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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Water Rocket Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore rocketry and the principals of space flight. Learners work in teams with adult supervision and construct and launch a rocket from a soda bottle and everyday materials powered by an air pump. Learners observe their own achievements and challenges, as well as those of other teams, complete a reflection sheet, and present their experiences to the class.

Ieee

2013-07-08

2

One-Dimensional Rocket Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A simulation of a 1-d rocket launch from the Earth's surface with graph of position versus time. Rocket parameters may be varied by typing new values for the initial mass of the fuel and the exhaust velocity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-12

3

Use of a large microphone array to identify noise sources during a rocket engine test firing and a rocket launch.  

PubMed

A 70 microphone, 10 ft×10 ft, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 ft away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 ft above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insights into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit quenched all other sources. The noise maps during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the on-deck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These noise maps will help to improve the sound suppression system for future launches. PMID:24181207

Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N; Porter, Barry J

2013-11-01

4

NASA Sounding Rocket Daytime Dynamo Launch Postponed  

NASA Website

The launch of two sounding rockets from the Wallops Flight Facility was scrubbed on Wednesday, July 3 due to poor weather in the area. The next attempt for these two rockets will be Thursday, July 4, with a window of 9:30-11:30 a.m.

5

SpaceX Launches Falcon 9 Rocket  

NASA Video Gallery

Space Exploration Technologies' (SpaceX) successfully launched its Falcon 9 rocket from Complex-40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 2:45 p.m. EDT on June 4. This commercial launch by SpaceX is a pathfinder for the first NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services development flight planned for later this summer.

Jim Wilson

2010-06-04

6

Launch Excitement with Water Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

2007-01-01

7

Second and Third Sounding Rockets Launched from the Marshall Islands  

NASA Website

The Equatorial Vortex Experiment was successfully conducted on May 7 from the Marshall Islands when a NASA Terrier-Oriole sounding rocket was launched followed by the launch of a Terrier-Improved Malemute sounding rocket 90 seconds later.

8

Rocket Sled Testing  

NASA Video Gallery

Video of rocket-sled testing of the SIAD-R device, conducted in fall 2012 at China Lake, Calif. The SIAD-R is one of three supersonic deceleration devices now being prepared for flight testing by the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. The devices, which slow the rate of descent for vehicles entering the atmosphere of another planet, could be used in Mars missions launching as early as 2018. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/ldsd/ldsd_overview.html. (NASA/JPL)

Sydney B

2012-11-23

9

Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

10

Low cost guidance for the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) artillery rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Aviation and Missile Command has demonstrated the application of advanced technology to significantly improve the accuracy and range of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) through the Guided MLRS Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD). The addition of a cost-effective guidance and control package to the rocket results in a weapon system that can defeat the target at ranges

A. E. Gamble; P. N. Jenkins

2001-01-01

11

ASTRID rocket flight test  

SciTech Connect

On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

1994-07-01

12

Space Place: Launch a Rocket from a Spinning Planet!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This playground demonstration (using a merry-go-round) shows angular momentum and why rockets are launched in a certain direction and at a certain time. From a moving merry-go-round, participants attempt to throw small balls into a basket on the ground. It includes an explanation, with animated graphics.

Jpl, Nasa

2011-01-01

13

Detailed Modal Testing of a Solid Rocket Motor Using a Portable Test System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern analytical techniques have expended the ability to evaluate solid rocket motors used in launch vehicles. As more detailed models of solid rocket motors were developed, testing methods were required to verify the models. Experimental modal analysis ...

V. Glozman R. D. Brillhart

1990-01-01

14

NASA, ATK Successfully Test Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Video Gallery

With a loud roar and mighty column of flame, NASA and ATK Aerospace Systems successfully completed a two-minute, full-scale test of the largest and most powerful solid rocket motor designed for flight. The motor is potentially transferable to future heavy-lift launch vehicle designs.

Jim Wilson

2010-08-31

15

Investigation of mal-launch correction in spin-stabilized rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin stabilization of ground launched ballistic rockets is used as a means to reduce variation in their flight trajectory. Due to the lack of any closed-loop flight path control, the accuracy of such rockets is strongly influenced by numerous factors including tip-off errors at launch tube exit, wind disturbances, motor misalignment, etc. At the other extreme, some rocket or munitions

A. Anderson; D. Bittlet; R. Dean; G. Flowers; J. Hester; A. Hodel

2007-01-01

16

Technology requirements for affordable single-stage rocket launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of manned Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle options for replacing or complementing the current Space Transportation System are being examined under the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The introduction of a reusable single-stage vehicle (SSV) into the U.S. launch vehicle fleet early in the next century could greatly reduce ETO launch costs. As a part of the AMLS study, the conceptual design of an SSV using a wide variety of enhancing technologies has recently been completed and is described in this paper. This paper also identifies the major enabling and enhancing technologies for a reusable rocket-powered SSV and provides examples of the mission payoff potential of a variety of important technologies. This paper also discusses the impact of technology advancements on vehicle margins, complexity, and risk, all of which influence the total system cost.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Piland, William M.

1993-10-01

17

15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles...Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles...include, but are not limited to, ballistic missile systems, space launch...

2010-01-01

18

15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles...Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles...include, but are not limited to, ballistic missile systems, space launch...

2009-01-01

19

Based on kalman filter theory multiple launch rocket ballistic parameters filtrating analyze  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the dynamics system of multiple launch rocket s, measuring error of ballistic parameters will appear under the influence of noise disturbance signals. The method of filtrating and estimating the ballistic parameters in the flight of multiple launch rocket is putted forward based on the theory of Kalman filter in this paper. And a filtrating example is also demonstrated in

Xin Wang; Yao Yao

2009-01-01

20

Water-cooled spacecraft: DART to be launched by Russian Volna (Stingray) rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

A25 September 2005, Barents Sea, near Murmansk.Ten metres under the surface of the sea, the launch tube of the Mstislav, a Rostropovich class nuclear submarine, grinds open. The countdown for the launch of a Volna R-29R slbm (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile) starts: For many years, satellites were launched into orbit in the nose cone of a dispensable rocket. This is a

L. Hartmann

2002-01-01

21

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air,

J. I. Daniels; R. L. Baskett

1995-01-01

22

Technology requirements for affordable single-stage rocket launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of manned Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle options for replacing or complementing the current Space Transportation System are being examined under the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The introduction of a reusable single-stage vehicle (SSV) into the U.S. launch vehicle fleet early in the next century could greatly reduce ETO launch costs. As a part of the AMLS study,

Douglas O. Stanley; William M. Piland

1993-01-01

23

Solid rocket motor integration on the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural design, development, and verification testing required to integrate solid rocket motors (SRM) on the Atlas IIAS launch vehicle is described. It is concluded that the next generation Atlas Centaur based on four strap-on Castor IVA SRMs and capable of lifting 7700 pounds to geosynchronous orbit has undergone a rigorous development program. A new system intended to mount and jettison the SRMs from the core vehicle is characterized by robustness and ease of installation. To insulate the aft end of the vehicle against increased SRM-induced heat fluxes and to seal against ingress of potentially hazardous base gases extensive measures were undertaken. They include nonporous engine boots and a thrust section compartment passive pressurization system.

Arnett, Stephen E.

1993-06-01

24

AJ26 Rocket Engine Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA’s John C. Stennis Space Center conducts the second in a series of verification tests on an Aerojet AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of the Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Taurus® II space launch vehicle. The 55-second test directly supports NASA's partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station.

Paul Foerman

2010-12-17

25

Evaluation of abort capabilities of rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. A fully reusable SSTO vehicle would be quite desirable from an operational standpoint; however, such a vehicle cannot be designed without accompanying technological advances in structure, propulsion, and subsystems. The conceptual design of such a

Douglas O. Stanley; Richard W. Powell

1990-01-01

26

Investigation of Combined Air-breathing\\/Rocket Propulsion for Air Launch of Micro Satellites from a Combat Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the analytical results of a parametric investigation of a launch concept of micro-satellites from a combat aircraft. The concept of air launching of a satellite from a carrier aircraft is not new; however, most designs consider heavy aircraft and launch vehicle to place a mini to a large satellite, typically launched today via ground- based rocket launchers.

Avichai Socher; Alon Gany

27

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project. VI - Spacecraft, scientific instruments, and launching rocket. Part 5 - H-II rocket for TRMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket is being developed as the main launch vehicle of NASDA for the 1990s. The H-II launch vehicle consists of cryogenic first and second stages of 4 meters in diameter and a pair of strapped-on solid rocket boosters. The two-stage configuration and the second stage restart capability make it a versatile launcher capable of fulfilling a wide range of missions including multisatellite launches. These characteristics of the H-II provide the capability for launching the TRMM satellite effectively where the mission orbit is a circular orbit at 350 km. The TRMM satellite can be launched simultaneously with a geostationary satellite.

Shibatoh, Yoji; Yamasaki, Hiromichi

1990-06-01

28

Stage separation dynamic analysis of upper stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in brief the formulation used for the studies of lateral and longitudinal dynamics associated with separation and pull out of an ongoing functional stage from the spent stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets as jettisoning system. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to solve the governing nonlinear differential equations of motion to obtain the

Duraisamy Jeyakumar; K. K. Biswas; Boggarapu Nageswara Rao

2005-01-01

29

Optical studies of rocket exhaust trails and artificial noctilucent clouds produced by Soyuz rocket launches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed tracing of an exhaust plume from a rocket's initial trajectory is a scientifically and diagnostically useful technique. It can provide detailed information on the atmosphere's mean winds, wind shears, turbulent regime, and physical state over a wide altitude range from 50 to 200 km. We analyze Soyuz rocket exhaust plumes from Plesetsk on 21 May 2009 and 27 June 2011, which uncovered significantly different atmospheric states and underlying dynamics. The first case showed highly dynamical conditions in the mesosphere, characterized by vortex structures, wind shears, and small-scale turbulent eddies. The estimated turbulent energy dissipation rates ranged 330-460 mW kg-1. A characteristic balloon-shaped trail was observed at altitudes between 105 and 160 km, having rapid expansion rates of 500-800 m s-1 over the time period of 2 min which can be explained by complex gas dynamic processes in the rocket wake involving the collision of shock waves. In the second case, we show evidence that the rocket exhaust trail persisted without any changes during its motion from Plesetsk via Denmark to the UK for 9 h, indicating extremely stable atmospheric conditions. This case introduces a new state of the summer mesosphere—remarkably quiet conditions, probably never observed before. The rocket plumes studied, related to the initial rocket trajectory, are essentially twilight phenomena as seen from the ground using wideband spectrum cameras, that is, the Sun should be below the horizon by 6°. For the first time, we analyze the dynamics of rocket exhaust products at the initial trajectory in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using detailed photographic imaging taken from the ground.

Dalin, P.; Perminov, V.; Pertsev, N.; Dubietis, A.; Zadorozhny, A.; Smirnov, A.; Mezentsev, A.; Frandsen, S.; Grønne, J.; Hansen, O.; Andersen, H.; McEachran, I.; McEwan, T.; Rowlands, J.; Meyerdierks, H.; Zalcik, M.; Connors, M.; Schofield, I.; Veselovsky, I.

2013-07-01

30

Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

1993-02-01

31

TIDDBIT HF Doppler Sounder Measurements of TIDs During the Wallops Island Rocket Launch of October 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TID Detector Built In Texas (TIDDBIT) sounder was deployed on the East Coast near Wallops Island to support a rocket launch in October 2007. The purpose of the rocket experiment was to study mid-latitude spread-F (MSF), and TIDDBIT provided information on the TID characteristics during the launch and for several days surrounding the launch. The sounder data confirm that waves were present during the rocket launch. This presentation reviews the TIDDBIT results from the experiment, contrasting data collected on different days, and from the same dates a year earlier. HF Doppler sounders represent a low-cost and low- maintenance solution for monitoring acoustic and gravity wave activity in the F-region ionosphere. HF Doppler sounders together with modern data analysis techniques provide both horizontal and vertical phase trace velocities across the entire TID spectrum from periods of 30-s to several hours. ASTRA has extensive experience with HF systems, and is currently building TIDDBIT sounders in New Mexico, and Peru.

Reynolds, A.; Crowley, G.; Rodrigues, F.; Earle, G.; Bullett, T.; Bishop, R.

2008-12-01

32

Evaluation of abort capabilities of rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. A fully reusable SSTO vehicle would be quite desirable from an operational standpoint; however, such a vehicle cannot be designed without accompanying technological advances in structure, propulsion, and subsystems. The conceptual design of such a vehicle has recently been completed. This paper examines the abort capabilities of an advanced SSTO launch vehicle which has five main engines. In the event of a single or dual main engine shutdown it was determined when the vehicle could execute return-to-launch-site, abort-to-orbit, or down-range abort maneuvers. Throughout each abort maneuver, vehicle loads are kept within nominal ascent and entry design values.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Powell, Richard W.

1990-01-01

33

Sounding-Rocket Payloads C 111/1 and C 111/2 Launched from Esrange on 20 Feb. 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sounding rocket payloads and the experiments and payload configuration are described. The events leading up to their launch are followed. The experiments consist of electric field probes, cold cathode pressure gages, a particle experiment, and an obli...

T. R. Sanderson J. Henrion

1975-01-01

34

RADEM: An Air Launched, Rocket Demonstrator for Future Advanced Launch Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical features associated with future reusable launch vehicles include reduction of turn around effort, use of integral liquid hydrogen tanks, advanced structures and thermal protection, and re-usable LOx-hydrogen propulsion with low maintenance overheads. Many doubts associated with such designs could be removed by a sub-orbital demonstrator. An air launched vehicle would fulfil many of the objectives for such demonstration. British Aerospace, NPO Molnija, TsAGI and DB Antonov have made an initial study for ESA for such a demonstrator (RADEM), using earlier studies of operational launch systems with the An-225 /Hotol and MAKS proposals. The paper describes the results of this study, including the selection of two potential vehicle designs, and an approach to sub-system design and vehicle development to minimize the costs. It appears that such a vheicle, capable of flying to Mach 12 or beyond using currently available technology, could have a cost an order of magnitude less than that required for development of an operational vehicle.

Parkinson, R. C.; Skorodelov, V. A.; Serdijk, I. I.; Neiland, V. Ya.

1995-10-01

35

Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

36

Safe testing nuclear rockets economically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using

Steven D. Howe; Bryan Travis; David K. Zerkle

2002-01-01

37

SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using

Steven D. Howe; Bryan Travis; David K. Zerkle

2003-01-01

38

Utilization of GPS\\/MEMS-IMU for measurement of dynamics for range testing of missiles and rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missile and rocket test and evaluation centers currently rely on expensive, and at times inaccurate, radar and\\/or video tracking equipment to provide position, velocity, attitude, and time information of the missiles\\/rockets during flight test. Additionally, launch scenarios must be limited to locations where radar\\/video tracking equipment is able to track the missile\\/rocket through the entire flight. This paper presents an

Roy R. Minor; D. W. Rowe

1998-01-01

39

Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the launch and propulsion of the Genesis spacecraft. Students will become familiar with how rockets are launched, learn how and why specific rockets are chosen for varying payloads, learn about the history of rocketry, and work with variables that might affect the performance of a launch vehicle. They will work in teams to test a single variable involved in launching a rocket and learn the variables involved with constructing and launching a water rocket. Each activity includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided.

2005-12-01

40

Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

1992-08-01

41

System Development of an Experimental Rocket for a Launch Campaign Organized by The Association of Planete Sciences, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the system development of an experimental rocket for a launch campaign organized by the Association of Planete Sciences in France (http://www.planete-sciences.org). A two-stage experimental rocket was developed by 'Space Club Gifu' and the principal author's laboratory at Gifu University. It incorporates GPS, acceleration and pressure sensors as well as two cameras, one omni-directional. The goals of our experiment are as follows: 1. Constant video monitoring of motor combustion and activity during launch and flight. 2. Acquisition of accelerometer, pressure and GPS data for comparison with simulated results. 3. Developing a new mechanism for stage separation in order to build a future vehicle with two rocket motors. 4. The launch and return of a quasi-satellite to a pre-selected location using GPS data. The rocket launched successfully at La Courtine, France in 1st August of 2007, but unfortunately, the first stage could not be recovered. It along with the video footage of the rocket motor burn was lost. However, the second stage and the quasi-satellite were safely found. This project provides excellent training for engineering students in the fundamentals of engineering design and manufacturing.

Sasaki, Minoru; Nakano, Noriaki; Ohmayu, Satoru; Ogushi, Naoki

42

The Rocket Electric Field Sounding (REFS) program: Prototype design and successful first launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation, design, and successful first flight of a sounding rocket to measure profiles of vector electrostatic field in the lower troposphere are described. The design employs eight shutter field mills amd a corona-charging system in a manner similar to aircraft previously instrumented for the measurement of electric fields. A rocket offers significant advantages over an aircraft in simplicity and calibration. A single cylindrical rotor covering most of the payload acts as the shutter for all eight mills in this design. The cylindrical symmetry and circular cross sections of the vehicle facilitate straightforward calibration. Also included in the payload are a pressure sensor, a longitudinal accelerometer, a transverse magnometer, and a novel cloud-penetration detector. A fair-weather test flight at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility demonstrated the workability of the basic design and identified a few necessary modifications.

Willett, J. C.; Curtis, D. C.; Driesman, A. R.; Longstreth, R. K.; Rison, W.; Winn, W. P.; Jones, J. J.

1992-01-01

43

Closed-loop nominal and abort atmospheric ascent guidance for rocket-powered launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket-powered launch vehicles is developed. The ascent guidance function is responsible for commanding attitude, throttle and setting during the powered ascent phase of flight so that the vehicle attains target cutoff conditions in a near optimal manner while satisfying path constraints such as maximum allowed bending moment and maximum allowed axial acceleration. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through orbit insertion. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in an open-loop mode until the high dynamic pressure portion of the trajectory is over, at which time there is a switch to a closed loop guidance mode that operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic forces. The main contribution of this research is an algorithm of the predictor-corrector type wherein the state/costate system is propagated with known (navigated) initial state and guessed initial costate to predict the state/costate at engine cutoff. The initial costate guess is corrected, using a multi-dimensional Newton's method, based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Path constraints are enforced within the propagation process. A modified multiple shooting method is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. Results for a single stage to orbit launch vehicle are given. In addition, the formulation for the free final time multi-arc trajectory optimization problem is given. Results for a two-stage launch vehicle burn-coast-burn ascent to orbit in a closed-loop guidance mode are shown. An abort to landing site formulation of the algorithm and numerical results are presented. A technique for numerically treating the transversality conditions is discussed that eliminates part of the analytical and coding burden associated with optimal control theory.

Dukeman, Greg A.

44

Pegasus air-launched space booster flight test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

1995-03-01

45

Method and Apparatus for Reducing Smoke at Launch of High Performance Rockets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a method whereby the exhaust signature of high performance rockets is reduced by including in a solid propellant rocket motor a substantially smokeless, double-base propellant and a smoky, high-energy, composite propellan...

B. E. Barsell F. J. Worcester

1975-01-01

46

Chemical rocket propulsion and the environment  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from the examination by the Chemical Rocket Propulsion and the Environment Workshop conducted by AIAA in June 1991 of the impact of rocket launches and ground testing on the earth's environment. The major conclusions of this workshop were: (1) at projected rocket launch rates, neither the liquid- nor the solid-rocket motors will significantly impact stratospheric ozone; (2) there is no global acid rain problem associated with rocket exhaust; and (3) the local launch site and static test site acidification is a minor problem and can be managed.

Mcdonald, A.J. (Thiokol Corp., Brigham City, UT (United States))

1992-03-01

47

NASA Tests Rocket Engine for Commercial Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi conducted a successful test firing Wednesday of the liquid-fuel AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space launch vehicle. Orbital and its engine supplier, Aerojet, test-fired the engine on Stennis' E-1 test stand. The test directly supports NASA's partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station.

Jim Wilson

2010-11-10

48

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

49

Sandia Laboratories rocket program - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical review of Sandia Laboratories rocket programs is presented. From the 60 rocket systems developed at Sandia since 1957, 1225 rockets have been launched at 19 sites, worldwide. Typical rockets developed for the nuclear readiness test program are the Terrier-Sandhawk sounding rocket (boosts a 91-kg, 33-cm-diam payload to an altitude of 427 km) and the Strypi II warhead carrier

G. A. Fowler; R. C. Maydew; W. R. Barton

1976-01-01

50

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The performance of the self-pumping exhaust diffuser was verified down to exhaust pressures of 1.379 x 10 exp 4 Pa. The facility was successfully operated over the entire range of design pressures and flowrates and is available for national use by industry and government agencies requiring facilities capable of testing SRM cold flow models to support development programs or resolve problems arising on operational flight systems.

Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

1992-02-01

51

13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

52

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. In this report, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics

Kenneth O. Davidian; Kenneth J. Kacynski

1993-01-01

53

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest

Kenneth O. Davidian; Kenneth J. Kacynski

1993-01-01

54

Rocket Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)|

Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

55

Considerations for Launching Amateur Rockets at X-Prize Cup 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The X-Prize Cup event represents an opportinity for the general public to witness technology development in the areas of aerospace design, manufacture, and exhibition. Of particular interests in the exhibit of high performance amateur rockets. The goal of...

D. Gerlach S. Millard

2009-01-01

56

The TEST Pilot Sounding Rocket Payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transition Edge Sensor Telescope Pilot project (TEST Pilot) is a soft x-ray (0.15-2.0 keV) imaging spectrograph that is a suborbital testbed for the next generation of x-ray detectors. A simple Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope composed of flat silicon mirrors defines a 3?x3? focus and a 6?x6? field of view, while the detector array of 1,024 microcalorimeters with sub-eV resolution is the first flight demonstration of a kilopixel x-ray microcalorimeter array and of the code-domain multiplexing readout. The configuration provides an effective area of 400 cm2 and a spectral resolution (R=E/?E) of 800 at the oxygen K lines even from extended sources -- and over 500 cm2 and R=1,000 at 1 keV -- in a low-cost sounding rocket program. Scientific targets for TEST Pilot include galaxy clusters, ISM absorption lines toward the Crab nebula, solar wind charge exchange in comet tails, and historical supernova remnants or SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Zeiger, Benjamin R.; Cash, W. C.; Swetz, D.

2013-04-01

57

Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit teaches students how and why engineers design satellites to benefit life on Earth as well as allows students an opportunity to explore motion, rockets and rocket motion. Students discover that the motion of all objects including the flight of a rocket and even the movement of a canoe is governed by Newton's three laws of motion. Space exploration is a huge consideration for aerospace engineers, and this unit introduces students to the challenges of getting into space for the purpose of exploration. The ideas of thrust, weight and control are covered, allowing students to fully understand how and why rockets are designed with these concepts in mind. Also, students learn about the engineering design process and re-engineering as they design and build their own rockets after learning how and why the experts make specific engineering choices. Lastly, students explore the concept of triangulation that is used in navigation satellites and global positioning systems designed by engineers. And, by investigating these technologies, they learn how people can determine their position or the location of someone else.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

58

Single Stage Rocket Performance: Prediction and Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit three-dimensional, finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver with finile-rate H2\\/air combustion kinetics has been developed and calibrated to accurately and efficiently compute installed engine performance for complete single-stage-rocket (SSR) configurations. The Navier-Stokes formulation directly couples the global fluid dynamic, species continuity and transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation resulting in increased solution robustness and accuracy. Comparisons of predicted and

THOMAS P. GIELDA; T. Mark Walter; RAMESH K. AGARWAL

1994-01-01

59

Launch Summary for 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and table...

R. W. Vostreys

1980-01-01

60

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission product release from nuclear rocket propulsion reactor fuel is an important consideration for nuclear rocket development and application. Fission product data from the last six reactors of the Rover program are collected in this paper to provide as basis for addressing development and testing issues. Fission product loss from the fuel will depend on fuel composition and reactor design and operating parameters. During ground testing, fission products can be contained downstream of the reactor. The last Rover reactor tested, the Nuclear Furnance, was mated to an effluent clean-up system that was effective in preventing the discharge of fission products into the atmosphere.

Bokor, Peter C.; Kirk, William L.; Bohl, Richard J.

1991-01-01

61

Parametric Testing of Launch Vehicle FDDR Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a softwa...

A. Bajwa J. Schumann P. Berg R. Thirumalainambi

2011-01-01

62

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

63

Three, Two, One - Launch! Launch! Launch!  

NASA Video Gallery

Hundreds of fourth-through-sixth grade students from the California high desert communities of Mojave and California City recently participated in the seventh annual Intermediate Space Challenge rocket contest at the Mojave Air and Space Port. The challenge introduced science, technology, engineering and math through the hands-on experience of building and launching a rocket.

Monroe Conner

2011-06-22

64

Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for

D. L. Bacchus; O. E. Hill; R. Harold Whitesides

1992-01-01

65

260: The Largest Solid Rocket Motor Ever Tested.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerojet in the mid 1960s, under contract to NASA, built and static hot fire tested the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) in history for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of utilizing large SRMs for space exploration. This program successfully fa...

P. Crimmins M. Cousineau C. Rogers V. Shell

1999-01-01

66

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43 Section 61... Emission testingârocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations...and after firing of a rocket motor or propellant disposal and in such a manner...

2013-07-01

67

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43... National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testingârocket firing or propellant disposal....

2009-07-01

68

40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal. 61.43... National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testingârocket firing or propellant disposal....

2010-07-01

69

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experience base regarding fission product behavior developed during the Rover program, the nuclear rocket development program of 1955 to 1972 will be useful in planning a renewed nuclear rocket program. During the Rover program, 20 reactors were tested at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada. Nineteen of these discharged effluent directly into the atmosphere; the last reactor tested, a non-flight-prototypic, fuel-element-testing reactor called the Nuclear Furnace (NF-1) was connected to an effluent cleanup system that removed fission products before the hydrogen coolant (propellant) was discharged to the atmosphere. In general, we are able to increase both test duration and fuel temperature during the test series. Therefore fission product data from the later part of the program are more interesting and more applicable to future reactors. We have collected fission product retention (and release) data reported in both formal and informal publications for six of the later reactor tests; five of these were Los Alamos reactors that were firsts of a kind in configuration or operating conditions. We have also, with the cooperation of Westinghouse, included fission product data from the NRX-A6 reactor, the final member of a series of developmental reactors with the same basic geometry, but with significant design and fabrication improvements as the series continued. Table 1 lists the six selected reactors and the test parameters for each.

Bokor, Peter C.; Kirk, William L.; Bohl, Richard J.

70

The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests  

SciTech Connect

The experience base regarding fission product behavior developed during the Rover program, the nuclear rocket development program of 1955--1972, will be useful in planning a renewed nuclear rocket program. During the Rover program, 20 reactors were tested at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada. Nineteen of these discharged effluent directly into the atmosphere; the last reactor tested, a non-flight-prototypic, fuel-element-testing reactor called the Nuclear Furnace (NF-1) was connected to an effluent cleanup system that removed fission products before the hydrogen coolant (propellant) was discharged to the atmosphere. In general, we are able to increase both test duration and fuel temperature during the test series. Therefore fission product data from the later part of the program are more interesting and more applicable to future reactors. We have collected fission product retention (and release) data reported in both formal and informal publications for six of the later reactor tests; five of these were Los Alamos reactors that were firsts of a kind in configuration or operating conditions. We have also, with the cooperation of Westinghouse, included fission product data from the NRX-A6 reactor, the final member of series of developmental reactors with the same basic geometry, but with significant design and fabrication improvements as the series continued. Table 1 lists the six selected reactors and the test parameters for each.

Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

1991-01-01

71

Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

1992-08-01

72

Education\\/Public Outreach, and IDEAS grant in support of the NASA HEX sounding rocket mission launched March 2003 in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education\\/Public Outreach materials were developed in conjuncation with K-12 classroom teachers for the NASA sounding rocket Horizontal E-Region Experiment launched in March 2003 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The science coordinator for the Yukon-Koyukuk school district and HEX principal investigator Mark Conde of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks also carried out a NASA funded

N. B. Brown

2003-01-01

73

Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document descri...

T. Loughead

1996-01-01

74

Extensible Launching Rail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shipboard launcher is for launching rocket propelled missiles. A missile launching rail is provided, associated with a missile housing, which may be retracted into the missile housing until missile launching is desired, at which time it may be extende...

J. T. Bratton

1965-01-01

75

Launch Summary for 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

R. W. Vostreys

1978-01-01

76

75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Flight Test Experimental-03 (FTX-03) long range ballistic missile on July 18, 2008 at 1:47:00 a.m. ADT. Aerial...Test Ground-based Interceptor-05 (FTG-05) ballistic missile was conducted at KLC on December 5, 2008 at...

2010-04-19

77

Small Rocket Research and Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and o...

S. Schneider J. Biaglow

1993-01-01

78

Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. In this report, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within plus or minus 1.17%.

Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

1993-01-01

79

Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CN? = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CN? = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

80

Safety aspects of ground testing for large nuclear rockets  

SciTech Connect

Present nuclear rocket reactors under test in Nevada are operated at nominal power levels of 1000 Mw. It does not seem unreasonable in the future to anticipate reactors with power levels in the range up to 5,000 Mw for space applications. It has been shown that the normal testing of large nuclear rocket engines at NRDS could impose some restrictions on the fuel performance which would not otherwise be required by space flight operation. The only apparent alternative would require a capability for decontaminating effluent gases prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition to the source restrictions, tests will almost certainly be controlled by wind and atmospheric stability conditions, and the requirements for monitoring and control of off-site exposures will be much more stringent than those presently in force. An analysis of maximum accidents indicates that projections of present credible occurrences cannot be tolerated in larger engine tests. The apparent alternatives to a significant (order of magnitude or better) reduction in credible accident consequences, are the establishment of an underground test facility, a facility in an area equivalent to the Pacific weapons proving ground, or in space.

Goldman, M.I.

1988-02-01

81

Deimos Methane-Oxygen Rocket Engine Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the first DEIMOS Liquid Methane/Oxygen rocket engine test campaign. DEIMOS is an acronym for `Delft Experimental Methane Oxygen propulsion System'. It is a project performed by students under the auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). The engine provides a theoretical design thrust of 1800 N and specific impulse of 287 s at a chamber pressure of 40 bar with a total mass flow of 637 g/s. It has links to sustainable development, as the propellants used are one of the most promising so-called `green propellants'-combinations, currently under scrutiny by the industry, and the engine is designed to be reusable. This paper reports results from the provisional tests, which had the aim of verifying the engine's ability to fire, and confirming some of the design assumptions to give confidence for further engine designs. Measurements before and after the tests are used to determine first estimates on feed pressures, propellant mass flows and achieved thrust. These results were rather disappointing from a performance point of view, with an average thrust of a mere 3.8% of the design thrust, but nonetheless were very helpful. The reliability of ignition and stability of combustion are discussed as well. An initial assessment as to the reusability, the flexibility and the adaptability of the engine was made. The data provides insight into (methane/oxygen) engine designs, leading to new ideas for a subsequent design. The ultimate goal of this project is to have an operational rocket and to attempt to set an amateur altitude record.

Engelen, S.; Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.

82

Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A\\/S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A\\/S has for almost 40 years designed

Jan-Erik Rønningen; Nils Kubberud

2005-01-01

83

Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order

Michael Kruzic

2007-01-01

84

Altitude Test of the Aerojet Modified Heavyweight Full-Scale Controllable Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor (CSRM-4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aerojet Solid Propulsion Company Modified, full-scale, heavyweight, Controllable Solid Rocket Motor (CSRM-4), was successfully test fired at simulated pressure altitude in Rocket Development Test Cell J-5 of the Engine Test Facility, AEDC, on June 25,...

W. D. Ervin C. H. Kunz

1973-01-01

85

Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment Testing of Titan Solid Propellant Rocket Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Space Program, and to ensure access to space through the continued use of Titan solid propellant rocket motors, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) proposes to test fire Titan rocket motors at Test Stand IC, located a...

1986-01-01

86

Education/Public Outreach, and IDEAS grant in support of the NASA HEX sounding rocket mission launched March 2003 in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education/Public Outreach materials were developed in conjuncation with K-12 classroom teachers for the NASA sounding rocket Horizontal E-Region Experiment launched in March 2003 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The science coordinator for the Yukon-Koyukuk school district and HEX principal investigator Mark Conde of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks also carried out a NASA funded IDEAS grant in which middle school students made observations and measurements of the chemical releases which were the backbone of the HEX measurement program. Live From the Aurora, a national program sponsored by several agencies including NASA and NSF, involving live television interactions between rocket scientists and students overnighting at four museums also took place in the same launch window. I will discuss the problems encountering in developing and getting information about cutting-edge science, out in time-frames so they were useable by teachers and students, and some of the fun things that happened while working with national television media programs.

Brown, N. B.

2003-12-01

87

Lighting the Sky: ATREX Launches  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA successfully launched five suborbital sounding rockets early March 27, 2012 from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia as part of a study of the upper level jet stream. The first rocket was launched at 4:58 a.m. EDT and each subsequent rocket was launched 80 seconds apart. Each rocket released a chemical tracer that created milky, white clouds at the edge of space.

gsfcvideo

2012-03-27

88

ALSAT-2A power subsystem behavior during launch, early operation, and in-orbit test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) decided to design and built two optical Earth observation satellites. The first one, ALSAT-2A, was integrated and tested as a training and cooperation program with EADS Astrium. The second satellite ALSAT-2B will be integrated by ASAL engineers in the Satellite Development Center (CDS) at Oran in Algeria. On 12th July 2010, Algeria has launched ALSAT-2A onboard an Indian rocket PSLV-C15 from the Sriharikota launch base, Chennaï. ALSAT-2A is the first Earth observation satellite of the AstroSat-100 family; the design is based on the Myriade platform and comprising the first flight model of the New Astrosat Observation Modular Instrument (NAOMI). This Instrument offers a 2.5m ground resolution for the PAN channel and a 10m ground resolution for four multi-spectral channels which provides high imaging quality. The operations are performed from ALSAT-2 ground segment located in Ouargla (Algeria) and after the test phase ALSAT-2A provides successful images. ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem (EPS) is composed of a Solar Array Generator (SAG ), a Li-ion battery dedicated to power storage and energy source during eclipse or high consumption phases and a Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU). This paper focuses primarily on ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem behavior during Launch and Early OPeration (LEOP) as well as In Orbit Test (IOT). The telemetry data related to the SAG voltage, current and temperature will be analyzed in addition to battery temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current. These parameters will be studied in function of satellite power consumption.

Larbi, N.; Attaba, M.; Beaufume, E.

2012-09-01

89

Design of sounding rocket payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contract efforts were in the design, fabrication, testing, and launch support of sounding rocket payloads and related ground support equipment. Specific areas of work related to this report include: payload structures, component packaging, deployment and eject mechanisms, diagnostic components, in-flight sequencing, power systems and control consoles. Also described are electrical and mechanical interfaces with experiments, telemetry systems, attitude control systems,

J. S. Rochefort; A. J. Yorra

1976-01-01

90

Design of sounding rocket payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of work accomplished from 1 May 1976 to 30 April 1981. Contract efforts were in the design, fabrication, testing, and launch support of sounding rocket payloads and related ground support equipment. Specific areas of work related to this report include: payload structures, component packaging, deployment and eject mechanisms, diagnostic components, in-flight sequencing, power systems and

R. L. Morin; L. J. Oconnor

1981-01-01

91

Japan's new solid-rocket booster and its derivative launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of the design and development of the Japanese H-II SRB and its derivative launch vehicle is presented. Four full-scale static firing tests of the solid rocket motor have been conducted and the flight hardware is presently in production. Attention is given to the solid rocket booster configuration, design features, thrust vector control, and component development.

Miyazawa, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yukio; Miyaba, Hiroshi; Hosomura, Tateo; Asai, Tatsuro

1992-08-01

92

14 CFR 101.27 - ATC notification for all launches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.27 ATC notification for all launches. No person may operate an unmanned rocket other than a Class 1âModel Rocket...

2013-01-01

93

Special Breech Cap Adapter for Rocket Launcher Firing Circuit Test Set TS-2875/AWM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the design and fabrication of a special quick disconnect adapter. This adapter is used with the Rocket Launcher Firing Circuit Test Set TS-2875/AWM when testing the firing circuit for the Mk 2 cartridge. (Author)

R. H. Gauchat

1970-01-01

94

Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)|

Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

1999-01-01

95

If Only Newton Had a Rocket.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how model rocketry can be included in physics curricula. Describes rocket construction, a rocket guide sheet, calculations and launch teams. Discusses the relationships of basic mechanics with rockets. (CW)|

Hammock, Frank M.

1988-01-01

96

Building Bottle Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be investigating the physics behind the launching of a bottle rocket that you will design and build. Go to Air resistance definition and answer the following questions: 1. What is air resistance? 2. How will you design your rocket to reduce the effect of the air resistance? Go to Aerodynamic Forces and list the 4 forces that act on a rocket in motion. Which ones propel the rocket upward and which ...

Benenati, Mr.

2008-03-23

97

NPP Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure both global climate changes and key weather variables.

KSC Web Team

2011-10-28

98

Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

99

Soda-Bottle Water Rockets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructions for the construction and launch of a two-liter plastic soda-bottle rocket and presents the author's theory of their motion during launch. Modeled predictions are compared with actual experimental data. Explains theory behind the motion of a water rocket during launch. (LZ)|

Kagan, David; And Others

1995-01-01

100

The famous son of Ukrainian people V.I. Voznyuk who has provided launch of all ballistic missiles of the cosmodrome Kapustin Yar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the life of V.I. Voznyuk is a history of the phenomenon of the Soviet rocket progress when the engineers with experience of launch of military rocket of small radius of action were testing the ballistic missiles. The remarkable and little-known destiny of Voznuk is the history of the Soviet rocket technology experts who had a severe practical

V. F. Prisniakov; V. P. Platonov

2007-01-01

101

Construction and Performance of HTS Maglev Launch Assist Test Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Maglev launch assist concepts were proposed in the world for the aim to find low-cost, safe, and reliable ways to get to space. Among them, high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnetic levitation platform was considered as a better one for Maglev launch assist because of its inherent stability both in the vertical and lateral directions. As a primary work,

W. J. Yang; Z. Wen; Y. Duan; X. D. Chen; M. Qiu; Y. Liu; L. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

102

Testing methods for the properties of test rig used for solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary on the design, property tests and application experiences of test rigs was presented in this paper. The measuring systems of static characteristic and dynamic characteristic of test rigs were also introduced with attention focused on their composition, technical requirements, operating procedure and data processing methods. Since the largest error in thrust measurement in rig firing tests of solid rocket motors mainly comes from the rig, any measures that can decrease the measurement error in this link will greatly improve the accuracy in the thrust measurement.

Hou, Xiangrong

1994-04-01

103

Andoya Rocket Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) has sponsored the Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experimental Rocket, CAPER, campaign. The objective of this mission is to "probe a fountain of ions that is always blowing into space." Scientists have launched this project just after a solar storm tore apart a part of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CAPER Rocket launch will take place at the Andoya Rocket Range in January, 1999. This Website offers more information about the CAPER project as well as the launch site.

104

Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by

Wenjiang Yang; Ming Qiu; Yu Liu; Zheng Wen; Yi Duan; Xiaodong Chen

2007-01-01

105

Service Test of XM200 2.75-Inch Aircraft Rocket Launcher.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Army Aviation Test Board service tested the XM200 2.75-Inch Rocket Launcher to determine its suitability for Army use. The test was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, in July 1969. The XM200 was installed on UH-1C and AH-1G Helicopters and ...

J. O. Gilliland

1969-01-01

106

Hybrid rocket performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

1992-12-01

107

Launch of Juno!  

NASA Video Gallery

An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and decipher its history.

KSC Web Team

2011-08-05

108

Student Launch Projects  

NASA Website

[Students Grades 7-12 & Higher Education] [Available: Nationally] SLP challenges students to design, build and launch a reusable rocket with a scientific or engineering payload to one mile above ground level. The project engages students in ...

109

Launch Contingency News Conference  

NASA Video Gallery

Scientists and engineers brief media on the failure of the Taurus XL rocket that left NASA's Glory spacecraft unable to reach orbit. Telemetry indicated the fairing, the protective shell atop the Taurus XL rocket, did not separate as expected after the 5:09 a.m. EST launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on March 4, 2011.

KSC Web Team

2011-03-04

110

Rocket observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

1984-05-01

111

Instrumentation of reentry plasma experiments on trail blazer 2 rocket A21.220-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trailblazer 2 rocket was launched on December 6, 1973, from the NASA rocket test facility at Wallops Island, Virginia to study the properties of the shock-ionized flow field and its effects on microwave radiation. The reentry vehicle used an ablative Teflon-coated nose cone to perform a plasma alleviation experiment. Instrumentation description is presented in this report. The payload consisted

J. S. Rochefort; R. Sukys; S. Goldberg

1974-01-01

112

Buckling Testing and Analysis of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Cylinders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of full-scale buckling tests were performed on the space shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) cylinders. The tests were performed to determine the buckling capability of the cylinders and to provide data for analytical comparison. A nonline...

T. J. Weidner D. V. Larsen

2002-01-01

113

Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved

A. S. Prince; R. C. Bunker; T. Lawrence

1989-01-01

114

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

115

Space Launch or Missile Test?: North Korea's Intentions in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly one month after Iran joined the ranks of space-faring nations, North Korea announced its intention to place a communications satellite into orbit. The timing of Pyongyang's launch is not clear, but a spokesman for North Korea's Space Technology Committee said preparations are in \\

Jeff Kueter; James Mazol

116

Space Test Program Standard Satellite Launch Optimization Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the shape and weight of an STP Standard Satellite which would have a maximum probability of being launched 'piggy-back' on an STS mission between 1980-1990. The study was conducted in two parts. Part 1 ...

M. A. Cantor

1975-01-01

117

Experimental evaluation of the drag coefficient of water rockets by a simple free-fall test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag coefficient of water rockets made from plastic soft drink bottles. The experiment is performed using relatively small fall distances (only about 14 m) in addition with a simple digital-sound-recording device. The fall time is inferred from the recorded signal with quite good precision, and it is subsequently introduced as an input of a Matlab® program that estimates the magnitude of the drag coefficient. This procedure was tested first with a toy ball, obtaining a result with a deviation from the typical sphere value of only about 3%. For the particular water rocket used in the present investigation, a drag coefficient of 0.345 was estimated.

Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Argüelles-Díaz, K.; Fernández-Oro, J.

2009-09-01

118

Gouge initiation in high-velocity rocket sled testing  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented which describes the formation of surface damage ``gouging`` on the rails that guide rocket sleds. An unbalanced sled can randomly cause a very shallow-angle, oblique impact between the sled shoe and the rail. This damage phenomenon has also been observed in high-velocity guns where the projectile is analogous to the moving sled shoe and the gun barrel is analogous to the stationary rail. At sufficiently high velocity, the oblique impact will produce a thin hot layer of soft material on the contact surfaces. Under the action of a normal moving load, the soft layer lends itself to an anti-symmetric deformation and the formation of a ``hump`` in front of the moving load. A gouge is formed when this hump is overrun by the sled shoe. The phenomenon is simulated numerically using the CTH strong shock physics code, and the results are in good agreement with experimental observation.

Tachau, R.D.M.; Trucano, T.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yew, C.H. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1994-07-01

119

Test Stand for Titan 34D SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) Static Firing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An existing liquid engine test stand at the AF Astronautics Laboratory was refurbished and extensively modified to accommodate the static firing of the Titan 34D solid rocket motor (SRM) in the vertical nozzle down orientation. The main load restraint str...

V. Glozman G. Shipway

1988-01-01

120

Testing of the failure of a solid rocket propellant with tomography methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the proposition of non destructive testing (NDT) of the rocket engine propellant rod. It presents the actual state of the research and perspectives of its continuation. In this research, capacitance tomography system was used. The method was compared with the radiological and radiometric methods. Experiments were done with the use of solid propellant with different pyrotechnic mass

Krzysztof Tomkiewicz; A Pl; Maurice S. Beck; Malcolm Byars

2000-01-01

121

NEXT launch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEXT launch system is proposed by Israel Aircraft Industries to provide a low cost launch service capability for small satellites. It is an adaptation of the existing Shavit 1 launcher vehicle system. The NEXT launch system incorporates modern flight proven components and has three major elements: the launcher vehicle which consists of a three stage solid rocket motor booster with a liquid bipropellant system at the upper stage; the launcher erector transporter; and the launch operations support equipment. A new approach for launch service operations allows low cost launch service and use of proven technology insures reliability. Performances and orbital accuracy are specified.

Oiknine, C.

1993-01-01

122

Long life testing of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

22-N class rockets, composed of a rhenium (Re) substrate, an iridium (Ir) coating, and an additional composite coating consisting of Ir and a ceramic oxide, were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) propellants. Two rockets were tested, one for nearly 39 hours at a nominal mixture ratio (MR) of 4.6 and chamber pressure (Pc) of 469 kPa, and the other for over 13 hours at a nominal MR of 5.8 and 621 kPa Pc. Four additional Ir/Re rockets, with a composite Ir-oxide coating fabricated using a modified process, were also tested, including one for 1.3 hours at a nominal MR of 16.7 and Pc of 503 kPa. The long lifetimes demonstrated on low MR GO2/GH2 suggest greatly extended chamber lifetimes (tens of hours) in the relatively low oxidizing combustion environments of Earth storable propellants. The oxide coatings could also serve as a protective coating in the near injector region, where a still-mixing flowfield may cause degradation of the Ir layer. Operation at MR close to 17 suggests that oxide-coated Ir/Re rockets could be used in severely oxidizing combustion environments, such as high MR GO2/GH2, oxygen/hydrocarbon, and liquid gun propellants.

Reed, Brian D.

1995-09-01

123

New Services at Andoya (Norway) Rocket Range.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments at Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) (Norway) are presented. ARR is the launch facility of the Norwegian Space Center, used for sounding rockets and balloons. The range facilities and services are continuously being developed to satisfy the va...

I. Nyheim

1991-01-01

124

ISRO's solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

125

Boiling and condensing pumped loop microgravity experiment - Challenges of testing in both aircraft and rocket environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-phase experiment (TPE) was conducted to demonstrate long-term operation of a two-phase pumped loop thermal system in microgravity and to compare data obtained in ground, aircraft, and rocket tests. The TPE was subject to two key constraints. Visual data, normally recorded in two-phase experiments, were absent and approximate equilibrium during aircraft tests were required. The first challenged investigators to provide for and measure substantial two-phase flow in the TPE during ground, aircraft, and rocket tests by using indirect methods. Although two-phase flow is shown to occur, errors associated with estimates of vapor fraction are high. The second required that the loop components be coplanar and properly oriented in the aircraft and that the loop velocity be sufficiently high to minimize the time required to reach equilibrium. As shown in the aircraft tests, characteristic times of transients caused by low gravity were much shorter than loop times.

Standley, Vaughn H.; Fairchild, Jerry F.

126

Titan IV integrate, test and launch facility system improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study describes the Titan IV system, including the flight hardware, facilities, and ground equipment, and explains how this system is improving to ensure reliable cost-effective access to space for the larger DOD payloads. Titan configurations are given, and the Stage O physical properties and Titan processing facilities and equipment are examined. The Launch Complex-40's new Mobile Service Tower and Umbilical Tower offer improved flexibility and robustness in providing a payload fairing staging area which allows for in-line payload fairing processing at the pad and improves processing timelines. The communication system has four times as many devices as the LC-41 to support increased data requirements. The Solid Motor Assembly and Retest Facility are also discussed.

Ray, Phillip A.; Fischer, Carl C.

127

TR-1A Roketto Bishou Juuryoku Jikken: Ichigouki Jikken Seika Houkoku (Report on Microgravity Experiment by TR-1A Rocket).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The details of the five microgravity experiments utilizing six minute microgravity condition available during its flight of Test Rocket-1A (TR-1A) rocket NO. 1 launched on September 16, 1991 and their results are presented. Contents of microgravity experi...

1992-01-01

128

Boiling and condensing pumped loop microgravity experiment - Challenges of testing in both aircraft and rocket environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-phase experiment (TPE) was conducted to demonstrate long-term operation of a two-phase pumped loop thermal system in microgravity and to compare data obtained in ground, aircraft, and rocket tests. The TPE was subject to two key constraints. Visual data, normally recorded in two-phase experiments, were absent and approximate equilibrium during aircraft tests were required. The first challenged investigators to

Vaughn H. Standley; Jerry F. Fairchild

1991-01-01

129

Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved in this mode of failure.

Prince, A.S.; Bunker, R.C.; Lawrence, T.

1989-01-01

130

Hybrid sounding rocket development at the United States Air Force Academy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) has developed a LOx-HTPB (Liquid Oxygen-Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene) powered sounding rocket. USAFA has proven the use of hybrid rockets as a forgiving instrument to teach the fundamentals of aerospace system engineering at the undergraduate level. A rocket motor has been designed which will deliver 1000 lbs. of thrust for 1O-15 seconds and power the vehicle to approximately 20,000 ft. The rocket will be recovered via parachute and system performance will be recorded with an onboard data acquisition system. The main subsystems have been tested successfully and a launch is expected this summer.

Lydon, M. C.; Simmons, R. J.

1993-06-01

131

Enhanced Large Solid Rocket Motor Understanding Through Performance Margin Testing: RSRM Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Five-Segment Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) is an extended length reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) intended to increase motor performance and internal environments above the current four-segment RSRM flight motor. The principal purpose of ETM-3 is t...

H. Huppi M. Tobias J. Seiler

2003-01-01

132

RocketCam systems for providing situational awareness on rockets, spacecraft, and other remote platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-borne imaging systems derived from commercial technology have been successfully employed on launch vehicles for several years. Since 1997, over sixty such imagers - all in the product family called RocketCamTM - have operated successfully on 29 launches involving most U.S. launch systems. During this time, these inexpensive systems have demonstrated their utility in engineering analysis of liftoff and ascent events, booster performance, separation events and payload separation operations, and have also been employed to support and document related ground-based engineering tests. Such views from various vantage points provide not only visualization of key events but stunning and extremely positive public relations video content. Near-term applications include capturing key events on Earth-orbiting spacecraft and related proximity operations. This paper examines the history to date of RocketCams on expendable and manned launch vehicles, assesses their current utility on rockets, spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles (e.g., UAVs), and provides guidance for their use in selected defense and security applications. Broad use of RocketCams on defense and security projects will provide critical engineering data for developmental efforts, a large database of in-situ measurements onboard and around aerospace vehicles and platforms, compelling public relations content, and new diagnostic information for systems designers and failure-review panels alike.

Ridenoure, Rex

2004-09-01

133

Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

1993-06-01

134

Captive Firing Test of H-I launch vehicle second stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Battleship Firing Test (BFT) conducted in 1983, the Flight Weight Captive Firing Test (CFT) of the second stage propulsion system of Japanese H-I launch vehicle was successfully performed at Tashiro Test Site (northern Japan) from July through October 1984. Through this series of Tests function and performance of the whole propulsion system were verified, and a lot of useful data for launch operation procedure such as system purging, tank pre-cooling and propellant (LOX/LH2) loading were obtained. This paper describes the H-I second stage propulsion system and the test results of CFT.

Yamazaki, I.; Maekawa, H.; Nakagewa, T.; Shibukawa, K.; Katsuta, H.

1985-07-01

135

ACCELERATED TESTING METHODS FOR NEXT-GENERATION LAUNCH VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite tanks are planned to be used for storage of propellants in future reusable space vehicles. The durability of these tanks is now determined by a predictive design methodology based on verification by extensive experimental testing under representative service conditions encountered by the tanks during their lifecycle. These tests include filling and pressurization of a tank while subjected to anticipated

Frank Abdi; D. Huang; Ross Messinger

2003-01-01

136

Force Limited Vibration Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of conducting lab vibration tests of spacecraft equipment was developed to more closely simulate the vibration environment experienced when the spacecraft is launched on a rocket. The improved tests are tailored to identify equipment design a...

T. D. Scharton

1991-01-01

137

New infrastructure and extended scientific possibilities using the sounding rocket facilities at Andøya and Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) has an extensive record of successful launches of sounding rockets and scientific balloons since 1962. ARR provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching service are offered from sites on the mainland of Norway at 69° North and from the SvalRak Sounding Rocket Launch Facility at Svalbard (Ny-Ålesund) at 78°

Petter Dragøy; Kjell Bøen

2005-01-01

138

Aries Rocket Flight Vibration Environment, TEM-2 Multispectral Measurements Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An in-flight vibration measurement was made on the second Aries rocket launch of a series. The data are analyzed and presented in this paper. Results here validate those obtained in the first test and confirm that the Aries has a very mild vibration envir...

R. G. Steeves

1980-01-01

139

Spire-spectral infrared rocket experiment (preliminary results)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 28 Sept., 1977 at 1533 GMT, a Talos Castor rocket carrying the SPIRE payload was launched from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska. The objective of the SPIRE experiment, which was supported by the Defense Nuclear Agency, was to obtain infrared emission spectra of the earth's upper atmosophere in a limb-viewing geometry to test theoretical predictions of enhanced nuclear

R. M. Nadile; A. T. Stair Jr.; N. B. Wheeler; D. G. Frodsham; C. L. Wyatt

1978-01-01

140

Vibration testing of a 1/5 scale model of H-2 launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1/5 scale replica model of the H-2 launch vehicle was constructed and tested for study of vehicle dynamics. This model was designed to duplicate, in miniature, as many of the full scale structural elements as was economically and technically feasible. A series of vibration tests, from the moving launcher phase to the second-state burn-out phase, were carried out, and resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and modal dampings were measured for each case. The test data verified the mathematical modeling techniques used for predicting the vibration characteristics of the various configurations of the H-2 launch vehicle.

Minegishi, Masakatsu; Sano, Masaaki; Komatsu, Keiji; Morita, Toshiyuki; Morino, Yoshiki; Tomioka, Kenji; Ujino, Isao

1990-04-01

141

Powerful liquid rocket engine (LRE) created by NPO Energomash for up to date space rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and design of liquid rocket engines for Proton, Zenit, and Energia launch vehicles are described. Particular attention is given to RD-253 engine using N2O4 and UDMH propellants, and RD-170 and RD-120 engines based on Lox and Kerosene propellants. The RD-170 and RD-120 engines are considered to be the culmination of high pressure staged combustion and oxidizer rich turbine drive rocket engine experience. The RD-170 was verified with significant overstress testing to provide necessary data for the operational health monitoring life prediction system.

Tkachenko, Yurij N.; Limerick, Charles D.

1993-06-01

142

Flight Mechanics of Manned SubOrbital Reusable Launch Vehicles with Recommendations for Launch and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of every significant method of launch and recovery for manned sub-orbital Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) is presented here. We have categorized launch methods as vertical takeoff, horizontal takeoff, and air launch. Recovery methods are categorized as wings, aerodynamic decelerators, rockets, and rotors. We conclude that both vertical takeoff and some air launch methods are viable means of attaining

Marti Sarigul-Klijn; Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn

143

Design of sounding rocket payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is a summary of work accomplished from 1 May 1976 to 30 April 1981. Contract efforts were in the design, fabrication, testing, and launch support of sounding rocket payloads and related ground support equipment. Specific areas of work related to this report include: payload structures, component packaging, deployment and eject mechanisms, diagnostic components, in-flight sequencing, power systems and control consoles. Also described are electrical and mechanical interfaces with experiments, telemetry systems, attitude control systems, recovery systems and other payload subsystems.

Morin, R. L.; Oconnor, L. J.

1981-07-01

144

Personnel Launch System - Launch site processing perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spacecraft and booster concepts under consideration for the supplementary Personnel Launch System (PLS) are examined with respect to their impact on the Space Transportation System launch environment. The winged and biconic versions of the PLS spacecraft and proposed launch vehicles are described in detail, and the space processing requirements are given. Processing scenarios and times are determined for the PLS spacecraft in conjunction with either a liquid-rocket booster, the Titan IV, the Advanced Launch System, or a 1.5-stage derived from the shuttle External Tank. Graphic descriptions are provided regarding the associated scenarios for integrated processing and for landing and recovery. The scenarios provide clear details of the requirements of the crew-recovery options as well as their potential impacts on launch sites and other critical resources.

Letchworth, Gary F.

145

Metop-BAVHRR IR channel post-launch calibration and verification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological Operational (METOP)-B spacecraft was launched on September 17, 2012, and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) IR channels were activated October 18. AVHRR instrument has been tested and characterized pre-launch under thermal vacuum (TV) condition by the instrument vender. The instrument dynamic range, noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT), and nonlinear response have been characterized in the test. Basing on the TV test data, the calibration coefficients are generated for post-launch. The on-orbit verification tests have been performed to verify the instrument response and performance, including the dynamic range, NEDT, on-board blackbody (BB) temperature, instrument response calibration, and instrument status from the telemetry data. The post-launch Cal/Val test is to improve the calibration accuracy and enhance the L1B data quality. These tests include stray light analysis, instrument gain verification, and uncertainty assessment. The stray light impact on the calibration is estimated as 0.2% for 11 ?m channel, 0.3% for 12 ?m channel, and 3% for 3.7?m channel. The inter-comparison AVHRR IR channel radiances with the radiance derived from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurement has been performed and the AVHRR bias shoes brightness temperature dependency.

Chang, Tiejun; Wu, Xiangqian; Weng, Fuzhong

2013-09-01

146

Filling the launch gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch

S. Hoeser

1986-01-01

147

Esrange activities: Sounding rockets, balloons and satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range facilities are described in detail for the prospective user, including instrumentation launch capabilities, support facilities, and costs. High performance sounding rockets such as Aries and Nike BB can now, thanks to guidance systems, be launched above 500 km allowing the exploration of higher regions and longer observation time. Microgravity experiments using sounding rockets are successfully carried out from

A. Helger

1980-01-01

148

14 CFR 437.95 - Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. 437.95 Section 437.95 ...Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. A permittee may launch or reenter additional reusable suborbital rockets of the same design under the...

2013-01-01

149

Test results of the RS-44 integrated component evaluator liquid oxygen/hydrogen rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

1993-10-01

150

Launch Altitude Tracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct hand-held altitude trackers. The device is a sighting tube with a marked water level that permits measurement of the inclination of the tube. Learners can use these tools in related activities to measure the altitude achieved by the rockets they construct. Launching can be conducted in an open space, indoors or outdoors.

Shearer, Deborah A.; Gregory L. Vogt, Ed D.

2012-06-26

151

Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle - First stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-II launch vehicle capable of placing 2-ton-class payloads on geostationary orbits is outlined, and focus is placed on its propulsion system. The development status of the project, including component development, preliminary battleship tank firing test (BFT-1), battleship tank firing test (BFT-2), and flight-type tank firing test (CFT) is discussed. The configuration and schematic diagram of BFT-2 are presented, and

Atsutaro Watanabe; Mamoru Endo; Isao Yamazaki; Takashi Maemura; Tatsuo Namikawa

1991-01-01

152

Reusable sounding-rocket design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the reduction of budgets for flights, the ideas of reusability and cost-effectiveness in launch vehicles are becoming more and more important. One class of rockets, in particular the sounding rockets operating in a less demanding environment, has many potentials for many more flights. By augmenting the basic rocket configuration with wings, landing gear, flight controls and guidance systems, the vehicle can be made to glide and land back at the launch site or at a specific recovery site. In this paper, the design of such a reusable rocket is presented. This design can be extended and adapted to larger vehicles, thus attaining higher altitudes required in some of the applications of sounding rockets.

Woo, Dick L. Y.; Martin, James A.

1995-03-01

153

Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

1992-07-01

154

Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

1993-06-01

155

Self-aligning stands on hydraulic supports for testing products and systems of aeronautical and space-rocket engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the structures of self-aligning (self-balancing) stands for testing products and systems of aeronautical\\u000a and space-rocket engineering has been presented. The stands make it possible to test products for strength and functionality\\u000a under centrifugal loads and vibration separately and jointly.

S. M. Arinkin; L. N. Panasenko; E. V. Papok

2009-01-01

156

Using Launch-on-Capture for Testing BIST Designs Containing Synchronous and Asynchronous Clock Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new at-speed logic built-in self-test (BIST) architecture supporting two launch-on-capture schemes, namely aligned double-capture and staggered double-capture, for testing multi-frequency synchronous and asynchronous clock domains in a scan-based BIST design. The proposed architecture also includes BIST debug and diagnosis circuitry to help locate BIST failures. The aligned scheme detects and allows diagnosis of structural and delay

Laung-Terng Wang; Xiaoqing Wen; Shianling Wu; Hiroshi Furukawa; Hao-Jan Chao; Boryau Sheu; Jianghao Guo; Wen-Ben Jone

2010-01-01

157

Scale-model rocket experiments (SRE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scale model Rocket Experiments (SRE) were conducted in August and September 1997 as a part of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Advanced Sensor Technology Program (ASTP) and Discriminating Interceptor Technology Program (DITP). Rome Laboratory (RL) efforts under this effort for ASTP involves the following technology areas: sensor fusion algorithms, high performance processors, and sensor modeling and simulation. In support of the development, test and integration of these areas, Rome Laboratory performed the scale model rocket experiments. This paper details the experiments and results of the scaled rocket experiment as a cost effective, risk reduction experiment to test fusion processor algorithms in a real time environment. The goals of the experiment were to launch, track, fuse, and collect multispectral data from Visible, IR, RADAR and LADAR sensors. The data was collected in real time and was interfaced to the RL-HPC (PARAGON) for real time processing. In June 1997 RL performed the first tests of the series on static targets. The static firings tested data transfers and safety protocols. The RL (Hanscom) IR cameras were calibrated and the proper gain settings were acquired. The next phase of the SRE testing, August 12/13 1997, involved the launching, tracking and acquiring digital IR data into the HPC. In September, RL implemented the next phase of the experiments by incorporating a LADAR and an additional IR sensor from Phillips Laboratory into the system. This paper discusses the success and future work of the SRE.

Wynne, Douglas G.; Barnell, Mark D.

1998-07-01

158

Filling the launch gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

Hoeser, S.

1986-05-01

159

Sounding rocket flight data summary, 1966-1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary listing of all AFGL sounding rockets launched from 1966 to 1976. Listed data includes the launch time, date, place, and number; the type of rocket launched; the name of the project scientist; the impact time, range, azimuth, apogee time, and altitude; payload weight and length; the recovery, ACS type, and performance; experiments flown; support systems;

C. N. Stark; A. K. Williams

1978-01-01

160

Cassini launch contingency effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the Cassini launch, JHU/APL's on-station real-time launch contingency activities were implemented. Live news from NASA Select TV of a successful Cassini launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The Cassini launch contingency effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies. .

Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

2002-01-01

161

Rocket plume temperature measurement by wire welded thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plume of solid rocket motor is a high velocity flow with high temperature. Temperature distribution in the plume is of great interest for analyzing the compatibility of rocket weapon system. The high temperature exhausted flow field would cause damage on certain equipment and loading vehicles. An instantaneous temperature field with sharp step is established by the exhausted flow field of rocket motor. The increasing rate of the step depends on the flow velocity at cross section of nozzle exit. To perform an accurate measurement of temperature inside the flow field, a thermocouple must be sturdy enough to endure the flow impingement. In the meantime, the thermocouple must have a short time constant to trace the temperature fluctuation in flow field and a small size to avoid disturbing the flow field severely. The dynamic performance of the thermocouples used in exhausted flow temperature measurement must be evaluated before the experiment. The thermocouple which can be used in measuring the temperature distribution in rocket plume was presented in this paper. A NAMNAC(R) self-renew-erode thermocouples with a nominal time constant of 10 microseconds was used as a reference in a dynamic calibration test for this kind of thermocouple. The thermocouple could trace the temperature increase in the exhausted flow perfectly. This kind of thermocouples was used in several real tests of rocket motors, such as the temperature in free exhausted flow field of a stationary rocket motor test, the stagnate temperature in a shock flow field during the launching of a rocket, and the temperature in a launch tube.

Xu, Qiang

2006-06-01

162

Development tests of LOX/LH 2 tank for H-I launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H-I is a future launch vehicle of Japan with a capability of placing more than 550 kg payload into a geostationary orbit. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is now directing its efforts to the final development of H-I launch vehicle. H-I's high launch capability is attained by adopting a newly developed second stage with a LOX/LH 2 propulsion system. The second stage propulsion system consists of a tank and an engine. The tank is 2.5 m in diameter and 5.7 m in length and contains 8.7 tons of propellants. This tank is an integral tank with a common bulkhead which separates the tank into forward LH 2 tank and aft LOX tank. The tank is made of 2219 aluminum alloy and is insulated with sprayed polyurethane foam. The common bulkhead is made of FRP honeycomb core and aluminium alloy surface sheets. The most critical item in the development of the tank is the common bulkhead, therefore the cryogenic structural test was carried out to verify the structural integrity of the bulkhead. The structural integrity of the whole LOX/LH 2 tank was verified by the cryogenic structural test of a sub-scale tank and the room temperature structural test of a prototype tank.

Takamatsu, H.; Imagawa, K.; Ichimaru, Y.

163

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-01-01

164

Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple

Chris J. Zimmerman; Gerald E. Litzinger

1993-01-01

165

Ablative material testing for low-pressure, low-cost rocket engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental evaluation of ablative materials suitable for the production of light weight, low cost rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles are presented. Ten individual specimens of four different compositions of silica cloth-reinforced phenolic resin materials were evaluated for comparative erosion in a subscale rocket engine combustion chamber. Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen were used as propellants,

G. Paul Richter; Timothy D. Smith

1995-01-01

166

POGO ground simulation test of H-I launch vehicle's second stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a POGO ground simulation test of the Japanese new second stage for the H-I launch vehicle. It was the final prelaunch verification test of a POGO prevention of the H-I. This test was planned to examine POGO stability and was conducted in a Captive Firing Test (CFT) by mounting a flight-type second stage by a soft suspension system on the CFT test stand which gave the vehicle a pseudo inflight boundary condition of free-free in terms of the vehicle's structural dynamics. There was no indication that implied POGO from the data measured during the CFT. Consequently, this test suggested that the new second stage of the H-I was POGO free. Therefore, it was decided that the first test flight (TF no. 1) of the H-I would be made without a POGO Suppression Device. TF no. 1 was launched successfully on August 13, 1986, and its telemetry data showed no evidence of POGO phenomenon.

Ono, Yoshio; Kohsetsu, Yuji; Shibukawa, Kiwao

167

Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

2012-07-01

168

The Aquila launch service for small satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aquila launch vehicle is described emphasizing its use in the deployment of small satellites for the commercial sector. The Aquila is designed to use a guidance, navigation, and control system, and the rocket is based on hybrid propulsion incorporating a liquid oxidizer with a solid polybutadiene fuel. The launch vehicle for the system is a ground-launched four-stage vehicle that

George R. Whittinghill; Bevin C. McKinney

1992-01-01

169

Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines  

SciTech Connect

This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-11-01

170

Cryo-Tracker® Mass Gauging System Testing in a Launch Vehicle Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sierra Lobo successfully tested its patented Cryo-Tracker® probe and mass gauging system in an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA's Launch Service Providers Directorate. The effort involved collaboration between Sierra Lobo, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Martin personnel. Testing simulated filling and expulsion operations of Lockheed Martin's Atlas V liquid oxygen (LOX) tank and characterized the 10.06 m (33-ft) Cryo-Tracker's performance. Sierra Lobo designed a 9.14 m (30-ft) tall liquid nitrogen test tank to simulate the Atlas V LOX tank flow conditions and validate Cryo-Tracker® data via other sensors and visualization. This test package was fabricated at Sierra Lobo's Cryogenics Testbed at NASA KSC. All test objectives were met or exceeded. Key accomplishments include: fabrication of the longest Cryo-Tracker® probe to date; installation technique proven with only two attachment points at top and bottom of tank; probe survived a harsh environment with no loss of signal or structural integrity; probe successfully measured liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and successfully demonstrated its feasibility as an engine cut-off signal.

Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

2006-04-01

171

Real-time radiography of Titan 4 Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) static firing test QM2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time radiography was successfully applied to the Titan-4 Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) static firing test QM-2 conducted February 22, 1993 at Phillips Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA. The real-time video data obtained in this test gave the first incontrovertible evidence that the molten slag pool is low (less than 5 to 6 inches in depth referenced to the bottom of

K. W. Dolan; G. M. Curnow; D. E. Perkins; D. J. Schneberk; B. W. Costerus; M. J. Lachapell; D. E. Turner; P. W. Wallace

1994-01-01

172

High-pressure calorimeter chamber tests for liquid oxygen\\/kerosene (LOX\\/RP1) rocket combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program was conducted to investigate the rocket combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen\\/kerosene (LOX\\/RP-1) mixtures at high chamber pressures. Two water-cooled calorimeter chambers of different combustion lengths were tested using 37- and 61-element oxidizer-fuel-oxidizer triplet injectors. The tests were conducted at nominal chamber pressures of 4.1, 8.3, and 13.8 MPa abs (600, 1200, and 2000 psia).

P. A. Masters; E. S. Armstrong; H. G. Price

1988-01-01

173

Modeling, design, and testing of a barrel-launched adaptive munition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and aerodynamic models for a 10 degree half-angle, articulated, conical, barrel-launched adaptive munition (BLAM) are presented. The forward half of the test BLAM was gimballed and actuated by two orthogonal pairs of piezoceramic tendons. Laminated plate theory models showed that piezoceramic actuators could survive hard-launch conditions if they were properly precompressed by using an elevated temperature cure cycle and a high, favorable mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion between the substrate and the piezoceramic. Aerodynamic models based on supersonic pressure distributions over cones were used to predict free-flight trim angles and normal force range. A series of bench tests on a 13.4 cm (5.28 in) long BLAM showed plus or minus 0.12 degree steady articulation angles and a first natural frequency of 198 Hz with close agreement between theory and experiment. A series of wind tunnel tests at Mach 3.26 demonstrated a steady deflection increase with field, producing untrimmed normal force coefficient changes of plus or minus 0.0019. Extrapolation of the data to a 105 mm (4.13 in) caliber PGU-28 shaped round fired at 610 m/s (2,000 ft/s) showed that effective range increases by more than a factor of 15 over the conventional PGU-28.

Barrett, Ronald M.; Stutts, James

1997-06-01

174

Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) of honeycomb composite structural parts of Atlas space launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrust structure at the aft end of the Atlas space launch vehicle is a composite sandwich comprised of aluminum honeycomb core with fiberglass/phenolic face sheets. The surface area of this structure is approximately 600 ft2. In 1992, General Dynamics Space Systems Division (GDSS) began using thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) for quality verification of these complex composite parts. TNDT has been used on these parts during manufacture and assembly, and on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral. The NDT technique used on these parts since their design in 1957 was `coin tap.' Compared to this method, TNDT provides a greatly improved inspection in less time and at a lower cost. A heat gun with a diffuser attachment is used to heat the inspection area while the area is monitored thermographically. TNDT is a rapid, remote, non-contact, highly portable, real-time scanning technique that can provide a well-documented video record of subsurface structural details including facesheet disbonds and skin delaminations. A specification and test procedure has been written, equipment has been procured, and personnel have been trained and certified. TNDT is a production test method at GDSS.

Burleigh, Douglas D.; Kuhns, David R.; Cowell, Scott D.; Engel, James E.

1994-03-01

175

Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) DC-X Test Program Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of the potential environmental consequences of the development and subsequent validation of the single stage rocket technology (SSRT) using a subscale vehicle that is capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Findings f...

1992-01-01

176

Cost Benefit Analysis of Installing a Recovery Exercise Module (REM) in a Cruise Missile for an Operational Test Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides a cost benefit analysis of installing a Recovery Exercise Module (REM) in a Cruise Missile for an Operational Test Launch. Topics considered include: Should the Cruise Missile Project Office (CMPO) continue development of a new redesi...

H. E. Glassman

1987-01-01

177

Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle \\/ reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired

G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

1999-01-01

178

New launch technologies and American competitiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a discussion on technology for launching single-stage-to-orbit rockets and on the national aerospace plane (NASP). Also discussed are some commercial opportunities that can be opened up by having better access to space.

Conrad, Charles, Jr.; Barthelemy, Robert; Gaubatz, William A.; Myers, Stephanie

179

Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

Burleigh, Douglas D.

1999-03-01

180

Next-Generation Satellite Prepared for Launch  

NASA Website

and high-bandwidth data return services. Launch of the TDRS-K on the Atlas V rocket is planned for January 29, 2013. The first stage of the Atlas V rocket that will carry the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, TDRS-K, into orbit has been erected at ...

181

Rocket Engine Jet Blast Attenuation in Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of launching missiles and superboosters from overwater sites. Information is needed to predict the depth of liquid-propellant rocket engine exhaust gas penetration into water. Methods will be re...

G. W. Leese

1967-01-01

182

Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atlas V rocket  

NASA Video Gallery

Moments after launch, the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atlas V rocket flew past a sundog hanging suspended in the blue Florida sky and, with a rippling flurry of shock waves, destroyed it. Credit: Anna Herbs

Melissa Quijada

2011-02-14

183

Behind the Scenes: 'Fishing' For Rockets  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA "Behind the Scenes," go on board the two ships -- Liberty Star and Freedom Star -- which retrieve the shuttle's solid rocket boosters after every launch. Astronaut Mike Massimino introduces you to the crew and takes you onboard the vessels to see what it takes to pull a 150-foot rocket out of the ocean.

Jim Wilson

2011-01-31

184

Soyuz Rolled to Launch Pad in Kazakhstan  

NASA Video Gallery

The Soyuz rocket is rolled out to the launch pad by train on Tuesday, March 26, 2013, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for March 29 and will send Expedition 35 Soyuz Commander Pavel Vinogradov, and Flight Engineers Chris Cassidy of NASA and Alexander Misurkin of Russia on a five-and-a-half-month mission aboard the International Space Station.

Russell Todd D

2013-03-26

185

3-2-1 - Launch! Launch! Launch!  

NASA Website

One after another, students' rockets shot skyward under the watchful eyes of event officials and student teams gathered on the flight line during the Intermediate Space Challenge at the Mojave Air & Space Port.

186

The vibro-acoustic launch protection experiment overview and flight results summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of performing any mission on orbit is a strong function of the cost of getting the mass into orbit and the mass of a spacecraft is driven by the launch loads that the components must be deigned to survive. Additionally, these design loads vary between launch vehicles so if circumstances arise that require a change in launch vehicle significant time and money can be spent in modifying and testing to meet different requirements. Technologies that reduce both the vibration and acoustic environments during launch have the potential to both reduce the design load levels, and eventually equalize them between boosters. To this end the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate in cooperation with the Space Test Program, Boeing SVS, CSA Engineering, and Delta Velocity have been investigating methods to decrease the acoustic and vibration loads induced on payloads by the launch environment and demonstrating them on a sounding rocket launch. The Vibro-Acoustic Launch Protection Experiment (VALPE) mission included an acoustically designed Chamber-Core skin, two passive/active vibration isolation experiments, a passive/active acoustic damping experiment, and an energy recovery experiment integrated onto a Terrier-Improved Orion sounding rocket and launched from NASA Wallops Island. A description of the overall mission, experiments, and general results from the flight test are discussed.

Gerhart, Charlotte M.; Henderson, B. Kyle; Griffin, Steve; Lazzaro, Anthony; Evert, Michael E.; McCrary, Warren; Ardelean, Emil V.

2004-07-01

187

Andøya Rocket Range, Norway - a toolbox for space research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) is responsible for all scientific related balloon and sounding rocket operations in Norwegian territory. From its location far north of the Arctic Circle, ARR provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching service are offered from sites on the mainland of Norway and from Svalbard. The Arctic Lidar Observatory for

Kjell Bøen; Per-Arne Mikalsen

2001-01-01

188

Rockets and Aerial Photography: a High-school Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building and launching a rocket was a great opportunity to learn more deeply several topics of high-school physics. Pressure, action and reaction, speed and acceleration, terminal velocity, air drag and several other physics concepts and laws were explored during the building and launching of an amateur experimental rocket that was also used for aerial photography. This project was also a

R. Gunter; S. Watanabe; M. Saba

2008-01-01

189

The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Results from Pre-Launch Instrument Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is scheduled for launch in December 2008 and is expected to begin routine operations about 2 months later. This NASA satellite will acquire high resolution spectra of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and molecular oxygen (O2 ) over the sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. These measurements will be combined to retrieve spatiallyresolved estimates of the column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2 , with accuracies of 1-2 parts per million on regional scales at monthly intervals for two years. The Observatory consists of a dedicated spacecraft bus that carries a single instrument. This instrument incorporates three high resolution grating spectrometers that will measure reflected sunlight in the CO2 bands near 1.61 and 2.06 µm and in the O2 A-band near 0.765 µm. The pre-launch instrument qualification and calibration tests were completed in early 2008. Calibrated optical ground support equipment was used to characterize the radiometric, spectral, and geometric performance of the instrument. In addition, to test the end-to-end instrument performance, a heliostat was used to direct sunlight into the flight instrument to yield spectra of atmospheric CO2 and O2 while making simultaneous, co-located measurements from one of the ground-based solar-looking Fourier transform spectrometers that will be deployed as part of the OCO validation program. Results from these calibration and characterization tests are being analyzed and incorporated into the OCO ground data system and XCO2 retrieval algorithms.

Crisp, David

190

Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasonics offers the potential of long-range acoustic detection of explosions, missiles and even sounds created by manufacturing plants. The atmosphere attenuates acoustic energy above 20 Hz quite rapidly, but signals below 10 Hz can propagate to long ranges. Space shuttle launches have been detected infrasonically from over 1000 km away and the Concorde airliner from over 400 km. This technology is based on microphones designed to respond to frequencies from .1 to 300 Hz that can be operated outdoors for extended periods of time with out degrading their performance. The US Army Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collected acoustic and infrasonic signatures of static engine testing of two missiles. Signatures were collected of a SCUD missile engine at Huntsville, AL and a Minuteman engine at Edwards AFB. The engines were fixed vertically in a test stand during the burn. We will show the typical time waveform signals of these static tests and spectrograms for each type. High resolution, 24-bit data were collected at 512 Hz and 16-bit acoustic data at 10 kHz. Edwards data were recorded at 250 Hz and 50 Hz using a Geotech Instruments 24 bit digitizer. Ranges from the test stand varied from 1 km to 5 km. Low level and upper level meteorological data was collected to provide full details of atmospheric propagation during the engine test. Infrasonic measurements were made with the Chaparral Physics Model 2 microphone with porous garden hose attached for wind noise suppression. A B&K microphone was used for high frequency acoustic measurements. Results show primarily a broadband signal with distinct initiation and completion points. There appear to be features present in the signals that would allow identification of missile type. At 5 km the acoustic/infrasonic signal was clearly present. Detection ranges for the types of missile signatures measured will be predicted based on atmospheric modeling. As part of an experiment conducted by ARL, sounding rocket launches have been detected from over 150 km. A variety of rockets launched from NASA"s Wallops Island facility were detected over a two year span. Arrays of microphones were able to create a line of bearing to the source of the launches that took place during different times of the year. This same experiment has been able to detect the space shuttle from over 1000 km on a regular basis. These two sources represent opposite ends of the target size, but they do demonstrate the potential for the detection and location of rocket launches.

Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

2003-09-01

191

Real-time tracking and targeting computations and rocket-vehicle aeroballistics for the PLACES ionospheric-plasma test series  

SciTech Connect

The PLACES (Position Location and Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon-and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

Rollstin, L.R.

1982-01-01

192

Consort and Joust sounding rockets for microgravity research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Descriptions are given of the hardware and techniques used for five launches of the Consort and Joust sounding rockets with payloads for short periods of microgravity payload research. The Consort rockets can provide about seven minutes of microgravity conditions for about 300 kg of payload, and the Joust rocket can yield over 14 minutes for 240 kg. These rockets provide effective means for experiments involving foam formation, bioprocessing, polymer processing, and accelerometers.

Wessling, F. C.; Maybee, G. W.

1992-08-01

193

Shuttle derived unmanned launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned launch vehicle derived using existing Space Transportation System (STS) components was studied. The vehicle incorporates a standard STS external tank and solid rocket boosters, a new payload module and a recoverable propulsion\\/avionics module housing the high cost avionics and propulsion systems. The main propulsion system is a cluster of three STS space shuttle main engines compatible with the

D. N. Buell; J. R. Tewell

1985-01-01

194

Aqua 10 Years After Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 ...

C. L. Parkinson

2013-01-01

195

Rocket engine condition monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to

S. K. Hagar; J. F. Alcock

1989-01-01

196

Separation dynamics of ullage rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics associated with the jettisoning of spent ullage rocket systems from the parent launch vehicle is investigated. The analysis considers a spring-based mechanism employed to jettison the system hinged on to an accelerating stage. Closed-form solutions are obtained. Analytical expressions are developed for the hinge reactions. Conditions are derived for optimum separation velocity and guidelines presented for selection of

Rajeev Lochan; V. Adimurthy; K. Kumar

1994-01-01

197

Cryogenic Propellant Rocket Engine Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern achievements and the problems of powerful Liquid Rocket Engines (LRE) for launch system main propulsion units are shown. Results of LRE research and development carried out in Russia are included. LRE's have been used since the beginning of the for...

A. Roudakov

1993-01-01

198

Direct launch using the electric rail gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

Barber, J. P.

1983-02-01

199

Internal ballistics and missile launch environment for the Vertical Launching System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal flows of hot rocket exhaust have been of particular concern during the design and development of the Navy Vertical Launching System (VLS). The design has been especially complicated for the Navy Standard missile due to the tremendous temperatures, quantity of exhaust, and rapid rise of pressure in the rocket motor. The qualitative features and mathematical analysis of the

J. J. Yagla; L. P. Anderson Jr.

1982-01-01

200

Experimental Evaluation of the Drag Coefficient of Water Rockets by a Simple Free-Fall Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag…

Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E. Arguelles-Diaz, K.; Fernandez-Oro, J.

2009-01-01

201

Wind Tunnel Tests on a Model of the Tomahawk Sounding Rocket at Mach=5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Force and moment data and vapor-screen photographs were obtained in the 40-in. supersonic tunnel of the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility on a Tomahawk sounding rocket model. Data were obtained with and without model spin at Mach number 5 at a Reynolds num...

J. C. Uselton

1967-01-01

202

Altitude Qualification Test of the Aerojet SVM-6 Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Aerojet SVM-6 (S/N Q2 and Q3) solid-propellant rocket motors were fired at ignition pressure altitudes of 113,000 and 123,000 ft while spinning about the axial centerline at 110 rpm. The firings were accomplished as part of the SVM-6 Qualification Tes...

H. L. Merryman L. R. Smith

1975-01-01

203

Development and flight test of metal-lined CFRP cryogenic tank for reusable rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.

Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko

2005-07-01

204

Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Launches  

NASA Website

A United Launch Alliance Atlas V 401 rocket streaks away from Space Launch Complex 41 into the night sky over Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, carrying NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-K, TDRS-K, to orbit. The TDRS-K ...

205

Two-dimensional motions of rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights.

Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

2007-01-01

206

Moving Material into Space Without Rockets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to conventional rocket demands on fuel supplies, electromagnetic launches were developed to give payloads high velocity using a stationary energy source. Several orbital mechanics problems are solved including a simple problem (radial launch with no rotation) and a complex problem involving air resistance and gravity. (DH)

Cheng, R. S.; Trefil, J. S.

1985-01-01

207

The 16-inch gun-launched anti-satellite weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis determined the feasibility of developing a 16-inch, gun-launched anti-satellite weapon. The general performance capability of rocket-and scramjet-boosted, gun-launched vehicles is examined with regards to propelling a miniature homing vehicle to a satellite intercept altitude. Rocket and scramjet boost vehicle performance is modeled and optimum trajectories are determined. A low gun elevation at launch and a pop-up manuever are

J. J. Natale

1982-01-01

208

Nondestructive test and inspection requirements for aeromechanical lifting and handling equipment - A comparison of launch site to industry standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launch site safety regulations require lifting devices to provide a safety factor of five at ultimate to be periodically proof load tested to 200 percent of capacity; visually inspected prior to use; and undergo nondestructive crack detection tests such as magnetic particle, dye penetrant, or X-ray. Industry standards are similar, but do not require crack detection tests. A TQM process improvement study has found the additional tests do not improve the quality of safety for this type equipment.

Clay, Donald E.

209

New opportunities for studies of the polar atmosphere by means of sounding rockets and balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARR is responsible for all sounding rockets and stratospheric balloon operations from Norwegian territory, including the Svalbard islands, and has an extensive record of successful launches since 1962. From the location far north of the Arctic Circle Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching services are offered from sites

Petter Dragøy; Kjell Bøen

2003-01-01

210

Assessment of the facilities on Jackass Flats and other Nevada Test Site facilities for the new nuclear rocket program  

SciTech Connect

Recent NASA/DOE studies for the Space Exploration Initiative have demonstrated a critical need for the ground-based testing of nuclear rocket engines. Experience in the ROVER/NERVA Program, experience in the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, and involvement in the new nuclear rocket program has motivated our detailed assessment of the facilities used for the ROVER/NERVA Program and other facilities located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The ROVER/NERVA facilities are located in the Nevada Research L, Development Area (NRDA) on Jackass Flats at NTS, approximately 85 miles northwest of Las Vegas. To guide our assessment of facilities for an engine testing program we have defined a program goal, scope, and process. To execute this program scope and process will require ten facilities. We considered the use of all relevant facilities at NTS including existing and new tunnels as well as the facilities at NRDA. Aside from the facilities located at remote sites and the inter-site transportation system, all of the required facilities are available at NRDA. In particular we have studied the refurbishment of E-MAD, ETS-1, R-MAD, and the interconnecting railroad. The total cost for such a refurbishment we estimate to be about $253M which includes additional contractor fees related to indirect, construction management, profit, contingency, and management reserves. This figure also includes the cost of the required NEPA, safety, and security documentation.

Chandler, G.; Collins, D.; Dye, K.; Eberhart, C.; Hynes, M.; Kovach, R.; Ortiz, R.; Perea, J.; Sherman, D.

1992-12-01

211

Rockets Away!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project that involved a rocket-design competition where students played the roles of McDonnell Douglas employees competing for NASA contracts. Provides a real world experience involving deadlines, design and performance specifications, and budgets. (JRH)|

Kaahaaina, Nancy

1997-01-01

212

Rocket Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the theory of rocket engines using Newton's third law of motion. This five minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

213

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing - Historical Lecture: Simulated Altitude Testing at AEDC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The span of history covered is from 1958 to the present. The outline of this lecture draws from historical examples of liquid propulsion testing done at AEDC primarily for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) in the Saturn/Apollo Program and fo...

N. S. Dougherty

2010-01-01

214

Rocket Launchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work with an adult to build a rocket and launcher out of a plastic 2-liter bottle, flexible plastic hose, plastic tubing, toilet paper tube, and duct tape. Use this stomp rocket activity to demonstrate that air is something, comprised of molecules that, when acted upon, have the power to move things. This activity guide includes an extension activity and related activity for younger learners.

Museum, Chicago C.

2010-01-01

215

78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...launch vehicles, intercontinental ballistic and small missiles, aircraft and helicopter operations...visual disturbance from rocket and missile launches, as well as from the...There are also a variety of small missiles launched from various...

2013-08-15

216

Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

1993-01-01

217

Does purchasing power parity hold following the launch of the euro? Evidence from the panel unit root test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a richer panel data set with more representative price indexes, this article adopts Pesaran's (2007) panel unit root test to study the validity of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) across the eurozone countries both before and after the launch of the euro in 1999. We find that PPP holds before the introduction of the single currency, whereas it fails to

Yi-Hua Wu; Eric S. Lin

2011-01-01

218

Viscoelastic rocket grain fracture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscoelastic fracture analysis has been developed for rocket grain fracture predictions. The fracture analysis uses a stress intensity factor technique to predict crack velocity histories under thermal and pressurization loading conditions. The theory is compared with two-dimensional pressurized tests of two typical rocket motor geometries using the viscoelastic material, Solithane 113.

E. C. Francis; C. H. Carlton; R. E. Thompson

1974-01-01

219

Air-Powered Rockets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)|

Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

220

Andøya Rocket Range, Norway - a toolbox for space research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) is responsible for all scientific related balloon and sounding rocket operations in Norwegian territory. From its location far north of the Arctic Circle, ARR provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching service are offered from sites on the mainland of Norway and from Svalbard. The Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR), with its wide range of ground-based instruments, contributes to rocket and balloon campaigns with important information about the Arctic atmosphere. Combined measurements by rockets, balloons, aircraft and ALOMAR make ARR a valuable toolbox for space research in "the green Arctic".

Bøen, Kjell; Mikalsen, Per-Arne

2001-08-01

221

Launch system development in the Pacific Rim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Western Pacific Rim nations are beginning to challenge the domination of the United States, Europe, and the former Soviet Union in the international market for commercial launch sevices. This paper examines the current development of launch systems in China, Japan, and Australia. China began commercial launch services with their Long March-3 in April 1990, and is making enhancements to vehicles in this family. Japan is developing the H-2 rocket which will be marketed on a commercial basis. In Australia, British Aerospace Ltd. is leading a team conducting a project definition study for an Australian Launch Vehicle, aimed at launching the new generation of satellites into low Earth orbit.

Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

1993-01-01

222

Structure analysis on the single stage Korea Sounding rocket KSR 420S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Sounding rocket KSR 420S is now under development; the launch is scheduled for the latter half of 1993. The main purpose is to measure ozone concentration profiles over Korea; the KSR 420S will be used further to deliver some instruments such as an ionospheric device and a microgravity measuring device. The performance of KSR 420S rocket for maximum altitude and maximum scientific payload weight are around 75Km and around 30Kg respectively. In this paper, overall structural analysis on the total assembly and essential structural analysis on the important components and test results are described briefly.

Ryoo, Jang-Soo; Yi, Yeong-Moo

223

Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

de León, Pablo

2009-12-01

224

Development of Indonesian sounding rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indonesian research and development program for solid-fuel sounding rockets is reviewed, with a focus on the meteorological rocket program since 1979. Polysulfide fuels were developed, and a seven-pointed-star grain configuration was found to be optimal. Numerous single-stage rocket motors were static and flight tested, and the results are summarized. The current single-stage sounding rocket is 3036 mm long and 150 mm in diameter and weighs 79.5 kg. The two-stage prototype comprises a 1906-mm-long first stage and a 2402-mm-long second stage and weighs 129.5 kg. Both rockets have been successfully test flown carrying sun sensors, telemetry packages, and temperature, pressure, and acceleration instruments.

Djojodihardjo, H.; Subandhi, K.; Silitonga, S.

1983-10-01

225

Weather satellite lost in launch accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A $57.5-million weather satellite was lost on May 3, 1986, when the unmanned Delta rocket that carried it went out of control 71 s after liftoff and was destroyed by command from the ground. It was the third consecutive launching failure for the U.S. space program, following the losses of the space shuttle Challenger in January and an Air Force Titan rocket in April.As Eos went to press, a team of officials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractors were meeting at the Kennedy Space Center (Cape Canaveral, Fla.) to review telemetry data from the launch. Two surges of current were found to have occurred in the electrical system of the rocket's main engine just prior to the engine's shutdown; it was this shutdown that caused the rocket to go out of control.

Katzoff, Judith A.

226

IUS1 - Redundant inertial measurement unit test plan and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Redundant Inertial Measurement Unit (RIMU) of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket of the Shuttle has been tested according to a plan developed jointly by NASA and the USAF. The tests were carried out at the Eastern Launch Site (ELS) 16 hours before launch and consisted of five on pad calibrations and alignments (cal\\/aligns). RIMU gyrocompass alignments were compared

L. W. Mueller; L. Dubberke; J. Volger

1984-01-01

227

Development and qualification of a STAR 48 rocket motor with thrust vector control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrust vector control (TVC) nozzle for use on the STAR 48 rocket motor (STAR 48V) has been developed for use on the COMET program aboard the Conestoga launch vehicle. The first stages of qualification testing have been completed. The first STAR 48V has been successfully static-tested. The flexseal TVC nozzle design is based upon the qualified and flight-proven fixed

R. Hamke; J. Rade; R. Weldin

1992-01-01

228

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of ...

J. M. Hanson R. E. Jones D. R. Krupp

2002-01-01

229

Failure Analysis and Mechanical Tests of Failed Aluminum Alloy 7277 Rivets on Armored Vehicle Launched Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of the manufactured buttonheads of the 0.75-in-diameter hot-driven aluminum rivets (made of alloy 7277) were found to have fallen off Class 60 Armored Vehicle Launched Bridges (AVLB) that had been employed in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert ...

H. E. Homer

1996-01-01

230

Advanced Manned Launch System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several alternatives exist for the development of the next manned launch system. The Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), which represents a clean-sheet replacement for the Space Shuttle, faces competition from concepts such as (1) the Personnel Launch System, which would serve as a personnel transport to complement the Space Shuttle, and (2) an advanced version of the existing Space Shuttle. An AMLS system could begin operations sometime between 2005 and 2020, depending upon the level of national interest and support. It would probably demonstrate a payload capacity less than that of the Space Shuttle, although performance specifications are far from certain. Even the form of the AMLS is still under discussion. Design studies have considered a wide variety of options including all levels of hardware reusability; single-, dual- and multiple-staging; and airbreathing vs. rocket propulsion. An evaluation of the relative cost-effectiveness of these options is impossible without guidance regarding basic mission requirements such as total number of launches over the system's life cycle and the date required. The availability of more advanced technologies will enable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) designs that are in general not feasible using current technology.

Talay, Theodore A.

1993-02-01

231

Development of launch vehicles for application purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-I, N-II, and H-I launch vehicles and the TT-500A rocket, out of the various launch vehicles and rockets developed and being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) are described. The N-I is at present the main satellite launcher of Japan. The N-II is an improved version of N-I, and the H-I is a future launch vehicle with a cryogenic second stage. The TT-500A is a small two-stage rocket for material processing experiments. Since the first stage of NASA's Thor-Delta vehicle is used as the first stage of N-I and N-II, most of the development efforts have been expended on the second stages. The N-I, N-II, and H-I second stages are presented to show development activities at NASDA.

Hiraki, I.; Takenaka, Y.

1980-09-01

232

Pop Rockets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make film canister rocket ships. A fin pattern is glued onto the outside of the canister, and fuel (water and half an antacid tablet) is mixed inside the canister. When the water and tablet mix, the acid and base in the tablet react to produce carbon dioxide, and the gas accumulates in the closed container until pressure increases enough to push the "rocket" off of the canister cap and into the air. This activity is messy and should probably be done outside (or at least on floors without carpeting).

Society, American C.

2008-01-01

233

Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

2006-06-01

234

The commercial Titan launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martin Marietta is making available a commercial version of the Titan launch vehicle. At a total payload weight capability of 31,600 pounds to low earth orbit, the commercial Titan provides Shuttle and Ariane compatible services to the commercial satellite community. This paper describes the commercial Titan which is based on the U.S. Air Force Titan 34D. A large diameter payload fairing and extension module provide for single or dual payload installation. Structural and some equipment rearrangement modifications have been made to the Stage II forward skirt to handle the larger payload fairing and loads involved in commercial operation. Stage II has been stretched and the liquid rocket engines enhanced to improve lift performance. The solid rocket motors and avionics remain unchanged. Plans to utilize Transtage on top a Titan III for direct injection into geosynchronous transfer orbit are being studied for future launches.

Troutman, J.; Isakowitz, S.

1987-06-01

235

The Advanced Launch System (ALS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

Eldred, Charles H.

236

The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI): instrument and pre-launch testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI), to be launched onboard of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, by 2008. It includes the first results from the instrument level tests. The instrument is designed to be electronically tuneable over a wide and continuous frequency range in the Far Infrared, with velocity resolutions better than 0.1 km\\/s with a high

Thijs de Graauw; Nick Whyborn; Frank Helmich; Pieter Dieleman; Peter Roelfsema; Emmanuel Caux; Tom Phillips; Jürgen Stutzki; Douwe Beintema; Arnold Benz; Nicolas Biver; Adwin Boogert; Francois Boulanger; Sergey Cherednichenko; Odile Coeur-Joly; Claudia Comito; Emmanuel Dartois; Albrecht de Jonge; Gert de Lange; Ian Delorme; Anna DiGiorgio; Luc Dubbeldam; Kevin Edwards; Michael Fich; Rolf Güsten; Fabrice Herpin; Netty Honingh; Robert Huisman; Herman Jacobs; Willem Jellema; Jon Kawamura; Do Kester; Teun Klapwijk; Thomas Klein; Jacob Kooi; Jean-Michel Krieg; Carsten Kramer; Bob Kruizenga; Wouter Laauwen; Bengt Larsson; Christian Leinz; Rene Liseau; Steve Lord; Willem Luinge; Anthony Marston; Harald Merkel; Rafael Moreno; Patrick Morris; Anthony Murphy; Albert Naber; Pere Planesas; Jesus Martin-Pintado; Micheal Olberg; Piotr Orleanski; Volker Ossenkopf; John Pearson; Michel Perault; Sabine Phillip; Mirek Rataj; Laurent Ravera; Paolo Saraceno; Rudolf Schieder; Frank Schmuelling; Ryszard Szczerba; Russell Shipman; David Teyssier; Charlotte Vastel; Huib Visser; Klaas Wildeman; Kees Wafelbakker; John Ward; Roonan Higgins; Henri Aarts; Xander Tielens; Peer Zaal

2008-01-01

237

Analysis and Testing of High Temperature Fibrous Insulation for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical models were developed to model theheat transfer through high-temperature fibrousinsulation used in metallic thermal protection systemson reusable launch vehicles. The optically thickapproximation was used to simulate radiation heattransfer through the insulation. Different models forgaseous conduction and solid conduction in the fibers,and for combining the various modes of heat transferinto a local, volume-averaged, thermal conductivitywere considered. The governing heat...

Kamran Daryabeigi

1999-01-01

238

ORNL mock-up tests of inside launch pellet injection on JET and LHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments on ASDEX-Upgrade and DIII-D tokamaks, the injection of D2 pellets from the magnetic high-field side of the plasma resulted in deeper pellet penetration and improved fueling efficiency. Based on those successful experiments, fusion researchers at the Joint European Torus and the Large Helical Device decided to implement inside launch pellet injection. These injection schemes require the use of

S. K Combs; L. R Baylor; P. W Fisher; C. R Foust; M. J Gouge; D Pavarin; R Sakamoto; P Twynam; M Watson; H Yamada

2001-01-01

239

The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

1991-06-01

240

Near-ultraviolet limb imaging spectrograph for sounding rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing investigation of airglow emissions of the upper atmosphere, an intensified CCD imaging spectrograph has been developed for a sounding rocket project called GEMINI (general excitation mechanisms in nightglow). The instrument, known as LISA (limb-imaging spectrograph for airglow), will be used to measure the limb profiles of some important nighttime airglow emission features. The observed limb profiles will be analyzed to provide atmospheric temperatures and density profiles of excited atomic and molecular species of interest to specific modelling problems in the mesopause and lower thermosphere. The GEMINI rocket is to be launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, in late 1993 or early 1994. The payload will be three-axis stabilized and absolute pointing will be derived from a star video camera. We describe the design capabilities of the LISA instrument, the imager design, and the results of some laboratory tests performed using an artificial source of the oxygen nightglow emission.

Harris, Frank R.; Gattinger, Richard L.; Powell, Ian P.; McDade, Ian C.; Llewellyn, Edward J.; Yuen, John W.; Moorhouse, Peter; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Sharp, William E.

1993-12-01

241

Visible airglow limb imaging spectrograph for sounding rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing investigation of airglow emissions from space, we have developed an intensified CCD imaging spectrograph for a sounding rocket project called General Excitation Mechanisms In Nightglow (GEMINI). The instrument, known as Limb Imaging Spectrograph for Airglow (LISA) will be used to measure the limb profiles of some important nighttime airglow emission features. The GEMINI rocket is to be launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, in early 1993. The payload will be three-axis stabilized and absolute pointing will be derived from a star video camera. In this paper the imager design is discussed and we present the results of some laboratory tests performed using an artificial source of the oxygen nightglow emission.

Harris, Frank R.; Gattinger, Richard L.; McDade, Ian C.; Powell, Ian P.; Llewellyn, Edward J.; Yuen, John; Moorhouse, Peter; Chakrabarti, Supriya

1992-06-01

242

Pegasus to Launch NuSTAR from Pacific  

NASA Video Gallery

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, NuSTAR, will launch on a Pegasus rocket into Earth orbit where it will detect high-energy X-rays to uncover hidden black holes, exploded stars and other features of the universe.

KSC Web Team

2012-06-05

243

Instrumentation of Sampling Aircraft for Measurement of Launch Vehicle Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obta...

D. E. Wornom D. C. Woods M. E. Thomas R. W. Tyson

1977-01-01

244

NASA's Space Launch System Program Kicks Off Preliminary Design Review  

NASA Website

NASA is beginning a preliminary design review for its Space Launch System (SLS). This major program assessment will allow development of the agency's new heavy-lift rocket to move from concept to initial design.

245

The flight readiness and the future of the Boeing Delta IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early December 2003, the first Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle was successfully rolled out of the Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF) and erected on Space Launch Complex (SLC) 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The vehicle remains on the launch pad, undergoing a series of launch readiness tests in preparation for liftoff on a qualification flight in the fall of 2004. The Heavy launch vehicle represents the largest of the five vehicles of the Delta IV family, which consists of the Delta IV Medium, three Delta IV Medium vehicles with solid strap-on rocket motors (Medium-Plus variants), and the Delta IV Heavy. All vehicle configurations utilize a common booster core (CBC). The Heavy employs two additional CBCs, serving as liquid rocket boosters for added payload capability. The vehicle measures 71.7 m in height when fully stacked with a payload. This paper describes in detail the Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle and summarizes the flight readiness process in preparation for a successful flight, including wet dress rehearsals. A summary of the sequence of events of the Heavy qualification flight is also included.

Berglund, Michael D.; Marin, Dan; Wilkins, Mark

2005-07-01

246

Launch order, launch separation, and loiter in the constellation 1½launch solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Constellation Program (CxP) is developing a two-element Earth-to-orbit launch system to enable human exploration of the Moon. The first element, Ares I, is a human-rated system that consists of a first stage based on the Space Shuttle Program's solid rocket booster (SRB) and an upper stage that consists of a four-crew Orion capsule, a service module, and a

C. Stromgren; G. Cates; W. Cirillo

2009-01-01

247

Economical Mars Exploration Supported by a Nuclear Thermal Rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) developed for human Mars missions could act as a "mother ship" and carry multiple unmanned platforms to Mars for independent deployment. Use of the NTR could increase the science per dollar for each Earth launch.

Howe, S. D.; O'Brien, R. C.

2012-06-01

248

How High? How Fast? How Long? Modeling Water Rocket Flight with Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe an easy and fun project using water rockets to demonstrate applications of single variable calculus concepts. We provide procedures and a supplies list for launching and videotaping a water rocket flight to provide the experimental data. Because of factors such as fuel expulsion and wind effects, the water rocket does not follow the…

Ashline, George; Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna

2006-01-01

249

Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2008-10-01

250

Sea launch and recovery (SEALAR) - Responsive and affordable access to space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reusable rocket system, called SEALAR, intended to be launched and recovered from the sea is discussed. The launch system is based on simple, inexpensive, pressure fed, liquid fuel rocket engines. All stages would be recovered and refurbished for up to 20 reuses. It is concluded that SEALAR would provide operational flexibility and responsiveness at low costs.

Frey, T. J., Jr.

1992-03-01

251

GPHS-RTG launch accident analysis for Galileo and Ulysses  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the safety program conducted to determine the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to potential launch accidents of the Space Shuttle for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided definition of the Shuttle potential accidents and characterized the environments. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program (LASEP) was developed by GE to analyze the RTG response to these accidents. RTG detailed response to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragment impacts, as well as to other types of impact, was obtained from an extensive series of hydrocode analyses. A comprehensive test program was conducted also to determine RTG response to the accident environments. The hydrocode response analyses coupled with the test data base provided the broad range response capability which was implemented in LASEP.

Bradshaw, C.T. (General Electric Company, Astro-Space Division, P.O. Box 8555, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (US))

1991-01-01

252

Launch vehicle platform and high-energy upper stage acceptance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of a basic integrated test plan and the steps involved in test planning and management are considered. An integrated test plan contains: an introduction, a test program summary, development testing, qualification testing, component acceptance, and an acceptance test. The types and implementation of component and vehicle acceptance testing are described; diagrams of the acceptance test schemes are presented. The acceptance testing of the Centaur vehicle and the Centaur Integrated Support System is discussed.

Kiszla, Joseph J.

253

Design and Hardware Verification of Canard Based Sounding Rocket Attitude Controller Using Adaptive Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canard based controller using an adaptive notch filter is proposed to control the attitude of launch vehicles including the ISAS's sounding rocket `S-520'. As the characteristics of launch vehicles are time variant in nature, conventional time invariant controller is not suitable for this purpose. Here, adaptive notch filter is proposed to treat the time variant nature. This adaptive filter acts to null out the structural bending mode, which often causes the instability of the attitude controller. The proposed adaptation law requires only limited calculation cost. It means that it is easy to install to the real flight system. The hardware module which aims to control the attitude of the sounding rocket `S-520' is designed and verified not only by the numerical simulations, but also by the hardware tests.

Sawai, Shujiro; Matsuda, Seiji

254

Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets  

SciTech Connect

The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T. (Science Applications International Corporation, 1515 Woodfield Road, Suite 350, Schaumburg, Illinois 60173 (USA)); Borowski, S.K. (NASA Lewis Research Center, M/S 501-6, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (USA))

1991-01-01

255

Lunar mission design using Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

Stancati, Michael L.; Collins, John T.; Borowski, Stanley K.

256

Waters Rockets for Teaching Momentum and Energy Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts regarding momentum and energy are especially difficult for students to grasp and concrete examples are valuable. We will discuss, and show video, of launching water rockets using standard plastic soda and water bottles and describe the launcher composed of PVC pipe and a bicycle pump. We pose the question to students of the ratio of water to air that achieves the greatest time-of-flight. Immediate feedback is obtained by immediately testing student's hypotheses. After several launches the students understanding of Newton's Third Law and momentum and energy concepts improves. This is an engaging activity, students enjoy watching their instructors become thoroughly drenched, and students are enthusiastic. This enthusiasm, fun, and immediate testing of hypotheses reinforce momentum and energy concepts as will be shown by questionnaire results.

Sizemore, Jim; Parish, R. J.; Hooten, James T.

2012-10-01

257

Strypi VII R launch vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The Strypi VII R is a three-stage solid propellant launch vehicle designed to boost payloads ranging from 50 to 300 pounds to re-entry environment conditions. The first stage, a fin-stabilized ballistic rocket boosts the final two stages into an exoatmospheric trajectory where an attitude control system (ACS) precesses the spinning stages into the re-entry attitude. The ACS section is then jettisoned, and ignition of the spin-stabilized upper stages is initiated at a time determined to provide a zero angle-of-attack at beginning of re-entry. Four vehicles have been flown carrying three different re-entry test vehicles. Originally designed for use with a Castor II motor, the highly aluminized propellant in the first stage spinning environment contributed to a case rupture resulting in failure of the second flight. The last two flights were flown successfully using Castor I motors. Typically, the Strypi VII R can boost a 100 lbm RV to a speed of 19,500 fps on a flight path of -30 degrees at 300,000 feet altitude.

Wente, H.A.

1982-01-01

258

Sonda IV Brazilian rocket - The major step for the future national satellite launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development status account is given of Brazil's current sounding rocket development program. The two-stage Sonda IV sounding rocket is in effect a solid fuel rocket motor launch vehicle testbed for a planned 'VLS' four-stage satellite launch vehicle. VLS payload capability is nominally given as 120 kg to 1000-km (25-deg) circular orbit. A fluid-injection thrust vector control system under development in the Sonda program will also be employed in the VLS first stage.

Boscov, J.; Bernardes, J. A.; Yoshino, T.; Furlan, B. M.

1986-10-01

259

Advanced Solid Rocket Launcher and Its Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research on next generation solid propellant rockets is actively underway in various spectra. JAXA is developing the Advanced Solid Rocket (ASR) as a successor to the M-V launch vehicle, which was utilized over past ten years for space science programs including planetary missions. ASR is a result of the development of the next generation technology including a highly intelligent autonomous check-out system, which is connected to not only the solid rocket but also future transportation systems. It is expected to improve the efficiency of the launch system and double the cost performance. Far beyond this effort, the passion of the volunteers among the industry-government-academia cooperation has been united to establish the society of the freewheeling thinking “Next generation Solid Rocket Society (NSRS)”. It aims at a larger revolution than what the ASR provides so that the order of the cost performance is further improved. A study of the Low melting temperature Thermoplastic Propellant (LTP) is now at the experimental stage, which is expected to reform the manufacturing process of the solid rocket propellant and lead to a significant increase in cost performance. This paper indicates the direction of the big flow towards the next generation solid-propellant rockets: the concept of the intelligent ASR under development; and the innovation behind LTP.

Morita, Yasuhiro; Imoto, Takayuki; Habu, Hiroto; Ohtsuka, Hirohito; Hori, Keiichi; Koreki, Takemasa; Fukuchi, Apollo; Uekusa, Yasuyuki; Akiba, Ryojiro

260

The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sounding rocket projects in astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere and materials science under microgravity are summarized. Balloon projects emphasize astronomy and aeronomy. A 1m EUV telescope was launched with an ARIES rocket. Due to a failure in the acquisition control system the scientific output was poor, but the payload was recovered almost undamaged and will be used for a reflight. About 50 rockets and 18 balloons were launched to study energetic processes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during geomagnetic disturbances as part of the Energy Budget Campaign. A balloon-borne gamma ray telescope observed the galactic center. Star formation regions were discovered by FIR spectrophotometry.

Otterbein, M.; Dahl, A. F.

1983-06-01

261

Suborbital and low-thermospheric experiments using sounding rockets in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suborbital flight is a kind of flight, which reaches the space and then comes back to ground without completing one orbital revolution. The atmospheric thermosphere extends from 85 km to 600 km in altitude. Therefore, the suborbital and low-thermospheric experiments to be performed at altitude below 300 km can be combined using the sounding rocket. These experiments include rocket staging, fairing separation, ultrasonic flight, reentry, aerobrake and recovery test, ultraviolet and ionization observations, ozone measurement, etc. The advent of Taiwan's sub-orbital and thermospheric experiments project can be traced back to 1997. This is the year Taiwan's National Space Organization (NSPO) was assigned to be responsible for procuring the sounding rocket for applications in science experiments and space technology research effort. From 1997 to 2010, 8 launches have been completed including one experimental hybrid rocket. All onboard instruments and sensors for sub-orbital and low-thermospheric experiments are developed and integrated by the domestic universities. More launches have been planned in the future. Opportunities for international cooperation in developing new instruments and payloads for future experiments will be possible.

Chern, Jeng-Shing; Wu, Bill; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wu, An-Ming

2012-01-01

262

Performance Oriented Packaging (POP) testing of Artillery Type and Rocket Fuzes Packed in a Wood Wirebound Box.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Performance Oriented Packaging (POP) report is for the Army Artillery Type and Rocket Fuzes Packed in accordance with drawing 8861213. The exterior wirebound box, 12960853, contains two M2A1 metal inner containers, 7553296, containing various types o...

R. J. Siroy

1993-01-01

263

The role of ground testing in a structural failure experienced during the launch of the ALEXIS small satellite  

SciTech Connect

A video recording of the launch of the ALEXIS satellite on April 25, 1993 clearly showed that one of the four deployable solar paddles had mechanically separated from the satellite. A study was performed to determine whether the anomalous separation was caused by a mechanical failure and, if so, which components failed and what events led to the failure. From the study it became obvious that the failure was mechanical in nature, and was related to some design weaknesses and the testing sequence to which the solar paddle and associated hardware had been exposed prior to launch. Results of the study showed that the attachment hardware associated with this particular solar paddle was damaged during random vibration tests compromising its load carrying capability. Some relatively simple changes to the method with which structural analysis and testing were approached for the ALEXIS satellite are proposed. These changes will ensure that the chance for such failures to occur on future small satellite missions will be minimized.

Butler, T.A.

1994-08-01

264

Launch vehicle engine development in hindsight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of three large launch vehicle rocket engines, the F-1, the J-2, and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are reviewed. Historically, each engine represented a new technological challenge which was a key factor in leading to development phase costs of more than $1 billion each. A review of the history of each reveals a consistency in the gross

B. David Goracke; Claus J. Meisl

1996-01-01

265

European Cargo Ship Launches to Station  

NASA Video Gallery

The European Space Agency's (ESA) fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo craft (ATV-4) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana at 5:52 p.m. EDT on Wednesday to begin a 10-day trip to the International Space Station.

Mark Garcia

2013-06-05

266

Health assessment for Malta Rocket Test Site, Saratoga County, Malta, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980535124. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Malta Rocket Fuel Test Station is listed by the USEPA on the National Priorities List. The General Electric Company tested operations at the site as a contractor to the U.S. Government. Beginning in December 1974, and continuing until December 1979, Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. conducted operations at a building on the site. During the course of its operations, Exxon handled several hazardous chemicals including methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrachloroethene, and toluene. Various site inspections, investigations and engineering studies have been conducted at the site. Ground water collected from monitoring wells on-site is contaminated with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene. In April 1985, sampling of ground water supplies serving the site demonstrated significant drinking-water contamination with concentrations of carbon tetrachloride up to 220 micro g/L, chloroform up to 25 micro g/L, PCBs up to 1.3 micro g/L, trichlorethene up to 120 micro g/L, and boron up to 140 micro g/L. The site has been the subject of several investigations, however, none have been comprehensive. The site should be the subject of a complete remedial investigation/feasibility study before a full health assessment can be prepared.

Not Available

1989-06-30

267

Real-time radiography of Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) static firing test QM-2  

SciTech Connect

Real-time radiography was successfully applied to the Titan-IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) static firing test QM-2 conducted February 22, 1993 at Phillips Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA. The real-time video data obtained in this test gave the first incontrovertible evidence that the molten slag pool is low (less than 5 to 6 inches in depth referenced to the bottom of the aft dome cavity) before T + 55 seconds, builds fairly linearly from this point in time reaching a quasi-equilibrium depth of 16 to 17 inches at about T + 97 seconds, which is well below the top of the vectored nozzle, and maintains that level until T + 125 near the end motor burn. From T + 125 seconds to motor burn-out at T + 140 seconds the slag pool builds to a maximum depth of about 20 to 21 inches, still well below the top of the nozzle. The molten slag pool was observed to interact with motions of the vectored nozzle, and exhibit slosh and wave mode oscillations. A few slag ejection events were also observed.

Dolan, K.W.; Curnow, G.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Costerus, B.W.; La Chapell, M.J.; Turner, D.E.; Wallace, P.W.

1994-03-08

268

Remote rocket engine leak detection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging techniques have been successfully used for detection of leaks in rocket engine components using introduced gases such as sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide. The approach used and past applications of the technology are described. The potential for direct detection of launch system propellant leaks is discussed.

Maram, J. M.

1993-06-01

269

Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of

Michael L. Stancati; John T. Collins; Stanley K. Borowski

1991-01-01

270

Lunar mission design using Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of

Michael L. Stancati; John T. Collins; Stanley K. Borowski

1991-01-01

271

Rockets: Physical Science Teacher's Guide with Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rockets have evolved from simple tubes filled with black powder into mighty vehicles capable of launching a spacecraft out into the galaxy. The guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R., Ed.

272

Modular rocket engine control software (MRECS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for a generic, advanced engine control system that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirements changes that occur due to

C. Tarrant; J. Crook

1997-01-01

273

Coordinated Auroral Experiment using Scatter and Rockets (CAESAR): A sounding rocket project to study the magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two identical payloads to investigate magnetic substorm phenomena, launched by the three stage Skylark 12 sounding rocket, are presented. To avoid sensitivity loss of the magnetic sensors, nonmagnetic materials are used. Stringent requirements are set up by the experiments on electromagnetic shielding. Experiments are boom mounted during their measurement phase; sensors are radially deployed. The 3rd motor stage remains attached to the payload during the measurement phase to avoid an increase of nutation during deployment of the booms. An active attitude control system is therefore not necessary. The launch window is from 24 Jan, to end of March 1984, from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway.

Schrieder, W.; Henkel, R.

1983-06-01

274

Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundr...

B. Messer

2007-01-01

275

Micro-electromechanical systems and test results of SiC MEMS for high-g launch applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-electromechanical systems or MEMS are typically used for the measurement of physical phenomena associated with gun launched projectiles and other smart munitions. These devices generally experience not only the harsh environment encountered during initial shock and vibration at gun launch, but also the extremes of high temperature, high pressure and in some cases large electromagnetic fields associated with the launching

Gary L. Katulka

2002-01-01

276

Kinematical and gravitational analysis of the rocket-borne clock experiment by Vessot and Levine using the revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematic aspects of the rocket-borne clock experiment by Vessot and Levine are analyzed with the revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity ( Found. Phys. 14, 625 (1984)). Besides the expected time-dilation, it is found that the intermediate steps of this experiment yield in principle Michelson-Morley type information (a relation between longitudinal and transverse length contractions) in the third

José G. Vargas

1986-01-01

277

Kinematical and gravitational analysis of the rocket-borne clock experiment by Vessot and Levine using the revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematic aspects of the rocket-borne clock experiment by Vessot and Levine are analyzed with the revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity (Found. Phys.\\u000a14, 625 (1984)). Besides the expected time-dilation, it is found that the intermediate steps of this experiment yield in principle Michelson-Morley type information (a relation between longitudinal and transverse length contractions) in the third order

José G. Vargas

1986-01-01

278

Evaluation of the Pilot Rocket Scrubber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical and economical feasibility of a pilot rocket scrubber was evaluated based on 23 tests of liquid and solid rocket motors with a thrust of 5,000 pounds. The initial test, using liquid fluorine and gaseous hydrogen, resulted in extensive damage...

L. Sedillo

1978-01-01

279

Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dyn...

D. J. Chenevert M. L. Tuma

2010-01-01

280

Environment Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1...

D. M. Oddy E. D. Stolen M. A. Hensley P. Hall P. A. Schmalzer S. R. Turek V. L. Larson

1999-01-01

281

Administrator Bolden on the SpaceX Falcon 9 Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

While rocket launches from the Cape are considered a common occurrence to some, the historic significance of today’s achievement by SpaceX should not be lost. This is the first in a new generation of commercial launch systems, and the successful demonstration flight is an important milestone in meeting the objectives outlined by the President and Congress.

Jim Wilson

2010-12-08

282

Soyuz TMA-06M Rolls Out To Launch Site  

NASA Video Gallery

The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft and rocket are rolled out to the launch pad at site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, are set to launch aboard the Soyuz on Oct. 23 for a five-month mission on the International Space Station.

Russell Todd D

2012-10-22

283

Space-X Launches Falcon 9 on Demonstration Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft launched from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 10:43 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Dec. 8. This is first demonstration flight for NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program, which will provide cargo flights to the International Space Station.

KSC Web Team

2010-12-08

284

Molded nozzle technology for large solid rocket motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade studies conducted during the Advanced Launch System and National Launch System Programs selected nozzles manufactured from PAN based carbon cloth phenolic molding compound. This was one component of large solid rocket boosters that could provide for significant cost reduction and still maintain high reliability. Molded nozzle technology is not new and is currently employed in several small tactical systems

Mark L. Fox; R. C. Laramee

1992-01-01

285

Foam Experiment Hardware are Flown on Microgravity Rocket MAXUS 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Foam module was developed by Swedish Space Corporation and was used for performing foam experiments on the sounding rocket MAXUS 4 launched from Esrange 29 April 2001. The development and launch of the module has been financed by ESA. Four different foam experiments were performed, two aqueous foams by Doctor Michele Adler from LPMDI, University of Marne la Vallée,

C. Lockowandt; K. Löth; O. Jansson; P. Holm; M. Lundin; H. Schneider; B. Larsson

2002-01-01

286

The OGRESS sounding rocket payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa. OGRESS is designed to perform moderate resolution (R~10- 40) spectroscopy of diffuse celestial X-ray sources between 0.3 - 1.2 keV. A wire grid focuser constrains light from diffuse sources into a converging beam that feeds an array of diffraction gratings in the extreme off-plane mount. The spectrum is focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. Scheduled to launch in 2014, OGRESS will obtain accurate physical diagnostics of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and will increase the technical readiness level of GEMs. OGRESS is the fourth-generation of similar payloads from the partnership between the University of Iowa and the University of Colorado, with higher throughput, and improved noise characteristics over its predecessors.

Rogers, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Schultz, T.; Zeiger, B.; Oakley, P.; Cash, W.

2013-09-01

287

A miniature solid propellant rocket motor  

SciTech Connect

A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

1997-08-01

288

Aerothermal test of thermal protection systems for X-33 reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle was tested in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests were the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and the test results will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests evaluated the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent panels and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying panel-to-panel step heights, intentional damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals were also investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33, the blanket TPS developed to protect the leeward surfaces of the X-33, and the test program in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel are presented and discussed.

Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad; Snyder, Kevin

1999-01-01

289

Test results from a simple, low-cost, pressure-fed liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, low-cost rocket engine was designed, fabricated, and successfully hot fire tested over a wide range of interface conditions and operating parameters. The engine used low enthalpy hydrogen (45 to 70 R, 200 to 390 psia) and oxygen (139 to 163 R, 210 to 480 psia) propellants pressure-fed directly from facility cryogenic tanks. The engine demonstrated excellent performance, with 97% average combustion efficiency, and absence of combustion instabilities. Engine design chamber pressure was 300 psia, yielding about 16,500 pounds thrust at sea level with a 3:1 expansion ration test nozzle. The engine used a fixed-element injector based on TRW's unique coaxial pintle design, but was operated at 60%, 80%, and 100% thrust levels by throttling facility propellant valves. The engine was tested at propellant mixture ratios (O/F) from 5.8 to 8.4; design O/F was 6.6. To document combustion stability, in five tests RDX explosive pulse guns were detonated in radial and tangential directions across the combustion chamber during steady-state operation. The largest disturbance consisted of simultaneous detonation of a 20-grain radial gun and a 40-grain tangential gun. In no case was an instability, either feed system mode or chamber acoustic mode, excited. High-frequency piezoelectric pressure transducers documented stable recovery from disturbance overpressures within 40 milliseconds of peak pressure. A total of 67 firing tests, accumulating 149 seconds of firing time above 10% P(sub c), were performed. Since parametric testing required run durations of only 2 to 3 seconds, a heat sink combustion chamber was employed for most runs. To evaluate the feasibility of a low-cost ablative system for a flight engine design, one 20-second continuous firing was conducted with a silicone rubber chamber/throat/nozzle liner cast in one piece directly into the engine. The ablative engine operated at the equivalent of 309 seconds sea level specific impulse, when adjusted to a 98% efficient 6:1 expansion ration nozzle, and 430 seconds vacuum specific impulse, when adjusted to a 98% efficient 50:1 expansion ratio nozzle. This engine and test series represent an initial subscale demonstration of a new booster-class engine that eliminates the cost and complexity associated with regenerative cooling and typical engine cycles. This paper presents a description of the engine design and discussion and summary data plots of the performance measured during the parametric testing.

Dressler, G. A.; Stoddard, F. J.; Gavitt, K. R.; Klem, M. D.

1993-11-01

290

NASP - Expanding space launch opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASP is envisioned as an airbreathing-propulsion vehicle in order to circumvent the weight and volume constraints inposed by conventional rockets' carriage of the fuel's oxidizer; this is typically 8 lbs/lb of fuel. Because it offers a potential vehicle weight reduction of 20 percent, slush H2 fuel has been the focus of propulsion system studies. Attention is presently given to the framework defining the design features and technology readiness imperatives for both the X-30 NASP technology demonstrator and prospective NASP-derived vehicles (NDVs). The primary driver of NDV development is an assured-launch capability for military payloads.

1991-11-01

291

Evaluation of Rocket Motor Exhaust and Liner Combustion By-Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This laboratory conducted an evaluation of rocket motor exhaust and liner combustion by-products after four high speed rocket motor sled tests at the Holloman AFB Test Track. The Zuni, HVAR (High Velocity Air Rocket), and Nike rocket motors were evaluated...

I. Atkins M. Dibben

1989-01-01

292

Influence of nozzle random side loads on launch vehicle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the dynamic performance of a rocket or launch vehicle is enhanced when the length of the divergent section of its nozzle is reduced or the nozzle exit area ratio is increased. However, there exists a significant performance trade-off in such rocket nozzle designs due to the presence of random side loads under overexpanded nozzle operating conditions. Flow separation and the associated side-load phenomena have been extensively investigated over the past five decades; however, not much has been reported on the effect of side loads on the attitude dynamics of rocket or launch vehicle. This paper presents a quantitative investigation on the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the attitude dynamics of a launch vehicle. The attitude dynamics of launch vehicle motion is captured using variable-mass control-volume formulation on a cylindrical rigid sounding rocket model. A novel physics-based stochastic model of nozzle side-load force is developed and embedded in the rigid-body model of rocket. The mathematical model, computational scheme, and results corresponding to side loading scenario are subsequently discussed. The results highlight the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the roll, pitch, yaw, and translational dynamics of a rigid-body rocket model.

Srivastava, Nilabh; Tkacik, Peter T.; Keanini, Russell G.

2010-08-01

293

The RD-170, a different approach to launch vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1960's, the United States and U.S.S.R. took different paths in developing launch vehicle propulsion. The United States focused on the lower performance gas generator cycle rocket engine because of the less demanding technology involved and the resulting easier development process. The U.S.S.R. adopted the high performance staged combustion cycle with oxygen rich turbine drive gases and have since striven to perfect that system. The RD-170 is the culmination of over 30 years of staged combustion cycle propulsion system development. This paper discusses the evolution of high pressure turbomachinery and combustion chamber designs from the RD-253 (the first operational high pressure staged combustion rocket engine, introduced in 1965) to the RD-170. The operating characteristics of the RD-170 will be explained along with the operability features included as part of the engine system. The quality approach used in the manufacturing, component test, and assembly process will be described and the unique health monitoring and life prediction system will be unveiled. Potential application of the RD-170 to U.S. launch vehicle needs has been studied and these results will also be presented.

Katorgin, Boris I.; Chelkis, Feliks J.; Limerick, Charles D.

1993-06-01

294

70. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. ROCKET FUEL TANKS ON LEFT; GASEOUS NITROGEN AND HELIUM TANKS IN CENTER; AND A LARGE LIQUID NITROGEN TANK ON RIGHT. SKID 1 FOR GASEOUS NITROGEN TRANSFER AND SKID 5 FOR HELIUM TRANSFER IN THE CENTER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

295

Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing

Richard C. Farmer; Sheldon D. Smith; Brian L. Myruski

1994-01-01

296

Yes! We are Rocket Scientists!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launch your middle school students' interest, incorporate hands-on/minds-on learning, and focus on inquiry learning while still meeting state and national standards by implementing the following water-bottle rocket activity into your physical science curriculum. This article is an outline of how one teacher enlisted the help of two volunteer engineers to create a powerful learning unit and cumulative review for eighth-grade physcial science students. This unit reviews what students have learned during the school year regarding force, motion, Newton's laws, gas laws, and center of gravity.

Macduff, J. T.

2006-09-01

297

Development of CAMUI hybrid rocket to create a market for small rocket experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing various innovative ideas, the difficult-to-develop small hybrid-type rocket is successfully developed. The main purpose is to drastically reduce the cost of rocket experiments and thus, attract potential users such as metrological and microgravity researchers. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to accelerate the gasification rate of solid fuel. The new fuel grain design, designated as CAMUI as an abbreviation of "cascaded multistage impinging-jet", is that the gas flow repeatedly collides with the solid fuel surface to accelerate the heat transfer to the fuel. To install a regenerative cooling system using cryogenic liquid oxygen as coolant in a small launcher, the authors devised a valveless supply system (with no valves in the liquid oxygen flow line). Four serial successful launch verification tests by 10 kg vehicle equipped with a 50 kgf thrust CAMUI motor have shown the feasibility of the motor system. The meteorological observation model of 400 kgf class motor is under development and the development of microgravity experiment class of 1.5-2 tonf motor will follow subsequently. The authors plan to complete the development of the 400 kgf class motor for meteorological observation model by the end of FY2005.

Nagata, Harunori; Ito, Mitsunori; Maeda, Takenori; Watanabe, Mikio; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Isao

2006-07-01

298

Creation of a market for small rocket experiments through CAMUI hybrid rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing various innovative ideas, the difficult-to-develop small hybrid-type rocket is successfully developed. The main purpose is to drastically reduce the cost of rocket experiments and thus attract potential users such as metrological and microgravity researchers. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to accelerate the gasification rate of solid fuel. The new fuel grain design, designated as CAMUI as an abbreviation of "Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet", is that the gas flow repeatedly collides with the solid fuel surface to accelerate the heat transfer to the fuel. To install a regenerative cooling system using cryogenic liquid oxygen as coolant in a small launcher, the authors devised a valveless supply system (with no valves in the liquid oxygen flow line). Four serial successful launch verification tests by 10 kg vehicle equipped with a 50 kgf thrust CAMUI motor have shown the feasibility of the motor system. The meteorological observation model of 400 kgf class motor is under development and the development of microgravity experiment class of 1.5 to 2 tonf motor will follow subsequently. The authors plan to complete the developoment of the 400 kgf class motor for meterological observation model by the end of FY2005.

Nagata, Harunori; Watanabe, Mikio; Ito, Mitsunori; Maeda, Takenori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Isao

2005-08-01

299

Computer model predictions of the local effects of large, solid-fuel rocket motors on stratospheric ozone. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-fuel rocket motors of large space launch vehicles release gases and particles that may significantly affect stratospheric ozone densities along the vehicle's path. In this study, standard rocket nozzle and flowfield computer codes have been used to characterize the exhaust gases and particles through the afterburning region of the solid-fuel motors of the Titan IV launch vehicle. The models

Zittel

1994-01-01

300

Reliability of solid rocket motor cases and nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent article in Aerospace America claims that 'the average success ratio of the current U.S. stable of launch vehicles, including upper stages, is about 92 percent (without upper stages it is close to 95 percent). The 8 percent failure probability implies an expected loss of $12M per flight, not including the lost opportunity costs'. Since payload costs are likely to be much greater than launch costs and even more so for the new launch vehicles for the Advanced Launch Development Program (ALDP), the cost of rocket motor unreliability at the current 8 percent rate can run into billions of dollars if expected increases in demand are realized. At an 8 percent failure rate, it is extremely unlikely that failure will occur during the first few ground tests of a new system. At that time, most of the design, analysis and tooling costs of the program have not expended. Since most systems are expected to be used ten to a hundred or more times, the likelihood of one or more failures is very large, and it can be expected that the above losses will be realized in the future. This will occur unless the problems are addressed and remedied. Recent trends suggest the problem is not being addressed adequately.

Crose, James G.

1993-02-01

301

Nuclear fuels in space rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three different types of rocket engines; solid propelled rockets, liquid propelled rockets and nuclear rockets. Nuclear rockets work by routing an appropriate gas through a nuclear rector. The reactor is at high temperature. Gas expands as it leaves the nozzle, producing a high amount of thrust. Nuclear rockets don't need an oxidizer and they require much less fuel

Ahmet Yayli; A. A. Aksit

2003-01-01

302

Terminal Homing Engineering Flight Test T7 and MT7 Missile Launch Transients Data Reduction and Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The launch transients at tipoff for forty-six T7 and MT7 missile launches are compiled, grouped according to Quadrant Elevation Angle, and the mean tipoff transients and standard deviations thereof are calculated. Results are discussed generally in terms ...

J. Knoblach

1974-01-01

303

The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI): instrument and pre-launch testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI), to be launched onboard of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, by 2008. It includes the first results from the instrument level tests. The instrument is designed to be electronically tuneable over a wide and continuous frequency range in the Far Infrared, with velocity resolutions better than 0.1 km/s with a high sensitivity. This will enable detailed investigations of a wide variety of astronomical sources, ranging from solar system objects, star formation regions to nuclei of galaxies. The instrument comprises 5 frequency bands covering 480-1150 GHz with SIS mixers and a sixth dual frequency band, for the 1410-1910 GHz range, with Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers (HEB). The Local Oscillator (LO) subsystem consists of a dedicated Ka-band synthesizer followed by 7 times 2 chains of frequency multipliers, 2 chains for each frequency band. A pair of Auto-Correlators and a pair of Acousto-Optic spectrometers process the two IF signals from the dual-polarization front-ends to provide instantaneous frequency coverage of 4 GHz, with a set of resolutions (140 kHz to 1 MHz), better than < 0.1 km/s. After a successful qualification program, the flight instrument was delivered and entered the testing phase at satellite level. We will also report on the pre-flight test and calibration results together with the expected in-flight performance.

de Graauw, Thijs; Whyborn, Nick; Helmich, Frank; Dieleman, Pieter; Roelfsema, Peter; Caux, Emmanuel; Phillips, Tom; Stutzki, Jürgen; Beintema, Douwe; Benz, Arnold; Biver, Nicolas; Boogert, Adwin; Boulanger, Francois; Cherednichenko, Sergey; Coeur-Joly, Odile; Comito, Claudia; Dartois, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Albrecht; de Lange, Gert; Delorme, Ian; DiGiorgio, Anna; Dubbeldam, Luc; Edwards, Kevin; Fich, Michael; Güsten, Rolf; Herpin, Fabrice; Honingh, Netty; Huisman, Robert; Jacobs, Herman; Jellema, Willem; Kawamura, Jon; Kester, Do; Klapwijk, Teun; Klein, Thomas; Kooi, Jacob; Krieg, Jean-Michel; Kramer, Carsten; Kruizenga, Bob; Laauwen, Wouter; Larsson, Bengt; Leinz, Christian; Liseau, Rene; Lord, Steve; Luinge, Willem; Marston, Anthony; Merkel, Harald; Moreno, Rafael; Morris, Patrick; Murphy, Anthony; Naber, Albert; Planesas, Pere; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Olberg, Micheal; Orleanski, Piotr; Ossenkopf, Volker; Pearson, John; Perault, Michel; Phillip, Sabine; Rataj, Mirek; Ravera, Laurent; Saraceno, Paolo; Schieder, Rudolf; Schmuelling, Frank; Szczerba, Ryszard; Shipman, Russell; Teyssier, David; Vastel, Charlotte; Visser, Huib; Wildeman, Klaas; Wafelbakker, Kees; Ward, John; Higgins, Roonan; Aarts, Henri; Tielens, Xander; Zaal, Peer

2008-08-01

304

Sublimation of ice particles from rocket exhausts in the upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of sublimation of ice particles from a rocket exhaust in the upper atmosphere is examined. Heating by solar radiation and losses of energy by means thermal radiation and sublimation are taken into account in the thermal balance of the ice particles. The time dependences of size and temperature of the ice particles are obtained. An estimation of water vapor concentration around the rocket trajectory is made. The process of sublimation of the rocket exhaust ice particles may be important for the interpretation of optical phenomena in the upper atmosphere connected with rocket launches and for propagation of disturbances at a large distance from the rocket.

Platov, Y. V.; Kosch, M. J.

2003-12-01

305

The famous son of Ukrainian people V.I. Voznyuk who has provided launch of all ballistic missiles of the cosmodrome Kapustin Yar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the life of V.I. Voznyuk is a history of the phenomenon of the Soviet rocket progress when the engineers with experience of launch of military rocket of small radius of action were testing the ballistic missiles. The remarkable and little-known destiny of Voznuk is the history of the Soviet rocket technology experts who had a severe practical schooling of command by the military forces of the first combat missiles “Katucha” during the grim military years (including the grandiose fight in Stalingrad) and then they have continued to launch the ballistic missiles. V.I. Voznyuk worked as the chief of the first Soviet cosmodrome Kapustin Yar for almost 30 years—since the most difficult moment of its organization. He organized a launch of the first Soviet ballistic missiles R-1, R-2, R-5M of S. Korolev. This report is about the outstanding achievement of the organizing ability of V.I. Voznyuk—about the launch of a missile with a nuclear warhead in 1956. V.I. Voznyuk closes a unique chain in the world of outstanding figures of space-rocket technology who were born or lived in Ukraine from designers of missile up to the organizers of its manufacture and now up to the organizers of the tests of rockets—J. Aizenberg, V. Budnik, O. Baclanov, V. Dogujiev, M. Galasj, N. Gerasuta, V. Gluschko, B. Gubanov, A. Gudimenko, I. Ivanov, G. Kesunjko, B. Konoplev, S. Korolev, V. Kovtunenko, V. Kukuschkin, O. Makarov, A. Nedaivoda, M. Reshetniyov, Yu. Semenov, V. Sergeev, Yu. Smetanin, V. Tchelomey, D. Torchiy, V. Utkin and M. Yangel.

Prisniakov, V. F.; Platonov, V. P.

2007-12-01

306

Design, manufacture and test of the composite case for ERINT-1 solid rocket motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEP is in charge since 1989 of the ERINT-1 motor case and nozzle. The stringent missile weight and volume requirements coupled with the specification to provide an aerodynamically stable configuration over a very large Mach number range led to the need to develop a high-performance composite motor case. Development of this SRM case presented a variety of technical challenges that were solved by an original design: (1) integral skirts, high bending stiffness, and bending loads are required; (2) high temperature composite stiffness and loads are required up to 160 C; (3) integral fin lugs attachments high aerodynamic loading is required on fin lugs; (4) enclosed fore dome; and (5) aft-pinned joint: a large rear opening is required to cast the propellant. Structural testing in ultimate conditions confirmed the soundness of the design. Positive safety margins were demonstrated on both internal pressure and mechanical loads requirements.

Mard, Francis

1993-06-01

307

Soviet Tunneling Rockets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operational tunneling rocket is described which has been developed by a Soviet army officer. The information is mainly from one article in a semipopular journal, and hence is largely descriptive without giving precise performance data on the rocket. Pr...

S. G. Hibben

1973-01-01

308

Rockets for Spin Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of th...

R. D. Whipple

1980-01-01

309

More Than a Wing and a Prayer: Government Indemnification of the Commercial Space Launch Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using rockets to launch communications satellites and other spacecraft poses risks to the uninvolved public, including persons and property under the flight path of the launch vehicle. The federal government plays a pivotal technical role during the actual launch by carrying out certain risk-related procedures, thus causing third-party risk to be jointly produced by the company and the government. In

Timothy J. Brennan; Carolyn Kousky; Molly K. Macauley

2009-01-01

310

Recovery system of sounding rocket S-520 type of ISAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, performance, equipment, and initial flight test results for the S-520 solid fueled rocket are described. The S-520 carries a 408 kg payload, delivers 28,000 lb thrust, has a specific impulse of 29 sec, attains a velocity of 2.13 km/sec, and can reach 232 km altitude. The first S-520 was 9 m long and 0.524 m in diameter and had a three-stage configuration: engine, recovery test unit (RCU), and scientific instruments. The RTU contained parachute and flotation systems and a Loran-C locator beacon. The initial flight in September 1981 resulted in a splashdown 320 km downrange, with recovery accomplished within 4 hr of launch. Further flight tests and design upgrades are planned.

Hinada, M.; Hayashi, T.; Matsuo, H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Ohshima, T.; Maeda, Y.; Kamata, Y.

311

The 16-inch gun-launched anti-satellite weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis determined the feasibility of developing a 16-inch, gun-launched anti-satellite weapon. The general performance capability of rocket-and scramjet-boosted, gun-launched vehicles is examined with regards to propelling a miniature homing vehicle to a satellite intercept altitude. Rocket and scramjet boost vehicle performance is modeled and optimum trajectories are determined. A low gun elevation at launch and a pop-up manuever are required to maximize the scramjet boost vehicle acceleration potential. The rocket boost vehicle is capable of intercepting a low altitude satellite without a pop-up manuever from a gun elevation of 45 degrees. Both boost methods provide apogees consistent with the intercept of known Soviet Electronic Intelligence Ocean Reconnaissance satellites, EORSAT, and Radar Ocean Reconnaissance satellites, RORSAT.

Natale, J. J.

1982-06-01

312

Stratospheric ozone reactive chemicals generated by space launches worldwide  

SciTech Connect

We report quantities of inorganic chlorine compounds and aluminum oxide particles (Al203) deposited in the stratosphere and troposphere by solid rocket propelled launch vehicles. Totals are presented by launch vehicle type, summarized on an annual basis, and projected to the year 2010 using standard mission models. Data are given for Air Force, NASA (shuttle and expendable vehicles), the European Space Agency (ESA) (Ariane 5), and the Japanese Space Agency (H-1 and H-2). Whereas inorganic chlorine compounds released by solid rockets are directly related to stratospheric ozone depletion, much uncertainty surrounds reactivity of aluminum oxide particles. We also compare current and future effects of space launch on stratospheric ozone depletion with those of Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODCs). As a baseline, we use projections of future ODC use by SMC, Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), and the world. Relevant stratospheric chemistry is considered to make a legitimate comparison of ODC and solid rocket exhaust.

Brady, B.B.; Fournier, E.W.; Martin, L.R.; Cohen, R.B.

1994-11-01

313

Parametric Study of Water Rocket for Optimum Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric study is conducted to find the optimum condition of water rocket for long flight, provided that the tank volume is prescribed. The parameters considered in the present study are the initial air pressure, water volume fraction, empty rocket mass, launching angle and bottle diameter which significantly affect the flight performance of water rocket. First, we calculate the temporal changes in tank pressure, water and air issue speeds and thrust, on the basis of a simple physical model which has been experimentally validated. Then, this model is incorporated into the equation of motion to calculate the ballistic flight of water rocket with various parameter values. As a result, it is found that PET bottles in the market are one of the most suitable for use as the pressure tank of water rocket.

Ota, Takayuki; Umemura, Akira

314

Boat Launching Ramps, Guam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the site selection, substrate testing and designs for three boat launching ramps located in Umatac, Inarajan and the Piti Harbor of Refuge, Guam. These designs are phase 1 of a 3 phase boat ramp construction program described in the r...

1985-01-01

315

Conceptual Launch Vehicles Using Metallic Hydrogen Propellant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid molecular hydrogen is predicted to transform into an atomic solid with metallic properties under pressures >4.5 Mbar. Atomic metallic hydrogen is predicted to be metastable, limited by some critical temperature and pressure, and to store very large amounts of energy. Experiments may soon determine the critical temperature, critical pressure, and specific energy availability. It is useful to consider the feasibility of using metastable atomic hydrogen as a rocket propellant. If one assumes that metallic hydrogen is stable at usable temperatures and pressures, and that it can be affordably produced, handled, and stored, then it may be a useful rocket propellant. Assuming further that the available specific energy can be determined from the recombination of the atoms into molecules (216 MJ/kg), then conceptual engines and launch vehicle concepts can be developed. Under these assumptions, metallic hydrogen would be a revolutionary new rocket fuel with a theoretical specific impulse of 1700 s at a chamber pressure of 100 atm. A practical problem that arises is that rocket chamber temperatures may be too high for the use of this pure fuel. This paper examines an engine concept that uses liquid hydrogen or water as a diluent coolant for the metallic hydrogen to reduce the chamber temperature to usable values. Several launch vehicles are then conceptually developed. Results indicate that if metallic hydrogen is experimentally found to have the properties assumed in this analysis, then there are significant benefits. These benefits become more attractive as the chamber temperatures increase.

Cole, John W.; Silvera, Isaac F.; Foote, John P.

2008-01-01

316

Design and testing of integrated metal armature sabots for launch of armour penetrating projectiles from electric guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic railguns have now demonstrated their potential as an efficient vehicle for the launching of long rod armor penetrating projectiles capable of defeating heavily armored mobile targets. Mid-body-drive, integrated metal sabot\\/armatures have been developed for launch of tactically configured armor penetrating subprojectiles from an electric gun. The authors discuss the development of five generations of large caliber metal armature and

J. H. Price; H. D. Yun

1995-01-01

317

ISS Update: VASIMR Plasma Rocket  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Ken Bollweg, VASIMR Project Manager, about VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), recent testing progress and future applications. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Russell Todd D

2012-03-09

318

Esrange activities: Sounding rockets, balloons and satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The range facilities are described in detail for the prospective user, including instrumentation launch capabilities, support facilities, and costs. High performance sounding rockets such as Aries and Nike BB can now, thanks to guidance systems, be launched above 500 km allowing the exploration of higher regions and longer observation time. Microgravity experiments using sounding rockets are successfully carried out from the range. Land recovery is necessary in this case. Since 1978 Esrange has been operating a Landsat remote sensing satellite receiving station as part of ESA's ground station network, Earthnet. Additional installations for reception and processing of SPOT and Landsat (D) data are planned. A satellite tracking and control station is envisaged in the near future.

Helger, A.

1980-06-01

319

Loading of Launch Vehicle when Launching from Floating Launch Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

equator, which is a most effective way from payload capability standpoint. But mobility of the Launch Platform conditions an increase in LV loading as compared with onground launch. Therefore, to provide efficiency of lounching from LP requires solving certain issues to minimize LV loading at launch processing. The paper at hand describes ways to solve these issues while creating and operating the international space launch system Sea Launch, which provides commercial spacecraft launches onboard Zenit-3SL launch vehicle from the floating launch platform located at the equator in the Pacific. Methods to decrease these loads by selecting the optimum position of LP and by correcting LP trim and heel were described. In order to account for impact of weather changing (i.e. waves and winds) and launch support operations on the launch capability, a system of predicted load calculation was designed. By measuring LP roll and pitch parameters as well as wind speed and direction, the system defines loading at LV root section, compares it with the allowable value and, based on the compavision, forms a conclusion on launch capability. launches by Sea Launch.

Agarkov, A. V.; Pyrig, V. A.

2002-01-01

320

Operation Manual for the Nots-NASA Rocket-Motor Acoustic Test Facility Steady-State Resonance Tests with Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steady-state resonance tests with through flow and a sonic nozzle throat condition were run on the NOTS-NASA acoustic-loss test facility to establish and record the instrument hookup schematics, instrument settings, system calibration procedures, and data...

F. G. Buffum P. H. Werback D. R. Skaar

1967-01-01

321

NASA nixes Centaur launches from shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

James C. Fletcher, the administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced on June 19, 1986, that because of safety considerations, the space shuttle will not be used to launch the Centaur Upper Stage. The Ulysses and Galileo missions, which were originally to have been launched in May 1986, would have been launched from the shuttle with the Centaur rocket (Eos, November 19, 1985, p. 1183; February 4, 1986, p. 57). The Galileo craft is to explore Jupiter; Ulysses is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA that is to orbit the sun around its poles, outside of the “ecliptic plane” where the planets lie. The decision seems likely to delay further the two missions, which were already delayed by the suspension of shuttle launches after the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986.

Katzoff, Judith A.

322

Weather satellite lost in launch accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $57.5-million weather satellite was lost on May 3, 1986, when the unmanned Delta rocket that carried it went out of control 71 s after liftoff and was destroyed by command from the ground. It was the third consecutive launching failure for the U.S. space program, following the losses of the space shuttle Challenger in January and an Air Force

Judith A. Katzoff

1986-01-01

323

Reliability Estimation Methods for Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability estimation using the dispersive, binominal distribution method has been traditionally used to certify the reliability of liquid rocket engines, but its estimation sometimes disagreed with the failure rates of flight engines. In order to take better results, the reliability growth model and the failure distribution method are applied to estimate the reliability of LE-7A engines, which have propelled the first stage of H-2A launch vehicles.

Hirata, Kunio; Masuya, Goro; Kamijo, Kenjiro

324

ESA to launch six scientific satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, will lead the trio into space. It will be launched on an Ariane 4 rocket in early November from the European launch site at Kourou, French Guiana. It will be followed in mid-December by SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which will be launched by an Atlas IIAS rocket from Cape Canaveral, USA. Finally, in mid-January the four Cluster probes will be carried into space on the inaugural flight of Ariane 5. ISO is the world's only orbiting infrared observatory and is the most sophisticated ever. Its sensitive detectors will be cooled to below -270 degrees C, allowing it to observe cool objects in space, invisible through ordinary telescopes. ISO's many scientific goals include studying newly formed stars and planets, investigating the aging process of galaxies and search for the universe's elusive 'dark matter' that is believed to outweigh visible stars and galaxies. The SOHO observatory will provide scientists with a comprehensive study of the sun, the nuclear powerhouse in the centre of our solar system. Its twelve experiments, developed by scientists from Europe and the United States, will investigate the sun from its core outwards -from the very inner workings of the star, to the solar wind which blows through the solar system. The four identical Cluster spacecraft will focus on studying the interaction of the sun with plasmas of the Earth and the magnetic field in a region known as the magnetosphere. The four probes, flying in formation, will allow scientists to build up a three-dimensional picture of the battle between the sun's streams of wind and the Earth's protective magnetic field. These missions represent years of work by scientists across Europe and around the world. The data they gather will provide us with a greater understanding of our own solar neighbourhood and deep space. SPACECRAFT STATUS AS AT 1 SEPTEMBER 95 ISO The ISO satellite, together with all the associated equipment, was transported in June by ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The Cluster launch campaign is proceeding on schedule for the planned launch date of 17 January 199

1995-09-01

325

MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assi...

D. Creech

2011-01-01

326

Design and Fabrication of Sounding Rocket Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ongoing effort has been maintained from February 1971 through January 1972 providing engineering design, fabrication, test and field support services concerned with various sounding rocket payloads. A concise summary of the details relative to each pay...

R. E. Kenyon

1972-01-01

327

The F-1 Engine Powered Apollo Into History, Blazes Path for Space Launch System Advanced Propulsion  

NASA Website

The F-1 engine - the most powerful single-nozzle, liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed - boosted the Saturn V rocket off the launch pad and on to the moon during NASA's Apollo program during the 1960s and 1970s.

328

CubeSats, Launcher to Test Satellite Innovations  

NASA Video Gallery

Launching June 15 from Mojave, Calif., a Prospector-18D liquid-fueled rocket is to carry a set of small satellites high into the air to test how well they handle the shock, heat and vibration of launch. The satellites, each a 4-inch cube, are packed with sensors and equipment for the test flight that is expected to lead to an orbital mission next year. Advances in the small satellites' design could be used in the future in other spacecraft.

KSC Web Team

2013-06-13

329

Engineering Design Manual of Parachute Decelerator Characteristics for Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design criteria and characteristics of parachutes for recovery of the solid rocket boosters used with the space shuttle launch are presented. A computer program for analyzing the requirements of the parachute decelerators is described. The computer in...

D. L. Mansfield

1973-01-01

330

Project-based introduction to aerospace engineering course: A model rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model rocket project suitable for sophomore aerospace engineering students is described. This project encompasses elements of drag estimation, thrust determination and analysis using digital data acquisition, statistical analysis of data, computer aided drafting, programming, team work and written communication skills. The student built rockets are launched in the university baseball field with the objective of carrying

Sanjay Jayaram; Lawrence Boyer; John George; K. Ravindra; Kyle Mitchell

2010-01-01

331

Rocket measurements of electric fields, electron density and temperature during different phases of auroral substorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Jan. 27, 1979, three rocket payloads were launched from Kiruna, Sweden into different phases of two successive auroral substorms. Among other experiments, the payloads carried the RIT double probe electric field experiments providing electric field, electron density and temperature data which are presented here. These data, supported by rocket particle observations, are discussed mainly in association with ground-based observations

G. Marklund; L. Block; P.-A. Lindqvist

1981-01-01

332

Search for lightning-induced electron precipitation with rocket-borne photometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometers at 3914 A and 5577 A and an optical imager were part of an experimental package launched on a sounding rocket in the 1987 Wave Induced Particle Precipitation campaign at Wallops Island, Virginia. The objective was to measure lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) by means of its optical signature. This was the first attempt to measure LEP using rocket-borne optical

R. D. Massey; M. P. McCarthy; G. K. Parks

1990-01-01

333

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spi...

M. D. Bowles V. P. Dawson

2004-01-01

334

Rocket Measurements of Electron Density, Electron Temperature and the Earth'S Magnetic Field Above Fort Churchill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results obtained from two Nike-Apache and two Javelin (Argo D-4) rockets launched in mixed pairs at Fort Churchill, Canada, in November 1964. These rockets were instrumented with two-frequency propagation beacons, Langmuir probes,...

H. T. Lootens

1968-01-01

335

Walter Thiel—Short life of a rocket scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch that reached a height of 84.5 km and had a speed of 4.824 km/h (5x sonic speed). This rocket flew 190 km to the target location. One of the masterminds of this launch was Walter Thiel, a German chemist and rocket engineer. Thiel was highly talented, during his education from primary school until diploma exams he always received a grade of A in his exams. He was called "the student with the 7 A grades". In 1934 Thiel became Dr.-Ing. (chem.), with the highest possible honor (summa cum laude), when he was only 24 years old. He started to work for the rocket development department at Humboldt University, Berlin. Walter Dornberger asked him to leave the university research department and become head of rocket propulsion development in his team in Kummersdorf, near Berlin. Thiel's groundbreaking ideas for the rocket engine would lead to a significant reduction in material, weight and work processes, as well as a shortening in the length of the engine itself. Thiel and his team also defined the fuel itself and the best ratio of mixture between ethanol and liquid oxygen for the engine. In 1940 the propulsion team moved from Kummersdorf to Peenemünde after the launch sites were completed there. Thiel became deputy of Wernher von Braun at the R&D units. One of Thiel's team members was Konrad Dannenberg, who later became famous in the development of the Saturn program. On the night from August 17 to August 18, 1943, Thiel and his family (wife and two children) were killed during a Royal Air Force bombing raid (Operation Hydra). The Moon crater "Thiel" on the far side of the Moon is named after Walter Thiel. The research results of Walter Thiel had a strong impact on the United States' rocket program as well as the Russian rocket development program.

Thiel, Karen; Przybilski, Olaf

2013-10-01

336

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

337

Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission

Michael R. Kruzic

2008-01-01

338

Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron Activated Shield Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products

Michael R. Kruzic

2007-01-01

339

Static firing test results of the H-I and H-II launch vehicle development at the Tanegashima Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to its H-I launch vehicle complex, Japan's Tanegashima Space Center (TSC) encompasses three static-firing test facilities. These facilities will respectively be used in the course of the H-II launch vehicle development program for the static firing of strap-on boosters, the MB-3 liquid-fueled engine, and the Yoshinobu static firing test facility for the LE-7 staged combustion-cycle first-stage engine. Results are presented from static firings for the three H-II components which have been conducted to date. The first flight of the H-II, following completion of static tests at the aforementioned TSC facilities, is scheduled for 1993.

Sekita, Ryuichi; Haraguchi, Yoshitaka; Konno, Akira; Saito, Takashi

1991-10-01

340

Launching tactically configured solid armature projectiles from large and medium calibre railguns-results from the DRA test programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main thrusts of the United Kingdom EM gun programme is to prove the feasibility of accurate hypervelocity flight of projectiles launched from an EM gun. Several notable successes have been achieved in pursuit of this goal. To date DRA has carried out almost 70 large and medium calibre solid armature experiments using 40 mm and 90 mm

Doug Kirkpatrick; David Haugh

1997-01-01

341

New infrastructure and extended scientific possibilities using the sounding rocket facilities at Andøya and Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) has an extensive record of successful launches of sounding rockets and scientific balloons since 1962. ARR provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching service are offered from sites on the mainland of Norway at 69° North and from the SvalRak Sounding Rocket Launch Facility at Svalbard (Ny-Ålesund) at 78° North. Since the opening of the SvalRak facility in 1997, a number of sounding rockets have been launched from this facility; the last one was a three stage Black Brant X sounding rocket for NASA reaching a peak altitude of more than 781 km. The geographical location, infrastructure and extensive network of ground-based instruments made the SvalRak launch facility ideal for studies of the dayside aurora, magnetospheric boundary layer processes and the magnetic cleft, cap and cusp. This paper will present the sounding rocket research possibilities offered by ARR from the two different locations in combination with the large network of groundbased instruments available in Northern Norway and Svalbard. New infrastructure and extended scientific possibilities will be emphasized.

Dragøy, Petter; Bøen, Kjell

2005-08-01

342

A combined cycle engine test facility  

SciTech Connect

Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines intended for missiles and/or space launch applications incorporate features of rocket propulsion systems operating in concert with airbreathing engine cycles. Performance evaluation of these types of engines, which are intended to operate from static sea level take-off to supersonic cruise or accerlerate to orbit, requires ground test capabilities which integrate rocket component testing with airbreathing engine testing. A combined cycle engine test facility has been constructed in the General Applied Science Laboratories, Inc. (GASL) Aeropropulsion Test Laboratory to meet this requirement. The facility was designed to support the development of an innovative combined cycle engine concept which features a rocket based ramjet combustor. The test requirements included the ability to conduct tests in which the propulsive force was generated by rocket only, the ramjet only and simultaneous rocket and ramjet power (combined cycle) to evaluate combustor operation over the entire engine cycle. The test facility provides simulation over the flight Mach number range of 0 to 8 and at various trajectories. The capabilities of the combined cycle engine test facility are presented.

Engers, R.; Cresci, D.; Tsai, C. [General Applied Science Laboratories Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

343

Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) utilizing LOX\\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its liquid hydrogen contents, with no need for separate cryogenic insulation, and in part because the high use temperature of titanium honeycomb reduces the required surface area of re-entry thermal protection systems. System operability is increased because TPS needs to be applied only to surfaces where temperatures exceed approximately 650 K. In order to demonstrate the viability of a titanium sandwich constructed propellant tank, a technology demonstration program was conducted including the design, fabrication and testing of a propellant tank-TPS system. The tank was tested in controlled as well as ambient environments representing ground hold conditions for a RLV main propellant tank. Data collected during each test run was used to validate predictions for air liquefaction, outside wall temperature, boil-off rates, frost buildup and its insulation effects, and the effects of placing a thermal protection system blanket on the external surface. Test results indicated that titanium honeycomb, when used as a RLV propellant tank material, has great promise as a light-weight structural system.

Stickler, Patrick B.; Keller, Peter C.

1998-01-01

344

Liquid rocket propulsion. Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose is to introduce the fundamentals and the basic technology of liquid propellant rockets. Much of the material is derived from other courses on propulsion. The first lecture covers the foundations at the broad brush level. Starting from the functional requirements placed on the device, various types of rocket are examined. The missions for which liquid propellant rockets are the better choice are identified. An ideal gas examination of the essential performance parameters and their variation with basic controllable inputs is presented. The thermodynamics and the fluid mechanics of the reacting flows occurring in rocket combustors and nozzles are considered. The effects of propellant choices and the +/- 5 performance estimates are included.

Martinez-Sanchez, M.

345

Rocket astronomy - an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of rocket astronomy is retold, with emphasis on solar investigations. The use of captured V-2 rockets after World War II was followed by the Aerobee, which exceeded the V-2's altitude and was more reliable. The V-2 has made first-generation investigations in X-ray and UV photometry, which was followed by studies of the solar cycle X-ray variablity, the X-ray corona, and solar flares. Nike rockets played an important role in these investigations. The role of rockets in galactic X-ray astronomy is briefly described.

Friedman, H.

346

Particle bed reactor central to SDI nuclear rocket project  

SciTech Connect

A classified SDI project designated 'Timberwind' and funded with an estimated $7-8 billion over the project's life is charged with the development and flight testing of nuclear reactor-powered rockets. Timberwind's novel 'particle-bed reactor' technology will employ small pellets of reactor fuel to heat a low molecular weight working fluid, such as hydrogen. The fuel pellets would be 0.5 mm in diameter and may be composed of a kernel of fissionable U together with a carbon alloy, coated by layers of carbon and a sealant. A covering of zirconium carbide would prevent chemical degradation of the pellets by the hydrogen working fluid. Performace projection comparisons are conducted for Timberwind, an advanced Atlas-Centaur, and an advanced Titan launch vehicle.

Asker, J.R.

1991-04-01

347

Machine Learning for Rocket Propulsion Health Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the initial results of applying two machine-learning-based unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms, Orca and GritBot, to data from two rocket propulsion testbeds. The first testbed uses historical data from the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The second testbed uses data from an experimental rocket engine test stand located at NASA Stennis Space Center. The paper describes four candidate anomalies

Mark Schwabacher

2005-01-01

348

Successful launch of Maxus-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maxus-2 sounding rocket was launched successfully from Esrange at Kiruna, Sweden, on Tuesday 28 November 1995. Lift-off occurred at 10:42 CET in clear weather (after a 24 hour delay due to the malfunctioning of a video feed from the experiment modules). In a flawless flight, the rocket reached an apogee of 705.8 km as expected. The 8 experiments making up the 505 kg payload underwent in microgravity conditions for almost 13 minutes (see ESA press release 56-95 for details of the payload). All experiments were recovered by helicopter about 1 hour and 20 minutes after the payload has landed by parachute. Qualitative analysis performed after recovery of the experiments shown very good results for all but one experiment (study of Marangoni instability in a multilayer system, which suffered a minor hardware glitch). Complete analysis of the results will be conducted at the home institutes of the scientists concerned over the coming months. The experiments - all funded by ESA - were supplied by Belgian, German, French and Swiss researchers, with hardware built by Swedish, German and Italian firms.

1995-11-01

349

Sounding rocket investigations of whistler, upper hybrid and Langmuir waves in the auroral ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis data from four sounding rocket experiments (PHAZE II, SIERRA, RACE and HIBAR) are used to explore the high and medium frequency waves seen in the auroral ionosphere. All rockets were launched into active aurora and carried both particle and electric field detectors. The high frequency electric field detectors built at Dartmouth gave us the electric field waveform with very good resolution in both frequency and time and we were able to identify several wave modes finding new insights and describing new features of them in this work. First, the HIBAR rocket encountered two bursts of upper hybrid waves just below fuh = 2fce in association with a density "shoulder" and enhancement, respectively. The observed waves show several bands of frequency structure as well as sub structure while at the same time, the measured electron distribution indicates wave instability for frequencies 1-1.2% percent below the electron cyclotron harmonic. These results agree qualitatively with theoretical work predicting banded structure associated with upper hybrid waves trapped in density enhancements. In the RACE and SIERRA data we see narrowband, short-lived emissions near fpe, reminiscent of the HF "chirps" seen on the PHAZE II rocket (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999). We find that the frequency-time signatures of these phenomena are more varied than implied in the literature and we were able to infer decay times for a number of them. Two specific features associated with the whistler mode, which we call "hooks" and "stripes", were detected with SIERRA. We discuss possible generation mechanisms and test these ideas using ray tracing calculations. The "stripes" are most plausibly consequences of electrostatic whistlers shed by upward moving electron hole features at altitudes above 1000 km. We discuss evidence for this hypothesis. Finally, we computed statistics of the electric field amplitudes of the Langmuir waves observed with the PHAZE 11 rocket and found that they were lognormal, but departing from it at large electric fields following a power law instead.

Samara, Marilia

350

Rocket motor exhaust scrubber  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wet scrubber having a series of chambers for capturing and cooling exhaust gases generated during static test firing of rocket motors. Exhaust gas enters an inlet to a first chamber and is cooled and slowed by a spray solution. HCL gas is condensed and absorbed by the spray solution and precipitates to a liquid slurry at the bottom of the device. The remaining exhaust products enter a demister chamber where nozzles continue to spray the gasses as they pass upward and through a mesh-style demister at the top of the vessel. The demister filters liquid and solid waste particles from the gas stream, and the clean, dry gases are accelerated through a centrifugal fan into the atmosphere. A deflector is positioned within the inlet to the first chamber for containing parts in the event of a motor mal-function.

Carns; Richard H. (Byantown, MD); Armstrong; Gerald (Hughesville, MD); Rast; Robert H. (Nanjemoy, MD); Mitchell; Dennis R. (Brooking, OR)

2005-11-15

351

Juno: Launching to Jupiter  

NASA Video Gallery

The Juno spacecraft will look deep beneath Jupiter's swirling curtains of clouds to decipher the planet's structure and history during a mission that will begin with a 5-year flight through deep space. The journey will begin aboard an Atlas V rocket equipped with five booster rockets and a large Centaur upper stage.

KSC Web Team

2011-08-03

352

SSTO rockets. A practical possibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most experts agree that single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets would become feasible if more advanced technologies were available to reduce the vehicle dry weight, increase propulsion system performance, or both. However, these technologies are usually judged to be very ambitious and very far off. This notion persists despite major advances in technology and vehicle design in the past decade. There appears to be four major misperceptions about SSTOs, regarding their mass fraction, their presumed inadequate performance margin, their supposedly small payloads, and their extreme sensitivity to unanticipated vehicle weight growth. These misperceptions can be dispelled for SSTO rockets using advanced technologies that could be matured and demonstrated in the near term. These include a graphite-composite primary structure, graphite-composite and Al-Li propellant tanks with integral reusable thermal protection, long-life tripropellant or LOX-hydrogen engines, and several technologies related to operational effectiveness, including vehicle health monitoring, autonomous avionics/flight control, and operable launch and ground handling systems.

Bekey, Ivan

1994-07-01

353

Near-ultraviolet limb imaging spectrograph for sounding rockets  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing investigation of airglow emissions of the upper atmosphere, an intensified CCD imaging spectrograph has been developed for a sounding rocket project called GEMINI (general excitation mechanisms in nightglow). The instrument, known as LISA (limb-imaging spectrograph for airglow), will be used to measure the limb profiles of some important nighttime airglow emission features. The observed limb profiles will be analyzed to provide atmospheric temperatures and density profiles of excited atomic and molecular species of interest to specific modeling problems in the mesopause and lower thermosphere. The GEMINI rocket is to be launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, in late 1993 or early 1994. The payload will be three-axis stabilized and absolute pointing will be derived from a star video camera. The authors describe the design capabilities of the LISA instrument, which include a spectral range of 310 to 390 nm, a wavelength resolution of [approximately]0.3 nm, a height resolution of 1 km, and a theoretical count rate of 0.04 count R[sub [minus]1] s[sub [minus]1], where R represents rayleighs. The imager design is discussed and they present the results of some laboratory test performed by means of an artificial source of the oxygen nightglow emission.

Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Powell, I.P. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Herzberg Inst. of Astrophysics); McDade, I.C. (York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Science); Llewellyn, E.J.; Yuen, J.W.N.; Moorhouse, P. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Inst. of Space and Atmospheric Studies); Chakrabarti, S. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Space Physics); Sharp, W.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Space Physics Research Lab.)

1993-12-01

354

Low-cost launch system and orbital fuel depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system is proposed for the low-cost launching of large quantities of rocket fuel into earth orbit, storage in the orbit, and transfer of the fuel to the NASA Space Station. The system consists of an electromagnetic launcher which fires heat-shielded fuel tanks into high earth orbit, where they are captured by a long, rotating tether. The tether is

J. Pearson

1986-01-01

355

Near-Optimal Operation of Dual-Fuel Launch Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit pure rocket launch vehicle is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal fl...

M. D. Ardema H. C. Chou J. V. Bowles

1996-01-01

356

Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

2010-12-01

357

Rockets -- Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)|

Leitner, Alfred

1982-01-01

358

Tea Bag Rocket  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, create a mini rocket out of a tea bag. Use this activity to explore convection and heat. Compare different brands of tea bags to see which bags work best as rockets. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video. Safety note: this activity requires an open flame; adult supervision required.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-30

359

Model Rockets and Microchips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points out the instructional applications and program possibilities of a unit on model rocketry. Describes the ways that microcomputers can assist in model rocket design and in problem calculations. Provides a descriptive listing of model rocket software for the Apple II microcomputer. (ML)|

Fitzsimmons, Charles P.

1986-01-01

360

Acoustic tests on a new motor generator system for the Minuteman launch control centers at Alpha 01 and Sierra 00, Malmstrom AFB, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field tests of the acoustic performance of a new motor generator system (MGS) were performed at Minuteman Launch Control Centers (LCC) Alpha 01 and Sierra 00, Malmstrom AFB, MT. This same MGS unit was accepted for use after the Hill Engineering Test Facilities (HETF) acoustic performance studies conducted in 1988. Rivet Mile from the Ogden ALC began installation of the new MGS at Malmstrom in the spring of 1990. Performance tests were requested by 00-ALC/MMGRMM, and SAC, to compare with the HETF data and document the LCC acoustic environment with the new MGS operating in a field setting. This report presents our findings.

Fairman, Terry M.

1991-05-01

361

Acoustic tests on a new motor generator system for the minuteman launch control centers in Hill engineering test facilities 1 and 2, Hill AFB, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post critical design review acoustic tests were performed in Hill Engineering Test Facilities 1 and 2 (HETF) on a proposed new motor generator system for the Minuteman Launch Control Centers (LCC). A performance noise criteria equivalent to a preferred noise criterion (PNC-50) curve was established as the standard by which to judge the effectiveness of the new motor generator. Measurements were obtained at both the commander's console and the deputy commander's console. Results indicated the noise from the motor generator as configured in HETF 1 (the small LCC) exceeded the PNC-50 criteria primarily in the 63 hertz (Hz) octave band by 10 decibels (dB) when operated in both the ac and dc modes. The motor generator as configured in HETF 2 (the large LCC) exceeded the PNC-50 criteria by 3 dB in the 125 Hz octave band only at the deputy commander's console when operated in the ac mode. Acoustic intensity measurements were obtained to isolate specific noise sources and determine the transmission loss of the floor panels. Vibration measurements were also made on and near the motor generator to determine paths of structure-borne vibration energy. Specific recommendations for improving the acoustic environment in the LCC's are presented.

Fairman, Terry M.

1989-04-01

362

Powerful liquid rocket engine (LRE) created by NPO Energomash for up to date space rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics and design of liquid rocket engines for Proton, Zenit, and Energia launch vehicles are described. Particular attention is given to RD-253 engine using N2O4 and UDMH propellants, and RD-170 and RD-120 engines based on Lox and Kerosene propellants. The RD-170 and RD-120 engines are considered to be the culmination of high pressure staged combustion and oxidizer rich

Yurij N. Tkachenko; Charles D. Limerick

1993-01-01

363

Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas

Nobuyuki Kaya; Masashi Iwashita; Kohei Tanaka; Shinichi Nakasuka; Leopold Summerer

2009-01-01

364

Rocket-Based Magnetic Observations of Auroral Birkeland Currents in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rocket-borne experiment package containing a vector magnetometer and an array of charged particle detectors was launched over a structured auroral arc from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972. This paper discusses the results of the magnetometer data which indicate the existence of a pair of oppositely directed Birkeland current sheets with magnitudes of --2.7 X

P. A. CLOUTIER

1975-01-01

365

Observations of Limb Radiance with Cryogenic Spectral Infrared Rocket Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Spectral Infrared Rocket Experiment was launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, on September 28, 1977, to measure infrared emission spectra from the earth limb atmosphere. Spectrometers measured emission spectra from 1.40 to 16.5 micrometers during 12 vertica...

A. T. Stair R. D. Sharma R. M. Nadile D. J. Baker W. F. Grieder

1985-01-01

366

X-ray scanning of overhead aurorae from rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Nike Tomahawk rocket payloads were launched into energetic auroral events in September, 1976 to investigate the structure of these events, as well as their effects on the atmosphere. X-ray scintillation detectors with energy discrimination in four ranges were used to measure the deposition of bremsstrahlung produced X-rays within the stratosphere and mesosphere. Iterative computer techniques were used to reconstruct

J. R. Barcus; R. A. Goldberg; L. H. Gesell

1981-01-01

367

Direct measurements of the helium photoionization rate from sounding rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of directly measuring the absolute helium photoionization rate coefficient independent of detailed solar EUV spectra and photoionization cross sections has been demonstrated. Three such measurements were obtained using windowless rare-gas ionization cells operated in an optically thin mode. The cells were launched on Nike\\/Terrier boosted Black Brant sounding rockets from the White Sands Missile Range in 1983, 1989,

H. S. Ogawa; E. Phillips; D. L. Judge

1997-01-01

368

Axial thrust behavior in LOX-pump of rocket engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LOX pump of the first stage of the H-2 rocket, the next generation of large launch vehicle in Japan, has shown fairly good axial thrust performance. However, the behavior of the axial thrust is not well known because of the complicated mechanism of the thrust-balancing device. In order to elucidate the flow characteristic of the complicated thrust balancing device

Junichi Kurokawa; Kenjiro Kamijo; Takashi Shimura

1994-01-01

369

Integrated propulsion and power modeling for bimodal nuclear thermal rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) engines have been shown to reduce the weight of space vehicles to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by utilizing a common reactor for propulsion and power generation. These savings lead to reduced launch vehicle costs and\\/or increased mission safety and capability. Experimental work of the Rover\\/NERVA program demonstrated the feasibility of NTR systems for trajectories

Joshua Clough

2007-01-01

370

Rocket propulsion for NASA's Earth to orbit launchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. and NASA currently use a diverse, flexible family of ETO (Earth To Orbit) launch systems. One element of this family is the expendable launch vehicles. For this element, NASA procures the requisite launch services directly from the commercial sector. The major current U.S. vehicles in this segment are Delta, Atlas, and Titan. The characteristics of these vehicles and rocket propulsion are described. The other element of the current launcher family is the Space Shuttle fleet. The Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Main Propulsion System (MPS), the External Tank (ET), and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), are described. Looking ahead, new launch vehicles featuring increased mission safety and reliability, reduced operations requirements and costs and enhanced performance are projected. The elements of these systems would support a modular approach capable of transporting a range of payload. The rocket propulsion elements under consideration for these vehicles, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), propulsion modules, a modified STS external tank and solid rocket motors, are described.

McCarty, John P.

1991-12-01

371

Introduction of Laser Initiation for the 48-Inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Test Motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturin...

C. J. Zimmerman G. E. Litzinger

1993-01-01

372

Getting a Rover Ready for Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers put the rover through thousands of hours of testing. They did drop tests; pull tests; drive tests; load tests, and many other tests to get Curiosity ready for launch. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Anthony Greicius

2011-11-17

373

The origin of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from impact craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary impact events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of impact with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to impact (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of ejecta from martian impact events and the number of events that are necessary to supply sufficient bulk densities of secondary impactor fragments. On the basis of our analysis, we find that six major predictions of the Murray hypothesis are not consistent with a wide range of Mars ejecta emplacement models and observations as follows: (1) To emplace families of parallel grooves as observed in the most common features (grooves that manifest virtually no positional defects), and to reach the maximum geographic extent of Phobos, grid patterns of ejecta fragments must be produced with nearly identical diameters (often tens of thousands in number) and must launch with virtually zero rates of dispersion (<1 mm/s and <1.0 ?rad in all degrees of freedom) into fixed patterns of arrays where fragment dispersion is referenced to a common datum point for the duration of flights from Mars to Phobos of up to 3 h. (2) Half of the areal region observed as a "zone of avoidance" (where grooves are absent on the trailing orbital apex of Phobos) is directly exposed to ejecta trajectories from the surface of Mars, which suggests that the "zone of avoidance" is unrelated to ejecta trajectories. (3) Several families of grooves display groove segments that are observed in a region of Phobos that is shadowed from martian ejecta trajectories for flight durations up to 3 h. Where the Murray hypothesis predicts the emplacement of groove families from a single ejecta plume, this strongly suggests that these families of grooves could not have been produced by martian impact ejecta. (4) To reach increasingly westerly locations of Phobos ejecta must travel in space for substantially longer flight times (up to 20X) which would produce substantially lower secondary crater densities on the anti-Mars side of Phobos and observably reduce their pit organization. This is not observed. (5) The largest family of grooves cannot be emplaced by any valid trajectory from Mars in its present day or ancient orbit. (6) If emplaced by grid patterns of ejecta, the irregular to

Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.

2013-01-01

374

Evaluation of Systems for Control of Emissions from Rocket Motors. Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of design studies related to the control of emissions from solid rocket test firings. It summarizes literature in the subject area and contact with those installations treating rocket exhausts. It gives results of an examination o...

S. Calvert S. Stalberg

1975-01-01

375

Another Look at Rocket Thrust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

2012-01-01

376

Unguided Rocket Impact Dispersion at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact dispersion data are presented for the following unguided sounding rockets launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, or the Utah Launch Complex, Green River, Utah, during 1965-1971: Aerobee 350, Aerobee-170, Aerobee-170A, Aerobee-150, Ath...

G. L. Dunaway M. M. Hoidale

1972-01-01

377

Modernization of the Multiple Launch Rocket System Embedded System Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapon systems in the Department of Defense (DoD) are becoming increasingly reliant on embedded software. As the size and level of complexity of these software development efforts have increased, the management of these programs has become more challengin...

J. J. Mockensturm

1995-01-01

378

Internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Test laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is known for hosting all of the United States manned rocket launches as well as many unmanned launches at low inclinations. Even though the Space Shuttle recently retired, they are continuing to support unmanned launches ...

K. Holland

2013-01-01

379

Dynamics Explorer launched  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dynamics Explorer A and B (now 1 and 2) spacecraft were launched into coplanar orbits from the Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on August 3, 1981, at 0956 UT. Although the orbits of the spacecraft are lower than expected, the change should not impede attaining the project's goals.‘All orbital parameters are nominal except the apogees, which, due to a short second burn of the second stage, are lower than planned,’ said Robert A. Hoffman, project scientist, at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

380

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

381

29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND - DETAILS OF THE EXPANSION NOZZLE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

382

Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines adaptive inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)|

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.

2002-01-01

383

Rocket engine numerical simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

Davidian, Ken

384

Rocket engine numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

Davidian, Ken

1993-12-01

385

Rocket astronomy - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of rocket astronomy is retold, with emphasis on solar investigations. The use of captured V-2 rockets after World War II was followed by the Aerobee, which exceeded the V-2's altitude and was more reliable. The V-2 has made first-generation investigations in X-ray and UV photometry, which was followed by studies of the solar cycle X-ray variablity, the X-ray

H. Friedman

1981-01-01

386

Action-Reaction Rocket!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners construct a rocket from a balloon propelled along a guide string. They use this model to learn about Newton's three laws of motion, examining the effect of different forces on the motion of the rocket. This activity can be combined with other activities to create a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Duren, Sabre; Heavner, Ben; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

387

Development of the S-520 single stage sounding rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The S-520 single stage sounding rocket was developed by ISAS in an attempt to replace the two stage system, thereby increasing safety and operational reliability as well as reducing launch costs. The S-520 has a 0.52 m diameter and a weight of 2100 kg. A reduction in inert mass was achieved by using FRP nose fairing and fins. The S-520 thrust profile consists of two phases to maximize summit altitude: an initial high thrust phase and a following sustaining phase. This was achieved by a grain design which combined a wagon wheel forward section and a tubular aft section. Two static firing tests (1981) showed stable combustion without the instabilities due to longitudinal waves. A twisted-fin spin helped to prevent the lock-in phenomena and to maintain the exo-atmospheric attitude stability. In the most recent experiment, the S-520 lifted 260 kg of gross payload to a 320 km altitude at an 80 deg launch elevation angle. The spin rate history was similar to those programmed, and the final coning angle was reasonably small.

Matsuo, H.; Kohno, M.; Onoda, J.; Kawashima, T.; Murakami, T.; Onojima, N.

1981-09-01

388

The Norwegian balloon and sounding rocket program 1989-1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian sounding rocket and balloon programs are reviewed. The aim of these programs is to perform investigations into ionospheric and magnetospheric processes. These investigations are supplemented by a wide range of ground based support instrumentation. Tests with recovery of payloads will be carried out at Andoya Rocket Range, partly as preparation for microgravity experiments. The overall program for the

B. N. Andersen; A. Gundersen

1989-01-01

389

Rocket Sled Blast Simulation Feasibility Study. Volume III. Environmental Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of environmental tests was conducted during the development of the Rocket Sled Blast Simulation Technique. This technique used a rocket sled to propel a full-scale reentry vehicle through simulated nuclear environments. Three free-air TNT detonat...

C. A. Fisher R. J. Pucik J. H. Suttle M. D. Smith

1968-01-01

390

Low-cost propellant launch to LEO from a tethered balloon - economic and thermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we have previously reported, it may be possible to launch payloads into low-Earth orbit (LEO) at a per-kilogram cost that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than current launch systems, using only a relatively small capital investment (comparable to a single large present-day launch). An attractive payload would be large quantities of high-performance chemical rocket propellant (e.g.

Brian H. Wilcox; Evan G. Schneider; David A. Vaughan; Jeffrey L. Hall

2010-01-01

391

Structural and loads analysis of a two-stage fully reusable Advanced Manned Launch System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a rocket-powered, two-stage fully reusable launch vehicle has been performed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. This paper summarizes the structural design and loads analysis of this two-stage fully reusable launch vehicle. The method used to determine the structural weights consists of generating a finite-element model for each vehicle, selecting a

James C. Robinson; Douglas O. Stanley

1992-01-01

392

Vortex Shedding in a Large Solid Rocket Motor Without Inhibitors at the Segment Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal acoustic response of the Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) is analyzed using pressure oscillation time histories measured during four static é ring tests. Pressure oscillations for other large solid rocket motors are caused by vortex shedding at annular inhibitors and acoustic feedback resulting from impingement of the vortices on other inhibitors or on the solid rocket

K. W. Dotson; S. Koshigoe; K. K. Pace

1997-01-01

393

Robust steering control of spacecraft carrier rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the year of 2003 it was established a cooperation agreement between Ukraine and Brazil for utilization of Cyclone-4 launch vehicle at Alcantara Launch Center. The company responsible for the marketing and operation of launch services is the company bi-national Alcantara Cyclone Space (ACS). The Cyclone-4 launch vehicle is the newest version of the Ukrainian Cyclone family launchers developed by Yuzhnoye State Design Office. This family has been used for many successful spacecrafts launches since 1969. This paper is concerned with the yaw stabilization problem around a nominal trajectory for the third stage of a satellite carrier rocket similar to the Cyclone-4. Only the steering machine of the main engine is considered as actuator. The dynamic behavior of the third stage around the nominal trajectory is modeled as a fourthorder time-varying linear system whereas the steering machine is modeled as a linear dynamical system up to third order. The values of the parameters of the steering machine model are unknown, however belonging to known intervals. As the main result, the stabilization problem is solved with a proportional derivative (PD) controller. The proposed tuning approach takes into account the robustness of the controller with respect to the steering machine model uncertainties. The performance of the PD controller is demonstrated by simulation results.

Correa, Adriana Elysa Alimandro; da Rosa, Alex; Ferreira, Henrique Cezar; Ishihara, Joao Yoshiyuki; Borges, Renato Alves; Sheptun, Yuri Dmitrievich

394

Low thrust chemical rocket technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher performance propellants were evaluated: Space storable propellants, including liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer with nitrogen hydrides or hydrocarbon as fuels. Specifically, a LOX/hydrazine engine was designed, fabricated, and shown to have a 95 pct theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1. Further performance improvment can be obtained by the use of LOX/hydrogen propellants, especially for manned spacecraft applications, and specific designs must be developed and advanced through flight qualification.

Schneider, Steven J.

1992-11-01

395

Ozone depletion caused by NO and H2O emissions from hydrazine-fueled rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockets using unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (N(CH3)2NH2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) propellants account for about one third of all stratospheric rocket engine emissions, comparable to the solid-fueled rocket emissions. We use plume and global atmosphere models to provide the first estimate of the local and global ozone depletion caused by NO and H2O emissions from the Proton rocket, the largest hydrazine-fueled launcher in use. NO and H2O emission indices are assumed to be 20 and 350 g/kg (propellant), respectively. Predicted maximum ozone loss in the plume of the Proton rocket is 21% at 44 km altitude. Plume ozone loss at 20 km equals 8% just after launch and steadily declines to 2% by model sunset. Predicted steady state global ozone loss from ten Proton launches annually is 1.2 × 10-4%, with nearly all of the loss due to the NO component of the emission. Normalized by stratospheric propellant consumption, the global ozone depletion efficiency of the Proton is approximately 66-90 times less than that of solid-fueled rockets. In situ Proton plume measurements are required to validate assumed emission indices and to assess the role of rocket emissions not considered in these calculations. Such future studies would help to establish a formalism to evaluate the relative ozone depletion caused by different rocket engines using different propellants.

Ross, M. N.; Danilin, M. Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Ko, M. K. W.

2004-11-01

396

Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

397

Foreign launch competition growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure

R. F. Brodsky; M. G. Wolfe; I. W. Pryke

1986-01-01

398

Advanced Manned Launch System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several alternatives exist for the development of the next manned launch system. The Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), which represents a clean-sheet replacement for the Space Shuttle, faces competition from concepts such as (1) the Personnel Launch System, which would serve as a personnel transport to complement the Space Shuttle, and (2) an advanced version of the existing Space Shuttle.

Theodore A. Talay

1993-01-01

399

Scope and Methods of Environmental Testing of Double-Base Propellant Rocket Motors: Choice of Conditions and Interpretation of Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental testing problems are considered, primarily from the standpoint of the propellant chemist. Environments are defined and the significant aspects of motor design and possible failure modes considered. Preliminary tests, and environmental tests ...

J. Gooding

1973-01-01

400

Launch operations proficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launch operations proficiency, a structured approach to optimizing all major elements of the launch system, is intended to ensure that cost and launch rate objectives are achieved. Models are used to simulate and quantify both the direct launch processing operations and the supporting infrastructure. A detailed analysis of existing launch operations is performed to identify the enhancements in vehicle design, operations, and manufacturing to achieve the overall program objectives. These enhancements are then translated into detailed proficiency requirements in the system and product specifications.

Hickman, R. A.; Adams, J. D.

401

First flights - Initial results of the World-wide Student Payload Launching Campaigns in celebration of the International Space Year - 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rocket launches and educational seminars conducted for students as part of the Worldwide Student Payload Launching campaigns are reviewed in terms of their initial educational results. Launches are described that led to the successful retrieval of telemetry data, wind-shear visualizations, and parachute systems. Also conducted were seminars on rocketry and sensing systems to disseminate educational information to complement the scientific activities.

James, G. S.; Buddington, P.; Frazier, M.; Kennedy, G. P.; Layfield, W.; McCain, J. W.; Preece, B.; Stluka, E.; Turner, R. N.

1992-08-01

402

Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems. 16 refs.

Foster, R.W.; Escher, W.J.D.; Robinson, J.W.

1989-01-01

403

Mechanical analysis on rocket propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of solid rocket propellants are very important for good functioning of rocket motors. During use\\u000a and storage the mechanical properties of rocket propellants are changing, due to chemical and mechanical influences such as\\u000a thermal reactions, oxidation reactions or vibrations. These influences can result in malfunctioning, leading to an unwanted\\u000a explosion of the rocket motor. Most of modern

G. Herder; F. P. Weterings; W. P. C. de Klerk

2003-01-01

404

Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) utilizing LOX\\\\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its

Patrick B. Stickler; Peter C. Keller

1998-01-01

405

Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV’s) utilizing LOX\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its

Patrick B. Stickler; Peter C. Keller

1998-01-01

406

China's Launch Vehicle Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science &Technology Corporation (CASC), which builds LM Launch Vehicle and is working on the new-generation Chinese Launchers. In the second part, the paper pays more attentions to introduce LM Launch Vehicles, as well as their commercial launch services. Then in the third part, the paper firstly describes the new-generation launchers.

Bai, Jingwu

2002-01-01

407

Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for flight qualification.

Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

1995-02-01

408

Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for flight qualification.

Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

1995-02-01

409

Search for lightning-induced electron precipitation with rocket-borne photometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometers at 3,914â« and 5,577â« and an optical imager were part of an experimental package launched on a sounding rocket in the 1987 Wave Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) campaign at Wallops Island, Virginia. The objective was to measure lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) by means of its optical signature. This was the first attempt to measure LEP using rocket-borne optical instrumentation.

R. D. Massey; M. P. McCarthy; G. K. Parks

1990-01-01

410

Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

2009-07-01

411

66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

412

New opportunities for studies of the polar atmosphere by means of sounding rockets and balloons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARR is responsible for all sounding rockets and stratospheric balloon operations from Norwegian territory, including the Svalbard islands, and has an extensive record of successful launches since 1962. From the location far north of the Arctic Circle Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) provides complete services for launching, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The launching services are offered from sites on the mainland of Norway at 69°N, and from Svalbard (SvalRak) at 79°N. The geographical location, infrastructure and network of ground-based instruments make the launch site at SvalRak favourable for studies of the dayside aurora, magnetospheres boundary layer processes and the magnetic cusp and cap. The paper will briefly present the infrastructure and scientific instrumentation and the science opportunities available both at Andøya and Svalbard. ARR is currently establishing a new launch site for stratospheric balloons, both long and short duration flights, at Svalbard.

Dragøy, Petter; Bøen, Kjell

2003-08-01

413

Launching nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing in Veterans Affairs primary care: a comprehensive overview of a self-sustaining implementation.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to use foundational pilot findings to guide the implementation of an HIV rapid testing (RT) intervention at one Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic and to evaluate the success and sustainability of this intervention over the course of one year. Policy modifications were drafted and adopted to enable nurses to order, administer, interpret and document HIV RTs. Staff enrolled in a two-part training sessions designed to teach pre- and post-test counselling techniques and the mechanics of administering, interpreting and coding test results in the patients' medical records. They were subsequently evaluated on their efforts at: (1) increasing HIV RT, (2) sustaining this effort one year post-launch. Enabling nurses to carry out HIV RT resulted in a significant increase in not only HIV RT, but also HIV testing rates overall at this facility, measured over the first year of this implementation. Our findings indicate that targeted strategies, aimed at increasing HIV RT rates, worked to increase testing rates overall, and also, that our initial testing strategies were independently sustainable, which is in contrast to findings in the literature on implementation science. PMID:22174056

Knapp, H; Anaya, H D; Feld, J E; Hoang, T; Goetz, M B

2011-12-01

414

Launch of Russian reactor postponed  

SciTech Connect

Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

Not Available

1993-02-05

415

Launching a Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isaac NewtonÂs famous thought experiment about what would happen if you launched a cannon from a mountaintop at a high velocity comes to life with an interactive computer model. You are charged with the task of launching a satellite into space. Control the angle and speed at which the satellite is launched, and see the results to gain a basic understanding of escape velocity.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

416

Large-scale hybrid motor performance and designs for use in launch vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Rocket Company has developed two large-scale liquid oxygen/polybutadiene hybrid rocket motors at 334,000 N (75,000 lbf) and 1,112,000 N (250,000 lbf) thrust. These hybrid rocket motors or derivatives of these motors can be used as strap-on boosters to replace or upgrade the existing strap-on boosters for the fleet of U.S. launch vehicles and for the planned next generation launch vehicle. Hybrid rocket boosters offer a new solution for boost propulsion since hybrids solve many of the safety and environmental concerns facing solid rocket motor manufacture and operation, yet deliver performance comparable to liquid rocket engines with much less hardware and operational complexity. This paper presents motor performance data from AMROC's 334,000 N and 1,112,000 N thrust hybrid rocket motors. A description of these hybrid motors, their performance specifications, and the key enabling technologies that have been developed at AMROC is presented. The design and development approach for an 850K thrust hybrid motor is described.

Flittie, K. J.; Estey, P.

1993-11-01

417

Nuclear Rocket Using Indigenous Martian Fuel NIMF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inerti...

R. Zubrin

1991-01-01

418

Ignition transient analysis of solid rocket motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-D numerical model based on the SIMPLE is developed to predict the pressure and thrust behavior of space shuttle solid rocket motors. The present model solves the conservation equations through the attached nozzle as well as in the combustion chamber. Numerical results were seen to agree qualitatively well with the test data by controlling the wetted perimeter in the

Samuel S. Han

1992-01-01

419

A rocket for the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various aspects of the Delta Clipper Experimental (DC-X) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket are discussed. Specific topics covered include the following: its ties to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), costs, design, flight tests, and project progress. Photographs of the DC-X in flight and on the ground are presented.

Ressmeyer, Roger H.

1994-02-01

420

Design Criteria for Rocket Exhaust Scrubbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an engineering study and design of methods for scrubbing the exhaust of static-tested solid rockets. Pollutants of major concern were hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases. The best process for removing these gases was ...

H. F. Barbarika S. Calvert

1978-01-01

421

NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

Mitchell, Royce E.

422

An Air-Launched Hypersonic Vehicle Performance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new performance model was developed for hydrocarbon fuelled (Jet A) scramjet powered hypersonic systems. It was applied to air-launched hypersonic missile concepts that were boosted to a specified Mach number (3) and dynamic pressure (40-100 kPa) using a solid propellant rocket motor. After boost, a dual-mode airbreathing supersonic ramjet engine accelerates the missile concept along a constant dynamic pressure,

Con J. Doolan

2006-01-01

423

POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

2011-05-01

424

ROCKET REFRACTORIES, A BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography on rocket refractories contains 615 items. Literature ; on the application of these materials as protective coatings, combustion-chamber ; liners, and nozzles is emphasized. Some references on the composition of ; refractories and on their capabilities and modes of fabrication are included. ; (auth)

1957-01-01

425

Solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

Carpenter, Ronn L.

1993-02-01

426

Gaseous Nuclear Rocket.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear rocket for extraterrestrial flight is in the form of a gaseous nuclear reactor. One or more streams of a working fluid are introduced concentrically adjacent to a gaseous fissile material in a heating chamber or cell. Introduction of a working...

F. E. Rom

1965-01-01

427

This Is Rocket Science!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries,1 but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al.2,3 In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

2013-09-01

428

Rocket engine nozzle attenuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of a rocket engine nozzle is to expand the hot engine exhaust gases down to ambient pressure, transforming thermal energy to directed kinetic energy in order to produce thrust. Considering nozzle design, there is an optimum nozzle shape and length, the bell-shaped or contour nozzle. The reason for this specific contour is that the nozzle must be designed

David A. Lewis

1993-01-01

429

The Relativistic Rocket  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

Antippa, Adel F.

2009-01-01

430

Introduction to rocket propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design process for solid propellant rocket motors is presented in an introductory text suitable for professional reference as well as for instruction at the high school senior through college junior level. Beginning with a brief history of rocketry and a short discussion of the basic properties of matter, the text progresses through the development of the governing laws of

J. M. Lyon

1991-01-01

431

Launch area theodolite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White Sands Missile Range has developed a Launch Area Theodolite (LAT) optical tracking system that provides improved Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) for the new class of hyper-velocity missiles being developed by the Army. The LAT system consists of a high- performance optical tracking mount equipped with an 8-12 micrometers Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, a newly designed full-frame pin-registered 35-mm film camera, and an auto- focused 50-in. focal length lens. The FLIR has been integrated with the WSMR in-house developed statistical based automatic video tracker to yield a powerful system for the automatic tracking of missiles from a short standoff distance. The LAT has been designed to replace large fixed-camera arrays for test programs on short-range anti-tank missiles. New tracking techniques have been developed to deal with angular tracking rates that exceed one radian in both velocity and acceleration. Special techniques have been developed to shock the tracking mount at the missile launch to match the target motion. An adaptive servo control technique allows a Type III servo to be used to compensate for the high angular accelerations that are generated by the placement of the LAT mounts along the missile flight path. An automated mode selection adjustment is employed as the missile passes a point perpendicular to the tracking mount to compensate for the requirement to rapidly decelerate the tracking mount and keep the target in the field-of-view of the data camera. This paper covers the design concept for a network of eight LAT mounts, the techniques of automatic video tracking using a FLIR sensor, and the architecture of the servo control algorithms that have allowed the LAT system to produce results to a degree never before achieved at White Sands Missile Range.

Bradley, Lester M.; Corriveau, John P.; Tindal, Nan E.

1991-08-01

432

A transfer alignment algorithm study based on actual flight test data from a tactical air-to-ground weapon launch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides results from a joint study of various transfer\\/alignment (T\\/A) techniques including velocity matching, integrated velocity matching, and doubly integrated velocity matching approaches. The goal is to determine how the various algorithms perform when driven with actual flight test data. The study addresses key T\\/A Kalman filter issues such as the effect of wing flexure vibration on instrument

Christopher C. Ross; T. F. Elbert

1994-01-01

433

Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer\\/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the

L. W. Acton; E. C. Bruner Jr.; W. A. Brown; R. A. Nobles

1979-01-01

434

Rocket observations of slow heavy primary nuclei at Kronogård, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Small emulsion blocks recovered from a series of Nike-Cajun rockets launched from Kronogård, Sweden exhibit the tracks of\\u000a slow heavy primary nuclei which stop by ionization in the detectors. The charge distribution of these particles, estimated\\u000a from track width measurements, is consistent with a galactic origin. The kinetic energy of the particles estimated from their\\u000a range resides between 60 and

H. Yagoda; K. Fukui; E. Holeman; K. Kristiansson; B. Lindkvist

1964-01-01

435

Mixing and reaction processes in rocket based combined cycle and conventional rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy was used to make species measurements in two rocket engines. An airbreathing rocket, the rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine, and a conventional rocket were investigated. A supersonic rocket plume mixing with subsonic coflowing air characterizes the ejector mode of the RBCC engine. The mixing length required for the air and plume to become homogenous is a critical dimension. For the conventional rocket experiments, a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen single-element shear coaxial injector was used. Three chamber Mach number conditions, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, were chosen to assess the effect of Mach number on mixing. The flow within the chamber was entirely subsonic. For the RBCC experiments, vertical Raman line measurements were made at multiple axial locations downstream from the rocket nozzle plane. Species profiles assessed the mixing progress between the supersonic plume and subsonic air. For the conventional rocket, Raman line measurements were made downstream from the injector face. The goal was to evaluate the effect of increased chamber Mach number on injector mixing/reaction. For both engines, quantitative and qualitative information was collected for computational fluid dynamics (CFD development. The RBCC experiments were conducted for three distinct geometries. The primary flow path was a diffuse and afterburner design with a direct-connect air supply. A sea-level static (SLS) version and a thermally choked variant were also tested. The experimental results show that mixing length increases with additional coflow air in the DAB geometry. Operation of variable rocket mixture ratios at identical air flow rates did not significantly affect the mixing length. The thermally choked variant had a longer mixing length compared to the DAB geometry, and the SLS modification had a shorter mixing length due to a reduced air flow. The conventional rocket studies focused on the effect of chamber Mach number on primary injector mixing. Chamber Mach number was set at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, and Raman species measurements were made at three axial locations within the chamber. The experimental results clearly showed an increase in mixing with increased chamber Mach number. Data are presented in radial mole fraction profiles and mixture fraction pdf plots for a quantitative assessment of the mixing. Radial dimension plots in time-averaged form are provided for comparison with previous experimental work at a very low chamber Mach number.

Lehman, Matthew Kurt

436

A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

Binder, Michael P.

1995-06-01

437

Development and qualification of a STAR 48 rocket motor with thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thrust vector control (TVC) nozzle for use on the STAR 48 rocket motor (STAR 48V) has been developed for use on the COMET program aboard the Conestoga launch vehicle. The first stages of qualification testing have been completed. The first STAR 48V has been successfully static-tested. The flexseal TVC nozzle design is based upon the qualified and flight-proven fixed nozzle design used on spin-stabilized spacecraft. The flexseal design and fabrication approach benefit from flight-proven and man-rated Thiokol Corporation flexseal designs. The thrust vector control system provides vectoring capability to 4 deg for use on nonspinning spacecraft. Electromechanical actuators coupled with a closed-loop controller provide thrust vector positioning and spacecraft attitude control.

Hamke, R.; Rade, J.; Weldin, R.

1992-07-01

438

Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

Dutton, Kevin E.

1994-07-01

439

Small satellite launch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC 92) delegates agreed to worldwide frequency allocation changes that will introduce new space communications services through low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems. Iridium, Odyssey and Orbcomm are major proposals for these services, and each proposal is to launch 77, 12 and 18 small communications satellites. In this way, the new era of small satellites is going to be initiated. The anticipation of the expansion of the small satellite launch market, new cost-effective and flexible launch systems have been developed. In 1990 Orbital Science Corp. successfully completed the maiden flight of the PEGASUS winged launch vehicle and now has been developing the new TAURUS launch vehicle. Arianespace successfully completed two ASAP (Arian Structure for Auxiliary Payloads) missions, and its new small satellites deployment system is in the process of development. McDonnel Douglas is thinking of Delta II launch vehicle applications for small satellites. This trend is seen to continue through the 1990s. This paper describes the trend of the small satellite launch market and the availability of a planned launch system in Japan.

Kochiyama, Jiro

440

Foreign launch competition growing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

1986-07-01

441

Design sounding rocket payload system to study vehicle charging phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this contract are the following: (1) reassemble and test the A31.603 rocket payload, previously flown at WSMR in January of 1978. Conduct spacecraft charging tests in a plasma using the vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Flight Center, Texas; (2) design a sounding rocket payload for the measurement of vehicle charging due to charge ejection in accordance with the results of the reassembly and retest of the A31.603 payload, and in accordance with specifications for the instrumentation for the instrumentation for the spacecraft charging rocket-2 payload; (3) fabricate and test a negative charge ejection system; (4) fabricate and test rocket payload sensor systems to measure the vehicle-to-plasma potential difference; (5) fabricate and test sensor systems to measure and identify charged particle return to the payload; (6) fabricate and test sensor systems to measure rapid changes in vehicle potential; (7) fabricate and test a microprocessor-based sounding rocket experiment controller. (8) fabricate and test one set of ground support equipment; (9) integrate at contractor's facility the above sensor systems with a rocket payload structure and instrumentation provided by the government.

Hills, R. S.

1985-05-01

442

Solid-State Bonded Liquid Rocket Propellant Containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the design, development, fabrication, test, and evaluation of liquid rocket propellant containers fabricated by solid-state bonded methods. There were no fusion welded joints. The objective of this program was to develop liquid propellan...

C. L. Caudill R. L. Kirlin

1971-01-01

443

Efficiency Studies on 1967 and 1971 Rocket Propellant Canisters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rocket Propellant Canisters, Model GMN-SSW, were tested using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). Canisters manufactured in 1967 were compared to canisters made in 1971. Results of the study indicate that there is no statis...

P. Diamond

1972-01-01

444

Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, hig...

B. Weisenberg D. Smith K. Speas A. Corliss

2003-01-01

445

Determination of Failure Limits for Sterilizable Solid Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A structural evaluation to establish probable failure limits and a series of environmental tests involving temperature cycling, sustained acceleration, and vibration were conducted on an 18-inch diameter solid rocket motor. Despite the fact that thermal, ...

W. L. Lambert E. J. Mastrolia J. D. Mcconnell

1974-01-01

446

Large Liquid Rocket Engine Transient Performance Simulation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase 1 of the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) program consists of seven technical tasks: architecture; system requirements; component and submodel requirements; submodel implementation; component implementation; submodel testing and verificat...

J. R. Mason R. D. Southwick

1989-01-01

447

Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-powe...

C. C. Dobson J. P. Foote R. J. Litchford R. R. Hickman T. S. Wang W. B. Clifton

2011-01-01

448

Long Duration Hot Hydrogen Exposure of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An arc-heater driven hyper-thermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-pow...

C. Dobson J. P. Foote R. Hickman R. J. Litchford S. Clifton

2007-01-01

449

Simulations of Transient Phenomena in Liquid Rocket Feed Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Valve systems in rocket propulsion systems and testing facilities are constantly subject to dynamic events resulting from the timing of valve motion leading to unsteady fluctuations in pressure and mass flow. Such events can also be accompanied by cavitat...

A. Hosangadi P. A. Cavallo R. Daines V. Ahuja

2006-01-01

450

Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

2007-01-01

451

65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

452

Response of Selected Plant and Insect Species to Simulated Solid Rocket Exhaust Mixtures and to Exhaust Components from Solid Rocket Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plant...

E. P. Stahel J. N. Mccrimmon J. T. Ambrose W. M. Knott W. W. Heck

1980-01-01

453

Sounding rockets utilized to support Department of Defense programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sounding rocket technology is utilized in the truest sense in a successful flight test program to develop advanced technology optical sensors in support of ballistic missile defenses. Single and two stage sounding rockets have been flown ballistically to lift large sensor vehicle payloads to altitudes in excess of 100 nautical miles to demonstrate and evaluate sensor performance. This paper will describe the utility of sounding rockets in the development of a major Department of Defense program and the key role demonstrated on the Designating Optical Tracker (DOT) Flight Test Program. Flight test objectives and results are discussed. This paper also defines the transition into a larger sounding rocket system with increased payload carrying capability and boost phase guidance.

Cooper, E. R.; Seaton, D. F.

454

Results from the Extended X-ray Off-plane Spectrometer (EXOS) Sounding Rocket Payload on the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the recent launch of the Extended X-ray Off-Plane Spectrometer (EXOS) sounding rocket payload. The rocket was launched Friday the 13th of November on the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant. The payload consists of a wire-grid collimator, an off-plane diffraction grating array and gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. The instrument is capable of observing the entire loop in

Phil Oakley; W. Cash; R. McEntaffer

2010-01-01

455

Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations  

SciTech Connect

A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

Argo, H.V.

1981-01-01

456

Transfer alignment design and experiment evaluation of the SINS for GMLRS artillery rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the effort to develop a transfer alignment algorithm designed to align a low-cost Fiber Optic Gyroscope Inertial Measurement Unit(FOG-IMU) with the Position and Azimuth Determining System(PADS) of Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System(GMLRS) in a short time with high accuracy. The Ring Laser Gyroscope IMU(RLG-IMU) of the PADS is defined as the Master Inertial Navigation System(MINS) and the FOG-IMU as the Slave Inertial Navigation System(SINS). The accurate attitude initializing of SINS based on the attitude information of both INSs can be accomplished by providing the normal launch motion(pitch and yaw). The relevant state equations and measurement equations of transfer alignment Kalman Filter(KF) are presented. A particular calibrating scheme is designed to determinate the parameters of the MINS and SINS just in the same time. The algorithm is verified by laboratory testing of both INSs under the compound manoeuvre of a three-axis turntable modeling the launch procedure of GMLRS.

You, Jinchuan; Qin, Yongyuan; Xia, Jiahe; Yang, Pengxiang; Yan, Gongmin; Song, Yong; Fu, Yingfeng

2010-08-01

457

Aerothermodynamic Aspects of Railgun-Assisted Launches of Projectiles With Sub and Low-Earth-Orbit Payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Railgun-concept for the launch of small payloads into low-Earth orbits is currently under investigation. The first major project milestone foresees a 32-MJ railgun system able to launch nonpropelled projectiles with experiments for high-atmospheric research to an altitude of 115 km. This will be followed by a system to launch single-stage rocket-propelled projectiles to put in orbit nanosatellites using a

O. Bozic; Peter Giese

2007-01-01

458

Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design (using these codes) of future cryogenic upper stages.

Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

459

Launch vehicle reliability and launch availability relationships resulting from winds-aloft launch constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To insure an adequate level of vehicle reliability, wind-aloft constraints for the Titan IV launch vehicle have been developed. Equations have been derived for vehicle capability, vehicle reliability, launch availability, and winds-aloft launch constraint correlation to determine mathematical relationships between launch vehicle reliability and launch availability. These equations give quantifiable values of vehicle reliability and launch availability that can be used to optimize the winds-aloft launch constraint system.

Solanyk, Victor, Jr.

1993-01-01

460

Aeroacoustic Instability in Rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current solid-propellant rocket instability calculations (e.g., Standard Stability Prediction Program ) account only for the evolution of acoustic energy with time. However, the acoustic component represents only part of the total unsteady system energy; additional kinetic energy resides in the shear waves that naturally accompany the acousticoscillations. Becausemost solid-rocketmotor combustion chamberconé gurationssupport gas oscillations parallel to the propellant grain, an

Gary A. Flandro; Joseph Majdalani

2003-01-01

461

The Relativistic Rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equation of motion for a relativistic rocket or for any particle with a variable rest mass may be derived by applying the relativistic impulse-momentum and work-energy principles in the instantaneous rest frame. The equation of motion in this frame is in the classical non-relativistic form. The equation of motion in the observer's rest frame may then be deduced by

Kalman B. Pomeranz

1966-01-01

462

Booster rocket range safety system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to an abort command, fragmentation of a propellant booster rocket carried on a missile is limited by positioning of annular shaped charges at axially spaced locations on the outer shell of the booster rocket. Detonation of the charges thereby severs an intermediate section of the rocket from forward and aft sections which remain attached to the missile. The intermediate section is separated from the missile by such severing action to prevent further fragmenting forces from being imparted thereto.

Renzi, John R.

1992-06-01

463

Electron density and electron temperature in the valley between the equatorial E and F regions during the presence of plasma bubbles - Some recent rocket observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket measurements of electron density and electron temperature made from Brazil show that the electron density and electron temperatures in the valley region between the equatorial E and F regions get modified during the onset of plasma bubbles. During one of the launches the Langmuir probe measured abnormally large electron temperatures below the F-region just before the onset of plasma bubbles but temperatures became normal soon after the onset of bubbles. Recently a Brazilian VS-30 rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station CLBI in Natal, Brazil carrying a Langmuir probe operated alternately in swept and constant bias modes to measure both electron temperature and electron density respectively. The ground equipments operated before and during the rocket launch clearly showed the presence of plasma bubbles above the F-region. At the time of launch the bubble activity was at its peak. The electron density and temperature height profiles could be estimated from the LP data up to the rocket apogee altitude of 139km. These profiles are compared with model electron density and temperature profiles as well as with electron density and temperature profiles observed during other rocket launches under conditions of no plasma bubbles in the F-region.

Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Batista, Inez S.; Domingos, Sinval; Goreti dos Santos Aquino, Maria

2012-07-01

464

Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.

Emrich, William J.

2008-01-01

465

Rocket engine nozzle attenuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The function of a rocket engine nozzle is to expand the hot engine exhaust gases down to ambient pressure, transforming thermal energy to directed kinetic energy in order to produce thrust. Considering nozzle design, there is an optimum nozzle shape and length, the bell-shaped or contour nozzle. The reason for this specific contour is that the nozzle must be designed in such a manner that the expansion shock waves emanating from the nozzle throat region coincide, and thus diminish the compression effects accompanying the reorientation of flow in the center region of the expansion section. A rocket nozzle must absorb a variety of loads caused by such shocks due to thermal expansion and contraction, as well as shocks from sudden pressurization at startup, and flight accelerations. A rocket engine nozzle is provided which is capable of attenuating nozzle vibrations generated therein during use. The nozzle includes an annular closed chamber surrounding the nozzle adjacent to its gas exhaust end. Within the chamber is a dense but unrestricted particulate mass capable of undergoing frictional movement within the chamber.

Lewis, David A.

1993-01-01

466

Launch Abort Chemistry Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer models provide a framework for better understanding of complex phenomena. Events such as launch aborts are rare, and detailed field information about the chemical load they introduce into the atmosphere is rare. A good model will make predictions...

B. B. Brady A. McIlroy L. R. Martin

1997-01-01

467

Expedition 27 Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA astronaut Ron Garan and Russian cosmonauts Andrey Borisenko and Alexander Samokutyaev launch in their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 4, 2011 (April 5, Kazakhstan time).

John Kossum

2011-04-04

468

Expedition 28 Launch  

NASA Video Gallery

Three new Expedition 28 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa -- launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to begin their journey to the International Space Station.

Gerald T Wright

2011-06-07

469

German scientific sounding rocket program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German scientific sounding rocket program covers four disciplines: astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere, material science. In each of these disciplines there are ongoing projects (e.g., INTERZODIAK, STRAFAM, MAP-WINE, CAESAR, TEXUS). The scientific and technical aspects of these projects will be described. Emphasis will be given to some late technical achievements of DFVLR's Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) giving support to most of the rocket campaigns. DFVLR-PT is authorized to act as management agency in order to perform and to coordinate German space activities of which the sounding rocket program forms a small part. A brief description of the organization will be given.

Roehrig, O.

470

RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors\\/ rocket-engines in the Rover\\/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel

Robert C. OBrien

2001-01-01

471

Two-impulse minimum-time earth launch-to-rendezvous trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of minimum-time two-impulse ascent trajectories for a single-stage rocket between launch from the earth and rendezvous with a satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. First the minimum-time trajectories from earth launch to injection into a circular orbit are investigated. These results are then combined with the motion of the target satellite during the

G. M. Anderson; S. H. Edelman

1974-01-01

472

Conceptual design of a next-generation, fully reusable manned launch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a rocket-powered, two-stage fully reusable launch vehicle has been performed as a part of the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The main goals of the AMLS study are to provide routine, low-cost manned access to space. Technologies and system approaches have been studied that would contribute to significant reductions

Douglas O. Stanley; Theodore A. Talay; Roger A. Lepsch; W. Douglas Morris; Kathryn E. Wurster

1991-01-01

473

Ongoing launch vehicle innovation at United Launch Alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Dynamics and McDonnell Douglas revolutionized global space access with the introduction of their respective commercial Atlas I and Delta II rockets. Developed with support from the Air Force as an anchor tenant, the commercial Atlas and Delta rockets evolved from their legacy ancestors. Through continuous innovation, these early commercial vehicles evolved to the current Atlas V and Delta IV

B. F. Kutter; F. Zegler; J. Barr; M. Gravlee; J. Szatkowski; J. Patton; S. Ward

2010-01-01

474

Preliminary report of DC electric field measurements in the ionosphere by Kagoshima sounding rocket experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments are carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC) in 2007. The purpose of S-310-37 rocket experiment is an integrated observation of the high electron temperature layer in the Sq current focus during the winter daytime over USC. In order to measure the field-aligned electric field due to the Sq current, we develop the three-dimensional electric field detector (EFD). The EFD measures three components of electric field by using 3 pair of probe antenna. S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. As a result of rocket measurement, it is clearly seen three components of electric field are fluctuated at the altitude from about 90 km to 120 km during the ascent. Particularly the electric field component parallel to the rocket spin axis is fluctuated in the region where the electron temperature is high. The purpose of S-520-23 rocket experiment is the investigation of the process of momentum transportation between the atmospheres and the plasma in the thermosphere during the summer evening time at mid latitudes. The electric filed and VLF/MF band receiver (EVMR) is loaded on this sounding rocket. The EVMR measures the two components of electric field by using 2 pair of probe antenna in order to obtain a dynamics of plasma particle in the ionosphere. S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. The DC electric field was measured by the EVMR onboard S-520-23 sounding rocket. In this presentation, we report on the result of DC electric field measurement of two sounding rockets. In particular we will discuss about the relation between DC electric field and high electron temperature layer in the ionosphere using the results of S-310-37 sounding rocket experiments. Then we will show the preliminary report of DC electric field in the ionospheric E and F region measured by S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments.

Ishisaka, K.; Ashihara, Y.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.

2007-12-01

475

Rocket-powered single-stage vehicle configuration selection and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable rocket-powered, single-stage launch vehicle has been designed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study to examine options for a next-generation manned space transportation system. The configuration selection process utilized a response surface methodology for multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology was utilized to determine the minimum dry weight entry vehicle to meet constraints on landing velocity

Douglas O. Stanley; Walter C. Engelund; Roger A. Lepsch; Mark McMillin; Kathryn E. Wurster; Richard W. Powell; Anthony A. Guinta; Resit Unal

1993-01-01

476

The Norwegian balloon and sounding rocket program 1989-1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian sounding rocket and balloon programs are reviewed. The aim of these programs is to perform investigations into ionospheric and magnetospheric processes. These investigations are supplemented by a wide range of ground based support instrumentation. Tests with recovery of payloads will be carried out at Andoya Rocket Range, partly as preparation for microgravity experiments. The overall program for the period 1989 to 1992 is reviewed.

Andersen, B. N.; Gundersen, A.

1989-06-01

477

Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E) during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE). Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP) and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m-3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k-3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k-3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k-5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10-2 W/kg in the upper (72 km) layer.

Brattli, A.; Blix, T. A.; Lie-Svendsen, Ø.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Lübken, F.-J.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Friedrich, M.

2006-07-01

478

Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E) during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE). Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP) and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m-3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k-3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k-3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k-5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10-2 W/kg in the upper (72 km) layer.

Brattli, A.; Blix, T. A.; Lie-Svendsen, Ø.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Lübken, F.-J.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Friedrich, M.

2006-12-01

479

The DXL and STORM sounding rocket mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy (DXL) sounding rocket experiment is to distinguish the soft X-ray emission due to the Local Hot Bubble (LHB) from that produced via Solar Wind charge exchange (SWCX). Enhanced interplanetary helium density in the helium focusing cone provides a spatial variation to the SWCX that can be identified by scanning through the focusing cone using an X-ray instrument with a large grasp. DXL consists of two large proportional counters refurbished from the Aerobee payload used during the Wisconsin All Sky Survey. The counters utilize P-10 fill gas and are covered by a thin Formvar window (with Cyasorb UV-24 additive) supported on a nickel mesh. DXL's large grasp is 10 cm2 sr for both the 1/4 and 3/4 keV bands. DXL was successfully launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico on December 12, 2012 using a Terrier Mk70 Black Brant IX sounding rocket. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) instrument is a prototype soft X-ray camera also successfully own on the DXL sounding rocket. STORM uses newly developed slumped micropore (`lobster eye') optics to focus X-rays onto a position sensitive, chevron configuration, microchannel plate detector. The slumped micropore optics have a 75 cm curvature radius and a polyimide/aluminum filter bonded to its surface. STORM's large field-of-view makes it ideal for imaging SWCX with exospheric hydrogen for future missions. STORM represents the first flight of lobster-eye optics in space.

Thomas, Nicholas E.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Collado-Vega, Yaireska M.; Collier, Michael R.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, K. D.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Lepri, Susan T.; McCammon, Dan; Morgan, Kelsey; Porter, F. Scott; Prasai, Krishna; Read, Andy M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve F.; Sibeck, David G.; Snowden, Steven L.; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M.

2013-09-01

480

NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

Johnston, Patrick H.

481

Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

1991-12-09

482

SERSIO Sounding Rocket Thermal Ion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the auroral phenomena of ion up/outflows in the dayside cusp-cleft region are often recognized, the mechanism creating this drift is not. The SERSIO (Svalbard EISCAT Rocket Study of Ion Outflows) sounding rocket mission was designed to probe possible sources of this energy transfer, such as joule heating, wave-particle interactions, and ambipolar fields. SERSIO was launched January 22, 2004 at 8:57UT from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway into an event simultaneously observed by the EISCAT radars. It reached an apogee of 790 km. Multiple ground cameras confirmed soft electron precipitation over the length of the trajectory while the radars showed increased ion velocity above 500km and enhanced electron temperature and density. The extensive suite of observations indicates the event was exceptional due to its intensity and 2.5 hr duration. Unfortunately, an attitude control system malfunction compromised much of the in situ data. Particle energy and temperature data were recoverable and compare well with the EISCAT profiles. Our instruments showed enhancements in the tail of the ion velocity distributions that were invisible to the radar. I will discuss the issues that arise when we measure the spacecraft potential with the thermal ion detectors and show that sphere-to-skin potentials are not a good measure of charging. Also of interest is the broader behavior of our thermal detectors including an investigation of a possible instrument energy cutoff and our future avenues of research.

Frederick-Frost, K. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Kintner, P.; Lessard, M.; Arnoldy, R.; Klatt, E.; Widholm, M.; Ellis, A.; MacDonald, E.; Ivchenko, N.; Ogawa, Y.

2004-12-01

483

The Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Micro-X Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a sounding rocket payload slated for launch in 2011. An array of Transition Edge Sensors, which is operated at a bath temperature of 50 mK, will be used to obtain a high resolution spectrum of the Puppis-A supernova remnant. An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) with a 75 gram Ferric Ammonium Alum (FAA) salt pill in the bore of a 4 T superconducting magnet provides a stable heat sink for the detector array only a few seconds after burnout of the rocket motors. This requires a cold stage design with very short thermal time constants. A suspension made from Kevlar strings holds the 255 gram cold stage in place. It is capable of withstanding loads in excess of 200 g. Stable operation of the TES array in proximity to the ADR magnet is ensured by a three-stage magnetic shielding system which consists of a superconducting can, a high-permeability shield and a bucking coil. The development and testing of the Micro-X payload is well underway.

Wikus, P.; Adams, J. S.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Bandler, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

2010-04-01

484

Rocket observations of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions at Andenes in January 2005; first analysis and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Janurary 18, 2005, two instrumented miniaturised rocket payloads, each with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP) and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69°N). The instrumented payloads were launched into conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE) as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected in the altitude range 55-77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. Fluctuations in the ion density, as measured in situ by the instrumented payloads, show that there was turbulence inside the PMWE layers, but not above/below and between. Data from the PIPs are analysed and related to the geophysical conditions, as observed with the ALWIN radar and meteorological rockets.

Brattli, A.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Lattek, R.; Friedrich, M.; Havnes, O.; Blix, T. A.; Svenes, K. R.

2005-08-01

485

An assessment of the Rocket-Based Combined Cycle propulsion system for Earth-to-orbit transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems integrate airbreathing and rocket propulsion systems into a single engine assembly capable of operating in various modes through the flight regime. With traditional chemical rocket propulsion nearing its maximum performance capability, the RBCC propulsion system merits being considered for future generations of launch vehicles. This paper reviews the historical development of RBCC propulsion systems, addresses the propulsion system technology requirements, and details future research needs. Additionally, the paper offers the equivalent effective specific impulse, as a way to compare the performance of combined cycle and all-rocket propulsion. The paper concludes that the best implementation of RBCC technology is as the first stage of a two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle.

Chojnacki, Kent T.; Hawk, Clark W.

1993-06-01

486

NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current

John D. Bess; Emily Colvin; Paul G. Cummings

2009-01-01

487

CFD flowfield simulation of Delta Launch Vehicles in a power-on configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes recent work at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) to develop and validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of under expanded rocket plume external flowfields for multibody expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Multi engine reacting gas flowfield predictions of ELV base pressures are needed to define vehicle base drag and base heating rates for sizing external nozzle and base region

D. L. Pavish; T. P. Gielda; B. K. Soni; J. E. Deese; R. K. Agarwal

1993-01-01

488

Design Evolution and Performance Characterization of the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Inlet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and analysis of a second version of the inlet for the GTX rocket-based combine-cycle launch vehicle is discussed. The previous design did not achieve its predicted performance levels due to excessive turning of low-momentum corner flows and loc...

J. R. DeBonis C. J. Steffen T. Rice C. J. Trefny<