These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Rocket Launch Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is designed to teach an application of probability. This Java applet works by simulating a situation where a three stage rocket is about to be launched. In order for a successful launch to occur all three stages of the rocket must successfully pass their pre-takeoff tests. By default, each stage has a 50% chance of success, however, this can be altered by dragging the bar next to each stage.

Exner, Nicholas

2009-01-13

2

Water Rocket Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore rocketry and the principals of space flight. Learners work in teams with adult supervision and construct and launch a rocket from a soda bottle and everyday materials powered by an air pump. Learners observe their own achievements and challenges, as well as those of other teams, complete a reflection sheet, and present their experiences to the class.

Ieee

2014-06-18

3

One-Dimensional Rocket Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A simulation of a 1-d rocket launch from the Earth's surface with graph of position versus time. Rocket parameters may be varied by typing new values for the initial mass of the fuel and the exhaust velocity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-12

4

Static firing test of the H-2 launch vehicle solid rocket booster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) conducted the first static firing test of the H-2 Launch Vehicle solid rocket booster (SRB) on April 15, 1988 at the static firing test facility for solid motors in the Tanegashima Space Center using a full-size SRB. The firing test was intended to verify the basic firing characteristics of the solid motor and the heat resistance of the nozzle, to obtain data of the dynamic characteristics of the movable nozzle and to measure the environmental conditions (acoustics, vibration, heat, etc.) during motor firing. The SRB was set horizontally and was ignited. The SRB was fired normally for approx. 93 seconds, during which time an operational test to drive the movable nozzle to its maximum rudder angle of 5 degrees was performed. Roughly 290 pieces of data were obtained, such as thrust, motor internal pressure, distortion and heat radiation. The test was successful in that motor firing performance almost reached the forecasted values. The movable nozzle was operated smoothly during firing and the thrust vector control (TVC) system functions presented no problems. The nozzle errosion value was less than the design value, indicating that the design value has a sufficient error margin.

Fukushima, Yukio

1988-06-01

5

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from three Huntsville area high schools: Randolph, Sparkman, and Johnson High Schools, counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, Randolph High School students are assembling their rocket in preparation for launch.

2002-01-01

6

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from three Huntsville area high schools: Randolph, Sparkman, and Johnson High Schools, counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, a rocket built by Johnson High School students soars to it projected designation.

2002-01-01

7

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from three Huntsville area high schools: Randolph, Sparkman, and Johnson High Schools, counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides them with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, three Sparkman High School students pose with their rocket.

2002-01-01

8

Students Participate in Rocket Launch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filled with anticipation, students from three Huntsville area high schools: Randolph, Sparkman and Johnson High Schools, counted down to launch the rockets they designed and built at the Army test site on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The projected two-mile high launch culminated more than a year's work and demonstrated the student team's ability to meet the challenge set by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Student Launch Initiative (SLI) program to apply science and math to experience, judgment, and common sense, and proved to NASA officials that they have successfully built reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), another challenge set by NASA's SLI program. MSFC's SLI program is an educational effort that aims to motivate students to pursue careers in science, math, and engineering. It provides them with hands-on, practical aerospace experience. In this picture, two Johnson High School students pose with their rocket.

2002-01-01

9

17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY HERMANN OBERTH AND RUDOLF NEBEL FOR THE MOVIE DIE FRAU IM MOND (THE WOMAN ON THE MOON). THE LAUNCH STAND WAS MODIFIED BY THE VFR FOR THE FIRST TEST STAND AT RAKETENFLUGPLATZ NEAR BERLIN. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

10

Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Future Space Launch  

E-print Network

Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Future Space Launch May 09, 2008 Aero/Astro 50th Year Anniversary Arif and Astronautics, Stanford University #12;Aero/Astro 50th Year Anniversary Hybrid Rocket Configuration Most Hybrids Reverse Hybrids: Oxidizer: Solid Fuel: Liquid #12;Aero/Astro 50th Year Anniversary Hybrid Rocket System

Stanford University

11

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

2000-01-01

12

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

Rahman, Shamim

2005-01-01

13

Small Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Video Gallery

It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

14

Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

2014-01-01

15

Launch Excitement with Water Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

2007-01-01

16

UN strongly condemns NKorea rocket launch Monday 16 April 2012  

E-print Network

-anticipated rocket launch ended in failure, splintering into pieces over the Yellow Sea soon after take-off Photo in failure when the rocket disintegrated over the Yellow Sea, embarrassing its new leader at what the North

17

Artist's Concept of Magnetic Launch Assisted Air-Breathing Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle in orbit. Formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, the Magnetic Launch Assist system is a launch system developed and tested by engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

18

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

19

Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2005-01-01

20

ASTRID rocket flight test  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth

J. C. Whitehead; L. C. Pittenger; N. J. Colella

1994-01-01

21

Modeling a Rocket Launch with Gravity and Air Resistance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Modeling a Rocket Launch with Gravity and Air Resistance text guides the reader through a process of developing, implementing, and validating an EJS model of a rocket being launched. The model that is developed includes thrust as well as altitude-dependent forces of gravity and air resistance. The supplementary documents include a starting template (RocketTemplate.ejs), an executable JAR file in which all three forces have been implemented (RocketLaunch.jar), and a document describing how and why to use âEventsâ in Ejs. Note, a password will be required in order to access the EJS source code for the completed (RocketLaunch.jar) program. A faculty member wishing to access this may request the password from lengelhardt@fmarion.edu.

Engelhardt, Larry

2011-07-03

22

2Saturn V Rocket Launch Speed and Height The Saturn V rocket carrying the Apollo-11  

E-print Network

2Saturn V Rocket Launch Speed and Height Time (Sec) Altitude (m) Speed (m/s) 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 4 4 3 13 15 269 39 16 321 43 17 367 46 18 406 49 19 465 53 20 510 56 The Saturn V rocket carrying the Apollo-GxJ_QM&feature=related Problem 1 - Graph the speed of the rocket during the first 20 seconds after launch. Problem 2 - Graph

23

Kauai Test Facility two experiment rocket campaign. [Kauai Test Facility; Two Experiment Rocket Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The Kauai Test Facility (KTF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility located at Barking Sands, on the west coast of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF has a rocket preparation and launching capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched rockets. Launches primarily support high altitude scientific research and re-entry vehicle systems and carry experimental non-nuclear payloads. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared for the Two Experiment Rocket Campaign, during which the STRYPI/LACE (STRYPI is not an acronym -- its the name of the rocket; LACE is the acronym for Low Altitude Compensation Experiment) and the RAP-501 (Rocket Accelerated Penetration) will be flown in conjunction from the KTF in February 1991 to reduce costs. There have been numerous rocket campaigns at the KTF in prior years that have used the same motors to be used in the current two experiment rocket campaign. The main difference noted in this environmental documentation is that the two rockets have not previously been flown in conjunction. Previous National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) approvals of launches using these motors were limited to different and separate campaigns with diverse sources of funding. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

24

Launch process simulation of a ship-borne multiple launch rocket System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation research on the launch process of a ship-borne multiple launch rocket system is studied in this paper. First, the power spectrum density of the ship's motion is calculated based on ocean wave energy spectrum, and the movement spectrums of the ship's random motion are calculated. Then, the model of ship- borne rocket launcher system is built by virtual prototype

Cungui Yu; Dawei Ma; Xuefeng Zhang

25

Rocket Launch-Induced Vibration and Ignition Overpressure Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket-induced vibration and ignition overpressure response environments are predicted in the low-frequency (5 to 200 hertz) range. The predictions are necessary to evaluate their impact on critical components, structures, and facilities in the immediate vicinity of the rocket launch pad.

Caimi, Raoul E.; Margashayam, Ravi N.; Nayfeh, Jamal F.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

26

The Army's Multiple Launch Rocket System in progressing well and merits continued support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multiple Launch Rocket System--an unguided, surface-to-surface rocket system--has excellent potential for significantly increasing the Army's artillery capability. Although some important testing still lies ahead, the system, so far, has done well and merits continued backing by the Secretary of Defense and the Congress.

1982-02-01

27

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

Rahman, Shamim

2005-01-01

28

Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

29

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 solid rocket motor at the ATK test facility in Utah in support of the Ares/CLV first stage. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

30

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

31

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellaton/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

32

Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

2014-01-01

33

NASA, Orbital Launch Antares Rocket Hearing a Speck of Dirt  

E-print Network

is the funding needed to advance NASA's commercial space initiative. In order to stop outsourcing American space and the NASA teams at Wallops, and look forward to more groundbreaking missions in the months and years aheadNASA, Orbital Launch Antares Rocket Pg 3 Hearing a Speck of Dirt Pg 4 Experiment Examining a SLICE

34

Space Place: Launch a Rocket from a Spinning Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This playground demonstration (using a merry-go-round) shows angular momentum and why rockets are launched in a certain direction and at a certain time. From a moving merry-go-round, participants attempt to throw small balls into a basket on the ground. It includes an explanation, with animated graphics.

Jpl, Nasa

2011-01-01

35

Two Amazing Rocket Launches That Began My Career  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I began my X-ray astronomy career by being given the responsibility for the Goddard rocket program by Frank MacDonald in the early 70's. I am forever grateful to him and Elihu Boldt for the opportunity. The rocket's observing program was three compact binary X-ray sources that could not have been more different: Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, and Her X-1. A sounding rocket launch is nothing like a satellite launch with its large booster, Cape Canaveral experience, and lots of procedures and no touching of the hardware. First of all, one can walk up to the sounding rocket tower (at least you used to be able to) and go up in it to fix or adjust something with the yet-to-be-fueled rocket, booster, and payload just sitting there. At launch, you can see it up close 100 m) and personal, and it is spectacular. There is an explosion (the Nike booster igniting), a bright flash of light, and it is gone in a second or two. And back in the block house, I watched Her X-1 pulse in real time, after Chuck Glasser calmed me down and explained that the detectors were not arcing but it was Her X-1. The Cyg X-1 observations resulted in the discovery of millisecond temporal structure in the flux from a cosmic source -- 13 1-ms bursts over a total of two minutes of observing in the 2 flights. Cyg X-3 was seen in a high state in the first flight and in a lower harder state in the second, where we detected the iron line for the first time in a Galactic source. The Her X-1 observation clearly showed the high energy roll-over of the spectrum for the first time. The light curves of the first flight found their way into many presentations, including Ricardo Giacconi's Nobel lecture. The Goddard rocket program was an amazing beginning to my career.

Rothschild, Richard E.

2013-01-01

36

Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

Hills, H. K.

1984-01-01

37

75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by harassment, incidental to rocket launches at KLC, became effective...taking of marine mammals during rocket launches at KLC. Summary of...marine mammals incidental to rocket launches at KLC. Summary of...were flown using single-engine fixed-wing aircraft 1...

2010-04-19

38

J-2X Rocket Engine, 40-Second Test  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA conducted a 40-second test of the J-2X rocket engine Sept. 28, the most recent in a series of tests of the next-generation engine selected as part of the Space Launch System architecture that ...

39

24 Inch Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scaled-down 24-inch version of the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor was successfully fired for 21 seconds at a Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand. The motor was tested to ensure a replacement material called Lycocel would meet the criteria set by the Shuttle's Solid Motor Project Office. The current material is a heat-resistant, rayon-based, carbon-cloth phenolic used as an insulating material for the motor's nozzle. Lycocel, a brand name for Tencel, is a cousin to rayon and is an exceptionally strong fiber made of wood pulp produced by a special 'solvent-spirning' process using a nontoxic solvent. It will also be impregnated with a phenolic resin. This new material is expected to perform better under the high temperatures experienced during launch. The next step will be to test the material on a 48-inch solid rocket motor. The test, which replicates launch conditions, is part of Shuttle's ongoing verification of components, materials, and manufacturing processes required by MSFC, which oversees the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project. Manufactured by the ATK Thiokol Propulsion Division in Promontory, California, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor measures 126 feet (38.4 meters) long and 12 feet (3.6 meters) in diameter. It is the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the first designed for reuse. During its two-minute burn at liftoff, each motor generates an average thrust of 2.6 million pounds (1.2 million kilograms).

2002-01-01

40

Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance  

E-print Network

Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

Beerer, Ingrid Mary

2013-01-01

41

Technology Requirements for Affordable Single-Stage Rocket Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of manned Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle options for replacing or complementing the current Space Transportation System are being examined under the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The introduction of a reusable single-stage vehicle (SSV) into the U.S. launch vehicle fleet early in the next century could greatly reduce ETO launch costs. As a part of the AMLS study, the conceptual design of an SSV using a wide variety of enhancing technologies has recently been completed and is described in this paper. This paper also identifies the major enabling and enhancing technologies for a reusable rocket-powered SSV and provides examples of the mission payoff potential of a variety of important technologies. This paper also discusses the impact of technology advancements on vehicle margins, complexity, and risk, all of which influence the total system cost.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Piland, William M.

2004-01-01

42

15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...  

...including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets...including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets...limited to, ballistic missile systems, space launch vehicles, and sounding...

2014-01-01

43

Preliminary Design of the Hybrid Air-launching Rocket for Nanosat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-Launching is an effective method that can launch the 'Nanosat' for low launching cost. In this study, the preliminary design of the air-launching micro rocket was performed. Mission and trajectory optimization was performed and the propulsion system was designed based on the mission design. A supersonic air launching rocket with total weight of 830.95 kg, the payload weight of 3.56

Jae-Woo Lee; Kyung-Ho Noh; Yung-Hwan Byun; Bong-Kyo Park

2007-01-01

44

Atmospheric Ascent Guidance for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket- powered launch vehicles is developed. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through main engine cutoff. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode until high dynamic pressure (including the critical max-Q) portion of the trajectory is over, at which time guidance operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic acceleration (i.e., vacuum dynamics). The initial costate guess is corrected based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Judicious approximations are made to reduce the order and complexity of the state/costate system. Results comparing guided launch vehicle trajectories with POST open-loop trajectories are given verifying the basic formulation of the algorithm. Multiple shooting is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. In particular, just one intermediate shooting point, in addition to the initial shooting point, is sufficient to significantly reduce sensitivity to the guessed initial costates. Simulation results from a high-fidelity trajectory simulation are given for the case of launch to sub-orbital cutoff conditions as well as launch to orbit conditions. An abort to downrange landing site formulation of the algorithm is presented.

Dukeman, Greg A.

2002-01-01

45

EUROLAUNCH - a cooperation between DLR, German Aerospace Center and SSC, Swedish Space Corporation in sounding rocket launches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sounding rocket and balloon launches have been conducted since more than 30 years at ESRANGE - the European Sounding Rocket Launching Range of SSC, the Swedish Space Corporation of Kiruna in North-Sweden. MORABA - the Mobile Rocket Base of DLR German Aerospace Center at München-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, has planned and implemented sounding rocket and balloon launches on occasions throughout the globe

S. Kemi; P. Turner; O. Norberg

2004-01-01

46

Safe testing nuclear rockets economically  

SciTech Connect

Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

Howe, S. D. (Steven D.); Travis, B. J. (Bryan J.); Zerkle, D. K. (David K.)

2002-01-01

47

Advanced launch system Component Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upgrading of existing test facilities required for development of liquid fuel rocket engines for advanced launch systems is discussed. The Component Test Facility (CTF) for testing generators and turbopumps assemblies of the future engine is presented with emphasis on design criteria, design, test frequency, test duration, safety, and operational issues of the cryogenic propellant and high-pressure gas systems. Attention is also given to methods of controlling propellant temperatures and flows to the test components; pressurization of propellants accomplished with high-pressure hydrogen and nitrogen gases; and use of high-pressure pumps and vaporizers, which convert liquid nitrogen and hydrogen to gases at pressures up to 15,000 psig.

Pitalo, Gerald A.

1991-01-01

48

Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

2007-01-01

49

Pop Rocket Variables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the concept of variables in relation to launching pop rockets. Learners will work in teams to test a single variable involved in launching a rocket and learn the variables involved with constructing and launching a water rocket. This is activity 1 of 7 in Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion.

50

Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

51

Low thrust rocket test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

1990-01-01

52

Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

53

Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

2001-01-01

54

Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

55

TA01 Launch Solid Rocket PRoPulSion  

E-print Network

Cycle) ďż˝ Propellants ďż˝ FundamentalLiquid PropulsionTechnologies AiR BReAthing PRoPulSion SyStemS ďż˝ TBCC ďż˝ RBCCPace Power & energy storage PoweR geneRAtion ďż˝ EnergyHarvesting ďż˝ Chemical(FuelCells,HeatEngines) ďż˝ SolarMaterials ďż˝ NozzleSystems ďż˝ HybridRocketPropulsion Systems ďż˝ FundamentalSolidPropulsion Technologies liquid Rocket

56

June 13-17 ROCKETRY CAMP: Level I 4 & Up 9am-12pm Explore the principles of flight; build and launch a model rocket! Each session  

E-print Network

and launch a model rocket! Each session begins and ends with fun-filled activities that provide the materials and knowledge to build, launch, track and calculate the flight path of a rocket. Rockets and launch systems the aerodynamics and stability of a rocket. Expand your knowledge of rocketry and challenge yourself to reach

Moore, Paul A.

57

Optical studies of rocket exhaust trails and artificial noctilucent clouds produced by Soyuz rocket launches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed tracing of an exhaust plume from a rocket's initial trajectory is a scientifically and diagnostically useful technique. It can provide detailed information on the atmosphere's mean winds, wind shears, turbulent regime, and physical state over a wide altitude range from 50 to 200 km. We analyze Soyuz rocket exhaust plumes from Plesetsk on 21 May 2009 and 27 June 2011, which uncovered significantly different atmospheric states and underlying dynamics. The first case showed highly dynamical conditions in the mesosphere, characterized by vortex structures, wind shears, and small-scale turbulent eddies. The estimated turbulent energy dissipation rates ranged 330-460 mW kg-1. A characteristic balloon-shaped trail was observed at altitudes between 105 and 160 km, having rapid expansion rates of 500-800 m s-1 over the time period of 2 min which can be explained by complex gas dynamic processes in the rocket wake involving the collision of shock waves. In the second case, we show evidence that the rocket exhaust trail persisted without any changes during its motion from Plesetsk via Denmark to the UK for 9 h, indicating extremely stable atmospheric conditions. This case introduces a new state of the summer mesosphere—remarkably quiet conditions, probably never observed before. The rocket plumes studied, related to the initial rocket trajectory, are essentially twilight phenomena as seen from the ground using wideband spectrum cameras, that is, the Sun should be below the horizon by 6°. For the first time, we analyze the dynamics of rocket exhaust products at the initial trajectory in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using detailed photographic imaging taken from the ground.

Dalin, P.; Perminov, V.; Pertsev, N.; Dubietis, A.; Zadorozhny, A.; Smirnov, A.; Mezentsev, A.; Frandsen, S.; Grřnne, J.; Hansen, O.; Andersen, H.; McEachran, I.; McEwan, T.; Rowlands, J.; Meyerdierks, H.; Zalcik, M.; Connors, M.; Schofield, I.; Veselovsky, I.

2013-07-01

58

Detailed modal testing of a solid rocket motor using a portable test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern analytical techniques have expended the ability to evaluate solid rocket motors used in launch vehicles. As more detailed models of solid rocket motors were developed, testing methods were required to verify the models. Experimental modal analysis (modal testing) of space structures and launch vehicles has been a requirement for model validation for many years. However, previous testing of solid rocket motors has not typically involved dynamic modal testing of full scale motors for verification of solid propellant or system assembly properties. Innovative approaches to the testing of solid rocket motors were developed and modal testing of a full scale, two segment Titan 34D Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) was performed to validate detailed computer modeling. Special modifications were made to convert an existing facility into a temporary modal test facility which would accommodate the test article. The assembly of conventional data acquisition equipment into a multiple channel count portable system has made modal testing in the field feasible. Special purpose hydraulic exciters were configured to apply the dynamic driving forces required. All instrumentation and data collection equipment were installed at the test site for the duration of the test program and removed upon completion. Conversion of an existing test facility into a temporary modal test facility, and use of a multiple channel count portable test data acquisition system allowed all test objectives to be met and resulted in validation of the computer model in a minimum time.

Glozman, Vladimir; Brillhart, Ralph D.

1990-01-01

59

Commercial Rocket Engine Readied for Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA?s John C. Stennis Space Center recently installed an Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine for qualification testing as part of a partnership that highlights the space agency?s commitment to...

60

A3 Subscale Rocket Hot Fire Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives a description of the methodology and results of J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) hot fire testing supporting the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) project at the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The A3 subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude simulating rocket test facility. This paper focuses on the methods used to operate the facility and obtain the data to support the aerodynamic verification of the A3 rocket diffuser design and experimental data quantifying the heat flux throughout the facility. The JSS was operated at both 80% and 100% power levels and at gimbal angle from 0 to 7 degrees to verify the simulated altitude produced by the rocket-rocket diffuser combination. This was done with various secondary GN purge loads to quantify the pumping performance of the rocket diffuser. Also, special tests were conducted to obtain detailed heat flux measurements in the rocket diffuser at various gimbal angles and in the facility elbow where the flow turns from vertical to horizontal upstream of the 2nd stage steam ejector.

Saunders, G. P.; Yen, J.

2009-01-01

61

First Titan-Centaur Launch Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Titan/Centaur lifted off from Complex 41 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station at 9:48 AM EDT. The Titan stages burned as programmed, but when the Centaur stage failed to ignite, the Range Safety Officer destroyed it. The new NASA rocket was launched on a proof of concept flight designed to prepare it for twin Viking launches to Mars in 1975 and other missions involving heavy payloads. The 160-foot-tall rocket combines the Air Force Titan III with the NASA high-energy Centaur final stage. The twin solid rocket boosters have a combined liftoff thrust of 2.4 million pounds. Aboard Titan/ Centaur on its proof of concept flight were a dynamic simulator of the Viking spacecraft and a small scientific satellite (SPHINX) designed to determine how high voltage solar cells, insulators, and conductors are affected by the charges particles in space. KSC's Unmanned Launch Operations Directorate conducted the launch. For more information about Titan and Centaur, please see Chapters 4 and 8, respectively, in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

1974-01-01

62

EUROLAUNCH - a cooperation between DLR, German Aerospace Center and SSC, Swedish Space Corporation in sounding rocket launches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sounding rocket and balloon launches have been conducted since more than 30 years at ESRANGE - the European Sounding Rocket Launching Range of SSC, the Swedish Space Corporation of Kiruna in North-Sweden. MORABA - the Mobile Rocket Base of DLR German Aerospace Center at München-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, has planned and implemented sounding rocket and balloon launches on occasions throughout the globe during more than 30 years. An evolutionary step of sounding rocket launches is undertaken with the creation of EuroLaunch. EuroLaunch has recently been formed by SSC, the Swedish Space Corporation, and DLR, the German Aerospace Center. With EuroLaunch the long-lasting co-operation of the two complementary technical centers ESRANGE and MORABA is being enhanced and intensified, and this co-operation may also be the start of a future European Network of Center for sounding rockets. The comprehensive competence within the scope of the Network of Centers in Europa will be presented. The consolidation of competencies and work distribution among the partners shall be detailed. The managerial structure of EuroLaunch and the embedding in the mother organizations SSC and DLR respectively will be explained. The newly organized EuroLaunch is expected to provide improved services to experimenters in Europe and worldwide with improved competence, capability and efficiency.

Kemi, S.; Turner, P.; Norberg, O.

63

An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

2010-01-01

64

Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or development, the appropriate plan and strategy must be put in place at the outset of the development effort. A deferment of this test planning, or inattention to strategy, will compromise the ability of the development program to achieve its systems reliability requirements and/or its development milestones. It is important for the government leadership and support team, as well as the vehicle and propulsion development team, to give early consideration to this aspect of space propulsion and space transportation work.

Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

2005-01-01

65

Features of optical phenomena connected with launches of solid-propellant ballistic rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific optical phenomena observed in the upper atmosphere layers and connected with launches of powerful solid-propellant rockets are considered: the development of spherically symmetric gas-dust formations having the shape of an extending torus in the image plane and the formation of regions with intense blue-green (turquoise) glow observed under twilight conditions along a rocket's flight path. The development of clouds can be represented by the model of a strong explosion occurring at the stage separation of solid-propellant rockets in the upper atmosphere. A turquoise glow arises as a result of resonance scattering of solar radiation on AlO molecules that are formed when metallic aluminum in the composition of fuel interacts with atmosphere components and combustion products.

Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.; Alpatov, V. V.

2013-04-01

66

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft, attached to the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket, is lifted up the launch tower. The second and third stages of the rocket will be mated next as preparations continue for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

67

33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section 334...rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone...extending clockwise from 110° true bearing to 200° true bearing....

2010-07-01

68

15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3 Section 744.3 Commerce and Foreign...

2010-01-01

69

Static Test of the Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows a static firing test of the Solid Rocket Qualification Motor-8 (QM-8) at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah. The twin solid rocket boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

1989-01-01

70

Experimental measurements of the ground cloud growth during the 11 February 1974, Titan-Centaur launch at Kennedy Space Center. [(measurement of rocket exhaust from rocket launching)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan-Centaur was launched from Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1974 at 0948 eastern daylight time. Ground level effluent measurements were obtained from the solid rocket motors for comparison with NASA diffusion models for predicting effluent ground level concentrations and cloud behavior. The results obtained provide a basis for an evaluation of such key model inputs such as cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, crosswind growth, volume expansion, and cloud trajectory. Ground level effluent measurements were limited because of changing meteorological conditions, incorrect instrument location, and operational problems. Based on the measurement results, operational changes are defined. Photographs of the ground exhaust clouds are shown. The chemical composition of the exhaust gases was analyzed and is given.

Stewart, R. B.; Sentell, R. J.; Gregory, G. L.

1976-01-01

71

Commercial Rocket Test Helps Prep for Journey to Mars  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA successfully captured thermal images of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on its descent after it launched in September from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The data from these thermal ima...

72

Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

73

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early morning, the Stardust spacecraft, with the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket attached, arrives atop a transporter at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The second and third stages of the rocket will be mated and prepared for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

74

A Framework for Intelligent Rocket Test Facilities with Smart Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long-term center goal at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the formulation and implementation of a framework for an Intelligent Rocket Test Facility (IRTF), which incorporates distributed smart sensor elements. The IRTF is to provide reliable, high-confident measurements. Specific objectives include: 1. Definition of a framework and architecture that supports implementation of highly autonomous methodologies founded on basic physical principles and embedded knowledge. 2. Modeling of autonomous sensors and processes as self-sufficient, evolutionary elements. 3. Development of appropriate communications protocols to enable the complex interactions that must take place to allow timely and high-quality flow of of information among all the autonomous elements of the system. 4. Development of lab-scale prototypes of key system elements. Though our application is next-generation rocket test facilities, applications for the approach are much wider and include monitoring of shuttle launch operations, air and spacecraft operations and health monitoring, and other large-scale industrial system operations such as found in processing and manufacturing plans. Elements of prototype IRTF have been implemented in preparation for advanced development and validation using rocket test stand facilities as SSC. This work has identified issues that are important to further development of complex network and should be of interest to other working with sensor networks.

Figueroa, Fernando; Solano, Wanda; Morris, Jon; Mandayam, Shreekanth; Polikar, Robi

2003-01-01

75

Preliminary Sizing of Vertical Take-off Rocket-based Combined-cycle Powered Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of single-stage-to-orbit has been an elusive goal due to propulsion performance, materials limitations, and complex system integration. Glenn Research Center has begun to assemble a suite of relationships that tie Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) performance and advanced material data into a database for the purpose of preliminary sizing of RBCC-powered launch vehicles. To accomplish this, a near optimum aerodynamic and structural shape was established as a baseline. The program synthesizes a vehicle to meet the mission requirements, tabulates the results, and plots the derived shape. A discussion of the program architecture and an example application is discussed herein.

Roche, Joseph M.; McCurdy, David R.

2001-01-01

76

Solid rocket booster water impact test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water impact drop tests were performed on the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). Peak water impact pressures and pressure/time traces were measured for various impact velocities using a two-dimensional, full-scale SRB aft skirt internal ring model. Passive burst disc-type pressure transducers were calibrated for use on flight SRB's. The effects on impact pressure of small ring configuration changes and application of thermal protection system cork layers were found to be negligible.

Bugg, F.

1982-01-01

77

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, guide the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket, and the Stardust spacecraft connected to it, through an opening to the second stage of the rocket below. The second and third stages of teh rocket will be mated next as preparations continue for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

78

Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile mission scope.

Ables, Brett

2014-01-01

79

Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

2007-01-01

80

Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna for Sounding Rockets, Missiles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-cost beamformer phased array antenna has been developed for expendable launch vehicles, rockets, and missiles. It utilizes a conformal array antenna of ring or individual radiators (design varies depending on application) that is designed to be fed by the recently developed hybrid electrical/mechanical (vendor-supplied) phased array beamformer. The combination of these new array antennas and the hybrid beamformer results in a conformal phased array antenna that has significantly higher gain than traditional omni antennas, and costs an order of magnitude or more less than traditional phased array designs. Existing omnidirectional antennas for sounding rockets, missiles, and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) do not have sufficient gain to support the required communication data rates via the space network. Missiles and smaller ELVs are often stabilized in flight by a fast (i.e. 4 Hz) roll rate. This fast roll rate, combined with vehicle attitude changes, greatly increases the complexity of the high-gain antenna beam-tracking problem. Phased arrays for larger ELVs with roll control are prohibitively expensive. Prior techniques involved a traditional fully electronic phased array solution, combined with highly complex and very fast inertial measurement unit phased array beamformers. The functional operation of this phased array is substantially different from traditional phased arrays in that it uses a hybrid electrical/mechanical beamformer that creates the relative time delays for steering the antenna beam via a small physical movement of variable delay lines. This movement is controlled via an innovative antenna control unit that accesses an internal measurement unit for vehicle attitude information, computes a beam-pointing angle to the target, then points the beam via a stepper motor controller. The stepper motor on the beamformer controls the beamformer variable delay lines that apply the appropriate time delays to the individual array elements to properly steer the beam. The array of phased ring radiators is unique in that it provides improved gain for a small rocket or missile that uses spin stabilization for stability. The antenna pattern created is symmetric about the roll axis (like an omnidirectional wraparound), and is thus capable of providing continuous coverage that is compatible with very fast spinning rockets. For larger ELVs with roll control, a linear array of elements can be used for the 1D scanned beamformer and phased array, or a 2D scanned beamformer can be used with an NxN element array.

Mullinix, Daniel; Hall, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Corbin, Brian

2012-01-01

81

Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

2001-01-01

82

Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

1973-01-01

83

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, connect the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket (above), which is already attached to the Stardust spacecraft, with the second stage (below). Stardust, targeted for liftoff on Feb. 6, is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

84

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers guide the Stardust spacecraft toward an opening to a Boeing Delta II rocket below. The spacecraft is already connected to the third stage of the rocket that will be mated with the second stage in preparation for liftoff on Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

85

Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, watch as the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket is lowered for mating with the second stage below it. The Stardust spacecraft, above it out of sight, is connected to the rocket's third stage. Stardust, targeted for liftoff on Feb. 6, is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

86

Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

Bowyer, J. M.

1977-01-01

87

RADARSAT-1 Antarctic Mapping Project Carried aloft by a NASA rocket launched from Vandenburg Air Force Base on  

E-print Network

beneath the satellite is 15 m long and 1.5 m wide. Antarctic Mapping Mission -1 The Goal Antarctica Antarctica from space. The goal of the project was to create the first, high resolution, radar imageRADARSAT-1 Antarctic Mapping Project Carried aloft by a NASA rocket launched from Vandenburg Air

Howat, Ian M.

88

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

89

Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide for rocketry presents the history, scientific principles and mathematics of rockets through problem-solving and cooperative learning activities. These activities demonstrate the physical principles behind the operation of rockets.

90

Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

2005-01-01

91

Ablative Rocket Deflector Testing and Computational Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deflector risk mitigation program was recently conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center. The primary objective was to develop a database that characterizes the behavior of industry-grade refractory materials subjected to rocket plume impingement conditions commonly experienced on static test stands. The program consisted of short and long duration engine tests where the supersonic exhaust flow from the engine impinged on an ablative panel. Quasi time-dependent erosion depths and patterns generated by the plume impingement were recorded for a variety of different ablative materials. The erosion behavior was found to be highly dependent on the material s composition and corresponding thermal properties. For example, in the case of the HP CAST 93Z ablative material, the erosion rate actually decreased under continued thermal heating conditions due to the formation of a low thermal conductivity "crystallization" layer. The "crystallization" layer produced near the surface of the material provided an effective insulation from the hot rocket exhaust plume. To gain further insight into the complex interaction of the plume with the ablative deflector, computational fluid dynamic modeling was performed in parallel to the ablative panel testing. The results from the current study demonstrated that locally high heating occurred due to shock reflections. These localized regions of shock-induced heat flux resulted in non-uniform erosion of the ablative panels. In turn, it was observed that the non-uniform erosion exacerbated the localized shock heating causing eventual plume separation and reversed flow for long duration tests under certain conditions. Overall, the flow simulations compared very well with the available experimental data obtained during this project.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Lott, Jeffrey W.; Raines, Nickey

2010-01-01

92

NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Flight Test Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Options for development flight testing (DFT) of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) are discussed. The Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to launch the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Ares-I implements one of the components of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) after retirement of the Space Shuttle and, eventually, forming part of the launch capability needed for lunar exploration. The role of development flight testing is to demonstrate key sub-systems, address key technical risks, and provide flight data to validate engineering models in representative flight environments. This is distinguished from certification flight testing, which is designed to formally validate system functionality and achieve flight readiness. Lessons learned from Saturn V, Space Shuttle, and other flight programs are examined along with key Ares-I technical risks in order to provide insight into possible development flight test strategies. A strategy for the first test flight of the Ares I, known as Ares I-1, is presented.

Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Davis, Stephan R.; Robonson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sullivan, Greg

2006-01-01

93

Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

Smith, C. L.

2003-01-01

94

Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

2002-01-01

95

The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

Shivers, C. Herb

2012-01-01

96

Options for flight testing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While NASA's current next-generation launch vehicle research has largely focused on advanced all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles (i.e. the X-33 and it's RLV operational follow-on), some attention is being given to advanced propulsion concepts suitable for 'next-generation-and-a-half' vehicles. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines combining rocket and airbreathing elements are one candidate concept. Preliminary RBCC engine development was undertaken by the United States in the 1960's. However, additional ground and flight research is required to bring the engine to technological maturity. This paper presents two options for flight testing early versions of the RBCC ejector scramjet engine. The first option mounts a single RBCC engine module to the X-34 air-launched technology testbed for test flights up to about Mach 6.4. The second option links RBCC engine testing to the simultaneous development of a small-payload (220 lb.) two-stage-to-orbit operational vehicle in the Bantam payload class. This launcher/testbed concept has been dubbed the W vehicle. The W vehicle can also serve as an early ejector ramjet RBCC launcher (albeit at a lower payload). To complement current RBCC ground testing efforts, both flight test engines will use earth-storable propellants for their RBCC rocket primaries and hydrocarbon fuel for their airbreathing modes. Performance and vehicle sizing results are presented for both options.

Olds, John

1996-01-01

97

Ground testing of a liquid fueled rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a research project carried by TUBITAK-SAGE, Turkey's first operational liquid fuelled rocket motor has been designed, manufactured and tested. The rocket motor uses hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer and hydrocarbon based chemical as fuel. Also some metal salts are added into the fuel in order to attain hypergolic ignition. The fuel and oxidizer are fed into the system by using

G. Puskulcu; B. Sumer; D. E. Gunduz; C. Yildirim; C. Yazici; F. E. Orhan; L. O. Gonc; M. A. Ak

2005-01-01

98

Wind tunnel test evaluation of a Shuttle derived launch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) is a proposed unmanned launch system configured using Shuttle elements. The SDV incorporates two solid rocket boosters, an external tank and three Space Shuttle main engines identical to those used in the present Space Transportation System. Two new elements, a recoverable propulsion\\/avionics module housing the main engines and an expendable payload module, complete the SDV

J. R. Tewell; D. N. Buell

1986-01-01

99

The TEST Pilot Sounding Rocket Payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transition Edge Sensor Telescope Pilot project (TEST Pilot) is a soft x-ray (0.15-2.0 keV) imaging spectrograph that is a suborbital testbed for the next generation of x-ray detectors. A simple Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope composed of flat silicon mirrors defines a 3?x3? focus and a 6?x6? field of view, while the detector array of 1,024 microcalorimeters with sub-eV resolution is the first flight demonstration of a kilopixel x-ray microcalorimeter array and of the code-domain multiplexing readout. The configuration provides an effective area of 400 cm2 and a spectral resolution (R=E/?E) of 800 at the oxygen K lines even from extended sources -- and over 500 cm2 and R=1,000 at 1 keV -- in a low-cost sounding rocket program. Scientific targets for TEST Pilot include galaxy clusters, ISM absorption lines toward the Crab nebula, solar wind charge exchange in comet tails, and historical supernova remnants or SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Zeiger, Benjamin R.; Cash, W. C.; Swetz, D.

2013-04-01

100

The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page

101

Evolution of environmental vibration test specifications for ISRO launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISRO vibration test philosophy for launch vehicles is reviewed, and the prediction procedures for the two current ISRO launch vehicle development programs are discussed. The updating of the test levels is examined. Sample vibration test data are presented.

S. A. Palaniswami

1990-01-01

102

Sandia Laboratories rocket program - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical review of Sandia Laboratories rocket programs is presented. From the 60 rocket systems developed at Sandia since 1957, 1225 rockets have been launched at 19 sites, worldwide. Typical rockets developed for the nuclear readiness test program are the Terrier-Sandhawk sounding rocket (boosts a 91-kg, 33-cm-diam payload to an altitude of 427 km) and the Strypi II warhead carrier

G. A. Fowler; R. C. Maydew; W. R. Barton

1976-01-01

103

Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

Rřnningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

2005-08-01

104

Monitoring thermal impact resulting from solid rocket motor test operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of remote sensing is discussed with respect to determining the thermal conditions and the immediate environmental effects of large-scale rocket propulsion tests. Data acquired during a test firing of a solid rocket motor are presented including thermal data and surface temperatures from before, during, and after the firing. Thermal impact directly behind the nozzle is assessed, temperature values within the plume are determined, and data are generated for use in an environmental monitoring system which can analyze and forecast impact. The airborne multispectral scanner and thermocouples behind the solid rocket motor discerned that radiant temperatures are higher than predictions indicate and that the testing affects 34 acres of ground. The results are of use in determining the design and area required for developing testing facilities for rocket motors.

Davis, Bruce A.; Thurman, Charles; Carr, Hugh V.

1990-01-01

105

Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, has begun a series of engine tests on the Reaction Control Engine developed by TRW Space and Electronics for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI). SLI is a technology development effort aimed at improving the safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for reusable launch vehicles. The engine in this photo, the first engine tested at MSFC that includes SLI technology, was tested for two seconds at a chamber pressure of 185 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). Propellants used were liquid oxygen as an oxidizer and liquid hydrogen as fuel. Designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit, the engine is used as an auxiliary propulsion system for docking, reentry, fine-pointing, and orbit transfer while the vehicle is in orbit. The Reaction Control Engine has two unique features. It uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, which creates a safer environment with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions, and it operates in dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The force of low level thrust allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock, while the force of the high level thrust is used for reentry, orbital transfer, and course positioning.

2002-01-01

106

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Working near the top of a solid rocket booster, NASA and United Space Alliance SRB technicians hook up SRB cables to a CIRRUS computer for testing. From left are Jim Glass, with USA, performing a Flex test on the cable; Steve Swichkow, with NASA, and Jim Silviano, with USA, check the results on a computer. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

107

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- United Space Alliance SRB technician Jim Glass conducts a Flex test on a cable on the solid rocket booster at left. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

108

Soda Straw Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about rocket shape and performance. Learners will test a rocket model and predict its motion. They will launch their rocket multiple times, make observations and record the distance it traveled. They will have the opportunity to answer a research question by collecting and analyzing data related to finding out the best nose cone length and predicting the motion of their model rockets. The lesson models the engineering design process using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, vocabulary, student journal and reading.

109

Development and Test of a Rocket Engine Using Environmentally Friendly Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Develop and test a rocket engine that operates on environmentally friendly propellants; Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4). Due to modifications the rocket engine designed last summer (KJ_REX) is not the same rocket thruster tested this summer, but very similar. The new modified rocket thruster was built for NASA by Orion Propulsion Inc. (OPI), Huntsville, AL.

Webster, Kristi

2009-01-01

110

Reverse engineering of the multiple launch rocket system. Human factors, manpower, personnel, and training in the weapons system acquisition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a briefing format, this report on the Multiple Launch Rocket System summarizes an examination of human factors, manpower, personnel and training (HMPT) issues during the systems acquisition process. The report is one of four reverse engineering studies prepared at the request of Gen. M. R. Thurman, Army Vice Chief of Staff. The four systems were studied as a representative sample of Army weapons systems. They serve as the basis for drawing conclusions about aspects of the weapons system acquisition process which most affect HMPT considerations. A synthesis of the four system studies appears in the final report of the Reverse Engineering Task Force U.S. Army Research Institute.

Arabian, J. M.; Hartel, C. R.; Kaplan, J. D.; Marcus, A.; Promisel, D. M.

1984-06-01

111

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- United Space Alliance SRB technician Richard Bruns attaches a cable end cover to a cable pulled from the solid rocket booster on Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Shuttle was rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the SRB cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

112

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Vehicle Assembly Building, United Space Alliance SRB technician Frank Meyer pulls cables out of the solid rocket booster system tunnel. Cable end covers are in a box near his feet. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

113

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- NASA and United Space Alliance SRB technicians hook up solid rocket booster cables to a Cirris Signature Touch 1 cable tester. From left are Loren Atkinson and Steve Swichkow, with NASA, and Jeff Suter, with USA. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

114

Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Working near the top of a solid rocket booster, NASA and United Space Alliance SRB technicians hook up SRB cables to a Cirris Signature Touch 1 cable tester. From left are Steve Swichkow, with NASA, and Jim Silviano (back to camera) and Jeff Suter, with USA. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

2001-01-01

115

Test of a CMC liquid propulsion rocket engine turbine stator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The succesful testing of two Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) stators in conditions fully representative of a cryogenic rocket engine turbine is reported. Both stators possessed the same overall geometry as the actual metallic component used in the turbine second stage of the HM7 engine. They sustained several mid duration tests devoted to combustion parameter tuning and composite material behavior control,

J. Berque; J. M. Georges

1992-01-01

116

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

117

Force and impulse measurement. [liquid monopropellant rocket engine performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practices are outlined for the design, installation, checkout, calibration, and operation of a thrust measurement system to be used during tests of a liquid monopropellant rocket engine. Appendixes include: (1) thrust measurement system elemental uncertainties; (2) short- and long-term thrust measurement system uncertainty; and (3) shunt calibration of force transducers.

1979-01-01

118

Solid rocket motor fire tests: Phases 1 and 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JHU/APL conducted a series of open-air burns of small blocks (3 to 10 kg) of solid rocket motor (SRM) propellant at the Thiokol Elkton MD facility to elucidate the thermal environment under burning propellant. The propellant was TP-H-3340A for the STAR 48 motor, with a weight ratio of 71/18/11 for the ammonium perchlorate, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Combustion inhibitor applied on the blocks allowed burning on the bottom and/or sides only. Burns were conducted on sand and concrete to simulate near-launch pad surfaces, and on graphite to simulate a low-recession surface. Unique test fixturing allowed propellant self-levitation while constraining lateral motion. Optics instrumentation consisted of a longwave infrared imaging pyrometer, a midwave spectroradiometer, and a UV/visible spectroradiometer. In-situ instrumentation consisted of rod calorimeters, Gardon gauges, elevated thermocouples, flush thermocouples, a two-color pyrometer, and Knudsen cells. Witness materials consisted of yttria, ceria, alumina, tungsten, iridium, and platinum/rhodium. Objectives of the tests were to determine propellant burn characteristics such as burn rate and self-levitation, to determine heat fluxes and temperatures, and to carry out materials analyses. A summary of qualitative results: alumina coated almost all surfaces, the concrete spalled, sand moisture content matters, the propellant self-levitated, the test fixtures worked as designed, and bottom-burning propellant does not self-extinguish. A summary of quantitative results: burn rate averaged 1.15 mm/s, thermocouples peaked at 2070 C, pyrometer readings matched MWIR data at about 2400 C, the volume-averaged plume temperatures were 2300-2400 C with peaks of 2400-2600 C, and the heat fluxes peaked at 125 W/cm2. These results are higher than other researchers' measurements of top-burning propellant in chimneys, and will be used, along with Phase 3 test results, to analyze hardware response to these environments, including General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and Radioisotope Heater Units (RHU). Follow-on Phase 3 tests burning propellant blocks up to 90 kg will be briefly described. .

Chang, Yale; Hunter, Lawrence W.; Han, David K.; Thomas, Michael E.; Cain, Russell P.; Lennon, Andrew M.

2002-01-01

119

Foam Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in teams build and launch rubberband-powered foam rockets. Through a controlled investigation, learners will explore rocket stability and the trajectory relationship between launch angle and range. This lesson plan includes background information, diagrams, and handouts for learners.

Shearer, Deborah A.; Gregory L. Vogt, Ed D.

2012-06-26

120

Space shuttle solid rocket booster redesign and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The redesigned solid rocket motor of the Space Shuttle is described. Improvements over the model that led to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger are outlined. Scale and full-size tests carried out to verify the quality of the redesign are described. A unique feature of the test program is the introduction of deliberate flaws into some test articles. Post-flight evaluation of the redesigned boosters show excellent results.

Mitchell, R. E.

1989-01-01

121

Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

Hynes, Michael V.

1993-01-01

122

Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

Vibbart, Charles M.

1988-01-01

123

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem drop test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air drop test program was conducted as part of the development of a decelerator subsystem for recovering the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. This development test program consisted of six drops performed over the period from June 1977 to September 1978 at a parachute test center in California. The testing concerned a 48,000-lb drop test vehicle released from the B-52 mothership. The drop test program is described and pertinent test results are discussed. Data include snatch loads, inflation characteristics, peak inflation and disreef loads, and drag performance. Performance characteristics of the drogue parachute and the main parachute are established.

Moog, R. D.; Sheppard, J. D.; Kross, D. A.

1979-01-01

124

Longitudinal and lateral-directional static aerodynamic characteristics of an unpowered escape system extraction rocket model with attached launch tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An escape system extraction rocket proposed for use on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft was tested at Mach numbers of 0.1 and 0.3 through an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 102 deg and an angle of sideslip range from 0 deg to 15 deg in the Langley 7- by 10-foot high speed tunnel. The data are presented without analysis.

Huffman, J. K.; Fox, C. H., Jr.; Satterthwaite, R. E.

1977-01-01

125

Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

1992-08-01

126

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

SciTech Connect

The experience base regarding fission product behavior developed during the Rover program, the nuclear rocket development program of 1955--1972, will be useful in planning a renewed nuclear rocket program. During the Rover program, 20 reactors were tested at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada. Nineteen of these discharged effluent directly into the atmosphere; the last reactor tested, a non-flight-prototypic, fuel-element-testing reactor called the Nuclear Furnace (NF-1) was connected to an effluent cleanup system that removed fission products before the hydrogen coolant (propellant) was discharged to the atmosphere. In general, we are able to increase both test duration and fuel temperature during the test series. Therefore fission product data from the later part of the program are more interesting and more applicable to future reactors. We have collected fission product retention (and release) data reported in both formal and informal publications for six of the later reactor tests; five of these were Los Alamos reactors that were firsts of a kind in configuration or operating conditions. We have also, with the cooperation of Westinghouse, included fission product data from the NRX-A6 reactor, the final member of series of developmental reactors with the same basic geometry, but with significant design and fabrication improvements as the series continued. Table 1 lists the six selected reactors and the test parameters for each.

Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

1991-01-01

127

Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

2012-01-01

128

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air...

2014-07-01

129

Reliability as an Independent Variable Applied to Liquid Rocket Engine Test Plans  

E-print Network

Reliability as an Independent Variable Applied to Liquid Rocket Engine Test Plans Richard Strunz and a number of hot-fire tests necessary to develop and qualify/certify a liquid rocket engine against a stated parameters in early tradeoff studies for liquid rocket engines because the reliability trade space directly

Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

130

Tracking the Relative Motion of Four Space Payloads Launched From a Sub-Orbital NASA Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One problem, which is comparatively new in the field of GPS applications, is the determination of the relative trajectories of space vehicles. Applications include the docking of spacecraft, collision avoidance in the area of space stations, and trajectory reconstruction of multiple payloads. The required precision in any of these applications will vary, according to the requirements of the task and abilities of GPS to cope with the environment and the dynamics. This paper describes the post-mission reconstruction of the relative trajectories of four GPS receivers attached to four payloads jettisoned from a rocket in a sub-orbital NASA science mission. It is shown that the sub-decimetre level were achieved with single frequency GPS receivers.

Martel, Hugh; Bull, Barton

1999-01-01

131

Solid Rocket Booster Qualification Motor in Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photograph of the solid rocket booster's (SRB's) Qualification Motor-1 (QM-1) being prepared for a static firing in a test stand at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah, showing the aft end of the booster. The twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

1979-01-01

132

Temperature measurement. [liquid monopropellant rocket engine performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, installation, checkout, calibration, and operation of a temperature measuring system to be used during tests of a liquid monopropellant rocket engine are discussed. Appendixes include: (1) temperature measurement system elemental uncertainties, and (2) tables and equations for use with thermocouples and resistance thermometers. Design guidelines are given for the critical components of each portion of the system to provide an optimum temperature measurement system which meets the performance criteria specified.

1979-01-01

133

Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

Finseth, J. L.

1991-01-01

134

Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

135

ROCOZ-A (improved rocket launched ozone sensor) for middle atmosphere ozone measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved interference filter based ultraviolet photometer (ROCOZ-A) for measuring stratospheric ozone is discussed. The payload is launched aboard a Super-Loki to a typical apogee of 70 km. The instrument measures the solar ultraviolet irradiance as it descends on a parachute. The total cumulative ozone is then calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law. The cumulative ozone precision measured in this way is 2.0% to 2.5% over an altitude range of 20 and 55 km. Results of the intercomparison with the SBUV overpass data and ROCOZ-A data are also discussed.

Lee, H. S.; Parsons, C. L.

1987-01-01

136

Environmental assessment: Single-stage rocket technology DC-X test program  

SciTech Connect

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Directive 6050.1 direct that decision-makers take into account environmental consequences when authorizing or approving major federal actions. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental consequences of conducting activities for the SSRT test program. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide SDIO with a suborbital, recoverable rocket (SRR) capable of lifting up to 3,000 pounds of payload to an altitude of 1.5 million feet; returning to the launch site for a precise soft landing; with the capability to launch for another mission within three to seven days. To support these requirements, the proposed action involves validation and testing of a DC-X vehicle. Component assembly of the vehicle will take place at Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, CA; Chicago Bridge and Iron, Cordova, AL; Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL, Aerojet, Sacramento, CA; and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, Beach, CA. Static test firing activities will occur at NASA/White Sands Test Facility Huntington (WSTF), WSMR, New Mexico, and launch activities will occur at White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH), WSMR, New Mexico. No significant impacts are anticipated to the environment at the engineering contractor facilities, NASA/WSTF, or WSSH.

Not Available

1992-06-01

137

Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CN? = 3.50ą0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CN? = 2.58ą0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

138

ASRM subscale plume deflector testing. [advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

1992-01-01

139

Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete for Rocket Test Facility Flame Deflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume environments. This project was developed as a continuation of on-going collaborations between LTU and SSC, where test sections of a formulation of high temperature geopolymer binder were cast in the floor and walls of Test Stand E-1 Cell 3, an active rocket engine test stand flame trench. Additionally, geopolymer concrete panels were tested using the NASA-SSC Diagnostic Test Facility (DTF) thruster, where supersonic plume environments were generated on a 1ft wide x 2ft long x 6 inch deep refractory panel. The DTF operates on LOX/GH2 propellants producing a nominal thrust of 1,200 lbf and the combustion chamber conditions are Pc=625psig, O/F=6.0. Data collected included high speed video of plume/panel area and surface profiles (depth) of the test panels measured on a 1-inch by 1-inch giving localized erosion rates during the test. Louisiana Tech conducted a microstructure analysis of the geopolymer binder after the testing program to identify phase changes in the material.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Montes, Carlos; Islam, Rashedul; Allouche, Erez

2014-01-01

140

Preliminary Sizing Completed for Single- Stage-To-Orbit Launch Vehicles Powered By Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) propulsion remains an elusive goal for launch vehicles. The physics of the problem is leading developers to a search for higher propulsion performance than is available with all-rocket power. Rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technology provides additional propulsion performance that may enable SSTO flight. Structural efficiency is also a major driving force in enabling SSTO flight. Increases in performance with RBCC propulsion are offset with the added size of the propulsion system. Geometrical considerations must be exploited to minimize the weight. Integration of the propulsion system with the vehicle must be carefully planned such that aeroperformance is not degraded and the air-breathing performance is enhanced. Consequently, the vehicle's structural architecture becomes one with the propulsion system architecture. Geometrical considerations applied to the integrated vehicle lead to low drag and high structural and volumetric efficiency. Sizing of the SSTO launch vehicle (GTX) is itself an elusive task. The weight of the vehicle depends strongly on the propellant required to meet the mission requirements. Changes in propellant requirements result in changes in the size of the vehicle, which in turn, affect the weight of the vehicle and change the propellant requirements. An iterative approach is necessary to size the vehicle to meet the flight requirements. GTX Sizer was developed to do exactly this. The governing geometry was built into a spreadsheet model along with scaling relationships. The scaling laws attempt to maintain structural integrity as the vehicle size is changed. Key aerodynamic relationships are maintained as the vehicle size is changed. The closed weight and center of gravity are displayed graphically on a plot of the synthesized vehicle. In addition, comprehensive tabular data of the subsystem weights and centers of gravity are generated. The model has been verified for accuracy with finite element analysis. The final trajectory was rerun using OTIS (Boeing Corporation's trajectory optimization software package), and the sizing output was incorporated into a solid model of the vehicle using PRO/Engineer computer-aided design software (Parametric Technology Corporation, Waltham, MA).

Roche, Joseph M.

2002-01-01

141

Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

2014-01-01

142

Chinese modify CZ-2/3 rocket boosters, focus on commercial launch market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program underway in the People's Republic of China to modify the Titan-class CZ-2/3 satellite-launch and ICBM boosters is described on the basis of a recent visit to the manufacturing plant in Shanghai. The present two-stage CZ-2 and three-stage CZ-3 can place 5000 lbs in LEO or 3080 lbs in GEO, respectively, and are produced on a custom basis with a delivery time of about 2 yrs. Modifications introduced include 4 x 6-ft fins and a pogo-suppression system for the four-engine first stage and a steel support band for the combustion chamber of the 80-ton-thrust second-stage main engine.

Covault, C.

1985-07-01

143

A weak equivalence principle test on a suborbital rocket  

E-print Network

We describe a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. The test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of sigma(eta) < 10^-16 after averaging the results of eight separate drops. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm Hz^-1/2. The discovery of a violation (eta not equal to 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

Robert D. Reasenberg; James D. Phillips

2010-01-26

144

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merlon M.

2003-01-01

145

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merion M.

2002-01-01

146

Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

Hines, Merlon M.

2004-01-01

147

Testing of electroformed deposited iridium/powder metallurgy rhenium rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials offer the thermal margin for high performance and extended lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets. Rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (Ir) allow hours of operation at 2200 C on Earth-storable propellants. One process for manufacturing Ir/Re rocket chambers is the fabrication of Re substrates by powder metallurgy (PM) and the application of Ir coatings by using electroformed deposition (ED). ED Ir coatings, however, have been found to be porous and poorly adherent. The integrity of ED Ir coatings could be improved by densification after the electroforming process. This report summarizes the testing of two 22-N, ED Ir/PM Re rocket chambers that were subjected to post-deposition treatments in an effort to densify the Ir coating. One chamber was vacuum annealed, while the other chamber was subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP). The chambers were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants, at mixture ratios that simulated the oxidizing environments of Earth-storable propellants. ne annealed ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 24 firings and 4.58 hr at a mixture ratio of 4.2. After only 9 firings, the annealed ED Ir coating began to blister and spall upstream of the throat. The blistering and spalling were similar to what had been experienced with unannealed, as-deposited ED Ir coatings. The HIP ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 91 firings and 11.45 hr at mixture ratios of 3.2 and 4.2. The HIP ED Ir coating remained adherent to the Re substrate throughout testing; there were no visible signs of coating degradation. Metallography revealed, however, thinning of the HIP Ir coating and occasional pores in the Re layer upstream of the throat. Pinholes in the Ir coating may have provided a path for oxidation of the Re substrate at these locations. The HIP ED Ir coating proved to be more effective than vacuum annealed and as-deposited ED Ir. Further densification is still required to match the integrity of chemically vapor deposited Ir coatings. Despite this, the successful long duration testing of the HIP ED Ir chamber, in an oxidizing environment comparable to Earth-storable propellants, demonstrated the viability of this Ir/Re rocket fabrication process.

Reed, Brian D.; Dickerson, Robert

1996-01-01

148

Use of Atomic Fuels for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles Analyzed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the NASA Lewis Research Center, the launch vehicle gross lift-off weight (GLOW) was analyzed for solid particle feed systems that use high-energy density atomic propellants (ref. 1). The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum, boron, carbon, and hydrogen stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents for the liquid carrier were investigated, and the GLOW values of vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with that of a conventional oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant vehicle. Atomic propellants, such as boron, carbon, and hydrogen, have an enormous potential for high specific impulse Isp operation, and their pursuit has been a topic of great interest for decades. Recent and continuing advances in the understanding of matter, the development of new technologies for simulating matter at its most basic level, and manipulations of matter through microtechnology and nanotechnology will no doubt create a bright future for atomic propellants and an exciting one for the researchers exploring this technology.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1999-01-01

149

Safety aspects of ground testing for large nuclear rockets  

SciTech Connect

Present nuclear rocket reactors under test in Nevada are operated at nominal power levels of 1000 Mw. It does not seem unreasonable in the future to anticipate reactors with power levels in the range up to 5,000 Mw for space applications. It has been shown that the normal testing of large nuclear rocket engines at NRDS could impose some restrictions on the fuel performance which would not otherwise be required by space flight operation. The only apparent alternative would require a capability for decontaminating effluent gases prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition to the source restrictions, tests will almost certainly be controlled by wind and atmospheric stability conditions, and the requirements for monitoring and control of off-site exposures will be much more stringent than those presently in force. An analysis of maximum accidents indicates that projections of present credible occurrences cannot be tolerated in larger engine tests. The apparent alternatives to a significant (order of magnitude or better) reduction in credible accident consequences, are the establishment of an underground test facility, a facility in an area equivalent to the Pacific weapons proving ground, or in space.

Goldman, M.I.

1988-02-01

150

Pressure measurement. [liquid monopropellant rocket engine performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practices are outlined for the design, installation, checkout, calibration, and operation of a pressure measuring system to be used during tests of a liquid monopropellant rocket engine. Appendixes include: (1) pressure measurement system elemental uncertainties; (2) short- and long-term pressure measurement system uncertainty; (3) shunt calibration of pressure transducers; (4) special considerations for vacuum measurement; and (5) methods of determining the dynamic characteristics of pressure transducers. Design guidelines are provided for the critical components of each portion of the system to provide a pressure measurement system which meets the performance criteria specified.

1979-01-01

151

Education\\/Public Outreach, and IDEAS grant in support of the NASA HEX sounding rocket mission launched March 2003 in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education\\/Public Outreach materials were developed in conjuncation with K-12 classroom teachers for the NASA sounding rocket Horizontal E-Region Experiment launched in March 2003 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The science coordinator for the Yukon-Koyukuk school district and HEX principal investigator Mark Conde of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks also carried out a NASA funded

N. B. Brown

2003-01-01

152

Design of Electrical Systems for Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities at the John C. Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the design of the electrical systems that are required for the testing of rockets at the Rocket Propulsion Facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (NASA SSC). NASA/SSC s Mission in Rocket Propulsion Testing Is to Acquire Test Performance Data for Verification, Validation and Qualification of Propulsion Systems Hardware. These must be accurate reliable comprehensive and timely. Data acquisition in a rocket propulsion test environment is challenging: severe temporal transient dynamic environments, large thermal gradients, vacuum to 15 ksi pressure regimes SSC has developed and employs DAS, control systems and control systems and robust instrumentation that effectively satisfies these challenges.

Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Bakker, Henry J.; Jensen, Scott L.

2007-01-01

153

Magnetic Launch Assist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this program are to: (1) To develop a safe, reliable, inexpensive, and minimum operation launch assist system for sending payloads into orbit using ground powered, magnetic suspension and propulsion technologies; (2) Improve safety, reliability, operability for third generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV); (3) Reduce vehicle weight and increase payload capacity; and (4) Support operational testing of Rocket Based Combine Cycle (RBCC) engines.

Perez, Jose

2000-01-01

154

Shuttle crew escape systems (CES) rocket test at Hurricane Mesa, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shuttle crew escape systems (CES) tractor rocket tests conducted at Hurricane Mesa, Utah. This preliminary ground test of the tractor rocket will lead up to in-air evaluations. View shows tractor rocket as it is fired from side hatch mockup. The tractor rocket concept is one of two escape methods being studied to provide crew egress capability during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight. In-air tests of the system, utilizing a Convair-240 aircraft, will begin 11-19-87 at the Naval Weapons Center in China Lake, California.

1987-01-01

155

Bottle Rockets Mechanical Engineering  

E-print Network

Bottle Rockets Mechanical Engineering Objective This lesson introduces students to forces and how they affect the maximum height of a rocket. In this activity, students will build a rocket, launch it can be used to determine the height of object 2. That the more pressure applied to a rocket will make

Provancher, William

156

Electrets used in measuring rocket exhaust effluents from the space shuttle's solid rocket booster during static test firing, DM-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experimental research was to compare Marshall Space Flight Center's electrets with Thiokol's fixed flow air samplers during the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Demonstration Model-3 static test firing on October 19, 1978. The measurement of rocket exhaust effluents by Thiokol's samplers and MSFC's electrets indicated that the firing of the Solid Rocket Booster had no significant effect on the quality of the air sampled. The highest measurement by Thiokol's samplers was obtained at Plant 3 (site 11) approximately 8 km at a 113 degree heading from the static test stand. At sites 11, 12, and 5, Thiokol's fixed flow air samplers measured 0.0048, 0.00016, and 0.00012 mg/m3 of CI. Alongside the fixed flow measurements, the electret counts from X-ray spectroscopy were 685, 894, and 719 counts. After background corrections, the counts were 334, 543, and 368, or an average of 415 counts. An additional electred, E20, which was the only measurement device at a site approximately 20 km northeast from the test site where no power was available, obtained 901 counts. After background correction, the count was 550. Again this data indicate there was no measurement of significant rocket exhaust effluents at the test site.

Susko, M.

1979-01-01

157

The 260: The Largest Solid Rocket Motor Ever Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerojet in the mid 1960s, under contract to NASA, built and static hot fire tested the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) in history for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of utilizing large SRMs for space exploration. This program successfully fabricated two high strength steel chambers, loaded each with approximately 1,68 million pounds of propellant, and static test fired these giants with their nozzles up from an underground silo located adjacent to the Florida everglades. Maximum thrust and total impulse in excess of 5,000,000 lbf and 3,470,000,000 lbf-sec were achieved. Flames from the second firing, conducted at night, were seen over eighty miles away. For comparative purposes: the thrust developed was nearly 100 times that of a Minuteman III second stage and the 260 in.-dia cross-section was over 3 times that of the Space Shuttle SRM.

Crimmins, P.; Cousineau, M.; Rogers, C.; Shell, V.

1999-01-01

158

Test of a CMC liquid propulsion rocket engine turbine stator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The succesful testing of two Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) stators in conditions fully representative of a cryogenic rocket engine turbine is reported. Both stators possessed the same overall geometry as the actual metallic component used in the turbine second stage of the HM7 engine. They sustained several mid duration tests devoted to combustion parameter tuning and composite material behavior control, before long duration runs, representative of the engine duty cycle. The main objectives were to increase the gas temperature above 1600 K, and to simulate the thermal shock that occurs during the chilldown at the end of the combustion phase, in order to provide a good insight of the benefits in terms of performance, mass, durability and reliability associated with CMC application to a large set of aerospace engine turbines.

Berque, J.; Georges, J. M.

159

Test of a CMC liquid propulsion rocket engine turbine stator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first semester of 1991, SEP successfully tested two Ceramic Matrix Composite stators in conditions fully representative of a cryogenic rocket engine turbine. Both stators possessed the same overall geometry as the actual metallic component used in the turbine second stage of the HM7 engine. They sustained several mid-duration tests devoted to combustion parameter tuning and composite material behavior control, before long duration runs, representative of the engine duty cycle. The main objectives were to increase the gas temperature above 1600 K, and to simulate the thermal shock that occurs during the chilldown at the end of the combustion phase, in order to provide a good insight of the benefits in terms of performance, mass, durability and reliability associated with CMC application to a large set of aerospace engine turbines.

Berque, J.; Georges, J. M.

1992-07-01

160

NPP Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

161

Launch It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners use a balloon and other simple materials to design an air-powered rocket that can hit a distant target. Learners are encouraged to consider how rocket length, number of fins, additional weight and launch angle will affect travel distance. The associated leader's guide relates this challenge to NASA and lunar spacecraft.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

162

Pegasus Rocket Booster Being Prepared for X-43A/Hyper-X Flight Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technicians prepare a Pegasus rocket booster for flight tests with the X-43A 'Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle,' or 'Hyper-X.' The X-43A, which will be attached to the Pegasus booster and drop launched from NASA's B-52 mothership, was developed to research dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

1999-01-01

163

Pegasus Rocket Booster Being Prepared for X-43A/Hyper-X Flight Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close-up view of the front end of a Pegasus rocket booster being prepared by technicians at the Dryden Flight Research Center for flight tests with the X-43A 'Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle,' or 'Hyper-X.' The X-43A, which will be attached to the Pegasus booster and drop launched from NASA's B-52 mothership, was developed to research dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

1999-01-01

164

Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

Friesen, H.N.

1995-06-01

165

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle is lowered into the waters of the Atlantic during a test of a new booster retrieval method. A one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

166

Shuttle launched flight tests - Supporting technology for planetary entry missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of conducting Space Shuttle-launched earth entry flight tests to enhance the technology base for second generation planetary entry missions is examined. Outer planet entry environments are reviewed, translated into earth entry requirements and used to establish entry test system design and cost characteristics. Entry speeds up to those needed to simulate radiative heating levels of more than 30 kW/sq cm are shown to be possible. A standardized recoverable test bed concept is described that is capable of accommodating a wide range of entry technology experiments. The economic advantage of shared Shuttle launches are shown to be achievable through a test system configured to the volume constraints of a single Spacelab pallet using existing propulsion components.

Vetter, H. C.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Siemers, P. M., III; Nachtsheim, P. R.

1975-01-01

167

Ares Launch Vehicle Transonic Buffet Testing and Analysis Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. In order to obtain these forcing functions, the accepted method is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. The buffet wind-tunnel test program for the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle employed 3.5 percent scale rigid models of the Ares I and Ares I-X launch vehicles instrumented with 256 unsteady pressure transducers each. These models were tested at transonic conditions at the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The ultimate deliverable of the Ares buffet test program are buffet forcing functions (BFFs) derived from integrating the measured fluctuating pressures on the rigid wind-tunnel models. These BFFs are then used as input to a multi-mode structural analysis to determine the vehicle response to buffet and the resulting buffet loads and accelerations. This paper discusses the development of the Ares I and I-X rigid buffet model test programs from the standpoint of model design, instrumentation system design, test implementation, data analysis techniques to yield final products, and presents normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-squared levels.

Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

2010-01-01

168

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At left, a manipulator arm on a one-man submarine demonstrates its ability to cut tangled parachute riser lines and place a Diver Operator Plug (top right) inside a mock solid rocket booster nozzle (center). Known as DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

169

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships, a crane lowers a one-man submarine into the ocean near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Called DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

170

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

171

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a successful dive, the one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is lifted from Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla., onto the deck of the Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. Inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

172

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Diver Operator Plug (DOP) is being pulled down into the ocean by a newly designed one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000. The activity is part of an operation to attach the plug to a mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle. DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

173

Sea Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

174

Sounding rockets in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sounding rockets are versatile tools for scientists studying the atmospheric region which is located above balloon altitudes but below orbital satellite altitudes. Three NASA Nike-Tomahawk sounding rockets were launched from Siple Station in Antarctica in an upper atmosphere physics experiment in the austral summer of 1980-81. The 110 kg payloads were carried to 200 km apogee altitudes in a coordinated project with Arcas rocket payloads and instrumented balloons. This Siple Station Expedition demonstrated the feasibility of launching large, near 1,000 kg, rocket systems from research stations in Antarctica. The remoteness of research stations in Antarctica and the severe environment are major considerations in planning rocket launching expeditions.

Alford, G. C.; Cooper, G. W.; Peterson, N. E.

1982-01-01

175

Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

2011-01-01

176

Aerodynamic Tests of the Space Launch System for Database Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerosciences Branch (EV33) at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been responsible for a series of wind tunnel tests on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) vehicles. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain aerodynamic data during the ascent phase and establish databases that can be used by the Guidance, Navigation, and Mission Analysis Branch (EV42) for trajectory simulations. The paper describes the test particulars regarding models and measurements and the facilities used, as well as database preparations.

Pritchett, Victor E.; Mayle, Melody N.; Blevins, John A.; Crosby, William A.; Purinton, David C.

2014-01-01

177

Status review of liquid rocket static test range at Iowa State University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid rocket static test range of the Iowa State University incorporates an Aerobee sustainer propulsion system consisting of a pressure fed (helium) liquid bipropellant (hypergolic) rocket engine with a regeneratively fuel-cooled thrust chamber assembly. The paper covers test results to date (including results of four test firings in the water expulsion mode), construction details of the test stand, the laboratory course syllabus, and the environmental impact statement.

Brodsky, R. F.

1976-01-01

178

Launching Genesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about the various facets of launching a spacecraft into space. Learners will look at the launch vehicle requirements for the Genesis spacecraft, then decide which rocket should be used from a list of several Delta rockets. Next, they will model the thrusters used for course corrections on the spacecraft, using a milk carton and water. In the third part of this activity, learners investigate how the size of the exit nozzle affects the force of a thruster. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This is lesson 4 of 8 from the Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion module.

179

Solid Rocket Booster Hydraulic Pump Port Cap Joint Load Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solid rocket booster uses hydraulic pumps fabricated from cast C355 aluminum alloy, with 17-4 PH stainless steel pump port caps. Corrosion-resistant steel, MS51830 CA204L self-locking screw thread inserts are installed into C355 pump housings, with A286 stainless steel fasteners installed into the insert to secure the pump port cap to the housing. In the past, pump port cap fasteners were installed to a torque of 33 Nm (300 in-lb). However, the structural analyses used a significantly higher nut factor than indicated during tests conducted by Boeing Space Systems. When the torque values were reassessed using Boeing's nut factor, the fastener preload had a factor of safety of less than 1, with potential for overloading the joint. This paper describes how behavior was determined for a preloaded joint with a steel bolt threaded into steel inserts in aluminum parts. Finite element models were compared with test results. For all initial bolt preloads, bolt loads increased as external applied loads increased. For higher initial bolt preloads, less load was transferred into the bolt, due to external applied loading. Lower torque limits were established for pump port cap fasteners and additional limits were placed on insert axial deformation under operating conditions after seating the insert with an initial preload.

Gamwell, W. R.; Murphy, N. C.

2004-01-01

180

Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

2011-01-01

181

The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for rocket engine component testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of PLCs to the rocket engine component testing at a new Stennis Space Center Component Test Facility is suggested as an alternative to dedicated specialized computers. The PLC systems are characterized by rugged design, intuitive software, fault tolerance, flexibility, multiple end device options, networking capability, and built-in diagnostics. A distributed PLC-based system is projected to be used for testing LH2/LOx turbopumps required for the ALS/NLS rocket engines.

Nail, William; Scheuermann, Patrick; Witcher, Kern

1991-01-01

182

Education/Public Outreach, and IDEAS grant in support of the NASA HEX sounding rocket mission launched March 2003 in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education/Public Outreach materials were developed in conjuncation with K-12 classroom teachers for the NASA sounding rocket Horizontal E-Region Experiment launched in March 2003 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The science coordinator for the Yukon-Koyukuk school district and HEX principal investigator Mark Conde of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks also carried out a NASA funded IDEAS grant in which middle school students made observations and measurements of the chemical releases which were the backbone of the HEX measurement program. Live From the Aurora, a national program sponsored by several agencies including NASA and NSF, involving live television interactions between rocket scientists and students overnighting at four museums also took place in the same launch window. I will discuss the problems encountering in developing and getting information about cutting-edge science, out in time-frames so they were useable by teachers and students, and some of the fun things that happened while working with national television media programs.

Brown, N. B.

2003-12-01

183

Implementation of NASA's Sounding Rocket Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Sounding Rocket Program was privatized in February 1999 at NASA Wallops Island, Virginia, USA. Litton/PRC* is the prime contractor on the 10-year NASA Sounding Rocket Contract (NSROC). The NSROC team is comprised of several teammates including Litton/PRC, Orbital Sciences, Arcata, RSS and Boeing. NSROC provides NASA's Sounding Rocket Office (SRPO) with all mission/vehicle planning, design, development, integration, test, launch and post-flight analysis. The NSROC team achieved ISO 9000 registration status in August 2000. NSROC launches an average of 20 vehicles/missions per year. Launches are performed from many world-wide launch ranges including Wallops Island Flight Facility Virginia, White Sands Missile Range New Mexico, Poker Flat Alaska, Esrange Sweden, Andřya Norway, Barking Sands Hawaii, Woomera Australia, Greenland, Svalbard Norway, Fortaleza Brazil, Vandeburg AFB California, Eastern Test Range Florida, Peru, Puerto Rico, amongst others.

Krause, Dave

2001-08-01

184

Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

1993-01-01

185

Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

186

Apollo/Saturn V facilities Test Vehicle and Launch Umbilical Tower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Apollo/Saturn V facilities Test Vehicle and Launch Umbilical Tower (LUT) atop a crawler-transporter move from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on the way to Pad A. This test vehicle, designated the Apollo/Saturn 500-F, is being used to verify launch facilities, train launch crews, and develop test and checkout procedures.

1966-01-01

187

Weak Equivalence Principle Test on a Sounding Rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

SR-POEM, our principle of equivalence measurement on a sounding rocket, will compare the free fall rate of two substances yielding an uncertainty of E-16 in the estimate of \\\\eta. During the past two years, the design concept has matured and we have been working on the required technology, including a laser gauge that is self aligning and able to reach

James D. Phillips; Bijunath R. Patla; Eugeniu M. Popescu; Emanuele Rocco; Rajesh Thapa; Robert D. Reasenberg; Enrico C. Lorenzini

2010-01-01

188

Rockets in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the launch of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957, the only way to place scientific instruments above the atmosphere was to launch them on board rockets. In the following four decades, suborbital sounding rockets have continued to play a major role in improving our knowledge of the Earth, geospace and the universe as a whole....

Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

189

IRIS Launch Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

190

Balloon Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experiment with force and pressure by building a balloon rocket. When launched, the balloon will run a track wherever you place the string. All you need is a balloon, clothespin, a straw, some tape, and some string, then get ready for take off!

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

191

Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

2010-01-01

192

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the pressurization system, including regulator blowdown and propellant ullage performance, measure system pressure drops for comparison to analysis of tubing and components, and validate system activation and re-activation procedures for the helium pressurant system. Secondary objectives included: validating system processes for loading, unloading, and purging, validating procedures and system response for multiple failure scenarios, including relief valve operation, and evaluating system performance for contingency scenarios. The test results of the cold flow development test program are essential in validating the performance and interaction of the Roll Control System and anchoring analysis tools and results to a Critical Design Review level of fidelity.

Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

2010-01-01

193

Rocket and Space Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by author Robert Braeuning, features material on orbital mechanics, propulsion, rocket hardware, space centers and missions. It includes definitions of important terms and black-and-white diagrams. The page also features information on rocket propellants, rocket propulsion, orbital mechanics, spacecraft systems, vehicle specifications, launch vehicles, manned space flights, planetary spacecraft, and lunar spacecraft. A glossary and discussion forum are also provided. This is a nice resource for a overview of all things involving rockets or other space technologies.

Braeuning, Robert

2009-05-04

194

Building Bottle Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be investigating the physics behind the launching of a bottle rocket that you will design and build. Go to Air resistance definition and answer the following questions: 1. What is air resistance? 2. How will you design your rocket to reduce the effect of the air resistance? Go to Aerodynamic Forces and list the 4 forces that act on a rocket in motion. Which ones propel the rocket upward and which ...

Benenati, Mr.

2008-03-23

195

Weak Equivalence Principle Test on a Sounding Rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

SR-POEM, our principle of equivalence measurement on a sounding rocket, will\\u000acompare the free fall rate of two substances yielding an uncertainty of E-16 in\\u000athe estimate of \\\\eta. During the past two years, the design concept has matured\\u000aand we have been working on the required technology, including a laser gauge\\u000athat is self aligning and able to reach

James D. Phillips; Bijunath R. Patla; Eugeniu M. Popescu; Emanuele Rocco; Rajesh Thapa; Robert D. Reasenberg; Enrico C. Lorenzini

2010-01-01

196

Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

2011-01-01

197

A quick test of the WEP enabled by a sounding rocket  

E-print Network

We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, which is to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. This test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of \\sigma(\\eta) test mass assemblies. The discovery of a violation (\\eta \

Robert D. Reasenberg; Enrico C. Lorenzini; Biju R. Patla; James D. Phillips; Eugeniu E. Popescu; Emanuele Rocco; Rajesh Thapa

2010-11-15

198

Loads analysis and testing of flight configuration solid rocket motor outer boot ring segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loads testing on in-house-fabricated flight configuration Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) outer boot ring segments. The tests determined the bending strength and bending stiffness of these beams and showed that they compared well with the hand analysis. The bending stiffness test results compared very well with the finite element data.

Ahmed, Rafiq

1990-01-01

199

The Optimal Bottle Rocket Lauch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a computer and outdoor lab based activity in which students design two bottle rockets that are designed to reach maximum height. Students will calculate maximum height and terminal velocity for each rocket launched.

Menzies, Margaret

200

Validation and Simulation of Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test - 2 - Simulations at 5 Foot Elevation for Evaluation of Launch Mount Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test (ASMAT) is a series of live-fire tests of scaled rocket motors meant to simulate the conditions of the Ares I launch configuration. These tests have provided a well documented set of high fidelity measurements useful for validation including data taken over a range of test conditions and containing phenomena like Ignition Over-Pressure and water suppression of acoustics. Expanding from initial simulations of the ASMAT setup in a held down configuration, simulations have been performed using the Loci/CHEM computational fluid dynamics software for ASMAT tests of the vehicle at 5 ft. elevation (100 ft. real vehicle elevation) with worst case drift in the direction of the launch tower. These tests have been performed without water suppression and have compared the acoustic emissions for launch structures with and without launch mounts. In addition, simulation results have also been compared to acoustic and imagery data collected from similar live-fire tests to assess the accuracy of the simulations. Simulations have shown a marked change in the pattern of emissions after removal of the launch mount with a reduction in the overall acoustic environment experienced by the vehicle and the formation of highly directed acoustic waves moving across the platform deck. Comparisons of simulation results to live-fire test data showed good amplitude and temporal correlation and imagery comparisons over the visible and infrared wavelengths showed qualitative capture of all plume and pressure wave evolution features.

Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Putman, Gabriel C.

2011-01-01

201

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

202

Weak Equivalence Principle Test on a Sounding Rocket  

E-print Network

SR-POEM, our principle of equivalence measurement on a sounding rocket, will compare the free fall rate of two substances yielding an uncertainty of E-16 in the estimate of \\eta. During the past two years, the design concept has matured and we have been working on the required technology, including a laser gauge that is self aligning and able to reach 0.1 pm per root hertz for periods up to 40 s. We describe the status and plans for this project.

James D. Phillips; Bijunath R. Patla; Eugeniu M. Popescu; Emanuele Rocco; Rajesh Thapa; Robert D. Reasenberg; Enrico C. Lorenzini

2010-08-04

203

Soda-Bottle Water Rockets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for the construction and launch of a two-liter plastic soda-bottle rocket and presents the author's theory of their motion during launch. Modeled predictions are compared with actual experimental data. Explains theory behind the motion of a water rocket during launch. (LZ)

Kagan, David; And Others

1995-01-01

204

An Acoustic Impedance Model for Evaluating Ground Effect of Static-Firing Tests on Rocket Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of ground effect is important for acoustic measurement in static-firing tests on rocket motors. The effectiveness of existing acoustic impedance models is examined by comparing with some experimental results. Through the comparison and evaluation of effect of meteorological condition, it is confirmed that the existing impedance models are unsatisfactory for the evaluation of long distance propagation over a hard surface, which corresponds to the far field condition in the present static-firing tests of rocket motors. In this study, a new acoustic impedance model is proposed. From the comparison with the existing acoustic measurement data, it is shown that the new model is effective for both of near and far field propagation. The proposed model is applied to acoustic data measured in the static-firing tests of solid rocket motors, assuming distributed acoustic sources along the exhaust jet axis.

Fukuda, Kota; Tsutsumi, Seiji; Ui, Kyoichi; Ishii, Tatsuya; Takaki, Ryoji; Fujii, Kozo

205

Synergistic Development, Test, and Qualification Approaches for the Ares I and V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is designing and developing the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles for access to the International Space Station (ISS) and human exploration of the Moon. The Ares I consists of a first stage reusable five-segment solid rocket booster, a upper stage using a J-2X engine derived from heritage experience (Saturn and Space Shuttle External Tank programs), and the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Ares V is designed to minimize the development and overall life-cycle costs by leveraging off of the Ares I design. The Ares V consists of two boosters, a core stage, an earth departure stage (EDS), and a shroud. The core stage and EDS use LH2/LO2 propellants, metallic propellant tanks, and composite dry structures. The core stage has six RS-68B upgraded Delta IV engines while the EDS uses a J-2X engine for second stage ascent and trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn. System and propulsion tests and qualification approaches for Ares V elements are being considered as follow-on extensions of the Ares I development program. Following Ares I IOC, testing will be conducted to verify the J-2X engine's orbital restart and TLI burn capability. The Ares I upper stage operation will be demonstrated through integrated stage development and acceptance testing. The EDS will undergo similar development and acceptance testing with additional testing to verify aspects of cryogenic propellant management, operation of sub-systems in a space simulation environment, and orbital re-start of the main propulsion system. RS-68B certification testing will be conducted along with integrated core stage development and acceptance testing. Structural testing of the Ares V EDS and core stage propellant tanks will be conducted similar to the Ares I upper stage. The structural qualification testing may be accomplished with separate propellant tank test articles. Structural development and qualification testing of the dry structure will be pursued as part of the design and development process. Especially critical is the development test program for the composite structures. The Ares V payload shroud will undergo acoustic, vibration, structural qualification, and deployment testing in a space simulation environment. Similar to Ares I, requirements for full-scale structural dynamic testing are being studied. Both Ares I and Ares V include validation flight testing as part of the qualification programs.

Cockrell, Charles E.; Taylor, James L.; Patterson, Alan; Stephens, Samuel E.; Tyson, Richard W.; Hueter, Uwe

2009-01-01

206

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

Pagan, B.

1979-01-01

207

Monomethylhydrazine versus hydrazine fuels - Test results using a 100 pound thrust bipropellant rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was performed to evaluate hydrazine (N2H4) as a fuel for a 445 Newton (100 lbf) thrust bipropellant rocket engine. Results of testing with an identical thruster utilizing monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are included for comparison. Engine performance with hydrazine fuel was essentially identical to that experienced with monomethylhydrazine although higher combustor wall temperatures (approximately 400 F) were obtained with hydrazine. Results are presented which indicate that hydrazine as a fuel is compatible with Marquardt bipropellant rocket engines which use monomethylhydrazine as a baseline fuel.

Smith, J. A.; Stechman, R. C.

1981-01-01

208

World Data Center A (rockets and satellites) catalogue of data. Volume 1, part A: Sounding rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cumulative listing of all scientifically successful rockets that have been identified from various sources is presented. The listing starts with the V-2 rocket launched on 7 March 1947 and contains all rockets identified up to 31 December 1971.

1972-01-01

209

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

210

Andoya Rocket Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) has sponsored the Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experimental Rocket, CAPER, campaign. The objective of this mission is to "probe a fountain of ions that is always blowing into space." Scientists have launched this project just after a solar storm tore apart a part of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CAPER Rocket launch will take place at the Andoya Rocket Range in January, 1999. This Website offers more information about the CAPER project as well as the launch site.

211

Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

212

A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

1991-01-01

213

Wind tunnel tests of space shuttle solid rocket booster insulation material in the aerothermal tunnel c  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests of the space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Insulation were conducted in the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility Tunnel C. For these tests, Tunnel C was run at Mach 4 with a total temperature of 1100-1440 and a total pressure of 100 psia. Cold wall heating rates were changed by varying the test article support wedge angle. Selected results are presented to illustrate the test techniques and typical data obtained.

Hartman, A. S.; Nutt, K. W.

1982-01-01

214

Experimental evaluation of the drag coefficient of water rockets by a simple free-fall test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag coefficient of water rockets made from plastic soft drink bottles. The experiment is performed using relatively small fall distances (only about 14 m) in addition with a simple digital-sound-recording device. The fall time is inferred from the recorded signal with quite good precision, and it is subsequently introduced as an input of a MatlabŽ program that estimates the magnitude of the drag coefficient. This procedure was tested first with a toy ball, obtaining a result with a deviation from the typical sphere value of only about 3%. For the particular water rocket used in the present investigation, a drag coefficient of 0.345 was estimated.

Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Argüelles-Díaz, K.; Fernández-Oro, J.

2009-09-01

215

Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

216

Long Life Testing of Oxide-Coated Iridium/Rhenium Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

22-N class rockets, composed of a rhenium (Re) substrate, an iridium (Ir) coating, and an additional composite coating consisting of Ir and a ceramic oxide, were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) propellants. Two rockets were tested, one for nearly 39 hours at a nominal mixture ratio (MR) of 4.6 and chamber pressure (Pc) of 469 kPa, and the other for over 13 hours at a nominal MR of 5.8 and 621 kPa Pc. Four additional Ir/Re rockets, with a composite Ir-oxide coating fabricated using a modified process, were also tested, including one for 1.3 hours at a nominal MR of 16.7 and Pc of 503 kPa. The long lifetimes demonstrated on low MR GO2/GH2 suggest greatly extended chamber lifetimes (tens of hours) in the relatively low oxidizing combustion environments of Earth storable propellants. The oxide coatings could also serve as a protective coating in the near injector region, where a still-mixing flowfield may cause degradation of the Ir layer. Operation at MR close to 17 suggests that oxide-coated Ir/Re rockets could be used in severely oxidizing combustion environments, such as high MR GO2/GH2, oxygen/hydrocarbon, and liquid gun propellants.

Reed, Brian D.

1995-01-01

217

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has conducted dynamic tests on each major launch vehicle during the past 45 years. Each test provided invaluable data to correlate and correct analytical models. GVTs result in hardware changes to Saturn and Space Shuttle, ensuring crew and vehicle safety. Ares I IVGT will provide test data such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping to support successful Ares I flights. Testing will support controls analysis by providing data to reduce model uncertainty. Value of testing proven by past launch vehicle successes and failures. Performing dynamic testing on Ares vehicles will provide confidence that the launch vehicles will be safe and successful in their missions.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

2009-01-01

218

Design, construction, test and field support of a containerless payload package for rocket flight. [electromagnetic heating and confinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a device for electromagnetically heating and positioning containerless melts during space processing was evaluated during a 360 second 0-g suborbital sounding rocket flight. Components of the electromagnetic containerless processing package (ECPP), its operation, and interface with the rocket are described along with flight and qualification tests results.

1977-01-01

219

Antares Rocket Lifts Off!  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA commercial space partner Orbital Sciences Corp. of Dulles, Va., launched its Cygnus cargo spacecraft aboard its Antares rocket at 10:58 a.m. EDT Wednesday from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spacep...

220

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique physical characteristics include items such as mass distribution and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system behaves under given loading conditions and different methods of control. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured by certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified by testing before the vehicle becomes operational. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. NASA manned launch vehicles have undergone ground vibration testing leading to the development of successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the inaugural launch of the unmanned Delta III which was lost during launch. Subsequent analyses indicated had a GVT been performed, it would have identified instability issues avoiding loss of the vehicle. This discussion will address GVT planning, set-up, execution and analyses, for the Saturn and Shuttle programs, and will also focus on the current and on-going planning for the Ares I and V Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT).

Askins, Bruce R.; Davis, Susan R.; Salyer, Blaine H.; Tuma, Margaret L.

2008-01-01

221

The Rocket Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an extra credit science project in which students compete to see who can build the most efficient water rocket out of a two-liter pop bottle. Provides instructions on how to build a demonstration rocket and launching pad. (MDH)

Winemiller, Jake; And Others

1991-01-01

222

The Ares I-1 Flight Test--Paving the Road for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first of two new launch vehicle systems. The Ares I-1 flight test vehicle (FTV) will incorporate a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a configuration similar in mass, weight, and shape (outer mold line or OML) to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will be modified to include a fifth, inert segment that makes it approximately the same size and weight as the five segment RSRB, which will be available for the second flight test in 2012. The Ares I-1 vehicle configuration is shown. Each test flight has specific objectives appropriate to the design analysis cycle in progress. The Ares I-1 demonstration test, slated for April 2009, gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack, understand how to control its roll during flight, and other characterize the severe stage separation environment that the upper stage will experience during future operational flights. NASA also will begin the process of modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operational scenarios, as NASA transitions from the Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg

2007-01-01

223

Cyclic loads tests of carbon involute solid rocket motor outer boot ring segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyclic loads tests performed on the 30-in. segments of the DM-9 (Development Motor-9) configuration solid rocket outer boot ring are described. The tests found that the effect of the cyclic loadings on the structural integrity of the outer boot ring was negligible. The results are compared with a hand analysis of the strength of a 30-in. outer boot ring segment. Several phenomena of engineering interest are also described.

Ahmed, Rafiq

1988-01-01

224

Space shuttle solid rocket booster sting interference wind tunnel test analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel test results from shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) sting interference tests were evaluated, yielding the general influence of the sting on the normal force and pitching moment coefficients and the side force and yawing moment coefficients. The procedures developed to determine the sting interference, the development of the corrected aerodynamic data, and the development of a new SRB aerodynamic mathematical model are documented.

Conine, B.; Boyle, W.

1981-01-01

225

Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved in this mode of failure.

Prince, Andrew S.; Bunker, Robert C.; Lawrence, Tim

1989-01-01

226

Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

2004-01-01

227

From the Rocket Equation to Maxwell's Equations: Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion Nears Space Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The US space program is facing a growing challenge to its decades-long, global leadership position, as current launch costs consume valuable resources and limit achievements in science, exploration, and commercial development. More than 40% of projected launches over the next 10 years have payloads with intended destinations beyond low-Earth orbit. Therefore, more cost-effective upper stages and on-board propulsion systems are critical elements in reducing total space transportation costs. A new type of space propulsion, using electrodynamic tethers, may be capable of performing multiple sequential missions without resupply and have a potential usable lifetime of several years. They may provide an in-space infrastructure that has a very low life cycle cost and greatly enhanced mission flexibility, thus supporting the goal of reducing the cost of access to space. Electrodynamic tether thrusters work by virtue of the force the Earth's magnetic field exerts on a wire carrying an electrical current. The effect is the basis for electric motors and generators. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment, planned for launch in the summer of 2000, will demonstrate the use electrodynamic tether thrust by lowering the altitude of a Delta-H rocket's upper stage on which it will be flying. Applications of the technology include a passive deorbit system for spacecraft at their end-of-life, reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicles, propellantless reboost of the International Space Station, and propulsion and power generation for future missions to Jupiter.

Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert

1999-01-01

228

Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall  

SciTech Connect

Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

Michael Kruzic

2007-09-01

229

Objectives and Progress on Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA begins design and development of the Ares launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and explore beyond low Earth orbit, Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component of ensuring that those vehicles can perform the missions assigned to them. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. This data is then used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2011 to 2012 using the venerable Test Stand (TS) 4550, which supported similar tests for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicle stacks.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Asloms. Brice R.

2009-01-01

230

SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence  

NASA Video Gallery

This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

231

A Brief Historical Survey of Rocket Testing Induced Acoustic Environments at NASA SSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted of all the various rocket test programs that have been performed since the establishment of NASA Stennis Space Center. The relevant information from each of these programs were compiled and used to quantify the theoretical noise source levels using the NASA approved methodology for computing "acoustic loads generated by a propulsion system" (NASA SP ]8072). This methodology, which is outlined in Reference 1, has been verified as a reliable means of determining the noise source characteristics of rocket engines. This information is being provided to establish reference environments for new government/business residents to ascertain whether or not their activities will generate acoustic environments that are more "encroaching" in the NASA Fee Area. In this report, the designation of sound power level refers to the acoustic power of the rocket engine at the engine itself. This is in contrast to the sound pressure level associated with the propagation of the acoustic energy in the surrounding air. The first part of the survey documents the "at source" sound power levels and their dominant frequency bands for the range of engines tested at Stennis. The second part of the survey discusses how the acoustic energy levels will propagate non ]uniformly from the test stands. To demonstrate this, representative acoustic sound pressure mappings in the NASA Stennis Fee Area were computed for typical engine tests on the B ]1 and E ]1 test stands.

Allgood, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

232

Water impact laboratory and flight test results for the space shuttle solid rocket booster aft skirt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of water impact tests was conducted using full-scale segment representations of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt structure. The baseline reinforced structural design was tested as well as various alternative design concepts. A major portion of the test program consisted of evaluating foam as a load attenuation material. Applied pressures and response strains were measured for impact velocities from 40 feet per second (ft/s) to 110 ft/s. The structural configurations, test articles, test results, and flight results are described.

Kross, D. A.; Murphy, N. C.; Rawls, E. A.

1984-01-01

233

HYDROGEN-OXYGEN ROCKETS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity students build a plastic pipette rocket. The first concept will to learn how igniting varying mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen will affect how far the rocket will fly. Second students will observe and manipulate variables to better understand the fundamental chemistry concepts: principles of combustion reactions, kinetics, stoichiometry, gas mixtures, rocketry, and different types of chemical reactions. Finally, students will assess their own understanding of these chemistry concepts by investigating how NASA scientists launch real rockets into space. One follow-up activity would be to investigate and collect data on a launching a heavier object at the school football field.

Reierson, David

234

Reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

235

Launch of Juno!  

NASA Video Gallery

An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and dec...

236

Hi-C Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

The High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX two-stage rocket from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico July 11, 2012. The experiment reached a maximum velocit...

237

Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket Sounding Launch Program (RSLP). The new mission tenets include shortened operational response periods criteria for the warfighter, while reducing the life-cycle development, production and launch costs of space launch systems. This presentation will focus on the technical challenges in transforming and integrating space launch vehicles and space craft vehicles for small space launch missions.

Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

2010-09-01

238

77 FR 50584 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations AGENCY: Federal...that conduct certain amateur rocket launches an opportunity to...the FAA notes that amateur rocket operators would incur costs...RFA) establishes ``as a principle of regulatory issuance...

2012-08-22

239

Plasma tests of sprayed coatings for rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several plasma-sprayed coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in hydrogen plasma and in oxygen plasma mixed with hydrogen plasma. The principal test heat flux was 15 Btu per inch squared seconds. The system consisted of a number of thin 0.002 to 0.020 in. layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The principal materials included are molybdenum nichrome, alumina, and zirconia. The study identifies important factors in coating system fabrication and describes the durability of the coating systems in the test environments. Values of effective thermal conductivity for some of the systems are indicated.

Curren, A. N.; Love, W. K.

1974-01-01

240

A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion test. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),.., X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure of accomplishing a full duration test. The use of logistic regression modeling is not new; however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from this type of model provide project managers with insight and confidence into the effectiveness of rocket propulsion ground testing.

Messer, Bradley

2007-01-01

241

Brief, Why the Launch Equipment Test Facility Needs a Laser Tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF) supports a wide spectrum of testing and development activities. This capability was originally established in the 1970's to allow full-scale qualification of Space Shuttle umbilicals and T-O release mechanisms. The LETF has leveraged these unique test capabilities to evolve into a versatile test and development area that supports the entire spectrum of operational programs at KSC. These capabilities are historically Aerospace related, but can certainly can be adapted for other industries. One of the more unique test fixtures is the Vehicle Motion Simulator or the VMS. The VMS simulates all of the motions that a launch vehicle will experience from the time of its roll-out to the launch pad, through roughly the first X second of launch. The VMS enables the development and qualification testing of umbilical systems in both pre-launch and launch environments. The VMS can be used to verify operations procedures, clearances, disconnect systems performance &margins, and vehicle loads through processing flow motion excursions.

Yue, Shiu H.

2011-01-01

242

Testing the neutrino annihilation model for launching GRB jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism behind the launching of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets remains debated resulting in large uncertainty over the jet composition. Both magnetohydrodynamical and neutrino annihilation models have been proposed for the energy extraction in a black hole/accretion-disc central engine. In particular, for the extreme accretion rates dot{M}˜ 0.1-1 M? s-1 expected for bursts of duration T ? 100 s, the disc can be an efficient neutrino emitter. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation results in an energy deposition rate at the jet that can, in principle, account for the burst's energetics. Recent discoveries of X-ray flares hours after the burst and of ultra-long GRBs suggest that GRB activity can last for ˜104 s or longer. These long-lived events have fluence similar to that of classical GRBs. In view of these findings, we re-evaluate the neutrino annihilation model. We derive the maximum possible energy of a neutrino-powered jet as a function of the burst duration and show that the available energy drops fast for longer bursts. For a standard choice of the parameters, the model falls short by three to four orders of magnitude in explaining the observed energetics of events that last longer than ˜103 s.

Leng, Mingbin; Giannios, Dimitrios

2014-11-01

243

Launch Condition Deviations of Reusable Launch Vehicle Simulations in Exo-Atmospheric Zoom Climbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has proposed a two-stage system to deliver a small payload to orbit. The proposal calls for an airplane to perform an exo-atmospheric zoom climb maneuver, from which a second-stage rocket is launched carrying the payload into orbit. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has conducted an in-house generic simulation study to determine how accurately a human-piloted airplane can deliver a second-stage rocket to a desired exo-atmospheric launch condition. A high-performance, fighter-type, fixed-base, real-time, pilot-in-the-loop airplane simulation has been modified to perform exo-atmospheric zoom climb maneuvers. Four research pilots tracked a reference trajectory in the presence of winds, initial offsets, and degraded engine thrust to a second-stage launch condition. These launch conditions have been compared to the reference launch condition to characterize the expected deviation. At each launch condition, a speed change was applied to the second-stage rocket to insert the payload onto a transfer orbit to the desired operational orbit. The most sensitive of the test cases was the degraded thrust case, yielding second-stage launch energies that were too low to achieve the radius of the desired operational orbit. The handling qualities of the airplane, as a first-stage vehicle, have also been investigated.

Urschel, Peter H.; Cox, Timothy H.

2003-01-01

244

C\\/C composites for rocket chamber applications. Part 2: Fabrication and evaluation tests of rocket chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C\\/C) composites coated with SiC are promising candidates for use in the main structural materials of the body of spaceplanes and combustion chambers of rocket engines, because of their superior properties of high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures. However, C\\/C composite has poor resistance to oxidation, and protection from the oxidating

Masahiro Sato; Makoto Tadano; Shuichi Ueda; Yukio Kuroda; Kazuo Kusaka; Takeshi Suemitsu; Satoshi Hasegawa; Yukinori Kude

1995-01-01

245

Theoretical Tools and Software for Modeling, Simulation and Control Design of Rocket Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket test stand and associated subsystems are complex devices whose operation requires that certain preparatory calculations be carried out before a test. In addition, real-time control calculations must be performed during the test, and further calculations are carried out after a test is completed. The latter may be required in order to evaluate if a particular test conformed to specifications. These calculations are used to set valve positions, pressure setpoints, control gains and other operating parameters so that a desired system behavior is obtained and the test can be successfully carried out. Currently, calculations are made in an ad-hoc fashion and involve trial-and-error procedures that may involve activating the system with the sole purpose of finding the correct parameter settings. The goals of this project are to develop mathematical models, control methodologies and associated simulation environments to provide a systematic and comprehensive prediction and real-time control capability. The models and controller designs are expected to be useful in two respects: 1) As a design tool, a model is the only way to determine the effects of design choices without building a prototype, which is, in the context of rocket test stands, impracticable; 2) As a prediction and tuning tool, a good model allows to set system parameters off-line, so that the expected system response conforms to specifications. This includes the setting of physical parameters, such as valve positions, and the configuration and tuning of any feedback controllers in the loop.

Richter, Hanz

2004-01-01

246

Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous tests of liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastropic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed here.

Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

1986-01-01

247

Laser holographic nondestructive testing of the NASA X-248 rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to apply holography for nondestructive testing of the X-248 rocket motor was undertaken. The objective was to establish the capability of holography in detecting known unbonding between liner and propellant. Holography was performed employing stressing techniques: (1) acoustical, (2) thermal, (3) radiative, and (4) static loading. Radiative stressing was successful in locating a large area of liner/propellant unbond. The results were correlated with destructive testing. Theoretical analysis provided an understanding of motor case holography in conjunction with radiative stressing.

Harris, W. J.

1973-01-01

248

Ground cloud effluent measurements during the May 30, 1974, Titan 3 launch at the Air Force eastern test range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface-level exhaust effluent measurements of HCl, CO, and particulates, ground-cloud behavior, and some comparisons with model predictions for the launch of a Titan 3 rocket are presented along with a limited amount of airborne sampling measurements of other cloud species (O3, NO, NOX). Values above background levels for these effluents were obtained at 20 of the 30 instrument sites; these values were lower than model predictions and did not exceed public health standards. Cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, and volume are compared with results from previous launches.

Bendura, R. J.; Crumbly, K. H.

1977-01-01

249

Thruster Injector Faceplate Testing in Support of the Aerojet Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To satisfy RBCC rocket thruster requirements of high performance and a minimum amount of free hydrogen at plume boundary, a new impinging injector element using gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen as the propellants has been designed. Analysis has shown that this injector design has potential to provide a high specific impulse (Isp) while minimizing the amount of free hydrogen that is available to be burned with incoming secondary flow. Past studies and test programs have shown that gas/gas-impinging elements typically result in high injector face temperatures due to combustion occurring close to the face. Since this design is new, there is no hot fire experience with this element. Objectives of this test program were to gain experience and hot fire test data on this new rocket thruster element design and injector faceplate pattern. Twenty-two hot fire tests were run with maximum mixture ratio (MR) and chamber pressure (Pc) obtained at 7.25 and 1,822 psia, respectively. Post-test scanning microscope (SEM) images show only slight faceplate erosion during testing. This injector element design performed well and can be operated at design conditions: (1) Pc of 2,000 psia and MR of 7.0 and (2) Pc of 1,000 psia and MR of 5.0.

Fazah, M. M.; Cramer, J. M.

1998-01-01

250

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem - Air drop test vehicle/B-52 design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air drop development test program for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System required the design of a large drop test vehicle that would meet all the stringent requirements placed on it by structural loads, safety considerations, flight recovery system interfaces, and sequence. The drop test vehicle had to have the capability to test the drogue and the three main parachutes both separately and in the total flight deployment sequence and still be low-cost to fit in a low-budget development program. The design to test large ribbon parachutes to loads of 300,000 pounds required the detailed investigation and integration of several parameters such as carrier aircraft mechanical interface, drop test vehicle ground transportability, impact point ground penetration, salvageability, drop test vehicle intelligence, flight design hardware interfaces, and packaging fidelity.

Runkle, R. E.; Drobnik, R. F.

1979-01-01

251

Integrated System Test Approaches for the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide crew access to the International Space Station (ISS) and, together with the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV), serves as one component of a future launch capability for human exploration of the Moon. During the system requirements definition process and early design cycles, NASA defined and began implementing plans for integrated ground and flight testing necessary to achieve the first human launch of Ares I. The individual Ares I flight hardware elements: the first stage five segment booster (FSB), upper stage, and J-2X upper stage engine, will undergo extensive development, qualification, and certification testing prior to flight. Key integrated system tests include the Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA), acceptance tests of the integrated upper stage and upper stage engine assembly, a full-scale integrated vehicle dynamic test (IVDT), aerodynamic testing to characterize vehicle performance, and integrated testing of the avionics and software components. The Ares I-X development flight test will provide flight data to validate engineering models for aerodynamic performance, stage separation, structural dynamic performance, and control system functionality. The Ares I-Y flight test will validate ascent performance of the first stage, stage separation functionality, and a highaltitude actuation of the launch abort system (LAS) following separation. The Orion-1 flight test will be conducted as a full, un-crewed, operational flight test through the entire ascent flight profile prior to the first crewed launch.

Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Askins, Bruce R.; Bland, Jeffrey; Davis, Stephan; Holladay, Jon B.; Taylor, James L.; Taylor, Terry L.; Robinson, Kimberly F.; Roberts, Ryan E.; Tuma, Margaret

2007-01-01

252

A life test of a 22-Newton (5-lbf) hydrazine rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life tests were conducted on a 22-N (5-lb) hydrazine rocket thruster which incorporates the latest technology to obtain long life from the catalyst bed. A spring mechanism surrounding the catalyst bed continually applies compression to the catalyst bed to prevent the formation of any void channels. The research rocket thruster was tested over an operational cycle of both steady state and pulse firing which simulated a possible space station duty cycle. The thruster ran as expected for about 40 hours, or 3.2 times 10 to the 6th power N-sec (7.2 times 10 to the 5th power lb-sec) total impulse. Subsequently, some thrust chamber pressure decreases were noted during long steady state test periods. After 60.2 hours of run time, tests had to be terminated due to a blockage in the propellant injector tube which occurred during heating of the thruster by a heat lamp. A chemical analysis of the catalyst indicated that iron and nickel metals had poisoned some of the catalyst, thereby causing a degradation in performance. It was determined that a contaminated barrel of hydrazine was the source of the metal poisoning.

Meng, P. R.; Schneider, S. J.; Morgan, C. J.; Jones, R. E.; Pahl, D. A.

1987-01-01

253

Ablation Performance of Carbon/Carbon Composite Throat after a Solid Rocket Motor Ground Ignition Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ablation performances of a fine-woven, pierced carbon/carbon (C/C) composite throats for solid rocket motor were investigated by a ground ignition test. The ablation surface morphologies of three regions (entrance, throat and exit) of the throats were examined in detail by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the C/C composite throats retain smooth inner surface, experiencing ablation rates of 0.142-0.146 mm/s under a pressure of about 6.0 MPa. But ablation morphologies of the three regions are different, due to the continuously changing of temperatures, velocities, and oxidant concentrations of combustion gas plume.

Yin, Jian; Zhang, Hongbo B.; Xiong, Xiang; Zuo, Jinlv L.; Huang, Baiyun Y.

2012-06-01

254

Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of NASA Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ares Projects Office (APO) is continuing to make progress toward the final design of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and V will form the space launch capabilities necessary to fulfill NASA's exploration strategy of sending human beings to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As with all new space vehicles there will be a number of tests to ensure the design can be Human Rated. One of these is the Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) that will be measuring responses of the Ares I as a system. All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique characteristics include items such as mass distribution, frequency and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system like the Ares I launch vehicle behaves under given loading conditions. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured through certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified through testing before the vehicle is Human Rated. The IVGVT is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of Ares I during various phases of operational/flight. This testing includes excitations of the vehicle in lateral, longitudinal, and torsional directions at vehicle configurations representing different trajectory points. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C) analysis models for verifying analyses of Ares I. NASA launch vehicles from Saturn to Shuttle have undergone Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) leading to successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the unmanned Delta III. This vehicle was lost during launch. Subsequent analyses indicated that had a GVT been conducted on the vehicle, problems with vehicle modes and control may have been discovered and corrected, avoiding loss of the vehicle/mission. This paper will address GVT planning, set-up, conduction and analyses, for the Saturn and Shuttle programs, and also focus on the current and on-going planning for the Ares I and V IVGVT.

Tuma, Margaret L.; Davis, Susan R.; Askins, Bruce R.; Salyer, Blaine H.

2008-01-01

255

Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical predictions. A detailed comparison was not performed, however, due to the lack of test data resulting from a failure of the test article. Some theoretical and experimental aspects such as fin effect and round corner were found to reduce the discrepancy between prediction and test results.

Sung, In-Kyung

256

NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C  

NASA Video Gallery

The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

257

Integrated Testing Approaches for the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I crew launch vehicle is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) and, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, serves as a critical component of NASA's future human exploration of the Moon. During the preliminary design phase, NASA defined and began implementing plans for integrated ground and flight testing necessary to achieve the first human launch of Ares I. The individual Ares I flight hardware elements - including the first stage five segment booster (FSB), upper stage, and J-2X upper stage engine - will undergo extensive development, qualification, and certification testing prior to flight. Key integrated system tests include the upper stage Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA), acceptance tests of the integrated upper stage and upper stage engine assembly, a full-scale integrated vehicle ground vibration test (IVGVT), aerodynamic testing to characterize vehicle performance, and integrated testing of the avionics and software components. The Ares I-X development flight test will provide flight data to validate engineering models for aerodynamic performance, stage separation, structural dynamic performance, and control system functionality. The Ares I-Y flight test will validate ascent performance of the first stage, stage separation functionality, validate the ability of the upper stage to manage cryogenic propellants to achieve upper stage engine start conditions, and a high-altitude demonstration of the launch abort system (LAS) following stage separation. The Orion 1 flight test will be conducted as a full, un-crewed, operational flight test through the entire ascent flight profile prior to the first crewed launch.

Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charles E.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.; Bland, Jeff D.; Davis, Stephan R.; Patterson, Alan F.; Taylor, Terry L.; Robinson, Kimberly L.

2008-01-01

258

Parametric studies with an atmospheric diffusion model that assesses toxic fuel hazards due to the ground clouds generated by rocket launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric studies were made with a multilayer atmospheric diffusion model to place quantitative limits on the uncertainty of predicting ground-level toxic rocket-fuel concentrations. Exhaust distributions in the ground cloud, cloud stabilized geometry, atmospheric coefficients, the effects of exhaust plume afterburning of carbon monoxide CO, assumed surface mixing-layer division in the model, and model sensitivity to different meteorological regimes were studied. Large-scale differences in ground-level predictions are quantitatively described. Cloud alongwind growth for several meteorological conditions is shown to be in error because of incorrect application of previous diffusion theory. In addition, rocket-plume calculations indicate that almost all of the rocket-motor carbon monoxide is afterburned to carbon dioxide CO2, thus reducing toxic hazards due to CO. The afterburning is also shown to have a significant effect on cloud stabilization height and on ground-level concentrations of exhaust products.

Stewart, R. B.; Grose, W. L.

1975-01-01

259

Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground vibration testing has been an integral tool for developing new launch vehicles throughout the space age. Several launch vehicles have been lost due to problems that would have been detected by early vibration testing, including Ariane 5, Delta III, and Falcon 1. NASA will leverage experience and testing hardware developed during the Saturn and Shuttle programs to perform ground vibration testing (GVT) on the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle stacks. NASA performed dynamic vehicle testing (DVT) for Saturn and mated vehicle ground vibration testing (MVGVT) for Shuttle at the Dynamic Test Stand (Test Stand 4550) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, and is now modifying that facility to support Ares I integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) beginning in 2012. The Ares IVGVT schedule shows most of its work being completed between 2010 and 2014. Integrated 2nd Stage Ares IVGVT will begin in 2012 and IVGVT of the entire Ares launch stack will begin in 2013. The IVGVT data is needed for the human-rated Orion launch vehicle's Design Certification Review (DCR) in early 2015. During the Apollo program, GVT detected several serious design concerns, which NASA was able to address before Saturn V flew, eliminating costly failures and potential losses of mission or crew. During the late 1970s, Test Stand 4550 was modified to support the four-body structure of the Space Shuttle. Vibration testing confirmed that the vehicle's mode shapes and frequencies were better than analytical models suggested, however, the testing also identified challenges with the rate gyro assemblies, which could have created flight instability and possibly resulted in loss of the vehicle. Today, NASA has begun modifying Test Stand 4550 to accommodate Ares I, including removing platforms needed for Shuttle testing and upgrading the dynamic test facilities to characterize the mode shapes and resonant frequencies of the vehicle. The IVGVT team expects to collect important information about the new launch vehicles, greatly increasing astronaut safety as NASA prepares to explore the Moon and beyond.

Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.

2009-01-01

260

Analysis of Flame Deflector Spray Nozzles in Rocket Engine Test Stands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a unified tightly coupled multi-phase computational framework is described for the analysis and design of cooling spray nozzle configurations on the flame deflector in rocket engine test stands. An Eulerian formulation is used to model the disperse phase and is coupled to the gas-phase equations through momentum and heat transfer as well as phase change. The phase change formulation is modeled according to a modified form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Various simple test cases are presented to verify the validity of the numerical framework. The ability of the methodology to accurately predict the temperature load on the flame deflector is demonstrated though application to an actual sub-scale test facility. The CFD simulation was able to reproduce the result of the test-firing, showing that the spray nozzle configuration provided insufficient amount of cooling.

Sachdev, Jai S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel C.

2010-01-01

261

Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

1992-01-01

262

A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

1987-01-01

263

Rockets for spin recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

Whipple, R. D.

1980-01-01

264

Suomi Npp and Jpss Pre-Launch Test Data Collection and Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development of each Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) instrument, significant testing was performed, both in ambient and simulated orbital (thermal-vacuum) conditions, at the instrument factory, and again after integration with the spacecraft. The NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), and later the NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office, defined two primary objectives with respect to capturing instrument and spacecraft test data during these test events. The first objective was to disseminate test data and auxiliary documentation to an often distributed network of scientists to permit timely production of independent assessments of instrument performance, calibration, data quality, and test progress. The second goal was to preserve the data and documentation in a catalogued government archive for the life of the mission, to aid in the resolution of anomalies and to facilitate the comparison of on-orbit instrument operating characteristics to those observed prior to launch. In order to meet these objectives, Suomi NPP pre-launch test data collection, distribution, processing, and archive methods included adaptable support infrastructures to quickly and completely transfer test data and documentation from the instrument and spacecraft factories to sensor scientist teams on-site at the factory and around the country. These methods were unique, effective, and low in cost. These efforts supporting pre-launch instrument calibration permitted timely data quality assessments and technical feedback from contributing organizations within the government, academia, and industry, and were critical in supporting timely sensor development. Second, in parallel to data distribution to the sensor science teams, pre-launch test data were transferred and ingested into the central Suomi NPP calibration and validation (cal/val) system, known as the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation (GRAVITE), where they will reside for the life of the mission. As a result, data and documentation are available for query, analysis, and download by the cal/val community via the command-line GRAVITE Transfer Protocol (GTP) tool or via the NOAA-collaborative website "CasaNOSA". Instrument and spacecraft test data, telemetry, and ground support equipment information were collected and organized with detailed test procedures, logs, analyses, characterizations, and reports. This 45 Terabyte archive facilitates the comparison of on-orbit Suomi NPP operating characteristics with that observed prior to launch, and will serve as a resource to aid in the assessment of pre-launch JPSS-1 sensor performance. In summary, this paper will present the innovative pre-launch test data campaign infrastructures employed for Suomi NPP and planned for JPSS-1.

Denning, M.; Ullman, R.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Chandler, C.; Adameck, J.

2012-12-01

265

Limits on the Space Launch Market Related to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid rocket motors (SRMs) and liquid rocket engines (LREs) deplete the global ozone layer in various capacities. We estimate global ozone depletion from rockets as a function of payload launch rate and relative mix of SRM and LRE rocket emissions. Currently, global rocket launches deplete the ozone layer ?0.03%, an insignificant fraction of the depletion caused by other ozone depletion

Martin Ross; Darin Toohey; Manfred Peinemann; Patrick Ross

2009-01-01

266

Metop-BAVHRR IR channel post-launch calibration and verification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological Operational (METOP)-B spacecraft was launched on September 17, 2012, and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) IR channels were activated October 18. AVHRR instrument has been tested and characterized pre-launch under thermal vacuum (TV) condition by the instrument vender. The instrument dynamic range, noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT), and nonlinear response have been characterized in the test. Basing on the TV test data, the calibration coefficients are generated for post-launch. The on-orbit verification tests have been performed to verify the instrument response and performance, including the dynamic range, NEDT, on-board blackbody (BB) temperature, instrument response calibration, and instrument status from the telemetry data. The post-launch Cal/Val test is to improve the calibration accuracy and enhance the L1B data quality. These tests include stray light analysis, instrument gain verification, and uncertainty assessment. The stray light impact on the calibration is estimated as 0.2% for 11 ?m channel, 0.3% for 12 ?m channel, and 3% for 3.7?m channel. The inter-comparison AVHRR IR channel radiances with the radiance derived from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurement has been performed and the AVHRR bias shoes brightness temperature dependency.

Chang, Tiejun; Wu, Xiangqian; Weng, Fuzhong

2013-09-01

267

A quick test of the WEP enabled by a sounding rocket  

E-print Network

We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, which is to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. This test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of \\sigma(\\eta) < 10-16 after averaging the results of eight separate drops, each of 40 s duration. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm/\\sqrt{Hz}. We address the two sources of systematic error that are currently of greatest concern, magnetic force and electrostatic (patch effect) force on the test mass assemblies. The discovery of a violation (\\eta \

Reasenberg, Robert D; Patla, Biju R; Phillips, James D; Popescu, Eugeniu E; Rocco, Emanuele; Thapa, Rajesh

2010-01-01

268

Investigation of the Rocket Induced Flow Field in a Rectangular Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) concepts attempt to improve the performance of launch vehicles at all points in the launch trajectory and make highly reusable launch vehicles a reality. The Aerojet Strutjet RBCC concept consists of a variable geometry duct with internal, vertical struts that functions in ducted rocket, ramjet, scramjet, and pure rocket modes. These struts have rocket and turbine exhaust nozzles imbedded within them. The rocket flows create an ejector effect with the ingested air at subsonic flight velocities. In ramjet and scramjet modes, the fuel rich nozzle flows react with the ingested air producing an afterburner effect. Under a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center contract, the UAH Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has designed and built a Strutjet simulation facility. A scale model of a single strut has been built and is undergoing cold-flow testing to investigate the mixing of the rocket and turbine exhausts with the ingested air. A complementary experimental program is also underway to examine the induced flow-field generated by rocket nozzles confined in a rectangular duct. Characterizing the induced flow behavior is critical to understanding and optimizing the performance of future Strutjet-based RBCC propulsion systems. The proposed paper will present results from the rocket induced flow investigation.

Landrum, D. Brian; Lambert, James; Thames, Mignon; Hawk, Clark

1999-01-01

269

STS-92 commander tests the fit of his launch and entry suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During pre-pack and fit check, STS-92 Commander Brian Duffy tests his launch and entry suit for comfort and ease while sitting. This mission will be Duffy's fourth Shuttle flight. He and the rest of the crew are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT provides emergency egress training, simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payload. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:38 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

270

Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC\\/SINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC\\/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent\\/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT\\/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring

J. C. Ulwick

1989-01-01

271

Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

272

Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the backpressure. This paper provides a short review of the appropriate literature, as well as descriptions of plans for experimental hardware, test chamber instrumentation, diagnostics, and testing.

Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

2006-01-01

273

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

Mitchell, Royce E.

1992-08-01

274

Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

2010-01-01

275

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build handheld rockets and launchers out of PVC pipes and plastic bottles. Use this activity to demonstrate acceleration, air pressure, and Newton's Laws of Motion. Note: a PVC cutter, side cutters, PVC cement glue and other tools are required to build this project. Safety note: These rockets should only be launched in large, open, outdoor areas.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2012-01-01

276

Testing and environmental exposure of parachute materials for the solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static tests and evaluation of nonmetallic materials for use in parachutes for recovery of solid rocket boosters used in the space shuttle program are reported. Literature survey and manufacturer and vendor contacts led to the choice of nylon as the fabric most capable of withstanding the extreme loads and environmental conditions during repeated use. The material tests included rupture strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, shrinkage, environmental exposure, and degradation levels. Rinsing and drying procedures were also investigated and a salt-free level for nylon recommended in preparation for reuse. In all possible cases, worst-case conditions were used (e.g., inflation loads, seawater exposure for 3 days per drop-recovery, etc.).

Tannehill, B. K.

1978-01-01

277

Design and characteristics of a WEP test in a sounding-rocket payload  

E-print Network

We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle that is to be conducted during the free fall portion of the flight of a sounding rocket payload. This test of a single pair of substances will have a measurement uncertainty of {\\sigma}({\\eta}) < 2 10^17 after averaging the results of eight separate drops, each of 120 s duration. The entire payload is inverted between successive drops to cancel potential sources of systematic error. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four of the SAO laser gauges, which have achieved an Allan deviation of 0.04 pm for an averaging time of 30 s. We discuss aspects of the current design with an emphasis on those that bear on the accuracy of the determination of {\\eta}. The discovery of a violation ({\\eta} \

Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D; Thapa, Rajesh

2012-01-01

278

Design and characteristics of a WEP test in a sounding-rocket payload  

E-print Network

We describe SR-POEM, a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle that is to be conducted during the free fall portion of the flight of a sounding rocket payload. This test of a single pair of substances will have a measurement uncertainty of {\\sigma}({\\eta}) < 2 10^17 after averaging the results of eight separate drops, each of 120 s duration. The entire payload is inverted between successive drops to cancel potential sources of systematic error. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four of the SAO laser gauges, which have achieved an Allan deviation of 0.04 pm for an averaging time of 30 s. We discuss aspects of the current design with an emphasis on those that bear on the accuracy of the determination of {\\eta}. The discovery of a violation ({\\eta} \

Robert D. Reasenberg; Biju R. Patla; James D. Phillips; Rajesh Thapa

2012-05-31

279

Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

1990-01-01

280

Detailed test objectives for the extended long tank delta launch vehicle, spacecraft: AE-C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The test objectives for the extended long tank Delta Launch Vehicle are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission and vehicle objectives, (2) nominal flight plan, (3) trajectory analysis, (4) weight summary and inflight mass properties, and (5) instrumentation channel assignments and ground monitoring assignments.

1973-01-01

281

Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

1998-01-01

282

Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

2001-09-01

283

Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

2002-04-01

284

Challenging Pneumatic Requirements for Acoustic Testing of the Cryogenic Second Stage for the New Delta 3 Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the unique pneumatic test requirements for the acoustic and shock separation testing of the Second Stage for the new Delta III Rocket at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The testing was conducted in the 45,000 cu ft (25-feet wide by 30-feet deep by 50-foot high) Acoustic Facility. The acoustic testing required that the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks be filled with enough liquid nitrogen (LN2) to simulate launch fuel masses during testing. The challenge for this test dealt with designing, procuring, and fabricating the pneumatic supply systems for quick assembly while maintaining the purity requirements and minimizing costs. The pneumatic systems were designed to fill and drain the both LOX and LH2 tanks as well as to operate the fill/drain and vent valves for each of the tanks. The test criteria for the pneumatic sub-systems consisted of function, cleanliness, availability, and cost. The first criteria, function, required the tanks to be filled and drained in an efficient manner while preventing them from seeing pressures greater than 9 psig which would add a pressure cycle to the tank. An LN2 tanker, borrowed from another NASA facility, served as the pre-cool and drain tanker. Pre-cooling the tanks allowed for more efficient and cost effective transfer from the LN2 delivery tankers. Helium gas, supplied from a high purity tube trailer, was used to pressurize the vapor space above the LN2 pushing it into the drain tanker. The tube trailer also supplied high pressure helium to the vehicle for valve control and component purges. Cleanliness was maintained by proper component selection, end-use particle filtration, and any on-site cleaning determined necessary by testing. In order to meet the availability/cost juggling act, products designed for LOX delivery systems were procured to ensure system compatibility while off the shelf valves and tubing designed for the semiconductor industry were procured for the gas systems.

Webb, Andrew T.

1998-01-01

285

Apollo experience report: Launch escape propulsion subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo launch escape propulsion subsystem contained three solid rocket motors. The general design, development, and qualification of the solid-propellant pitch-control, tower-jettison, and launch-escape motors of the Apollo launch escape propulsion subsystem were completed during years 1961 to 1966. The launch escape system components are described in general terms, and the sequence of events through the ground-based test programs and flight-test programs is discussed. The initial ground rules established for this system were that it should use existing technology and designs as much as possible. The practicality of this decision is proved by the minimum number of problems that were encountered during the development and qualification program.

Townsend, N. A.

1973-01-01

286

Large-Scale Cryogenic Testing of Launch Vehicle Ground Systems at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new launch vehicle to support NASA's future exploration plans requires significant redesign and upgrade of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) launch pad and ground support equipment systems. In many cases, specialized test equipment and systems will be required to certify the function of the new system designs under simulated operational conditions, including propellant loading. This paper provides an overview of the cryogenic test infrastructure that is in place at KSC to conduct development and qualification testing that ranges from the component level to the integrated-system level. An overview of the major cryogenic test facilities will be provided, along with a detailed explanation of the technology focus area for each facility

Ernst, E. W.; Sass, J. P.; Lobemeyer, D. A.; Sojourner, S. J.; Hatfield, W. H.; Rewinkel, D. A.

2007-01-01

287

NASA's Space Launch System: Powering Forward  

NASA Video Gallery

One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in ...

288

Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

289

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

290

Development and Testing of a Methane/Oxygen Catalytic Microtube Ignition System for Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study sought to develop a catalytic ignition advanced torch system with a unique catalyst microtube design that could serve as a low energy alternative or redundant system for the ignition of methane and oxygen rockets. Development and testing of iterations of hardware was carried out to create a system that could operate at altitude and produce a torch. A unique design was created that initiated ignition via the catalyst and then propagated into external staged ignition. This system was able to meet the goals of operating across a range of atmospheric and altitude conditions with power inputs on the order of 20 to 30 watts with chamber pressures and mass flow rates typical of comparable ignition systems for a 100 lbf engine.

Deans, Matthew

2012-01-01

291

Development and Testing of a Methane/Oxygen Catalytic Microtube Ignition System for Rocket Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study sought to develop a catalytic ignition advanced torch system with a unique catalyst microtube design that could serve as a low energy alternative or redundant system for the ignition of methane and oxygen rockets. Development and testing of iterations of hardware was carried out to create a system that could operate at altitude and produce a torch. A unique design was created that initiated ignition via the catalyst and then propagated into external staged ignition. This system was able to meet the goals of operating across a range of atmospheric and altitude conditions with power inputs on the order of 20 to 30 watts with chamber pressures and mass flow rates typical of comparable ignition systems for a 100 Ibf engine.

Deans, Matthew C.; Schneider, Steven J.

2012-01-01

292

Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

2012-07-01

293

Water impact test of aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of water impact loads tests using aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are examined. Dynamic structural response data is developed and an evaluation of the model in various configurations is presented. Impact velocities are determined for the SRB with the larger main chute system. Various failure modes are also investigated.

1983-01-01

294

Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

1988-01-01

295

Smart sensor technology for advanced launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next-generation advanced launch vehicles will require improved use of sensor data and the management of multisensor resources to achieve automated preflight checkout, prelaunch readiness assessment and vehicle inflight condition monitoring. Smart sensor technology is a key component in meeting these needs. This paper describes the development of a smart sensor-based condition monitoring system concept referred to as the Distributed Sensor Architecture. A significant event and anomaly detection scheme that provides real-time condition assessment and fault diagnosis of advanced launch system rocket engines is described. The design and flight test of a smart autonomous sensor for Space Shuttle structural integrity health monitoring is presented.

Schoess, Jeff

1989-07-01

296

Space Shuttle solid rocket booster initial water impact loads and dynamics - Analysis, tests, and flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of scale model tests, finite element dynamic response analyses and full scale segment tests have been performed for purposes of developing design criteria for the initial water impact loading conditions applied to the internal stiffener rings located in the aft skirt portion of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). In addition, flight experience has yielded information relative to structural reinforcement requirements. This paper discusses the test and analysis methods and summarizes significant results. It is noted that, although scale model test data are valuable for identifying trends, they have shortcomings concerning definition of full scale design loads criteria. Also, the frequently used static equivalent loads definition approach is not applicable for this type impact loading condition applied to an aft skirt type structure. Various types of ring structural fixes, including the addition of selected types of foam, are presented as well as associated full scale segment test results. Depending on the type and contour shape of the foam, reductions on applied pressures and peak measured strains over 50 percent are noted.

Kross, D. A.; Kiefling, L. A.; Murphy, N. C.; Rawls, E. A.

1983-01-01

297

Flight Mechanics of Manned SubOrbital Reusable Launch Vehicles with Recommendations for Launch and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of every significant method of launch and recovery for manned sub-orbital Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) is presented here. We have categorized launch methods as vertical takeoff, horizontal takeoff, and air launch. Recovery methods are categorized as wings, aerodynamic decelerators, rockets, and rotors. We conclude that both vertical takeoff and some air launch methods are viable means of attaining

Marti Sarigul-Klijn; Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn

298

Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines  

SciTech Connect

This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-11-01

299

Bumper Wac on Launch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Bumper Wac, a combination the V-2 rocket with a WAC Corporal upper stage, awaits launch on July 24, 1950. It was the eighth in the Bumper Project and the vehicle reached the altitude of 393 kilometers. The Bumper was built by the German Rocket experts at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. In 1950, the last two Bumper launches took place in Florida, at the Long Range Proving Ground, located at Cape Canaveral.

1950-01-01

300

Characterization of Space Shuttle Reusable Rocket Motor Static Test Stand Thrust Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) are static tested at two ATK Thiokol Propulsion facilities in Utah, T-24 and T-97. The newer T-97 static test facility was recently upgraded to allow thrust measurement capability. All previous static test motor thrust measurements have been taken at T-24; data from these tests were used to characterize thrust parameters and requirement limits for flight motors. Validation of the new T-97 thrust measurement system is required prior to use for official RSRM performance assessments. Since thrust cannot be measured on RSRM flight motors, flight motor measured chamber pressure and a nominal thrust-to-pressure relationship (based on static test motor thrust and pressure measurements) are used to reconstruct flight motor performance. Historical static test and flight motor performance data are used in conjunction with production subscale test data to predict RSRM performance. The predicted motor performance is provided to support Space Shuttle trajectory and system loads analyses. Therefore, an accurate nominal thrust-to-pressure (F/P) relationship is critical for accurate RSRM flight motor performance and Space Shuttle analyses. Flight Support Motors (FSM) 7, 8, and 9 provided thrust data for the validation of the T-97 thrust measurement system. The T-97 thrust data were analyzed and compared to thrust previously measured at T-24 to verify measured thrust data and identify any test-stand bias. The T-97 FIP data were consistent and within the T-24 static test statistical family expectation. The FSMs 7-9 thrust data met all NASA contract requirements, and the test stand is now verified for future thrust measurements.

Cook, Mart L.; Gruet, Laurent; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

301

Flight and Integrated Testing: Blazing the Trail for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors that will carry the next generation of astronauts into space safer and more efficiently than ever and send them to the Moon to develop a permanent outpost. NASA's Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Ares I-X Mission Management Office have primary responsibility for developing and conducting critical ground and flight tests for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. These tests will draw upon Saturn and the Space Shuttle experiences, which taught the value of using sound systems engineering practices, while also applying aerospace best practices such as "test as you fly" and other lessons learned. FITO will use a variety of methods to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks of flying humans safely aboard a launch vehicle.

Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charlie; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

2007-01-01

302

Trebuchet Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work as engineers to design and test trebuchets (in this case LEGOÂŽ MINDSTORMSÂŽ robots) that can launch objects. During the testing stage, they change one variable at a time to study its effect on the outcome of their designs. Specifically, they determine how far objects travel depending on their weights. As students learn about the different components of robot design and the specific function controls, they determine what design features are important for launching objects.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

303

Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

1999-01-01

304

Small-Scale Hybrid Rocket Test Stand & Characterization of Swirl Injectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.

Summers, Matt H.

305

Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program has been planned at the NASA Lewis Research Center to build confidence in the feasibility of liquid oxygen cooling for hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. Although liquid oxygen cooling has previously been incorporated in test hardware, more runtime is necessary to gain confidence in this concept. In the previous tests, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot-gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastrophic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed in this report. Four thrust chambers, three with cracks and one without, should be tested. The axial location of the cracks should be varied parametrically. Each chamber should be instrumented to determine the effects of the cracks, as well as the overall performance and durability of the chambers.

Armstrong, E. S.

1986-01-01

306

Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

2008-01-01

307

Post-Doctoral Positions at Harvard-Smithsonian CfA Sounding-Rocket Test of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP)  

E-print Network

Post-Doctoral Positions at Harvard-Smithsonian CfA Sounding-Rocket Test of the Weak Equivalence rocket, See http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/PAG/ (this ad will be there). The group will work in the next few

308

H-2A Launch Vehicle Test Flight Results and the Plan for the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H-2A launch vehicle, developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), has made successful two consecutive test flights and is now ready for operational phase. This paper presents the overview of the test flight results and the plan for the future. Two test flights of H-2A were launched from Tanegashima Space Center (TNSC) of NASDA and successfully made following missions: (a) Test flight no.1 (Date: 16:00 JST, August 29, 2001) Configuration: H2A202 (standard type, basic configuration), single launch Mission: To verify vehicle performance. Separated Laser Range Equipment (LRE) for accurate trajectory determination Results: Achieved as planned (b) Test flight no.2 (Date: 11:45 JST, February 4, 2002) Configuration: H2A2024 (standard type with four additional solid boosters, SSB), dual launch Mission: To put Mission Demonstration Satellite-1 (MDS-1) and piggy-back reentry probe (Demonstrator of Atmospheric Reentry System with Hyper Velocity, DASH) into proper orbit. Results: Achieved planned mission for MDS-1. Failed to separate DASH due to wiring mistakes of the probe. In the two test flight, following results are obtained and the vehicle is confirmed to be performed as nominal. (1) Accuracy of satellite separation trajectory was confirmed. (Estimated error at apogee = F1: 4.4km, F2: 39km) (2) The acoustic and vibration environment was confirmed to be within the planned level. (3) Verified the vehicle performance As for vehicle performance, items listed below are verified: (1) Engine (LE-7A and LE-5B) and propulsion system performance are confirmed to be within estimated range, including the ability of third restart capability of LE-5B after coasting time over 4400 sec. (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control systems are confirmed to perform as planned, including the successful spin-up maneuver test and flight evaluation of the onboard GPS receiver. (3) Separation mechanism is confirmed to have performed as planned. (4) Five Onboard video cameras are installed to confirm the separation performance and propellant settling in second stage liquid hydrogen tank. As the vehicle itself showed its expected performance flawlessly in two consecutive flights, H-2A is now considered to be flight-proven and ready for operational phase. Five flights with Japanese government payloads are planned by summer 2003, and H-2A is now paving its way to the commercial launch services.

Maemura, T.

2002-01-01

309

Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configuration as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle, including contractor data for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. The test data have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration. Basic components include booster, orbiter, and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configurations include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files containing basic tunnel data. Database structure is documented in a series of reports which include configuration sketches for the various planforms tested. This is Volume 3 -- launch configurations.

Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

1988-01-01

310

Filling the launch gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch

S. Hoeser

1986-01-01

311

Synergistic Development, Test, and Qualification Approaches for the Ares I and V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated plans to develop the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles in 2005 to meet the mission objectives for future human exploration of space. Ares I is designed to provide the capability to deliver the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), either for docking to the International Space Station (ISS) or docking with an Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander for transit to the Moon. Ares V provides the heavy-lift capability to deliver the EDS and lunar lander to orbit. An integrated test plan was developed for Ares I that includes un-crewed flight validation testing and ground testing to qualify structural components and propulsion systems prior to operational deployment. The overall test program also includes a single development test flight conducted prior to the Ares I critical design review (CDR). Since the Ares V concept was formulated to maximize hardware commonality between the Ares V and Ares I launch vehicles, initial test planning for Ares V has considered the extensibility of test approaches and facilities from Ares I. The Ares V test plan was part of a successful mission concept review (MCR) in 2008.

Cockrell, Charles E.; Taylor, James L.; Patterson, Alan; Stephens, Samuel E.; Tuma, Margaret; Bartolotta, Paul; Huetter, Uwe; Kaderback, Don; Goggin, David

2009-01-01

312

Thrust oscillations of the Space Shuttle solid rocket Booster motor during static tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust oscillations have occurred during static tests of Space Shuttle Booster solid rocket motors. These oscillations in measured axial thrust occurred primarily near 15 Hz; these oscillations late in the motor burn reach magnitudes up to approximately + or - 3% of motor thrust. The phenomenon has consistently occurred on the four demonstration motors which have been static tested and appears to be associated with small amplitude, 15 Hz pressure oscillations inside the motor. The source of the pressure oscillations is thought to be associated with the fundamental longitudinal acoustic resonance of the motor at 15 Hz. These thrust oscillations potentially can impact the design of the Space Shuttle vehicle structure. The demonstration motors have been instrumented with an array of transducers to aid in understanding the phenomenon. In addition to measuring axial and lateral thrust of the motor, pressure transducers were located to measure chamber pressure oscillations at the forward dome. Accelerometers and extensometers have measured motions of the structure. A modal survey was conducted on a fired motor to identify its structural dynamic characteristics, and these data were used to validate mathematical models of the motor in the static test facility.

Mason, D. R.; Folkman, S. L.; Behring, M. A.

1979-01-01

313

Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

1994-01-01

314

Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

1984-01-01

315

77 FR 50956 - Exclusion of Tethered Launches From Licensing Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...but do not apply to amateur rocket activities or to space activities...launches met the FAA's amateur rocket activity criteria,\\1\\ and...Operators launching amateur rockets on a tether would still be...RFA) establishes ``as a principle of regulatory issuance...

2012-08-23

316

The effects of solid rocket motor effluents on selected surfaces and solid particle size, distribution, and composition for simulated shuttle booster separation motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of three tests was conducted using solid rocket propellants to determine the effects a solid rocket plume would have on thermal protective surfaces (TPS). The surfaces tested were those which are baselined for the shuttle vehicle. The propellants used were to simulate the separation solid rocket motors (SSRM) that separate the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the shuttle launch vehicle. Data cover: (1) the optical effects of the plume environment on spacecraft related surfaces, and (2) the solid particle size, distribution, and composition at TPS sample locations.

Jex, D. W.; Linton, R. C.; Russell, W. M.; Trenkle, J. J.; Wilkes, D. R.

1976-01-01

317

Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

2012-01-01

318

Voyager 2 Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 2 was launched on August 20, 1977, from the NASA Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral in Florida, propelled into space on a Titan/Centaur rocket.

JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1977-01-01

319

Launch Altitude Tracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct hand-held altitude trackers. The device is a sighting tube with a marked water level that permits measurement of the inclination of the tube. Learners can use these tools in related activities to measure the altitude achieved by the rockets they construct. Launching can be conducted in an open space, indoors or outdoors.

Shearer, Deborah A.; Gregory L. Vogt, Ed D.

2012-06-26

320

Aqua 10 Years After Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2013-01-01

321

A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

- The one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is tested in Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Nearby are divers; inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

2000-01-01

322

REXUS 2 - the first EuroLaunch project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sounding rocket and balloon launches have been conducted since more than 30 years at Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), ESRANGE. MORABA, the Mobile Rocket Base of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), has planned and performed sounding rocket and balloon launches throughout the world since the late sixties. With the creation of EuroLaunch, the long-lasting cooperation of the two complementary technical centres ESRANGE and MORABA is being enhanced and intensified. The REXUS 2 student rocket was the first project to be designed, built and launched under the EuroLaunch cooperation.

Persson, Olle; Hörschgen, Marcus

2005-08-01

323

Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

Shreves, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

324

Experimental investigation of laboratory-scale rocket engine fed on solid polyethylene rod as fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire testing of the laboratory-scale rocket engine with the consumable solid polyethylene rod as fuel is described. The experimental data on heat flows, gasification rate and heat transfer coefficient are presented. Results of the testing may be useful for designing launch vehicles with combustible polyethylene tank shells.

Yemets, V. V.; Sanin, F. P. Dzhur, Ye. O.; Masliany, M. V.; Kostritsyn, O. Yu.; Minteev, G. V.; Ushkanov, V. M.

325

Rocket plume temperature measurement by wire welded thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plume of solid rocket motor is a high velocity flow with high temperature. Temperature distribution in the plume is of great interest for analyzing the compatibility of rocket weapon system. The high temperature exhausted flow field would cause damage on certain equipment and loading vehicles. An instantaneous temperature field with sharp step is established by the exhausted flow field of rocket motor. The increasing rate of the step depends on the flow velocity at cross section of nozzle exit. To perform an accurate measurement of temperature inside the flow field, a thermocouple must be sturdy enough to endure the flow impingement. In the meantime, the thermocouple must have a short time constant to trace the temperature fluctuation in flow field and a small size to avoid disturbing the flow field severely. The dynamic performance of the thermocouples used in exhausted flow temperature measurement must be evaluated before the experiment. The thermocouple which can be used in measuring the temperature distribution in rocket plume was presented in this paper. A NAMNAC (R) self-renew-erode thermocouples with a nominal time constant of 10 microseconds was used as a reference in a dynamic calibration test for this kind of thermocouple. The thermocouple could trace the temperature increase in the exhausted flow perfectly. This kind of thermocouples was used in several real tests of rocket motors, such as the temperature in free exhausted flow field of a stationary rocket motor test, the stagnate temperature in a shock flow field during the launching of a rocket, and the temperature in a launch tube.

Xu, Qiang

2006-05-01

326

Neural net controller for inlet pressure control of rocket engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many dynamic systems operate in select operating regions, each exhibiting characteristic modes of behavior. It is traditional to employ standard adjustable gain proportional-integral-derivative (PID) loops in such systems where no apriori model information is available. However, for controlling inlet pressure for rocket engine testing, problems in fine tuning, disturbance accommodation, and control gains for new profile operating regions (for research and development) are typically encountered. Because of the capability of capturing I/O peculiarities, using NETS, a back propagation trained neural network is specified. For select operating regions, the neural network controller is simulated to be as robust as the PID controller. For a comparative analysis, the higher order moment neural array (HOMNA) method is used to specify a second neural controller by extracting critical exemplars from the I/O data set. Furthermore, using the critical exemplars from the HOMNA method, a third neural controller is developed using NETS back propagation algorithm. All controllers are benchmarked against each other.

Trevino, Luis C.

1994-01-01

327

Design and testing of digitally manufactured paraffin Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene hybrid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel grain. Multiple fuel grains with various ABS-to-Paraffin mass ratios were fabricated and burned with nitrous oxide. Analytical predictions for end-to-end motor performance and fuel regression are compared against static test results. Baseline fuel grain regression calculations use an enthalpy balance energy analysis with the material and thermodynamic properties based on the mean paraffin/ABS mass fractions within the fuel grain. In support of these analytical comparisons, a novel method for propagating the fuel port burn surface was developed. In this modeling approach the fuel cross section grid is modeled as an image with white pixels representing the fuel and black pixels representing empty or burned grid cells.

McCulley, Jonathan M.

328

Lightning tests and analyses of tunnel bond straps and shielded cables on the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the tests and analyses described in this report are as follows: (1) determine the lightning current survivability of five alternative changed designs of the bond straps which electrically bond the solid rocket booster (SRB) systems tunnel to the solid rocket motor (SRM) case; (2) determine the amount of reduction in induced voltages on operational flight (OF) tunnel cables obtained by a modified design of tunnel bond straps (both tunnel cover-to-cover and cover-to-motor case); (3) determine the contribution of coupling to the OF tunnel cables by ground electrical and instrumentation (GEI) cables which enter the systems tunnel from unshielded areas on the surfaces of the motor case; and (4) develop a model (based on test data) and calculate the voltage levels at electronic 'black boxes' connected to the OF cables that run in the systems tunnel.

Druen, William M.

1993-01-01

329

Pop Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build paper rockets around film canisters, which serve as engines. An antacid tablet and water are put into each canister, reacting to form carbon dioxide gas, and acting as the pop rocket's propellant. With the lid snapped on, the continuous creation of gas causes pressure to build up until the lid pops off, sending the rocket into the air. The pop rockets demonstrate Newton's third law of motion: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

330

Launch Vehicle Flight Report - Nasa Project Apollo Little Joe 2 Qualification Test Vehicle 12-50-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Little Joe II Qualification Test Vehicle, Model 12-50-1, was launched from Army Launch Area 3 {ALA-3) at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 28 August 1963. This was the first launch of this class of boosters. The Little Joe II Launch Vehicle was designed as a test vehicle for boosting payloads into flight. For the Apollo Program, its mission is to serve as a launch vehicle for flight testing of the Apollo spacecraft. Accomplishment of this mission requires that the vehicle be capable of boosting the Apollo payload to parameters ranging from high dynamic pressures at low altitude to very high altitude flight. The fixed-fin 12-50 version was designed to accomplish the low-altitude parameter. The 12-51 version incorporates an attitude control system to accomplish the high altitude mission. This launch was designed to demonstrate the Little Joe II capability of meeting the high dynamic pressure parameter for the Apollo Program. For this test, a boiler-plate version of the Apollo capsule, service module and escape tower were attached to the launch vehicle to simulate weight, center of gravity and aerodynamic shape of the Apollo configuration. No attempt was made to separate the payload in flight. The test was conducted in compliance with Project Apollo Flight Mission Directive for QTV-1, NASA-MSC, dated 3 June 1963, under authority of NASA Contract NAS 9-492,

1963-01-01

331

Filling the launch gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

Hoeser, S.

1986-05-01

332

Stage Separation Wind Tunnel Tests of a Generic Two-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA s Space Launch Initiative Program, stage separation wind tunnel tests of a generic two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle were conducted to determine the interference aerodynamic forces and moments and to determine the proximity flow environment. The tests were conducted in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Aerodynamic Research Facility using a manual separation fixture for a Mach number range of 2.74 to 4.96 and separation distances up to 80 percent and 35 percent of the body length in the vehicle X and Z coordinates, respectively. For the TSTO bimese, winged-body vehicle configuration, both wing-to-wing and wing-to-fuselage configurations were tested. Individual-body force and moment, schlieren, and surface pressure data were acquired. The results showed that the proximity aerodynamics were dominated by complex bow shock interactions, and that he booster was statically unstable at several separation positions. As compared to the isolated body, the proximity normal force change with pitch angle was found to be nearly the same, and the proximity axial force increased, in general, by 3% for both bodies.

Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Frost, Alonzo L.; Reed, Darren K.

2003-01-01

333

Cost Benefit Analysis of Installing a Recovery Exercise Module (REM) in a Cruise Missile for an Operational Test Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides a cost benefit analysis of installing a Recovery Exercise Module (REM) in a Cruise Missile for an Operational Test Launch. Topics considered include: Should the Cruise Missile Project Office (CMPO) continue development of a new redesi...

H. E. Glassman

1987-01-01

334

Beginnings of rocket development in the czech lands (Czechoslovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the first references are from the 15th Century when both Hussites and crusaders are said to have used rockets during the Hussite Wars (also known as the Bohemian Wars) there is no strong evidence that rockets were actually used at that time. It is worth noting that Konrad Kyeser, who described several rockets in his Bellifortis manuscript written 1402-1405, served as advisor to Bohemian King Wenceslas IV. Rockets were in fact used as fireworks from the 16th century in noble circles. Some of these were built by Vav?inec K?i?ka z Bitý\\vsky, who also published a book on fireworks, in which he described how to build rockets for firework displays. Czech soldiers were also involved in the creation of a rocket regiment in the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) army in the first half of the 19th century. The pioneering era of modern rocket development began in the Czech lands during the 1920s. The first rockets were succesfully launched by Ludvík O?enášek in 1930 with one of them possibly reaching an altitude of 2000 metres. Vladimír Mandl, lawyer and author of the first book on the subject of space law, patented his project for a stage rocket (vysokostoupající raketa) in 1932, but this project never came to fruition. There were several factories during the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939-1945, when the Czech lands were occupied by Nazi Germany, where parts for German Mark A-4/V-2 rockets were produced, but none of the Czech technicians or constructors were able to build an entire rocket. The main goal of the Czech aircraft industry after WW2 was to revive the stagnant aircraft industry. There was no place to create a rocket industry. Concerns about a rocket industry appeared at the end of the 1950s. The Political Board of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party started to study the possibilities of creating a rocket industry after the first flight into space and particularly after US nuclear weapons were based in Italy and West Germany in 1957 and 1959. The first project involved the meteorological rockets Sokol I and Sokol II in 1960, which were never completed, as the rocket industry came under the exclusive sphere of interest of the Soviet Union. In Czechoslovakia only a Rocket Research and Test Institute was created by the Czechoslovak Ministry of Defence in 1963. The first Czechoslovak rockets to find practical use were launched in 1965. This study has been created as a part of the scientific project: Výzkumný zám?r MSM 0021620827 ?eské zem? uprost?ed Evropy v minulosti a dnes, blok V/d: ?eská vysoko\\vskolská vzd?lanost.

Plavec, Michal

2011-11-01

335

NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and RockSat-C elements of the "pipeline" have been successfully demonstrated by five annual flights thus far from Wallops Flight Facility. RockSat-X has successfully flown twice, also from Wallops. The NSRP utilizes launch vehicles comprised of military surplus rocket motors (Terrier-Improved Orion and Terrier-Improved Malemute) to execute these missions. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.

Rosanova, G.

2013-01-01

336

Temperature Dependent Modal Test/Analysis Correlation of X-34 Fastrac Composite Rocket Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique high temperature modal test and model correlation/update program has been performed on the composite nozzle of the FASTRAC engine for the NASA X-34 Reusable Launch Vehicle. The program was required to provide an accurate high temperature model of the nozzle for incorporation into the engine system structural dynamics model for loads calculation; this model is significantly different from the ambient case due to the large decrease in composite stiffness properties due to heating. The high-temperature modal test was performed during a hot-fire test of the nozzle. Previously, a series of high fidelity modal tests and finite element model correlation of the nozzle in a free-free configuration had been performed. This model was then attached to a modal-test verified model of the engine hot-fire test stand and the ambient system mode shapes were identified. A reduced set of accelerometers was then attached to the nozzle, the engine fired full-duration, and the frequency peaks corresponding to the ambient nozzle modes individually isolated and tracked as they decreased during the test. To update the finite-element model of the nozzle to these frequency curves, the percentage differences of the anisotropic composite moduli due to temperature variation from ambient, which had been used in the initial modeling and which were obtained by small sample coupon testing, were multiplied by an iteratively determined constant factor. These new properties were used to create high-temperature nozzle models corresponding to 10 second engine operation increments and tied into the engine system model for loads determination.

Brown, Andrew M.; Brunty, Joseph A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

337

COSMOS Launch Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

Kalnins, Indulis

2002-01-01

338

Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

1999-02-01

339

Advanced manned launch systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Manned Launch Systems (AMLS) studies underway at the NASA Langley Research Center are described. The AMLS studies have focused on investigating mission needs and identifying technologies, operational requirements, and life-cycle costs. Two-stage vertical take off rocket vehicles with significant levels of reusability are shown to be cost effective for moderate to high flight rates. All-hydrogen fuel vehicles are preferred over methane boosted systems for both operational and cost considerations. Drawings of possible AMLS design solutions are presented. Fully reusable, partially resusable, expendable stage and horizontal take off airbreather/rocket solutions are compared.

Talay, Theodore A.; Morris, W. D.

1989-01-01

340

Control of NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

VanZwieten, Tannen S.

2014-01-01

341

Dr. Goddard Transports Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Robert H. Goddard tows his rocket to the launching tower behind a Model A Ford truck, 15 miles northwest of Roswell, New Mexico. 1930- 1932. Dr. Goddard has been recognized as the 'Father of American Rocketry' and as one of three pioneers in the theoretical exploration of space. Robert Hutchings Goddard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 15, 1882. He was a theoretical scientist as well as a practical engineer. His dream was the conquest of the upper atmosphere and ultimately space through the use of rocket propulsion. Dr. Goddard, who died in 1945, was probably as responsible for the dawning of the Space Age as the Wright Brothers were for the begining of the Air Age. Yet his work attracted little serious attention during his lifetime. When the United States began to prepare for the conquest of space in the 1950's, American rocket scientists began to recognize the debt owed to the New England professor. They discovered that it was virtually impossible to construct a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work of Dr. Goddard. This great legacy was covered by more than 200 patents, many of which were issued after his death.

1974-01-01

342

Functional Testing and Evaluation of Actiwatch Spectrum Devices for Launch on STS-133/ULF5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Actiwatch Spectrum (AWS) is a wrist-worn device that may be used for obtaining ground or on-orbit light exposure patterns and movement data. The objective of this project was to prepare AWS devices for launch on STS-133/ULF5 by a means of implementing functional tests and engineering evaluations. The data obtained from these tests and evaluations served as a means for detecting any plausible issues that the AWS may encounter while on-orbit. Subsequent steps after detecting anomalies with AWS devices encompassed identifying their root causes and taking the steps needed to mitigate them. As a result of this study, the overall success of sleep/wake research studies for STS-133/ULF5 and future missions will be enhanced.

Rollins, Selisa F.; Humbert, Scott; Tysdal, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

343

Rocket/launcher structural dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equations of motion describing the interactions between a rocket and a launcher were derived using Lagrange's Equation. A rocket launching was simulated. The motions of both the rocket and the launcher can be considered in detail. The model contains flexible elements and rigid elements. The rigid elements (masses) were judiciously utilized to simplify the derivation of the equations. The advantages of simultaneous shoe release were illustrated. Also, the loading history of the interstage structure of a boosted configuration was determined. The equations shown in this analysis could be used as a design tool during the modification of old launchers and the design of new launchers.

Ferragut, N. J.

1976-01-01

344

Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) of honeycomb composite structural parts of Atlas space launch vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Thermography is a means of recording the patterns of heat emission from a surface. Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) uses this technology to detect sub-surface defects. Generally, a heat pulse is applied to a surface that is thermographically monitored. If a sub-surface defect exists that locally reduces or improves the thermal properties of the material, the surface thermal pattern will be perturbed over the defect. TNDT has been used successfully on a wide variety of composite laminates, filament-wound structures, sandwich structures, and foam-insulated cryogenic tanks. Both real structures with real delamination and impact damage, as well as test panels with simulated delaminations, face sheet disbonds, and interply implants have been tested. For some of these applications, TNDT is the best technique. The thrust structure at the aft end of the Atlas space launch vehicle is a composite sandwich comprised of aluminum honeycomb core with fiberglass/phenolic face sheets. The surface area of this structure is approximately 600 ft{sup 2}. In 1992, General Dynamics Space Systems Division (GDSS) began using TNDT for quality verification of these complex composite parts. TNDT has been used on these parts during manufacture and assembly, and on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral. The NDT technique previously used on these parts, since their design in 1957, was ``coin tap.`` Compared to this method, TNDT provides a greatly improved inspection in less time and at a lower cost. A heat gun with a diffuser attachment is used to heat the inspection area while the area is monitored thermographically. TNDT is a rapid, remote, non-contact, highly portable, real-time scanning technique that can provide a well-documented video record of subsurface structural details including facesheet disbonds and skin delaminations. A specification and test procedure has been written, equipment has been procured, and personnel have been trained and certified.

Burleigh, D.D.; Kuhns, D.R.; Cowell, S.D.; Engel, J.E. [General Dynamics Space Systems Division, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

345

Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

346

Experimental Evaluation of the Drag Coefficient of Water Rockets by a Simple Free-Fall Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag…

Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E. Arguelles-Diaz, K.; Fernandez-Oro, J.

2009-01-01

347

Sounding rocket program Magnetosphere payload CAESAR. Report on systems development, integration, testing and flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments in the payload CAESAR aboard sounding rockets were carried out to determine the interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionospheric plasma during dawn arc phenomena and to study the energy transfer from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere and the related transformation processes. The field and ion distributions within and in the vicinity of a dawn arc and the arc

W. Schrieder; W. Schnattinger

1985-01-01

348

Tight Fits for Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America has begun the development of a new heavy lift rocket which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. Five decades ago, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed a system (called Saturn/Apollo) to carry men to the moon and back; the rocket which boosted them to the moon was the Saturn V. Saturn V was huge relative to contemporary rockets and is still the largest rocket ever launched. The new moon rocket is called Ares V. It will insert 40% more payload into low earth orbit than Saturn V; and after docking with the crew spacecraft, it will insert 50% more payload onto the translunar trajectory than Saturn V. The current design of Ares V calls for two liquid-fueled stages and 2 "strap-on" solid rockets. The solid rockets are extended-length versions of the solid rockets used on the Shuttle. The diameter of the liquid stages is at least as large as the first stage of the Saturn V; the height of the lower liquid stage (called the core stage) is longer than the external tank of the Shuttle. Huge rockets require huge infrastructure and, during the Saturn/Apollo era, America invested significantly in manufacturing, assembly and launch facilities which are still in use today. Since the Saturn/Apollo era, America has invested in additional infrastructure for the Shuttle program. Ares V must utilize this existing infrastructure, with reasonable modifications. Building a rocket with 50% more capability in the same buildings, testing it in the same test stands, shipping on the same canals under the same bridges, assembling it in the same building, rolling it to the pad on the same crawler, and launching it from the same launch pad is an engineering and logistics challenge which goes hand-in-hand with designing the structure, tanks, turbines, engines, software, etc. necessary to carry such a large payload to earth orbit and to the moon. This paper quantitatively discusses the significant "tight fits" that are constraining Ares V. The engineers designing and building the infrastructure for the Saturn/Apollo program usually added margins and growth capability; sometimes the size of existing facilities (such as the width of a draw bridge) was not a constraint. Ares V may utilize the "extra" space in the existing facilities and expand other tight fits. Some of the tight fits cannot be overcome without great expense; raising the roof on the Vertical Assembly Building for example. Other tight fits are easily overcome; the transporter at the manufacturing facility for the core stage can pass under low ceilings and later over a dike (without dragging the middle) by retracting or extending the struts which support the stage. Tight fits discussed in this paper include manufacturing (jigs, widths, heights, and local transportation), testing (test stand sizes and crane capability), transportation to the test stands and the launch site (barge, waterway, and rail), assembly (VAB internal dimensions and door size), roll-out limits, and launch pad size.

Jaap, John; Fisher, Wyatt; Richardson, Lea

2010-01-01

349

ISS Update: VASIMR Plasma Rocket  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Ken Bollweg, VASIMR Project Manager, about VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), recent testing progress and future applications. ...

350

Baseline Testing of Ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Project. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation (NGLT) project to obtain empirical data for determining the feasibility of using ultracapacitors for the project. There are large transient loads associated with NGLT that require either a very large primary energy source or an energy storage system. The primary power source used for these tests is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The energy storage system can consist of devices such as batteries, flywheels, or ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were used for these tests. Ultracapacitors are ideal for applications such as NGLT where long life, maintenance-free operation, and excellent low-temperature performance is essential. State-of-the-art symmetric ultracapacitors were used for these tests. The ultracapacitors were interconnected in an innovative configuration to minimize interconnection impedance. PEM fuel cells provide excellent energy density, but not good power density. Ultracapacitors provide excellent power density, but not good energy density. The combination of PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors provides a power source with excellent energy density and power density. The life of PEM fuel cells is shortened significantly by large transient loads. Ultracapacitors used in conjunction with PEM fuel cells reduce the transient loads applied to the fuel cell, and thus appreciably improves its life. PEM fuel cells were tested with and without ultracapacitors, to determine the benefits of ultracapacitors. The report concludes that the implementation of symmetric ultracapacitors in the NGLT power system can provide significant improvements in power system performance and reliability.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2005-01-01

351

Baseline Testing of Ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of ultracapacitors for the Next Generation Launch Transportation (NGLT) project to obtain empirical data for determining the feasibility of using ultracapacitors for the project. There are large transient loads associated with NGLT that require either a very large primary energy source or an energy storage system. The primary power source used for these tests is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The energy storage system can consist of devices such as batteries, flywheels, or ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were used for these tests. Ultracapacitors are ideal for applications such as NGLT where long life, maintenance-free operation, and excellent low-temperature performance is essential. State-of-the-art symmetric ultracapacitors were used for these tests. The ultracapacitors were interconnected in an innovative configuration to minimize interconnection impedance. PEM fuel cells provide excellent energy density, but not good power density. Ultracapacitors provide excellent power density, but not good energy density. The combination of PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors provides a power source with excellent energy density and power density. The life of PEM fuel cells is shortened significantly by large transient loads. Ultracapacitors used in conjunction with PEM fuel cells reduce the transient loads applied to the fuel cell, and thus appreciably improves its life. PEM fuel cells were tested with and without ultracapacitors, to determine the benefits of ultracapacitors. The report concludes that the implementation of symmetric ultracapacitors in the NGLT power system can provide significant improvements in power system performance and reliability.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2004-01-01

352

Rocket + Science = Dialogue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

2010-01-01

353

The Application of Lean Thinking Principles and Kaizen Practices for the Successful Development and Implementation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Rocket and Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. Positive lessons learned from Ares I-X were that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices are effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by the success of Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for Ares I-X were obtaining unambiguous schedule margin, defining enabling options for risk reduction, and most importantly a stronger more unified team.

Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.

2011-01-01

354

High-Temperature Polymer Composites Tested for Hypersonic Rocket Combustor Backup Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant component weight reductions are required to achieve the aggressive thrust-toweight goals for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) third-generation, reusable liquid propellant rocket engine, which is one possible engine for a future single-stage-toorbit vehicle. A collaboration between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Rocketdyne was formed under the Higher Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) program and, currently, the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project to develop carbon-fiber-reinforced high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs). This program focused primarily on the combustor backup structure to replace all metallic support components with a much lighter polymer-matrixcomposite- (PMC-) titanium honeycomb sandwich structure.

Sutter, James K.; Shin, E. Eugene; Thesken, John C.; Fink, Jeffrey E.

2005-01-01

355

US Rocket Propulsion Industrial Base Health Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The number of active liquid rocket engine and solid rocket motor development programs has severely declined since the "space race" of the 1950s and 1960s center dot This downward trend has been exacerbated by the retirement of the Space Shuttle, transition from the Constellation Program to the Space launch System (SLS) and similar activity in DoD programs center dot In addition with consolidation in the industry, the rocket propulsion industrial base is under stress. To Improve the "health" of the RPIB, we need to understand - The current condition of the RPIB - How this compares to past history - The trend of RPIB health center dot This drives the need for a concise set of "metrics" - Analogous to the basic data a physician uses to determine the state of health of his patients - Easy to measure and collect - The trend is often more useful than the actual data point - Can be used to focus on problem areas and develop preventative measures The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector. The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector.

Doreswamy, Rajiv

2013-01-01

356

Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada Test Site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program  

SciTech Connect

Recent NASA/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The ROVER/NERVA facilities are located in the Nevada Research L, Development Area (NRDA) on Jackass Flats at NTS, approximately 85 miles northwest of Las Vegas. To guide our assessment of facilities for an engine testing program we have defined a program goal, scope, and process. To execute this program scope and process will require ten facilities. We considered the use of all relevant facilities at NTS including existing and new tunnels as well as the facilities at NRDA. Aside from the facilities located at remote sites and the inter-site transportation system, all of the required facilities are available at NRDA. In particular we have studied the refurbishment of E-MAD, ETS-1, R-MAD, and the interconnecting railroad. The total cost for such a refurbishment we estimate to be about $253M which includes additional contractor fees related to indirect, construction management, profit, contingency, and management reserves. This figure also includes the cost of the required NEPA, safety, and security documentation.

Chandler, G.; Collins, D.; Dye, K.; Eberhart, C.; Hynes, M.; Kovach, R.; Ortiz, R.; Perea, J.; Sherman, D.

1992-12-01

357

Otrag rocket experiments in Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

West German rocket manufacturers are testing their products in Zaire. Hundreds of pipes (12 m x 80 cm) are bundled together inside the test missiles, which are fired into Zaire's prairie. The reactions of neighboring nations, as well as leading countries of the world, are presented concerning the rocket tests.

1978-01-01

358

Supersonic Wind Tunnel Tests of a Half-axisymmetric 12 Deg-spike Inlet to a Rocket-based Combined-cycle Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an isolated inlet test for NASA's GTX air-breathing launch vehicle concept are presented. The GTX is a Vertical Take-off/ Horizontal Landing reusable single-stage-to-orbit system powered by a rocket-based combined-cycle propulsion system. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel during two entries in October 1998 and February 1999. Tests were run from Mach 2.8 to 6. Integrated performance parameters and static pressure distributions are reported. The maximum contraction ratios achieved in the tests were lower than predicted by axisymmetric Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At Mach 6, the maximum contraction ratio was roughly one-half of the CFD value of 16. The addition of either boundary-layer trip strips or vortex generators had a negligible effect on the maximum contraction ratio. A shock boundary-layer interaction was also evident on the end-walls that terminate the annular flowpath cross section. Cut-back end-walls, designed to reduce the boundary-layer growth upstream of the shock and minimize the interaction, also had negligible effect on the maximum contraction ratio. Both the excessive turning of low-momentum comer flows and local over-contraction due to asymmetric end-walls were identified as possible reasons for the discrepancy between the CFD predictions and the experiment. It is recommended that the centerbody spike and throat angles be reduced in order to lessen the induced pressure rise. The addition of a step on the cowl surface, and planar end-walls more closely approximating a plane of symmetry are also recommended. Provisions for end-wall boundary-layer bleed should be incorporated.

DeBonis, J. R.; Trefny, C. J.

2001-01-01

359

CubeSats, Launcher to Test Satellite Innovations  

NASA Video Gallery

Launching June 15 from Mojave, Calif., a Prospector-18D liquid-fueled rocket is to carry a set of small satellites high into the air to test how well they handle the shock, heat and vibration of la...

360

The Air Force geophysics laboratory sounding rocket program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Air Force's current and planned sounding rocket program including types of rockets and payloads, launch sites, operational campaigns and joint programs with other agencies and the outlook for the future. Other topics presented are engineering accomplishments and a brief description of the recent past program including scientific accomplishments using sounding rockets.

R. V. Cormier

1976-01-01

361

Sounding rocket study of two sequential auroral poleward boundary intensifications  

E-print Network

Sounding rocket study of two sequential auroral poleward boundary intensifications M. R. Mella,1 K; accepted 23 September 2011; published 7 December 2011. [1] The Cascades-2 sounding rocket was launched of poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs). The rocket initially crosses a diffuse arc, then crosses

Lummerzheim, Dirk

362

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Sounding Rockets 2011 Annual Report #12;2 Fiscal-purposed surplus rocket motor assets result in lower cost launch vehicles. The program continued to fulfill its schools. The NSROC contractor and the Sounding Rocket Program Office also hosted numerous interns and Co

Christian, Eric

363

Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average consumption of water is 520,000 gallons per day--all supplied by one well. This supply well and a standby well have a production capability of 1.6 million gallons per day--adequate for present needs. Water in the welded-tuff aquifer is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids content of the water in Jackass Flats is in the general range 230 milligrams per liter in the western part to 890 milligrams per liter in the eastern part.

Young, Richard Arden

1972-01-01

364

Pre-flight transient dynamic analysis of B-52 carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid-rocket booster drop-test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

1983-01-01

365

Preflight transient dynamic analyses of B-52 aircraft carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

1984-01-01

366

Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasonics offers the potential of long-range acoustic detection of explosions, missiles and even sounds created by manufacturing plants. The atmosphere attenuates acoustic energy above 20 Hz quite rapidly, but signals below 10 Hz can propagate to long ranges. Space shuttle launches have been detected infrasonically from over 1000 km away and the Concorde airliner from over 400 km. This technology is based on microphones designed to respond to frequencies from .1 to 300 Hz that can be operated outdoors for extended periods of time with out degrading their performance. The US Army Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collected acoustic and infrasonic signatures of static engine testing of two missiles. Signatures were collected of a SCUD missile engine at Huntsville, AL and a Minuteman engine at Edwards AFB. The engines were fixed vertically in a test stand during the burn. We will show the typical time waveform signals of these static tests and spectrograms for each type. High resolution, 24-bit data were collected at 512 Hz and 16-bit acoustic data at 10 kHz. Edwards data were recorded at 250 Hz and 50 Hz using a Geotech Instruments 24 bit digitizer. Ranges from the test stand varied from 1 km to 5 km. Low level and upper level meteorological data was collected to provide full details of atmospheric propagation during the engine test. Infrasonic measurements were made with the Chaparral Physics Model 2 microphone with porous garden hose attached for wind noise suppression. A B&K microphone was used for high frequency acoustic measurements. Results show primarily a broadband signal with distinct initiation and completion points. There appear to be features present in the signals that would allow identification of missile type. At 5 km the acoustic/infrasonic signal was clearly present. Detection ranges for the types of missile signatures measured will be predicted based on atmospheric modeling. As part of an experiment conducted by ARL, sounding rocket launches have been detected from over 150 km. A variety of rockets launched from NASA"s Wallops Island facility were detected over a two year span. Arrays of microphones were able to create a line of bearing to the source of the launches that took place during different times of the year. This same experiment has been able to detect the space shuttle from over 1000 km on a regular basis. These two sources represent opposite ends of the target size, but they do demonstrate the potential for the detection and location of rocket launches.

Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

2003-09-01

367

Methods for data reduction and loads analysis of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster model water impact tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology used to predict full scale space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) water impact loads from scale model test data is described. Tests conducted included 12.5 inch and 120 inch diameter models of the SRB. Geometry and mass characteristics of the models were varied in each test series to reflect the current SRB baseline configuration. Nose first and tail first water entry modes were investigated with full-scale initial impact vertical velocities of 40 to 120 ft/sec, horizontal velocities of 0 to 60 ft/sec., and off-vertical angles of 0 to plus or minus 30 degrees. The test program included a series of tests with scaled atmospheric pressure.

1976-01-01

368

Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

2009-01-01

369

Performance evaluation of Space Shuttle SRB parachutes from air drop and scaled model wind tunnel tests. [Solid Rocket Booster recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance characteristics have been determined for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster drogue, main, and pilot parachutes. The performance evaluation on the 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes is based primarily on air drop tests of full scale prototype parachutes. In addition, parametric wind tunnel tests were performed and used in parachute configuration development and preliminary performance assessments. The wind tunnel test data are compared to the drop test results and both sets of data are used to determine the predicted performance of the Solid Rocket Booster flight parachutes. Data from other drop tests of large ribbon parachutes are also compared with the Solid Rocket Booster parachute performance characteristics. Parameters assessed include full open terminal drag coefficients, reefed drag area, opening characteristics, clustering effects, and forebody interference.

Moog, R. D.; Bacchus, D. L.; Utreja, L. R.

1979-01-01

370

NASA Dryden Towed Glider Air-Launch Concept  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a novel space access, rocket launching technique called the Towed Glider Air-Launch Concept. The idea is to build a relatively inexpensive, remotely...

371

NASA's Space Launch System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management approach, and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a safe, affordable, sustainable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future missions across the solar system. In an environment of economic challenges, the nationwide SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets. This paper will discuss SLS Program and technical accomplishments over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Lyles, Garry

2014-01-01

372

Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

2000-01-01

373

Rocket Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.

2008-07-29

374

Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

2009-01-01

375

The Scout Launch Vehicle program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

376

Developing Primary Propulsion for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. The first stage of NASA's new Ares I crew launch vehicle (Figure 1), which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into low-Earth orbit early next decade, will consist of a Space Shuttle-derived five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB); a pair of similar RSRBs also will be used on the Ares V cargo launch vehicle's core stage propulsion system. This paper will discuss the basis for choosing this particular propulsion system; describe the activities the Exploration Launch Projects (ELP) Office is engaged in at present to develop the first stage; and offer a preview of future development activities related to the first Ares l integrated test flight, which is planned for 2009.

Priskos, Alex S.; Williams, Thomas L.; Ezell, Timothy G.; Burt, Rick

2007-01-01

377

Encyclopedia: Satellites and Sounding Rockets, August 1959 - December 1969  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major space missions utilizing satellites or sounding rockets managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center between August 1959 and December 1969 were documented. The information was presented in the following form: (1) description of each satellite project where Goddard was responsible for the spacecraft or the successful launch or both, with data such as launch characteristics, objectives, etc.; (2) description of each Goddard sounding rocket project, with the following data: sounding rocket type, vehicle number, experimental affiliation, and type of experiment; (3) brief description of current sounding rockets and launch vehicles; (4) table of tracking and data acquisition stations. Summary tables are also provided.

1970-01-01

378

Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

Ulwick, J. C.

1989-01-01

379

APOLLO 12 LIFTOFF [SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket exhaust clouds the Apollo 12 Saturn V space vehicle as it lifts off from Launch Complex 39A, sending astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon and Alan L. Bean on the Nation's second manned lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

380

Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

381

Flight test of carbon-phenolic on a spacecraft launched by the pacemaker vehicle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon-phenolic material consisting of 50 percent carbon fibers and 50 percent phenolic resin was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by the Pacemaker vehicle system. The heat shield of the spacecraft was fabricated so that the carbon fibers in the ablator material had different orientations over several areas of the spacecraft. The environment in which the spacecraft was tested produced heating rates on the hemispherical nose up to 13.6 MW/sq m (1200 Btu/sq ft/sec) and stagnation-point pressures up to 1.27 MN/sq m (12.5 atm). The experimental results are presented. Due to high heating rates and possible spallation and mechanical char removal the greatest mass loss occurred in the nose region. Essentially uniform surface recession and char thickness were observed on the conical section of the spacecraft. A comparison of measured heating rates with computed turbulent and laminar heating rates, as well as measurements of sound-pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer obtained with acoustic sensors, indicated that the boundary layer underwent transition. The acoustic sensor provides an interesting new data form for the general study of boundary-layer transition for free-flight investigations.

Walton, T. E., Jr.; Witte, W. G.

1972-01-01

382

Test plan and report for Space Shuttle launch environment testing of Bergen cable technology safety cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bergen Cable Technology (BCT) has introduced a new product they refer to as 'safety cable'. This product is intended as a replacement for lockwire when installed per Aerospace Standard (AS) 4536 (included in Appendix D of this document). Installation of safety cable is reportedly faster and more uniform than lockwire. NASA/GSFC proposes to use this safety cable in Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) applications on upcoming Shuttle missions. To assure that BCT safety cable will provide positive locking of fasteners equivalent to lockwire, the SSPP will conduct vibration and pull tests of the safety cable.

Ralph, John

1992-01-01

383

Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

1993-01-01

384

Experimental measurements of the ground cloud effluents and cloud growth for the May 20, 1975, Titan 3C launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment included surface level and airborne in situ cloud measurements of the exhaust effluents from the Titan IIIC solid rocket boosters. Simultaneous visible spectrum photographic pictures of the ground cloud as well as infrared imaging of the cloud were obtained to study the cloud rise, growth, and direction of travel within the earth's surface mixing layer. The NASA multilayer diffusion model predictions of cloud growth, direction of travel, and expected surface level effluent concentrations were made prior to launch and after launch using measured meteorological conditions. Prelaunch predictions were used to position the effluent monitoring instruments, and the postlaunch predictions were compared with the measured data. Measurement results showed that surface level effluent values were low, often below the detection limits of the instrumentation. The maximum surface level hydrogen chloride concentration measured 50 parts per billion at about 8 km from the launch pad. The maximum observed in-cloud (airborne measurement) hydrogen chloride concentration was 7 per million.

Gregory, G. L.; Storey, R. W., Jr.

1977-01-01

385

Initial Test Firing Results for Solid CO/GOX Cryogenic Hybrid Rocket Engine for Mars ISRU Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ORBITEC is developing methods for producing, testing, and utilizing Mars-based ISRU fuel/oxidizer combinations to support low cost, planetary surface and flight propulsion and power systems. When humans explore Mars we will need to use in situ resources that are available, such as: energy (solar); gases or liquids for life support, ground transportation, and flight to and from other surface locations and Earth; and materials for shielding and building habitats and infrastructure. Probably the easiest use of Martian resources to reduce the cost of human exploration activities is the use of the carbon and oxygen readily available from the CO2 in the Mars atmosphere. ORBITEC has conducted preliminary R&D that will eventually allow us to reliably use these resources. ORBITEC is focusing on the innovative use of solid CO as a fuel. A new advanced cryogenic hybrid rocket propulsion system is suggested that will offer advantages over LCO/LOX propulsion, making it the best option for a Mars sample return vehicle and other flight vehicles. This technology could also greatly support logistics and base operations by providing a reliable and simple way to store solar or nuclear generated energy in the form of chemical energy that can be used for ground transportation (rovers/land vehicles) and planetary surface power generators. This paper describes the overall concept and the test results of the first ever solid carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine firing.

Rice, Eric E.; St. Clair, Christopher P.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Knuth, William H.; Gustafson, Robert J.; Gramer, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

386

The Explorer Rocket Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since September of 1956, nine Jupiter-C missiles have been launched from the firing pad at Cape Canaveral. The first Jupiter-C firing tested the propulsion system, air frame, and guidance components of the missile, and the second and third firings tested a model of the Jupiter nose cone under realistic re-entry conditions. The remaining six Jupiter-C missiles were used as the launching vehicles for EXPLORER satellites I through VI (Fig. 1). Of the six satellite firings, EXPLORERs I, III, and IV achieved satisfactory orbits. The Jupiter-C missile was designed and developed as a joint program under the technical direction of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed the three high-speed stages, and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency handled the development, construction, and operation of the first-stage booster rocket and the guidance system. Many other organizations have contributed to the success of the EXPLORER satellite program, most notably the State University of Iowa, the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, and the satellite tracking teams of the Vanguard organization.

Robillard, G.

1958-01-01

387

Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current NASA Space Shuttle auxiliary propulsion system utilizes nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH), hypergolic propellants. This use of these propellants has resulted in high levels of maintenance and precautions that contribute to costly launch operations. By employing alternate propellant combinations, those less toxic to humans, the hazards and time required between missions can be significantly reduced. Use of alternate propellants can thereby increase the efficiency and lower the cost in launch operations. In support of NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI), TRW proposed a three-phase project structured to significantly increase the technology readiness of a high-performance reaction control subsystem (RCS) thruster using non-toxic propellant for an operationally efficient and reusable auxiliary propulsion system (APS). The project enables the development of an integrated primary/vernier thruster capable of providing dual-thrust levels of both 1000-lbf class thrust and 25-lbf thrust. The intent of the project is to reduce the risk associated with the development of an improved RCS flight design that meets the primary NASA objectives of improved safety and reliability while reducing systems operations and maintenance costs. TRW proposed two non-toxic auxiliary propulsion engine designs, one using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and the other using liquid oxygen and liquid ethanol, as candidates to meet the goals of reliability and affordability at the RCS level. Both of these propellant combinations offer the advantage of a safe environment for maintenance, while at the same time providing adequate to excellent performance for a conventional liquid propulsion systems. The key enabling technology incorporated in both TRW thrusters is the coaxial liquid on liquid pintle injector. This paper will concentrate on only the design and testing of one of the thrusters, the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) thruster. The LOX/LH2 thruster design includes a LOX-centered pintle injector, consisting of two rows of slots that create a radial spoke spray pattern in the combustion chamber. The main fuel injector creates a continuous sheet of LH2 originating upstream of the LOX pintle injector. The two propellants impinge at the pintle slots, where the resulting momentum ratio and spray pattern determines the combustion efficiency and thermal effects on the hardware. Another enabling technology used in the design of this thruster is fuel film cooling through a duct, lining the inner wall of the combustion chamber barrel section. The duct is also acts as a secondary fuel injection point. The variation in the amount of LH2 used for the duct allows for adjustments in the cooling capacity for the thruster. The Non-Toxic LOX-LH2 RCS Workhorse Thruster was tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Test Stand 500. Hot-fire tests were conducted between March 08, 2002 and April 05, 2002. All testing during the program base period were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LH2 injector stroke settings. The operating conditions that were surveyed varied thrust levels, mixture ratio and LH2 duct cooling flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The total accumulated burn time for the test program is 352.3 seconds. C* efficiency was calculated and found to be within expectable limits for most operating conditions. The temperature on the Haynes combustion chamber remained below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. The test results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster head-e design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the concept for

Calvignac, Jacky; Tramel, Terri

2003-01-01

388

High Launch Switching Activity Reduction in At-Speed Scan Testing Using CTX: A Clock-Gating-Based Test Relaxation and X-Filling Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At-speed scan testing is susceptible to yield loss risk due to power supply noise caused by excessive launch switching activity. This paper proposes a novel two-stage scheme, namely CTX (Clock-Gating-Based Test Relaxation and X-Filling), for reducing switching activity when a test stimulus is launched. Test relaxation and X-filling are conducted (1) to make as many FFs as possible inactive by disabling corresponding clock control signals of clock-gating circuitry in Stage-1 (Clock-Disabling), and (2) to equalize the input and output values in Stage-2of as many remaining active FFs as possible (FF-Silencing). CTX effectively reduces launch switching activity and thus yield loss risk even when only a small number of don't care (X) bits are present (as in test compression) without any impact on test data volume, fault coverage, performance, or circuit design.

Miyase, Kohei; Wen, Xiaoqing; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yamato, Yuta; Kajihara, Seiji; Girard, Patrick; Wang, Laung-Terng; Tehranipoor, Mohammad

389

Evaluation of coated columbium test panels having application to a secondary nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine system, parts 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activity performed on the screening and evaluation of various coatings for application on columbium alloy test panels representative of a radiation-cooled nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine is summarized. Vendors and processes of candidate coatings were evaluated. Post engine test evaluations of the two selected coatings are discussed.

Murphy, Kenneth S.; Castro, Joaquin H.

1988-01-01

390

Rocket Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the theory of rocket engines using Newton's third law of motion. This five minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

391

Stomp Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build rockets and shoot them into the air by stomping on the plastic bottle launchers. Use this activity to demonstrate air pressure, projectile motion, Newton's Laws of Motion, and vectors.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2012-01-01

392

NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than sequentially, saving both time and money. These themes are accomplished under the context of a new cross-program integration model that emphasizes peer-to-peer accountability and collaboration towards a common, shared goal. Utilizing the lessons learned through 50 years of human space flight experience, SLS is assigning the right number of people from appropriate backgrounds, providing them the right tools, and exercising the right processes for the job. The result will be a powerful, versatile, and capable heavy-lift, human-rated asset for the future human and scientific exploration of space.

Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

2014-01-01

393

Rocket Launchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work with an adult to build a rocket and launcher out of a plastic 2-liter bottle, flexible plastic hose, plastic tubing, toilet paper tube, and duct tape. Use this stomp rocket activity to demonstrate that air is something, comprised of molecules that, when acted upon, have the power to move things. This activity guide includes an extension activity and related activity for younger learners.

Museum, Chicago C.

2010-01-01

394

Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

2009-01-01

395

Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

Taylor, Jim

2009-01-01

396

Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

2014-01-01

397

Cryogenic propellant evaporation characteristics of the H-I launch vehicle during propellant loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the initial test flight launch in 1986, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has succeeded in launching a total of 9 H-I launch vehicles, placing 13 satellites into orbits. Through these launching experiences, fully established data on the cryogenic propellant evaporation characteristics of the first and second stage tanks of the rockets on the launch pad have been acquired. The first stage liquid oxygen tank is of a bare aluminum construction, while the second stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen tank is of an integral tank construction separated by an evacuated common bulkhead. The heat influx into each stage is affected by the surrounding atmospheric conditions, including winds. This paper summarizes the structures of the H-I launch vehicle and gives an outline of the cryogenic propellant loading sequence. The observed amount of propellant evaporation loss of each tank is compared with the estimated heat input based on a simplified calculation model.

Takano, Akira; Sameshima, Toru; Aoyagi, Takashi

398

eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

Starr, Stanley

2010-01-01

399

Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lift-off acoustic environments generated by the future Ares I launch vehicle are assessed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) acoustics team using several prediction tools. This acoustic environment is directly caused by the Ares I First Stage booster, powered by the five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRMV). The RSRMV is a larger-thrust derivative design from the currently used Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Lift-off acoustics is an integral part of the composite launch vibration environment affecting the Ares launch vehicle and must be assessed to help generate hardware qualification levels and ensure structural integrity of the vehicle during launch and lift-off. Available prediction tools that use free field noise source spectrums as a starting point for generation of lift-off acoustic environments are described in the monograph NASA SP-8072: "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." This monograph uses a reference database for free field noise source spectrums which consist of subscale rocket motor firings, oriented in horizontal static configurations. The phrase "subscale" is appropriate, since the thrust levels of rockets in the reference database are orders of magnitude lower than the current design thrust for the Ares launch family. Thus, extrapolation is needed to extend the various reference curves to match Ares-scale acoustic levels. This extrapolation process yields a subsequent amount of uncertainty added upon the acoustic environment predictions. As the Ares launch vehicle design schedule progresses, it is important to take every opportunity to lower prediction uncertainty and subsequently increase prediction accuracy. Never before in NASA s history has plume acoustics been measured for large scale solid rocket motors. Approximately twice a year, the RSRM prime vendor, ATK Launch Systems, static fires an assembled RSRM motor in a horizontal configuration at their test facility in Utah. The remaining RSRM static firings will take place on elevated terrain, with the nozzle exit plume being mostly undeflected and the landscape allowing placement of microphones within direct line of sight to the exhaust plume. These measurements will help assess the current extrapolation process by direct comparison between subscale and full scale solid rocket motor data.

Kenny, Jeremy; Hobbs, Chris; Plotkin, Ken; Pilkey, Debbie

2009-01-01

400

Electromagnetic Launch to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advances in electromagnetic (EM) propulsion technology have occurred in recent years. Linear motor technology for low-velocity and high-mass applications is being developed for naval catapults. Such technology could serve as the basis for a first-stage booster launch--as suggested by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Maglifter concept. Using railguns, laboratory experiments have demonstrated launch velocities of 2-3 km/s and muzzle energies > 8 MJ. The extension of this technology to the muzzle velocities ( 7500 m/s) and energies ( 10 GJ) needed for the direct launch of payloads into orbit is very challenging but may not be impossible. For launch to orbit, even long launchers (> 1000 m) would need to operate at accelerations > 1000 G to reach the required velocities, so it would only be possible to launch rugged payloads, such as fuel, water, and materiel. Interest is being shown in such concepts by US, European, Russian, and Chinese researchers. An intermediate step proposed in France could be to launch payloads to sounding rocket altitudes for ionospheric research.

McNab, I. R.

401

Air-Powered Rockets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

402

Testing of Environmentally Preferable Aluminum Pretreatments and Coating Systems for Use on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solid rocket booster (SRB) has historically used a chromate conversion coating prior to protective finish application. After conversion coating, an organic paint system consisting of a chromated epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat is applied. An overall systems approach was selected to reduce waste generation from the coatings application and removal processes. While the most obvious waste reduction opportunity involved elimination of the chromate conversion coating, several other coating system configurations were explored in an attempt to reduce the total waste. This paper will briefly discuss the use of a systems view to reduce waste generation from the coating process and present the results of the qualification testing of nonchromated aluminum pretreatments and alternate coating systems configurations.

Clayton, C.; Raley, R.; Zook, L.

2001-01-01

403

Direct launch using the electric rail gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

Barber, J. P.

1983-01-01

404

Lithium cell tests at Marshall Space Flight Center. [batteries for range safety and frustrum location aid in the shuttle solid rocket booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three 18 AH Li-CF batteries with a polypropylene separator and using dimethyl sulfite in Li as F6 for the electrolyte will be placed in each shuttle solid rocket booster for range safety and frustrum location aid. Mechanical vibration, acceleration, random and design vibration, and discharge evaluation tests are discussed.

Paschal, L. E.

1977-01-01

405

Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To ensure that each student achieves success, teachers can tailor activities with students' strengths and weaknesses in mind using the process of adaptive inquiry. Adaptive inquiry is the product of the synergistic relationship between what a student brings to the classroom and the teacher's ability to shape a lesson in response to the needs of the student. The following is an example of an adaptive inquiry activity that uses Launch System Compressor (LCS) Rockets (paper tubes launched by squeezing a plastic bag filled with air). Many divergent outcomes are possible with this activity, but each one can be used to reach the ultimate objective of this lesson--teaching Newton's third law of motion.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Farenga, Stephen J.; Dowling, Thomas W.

2002-01-01

406

Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

2012-03-01

407

Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK) Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK) Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II) rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100-600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800-1200 m s-1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800-1200 m s-1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

Lin, C. H.; Lin, J. T.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Sun, Y. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Chen, W. H.; Liu, H.; Rau, R. J.

2014-09-01

408

Viscoelastic analyses of launch vehicle components  

SciTech Connect

Current analysis techniques for solid rocket propellant, and insulation used in space launch vehicles, have several shortcomings. The simplest linear elastic analysis method ignores the inherent viscoelastic behavior of these materials entirely. The relaxation modulus method commonly used to simulate time-dependent effects ignores the past loading history, while the rigorous viscoelastic finite-element analysis is often expensive and impractical. The response of viscoelastic materials is often characterized by the time-dependent relaxation moduli obtained from uniaxial relaxation tests. Since the relaxation moduli are functions of elapsed time, the viscoelastic analysis is not only dependent on the current stress or strain state but also the full loading history. As a preliminary step towards developing a procedure which will yield reasonably conservative results for analyzing the structural response of solid rocket motors, an equivalent-modulus approach was developed. To demonstrate its application, a viscoelastic thick-walled cylindrical material, confined by a stiff steel case and under an internal pressure condition, was analyzed using (1) the equivalent-modulus elastic quasi-static method, (2) an exact viscoelastic closed-form solution, and (3) the viscoelastic finite-element program. A combination of two springs and one viscous damper is used to represent the viscoelastic material with parameters obtained from stress-relaxation tests. The equivalent modulus is derived based on an accumulated quasi-static stress/strain state. The exact closed-form solution is obtained by the Laplace Transform method. The ABAQUS program is then used for the viscoelastic finite-element solution, where the loading-rate dependent moduli is represented by a Prony series expansion of the relaxation modulus. Additional analyses were performed for two space launch solid rocket motors for the purpose of comparing results from the equivalent-modulus approach and the ABAQUS program.

Chi, J.K.; Lin, S.R. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

409

B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet.

2001-01-01

410

Propulsion Progress for NASA's Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaders from NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) will participate in a panel discussing the progress made on the program's propulsion systems. The SLS will be the nation's next human-rated heavy-lift vehicle for new missions beyond Earth's orbit. With a first launch slated for 2017, the SLS Program is turning plans into progress, with the initial rocket being built in the U.S.A. today, engaging the aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Starting with an overview of the SLS mission and programmatic status, the discussion will then delve into progress on each of the primary SLS propulsion elements, including the boosters, core stage engines, upper stage engines, and stage hardware. Included will be a discussion of the 5-segment solid rocket motors (ATK), which are derived from Space Shuttle and Ares developments, as well as the RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory and the J- 2X upper stage engine now in testing (Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne). The panel will respond to audience questions about this important national capability for human and scientific space exploration missions.

May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.; Lavoie, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

411

Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.

Hartman, Christopher L.

2010-01-01

412

Simplification of Fatigue Test Requirements for Damage Tolerance of Composite Interstage Launch Vehicle Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of fatigue loading of structures composed of composite materials is considered in a requirements document that is currently in place for manned launch vehicles. By taking into account the short life of these parts, coupled with design considerations, it is demonstrated that the necessary coupon level fatigue data collapse to a static case. Data from a literature review of past studies that examined compressive fatigue loading after impact and data generated from this experimental study are presented to support this finding. Damage growth, in the form of infrared thermography, was difficult to detect due to rapid degradation of compressive properties once damage growth initiated. Unrealistically high fatigue amplitudes were needed to fail 5 of 15 specimens before 10,000 cycles were reached. Since a typical vehicle structure, such as the Ares I interstage, only experiences a few cycles near limit load, it is concluded that static compression after impact (CAI) strength data will suffice for most launch vehicle structures.

Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

2010-01-01

413

A Change of Inertia-Supporting the Thrust Vector Control of the Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is America's next launch vehicle. To utilize the vehicle more economically, heritage hardware from the Space Transportation System (STS) will be used when possible. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) actuators could possibly be used in the core stage of the SLS. The dynamic characteristics of the SRB actuator will need to be tested on an Inertia Load Stand (ILS) that has been converted to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The inertia on the pendulum of the ILS will need to be changed to match the SSME inertia. In this testing environment an SRB actuator can be tested with the equivalent resistence of an SSME.

Dziubanek, Adam J.

2012-01-01

414

Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

de León, Pablo

2009-12-01

415

Rockets Away  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a simple "rocket" with ordinary household materials to demonstrate the basic principles behind rocketry and the principle of reaction. This activity can be completed indoors or experimented with outdoors using a much longer piece of string.

Space Sciences Laboratory, Uc B.

2001-01-01

416