX, and particulates as a function of time during each sampling pass through the exhaust cloud. The particle size distribution was measured for each pass through the cloud. Mass concentration as a function of particle diameter was measured over the size range of 0.05- to 25 micron diameter, and particle number density was measured as a function of diameter over a size range of 0.5 to 7.5 micron. Effluent concentrations in the cloud ranged from about 30 ppm several minutes after launch to about 1 to 2 ppm at 100 minutes. Maximum Cl2 concentrations were about 40 to 55 ppb and by 20 minutes were less than 1.0 ppb. A tabulated listing of the airborne data is given in the appendix. Usable cloud imaging data were limited to the first 16 minutes after launch.

Woods, D. C.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

1979-01-01

425

Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

1994-01-01

426

Synergistic Development, Test, and Qualification Approaches for the Ares I and V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated plans to develop the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles in 2005 to meet the mission objectives for future human exploration of space. Ares I is designed to provide the capability to deliver the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), either for docking to the International Space Station (ISS) or docking with an Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander for transit to the Moon. Ares V provides the heavy-lift capability to deliver the EDS and lunar lander to orbit. An integrated test plan was developed for Ares I that includes un-crewed flight validation testing and ground testing to qualify structural components and propulsion systems prior to operational deployment. The overall test program also includes a single development test flight conducted prior to the Ares I critical design review (CDR). Since the Ares V concept was formulated to maximize hardware commonality between the Ares V and Ares I launch vehicles, initial test planning for Ares V has considered the extensibility of test approaches and facilities from Ares I. The Ares V test plan was part of a successful mission concept review (MCR) in 2008.

Cockrell, Charles E.; Taylor, James L.; Patterson, Alan; Stephens, Samuel E.; Tuma, Margaret; Bartolotta, Paul; Huetter, Uwe; Kaderback, Don; Goggin, David

2009-01-01

427

Aquila - The next generation launch service for small satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1995, the American Rocket Company will be offering commercial launch services on its ground-launched, hybrid-rocket-propelled Aquila Launch Vehicle. Aquila is designed to serve both commercial and government customers for launching up to 3200 pound payloads into low earth polar orbits from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The Aquila is the only vehicle to utilize hybrid rocket propulsion. Furthermore,

P. N. Estey; K. J. Flittie

1992-01-01

428

Trebuchet Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work as engineers to design and test trebuchets (in this case LEGO MINDSTORMS robots) that can launch objects. During the testing stage, they change one variable at a time to study its effect on the outcome of their designs. Specifically, they determine how far objects travel depending on their weights. As students learn about the different components of robot design and the specific function controls, they determine what design features are important for launching objects.

2014-09-18

429

Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

2012-01-01

430