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Sample records for lauri rannama mati

  1. Mati-ism and Black Lesbianism.

    PubMed

    Wekker, G

    1997-01-01

    Abstract There are different ways in which black women in the Diaspora have given expression to their erotic fascination with other women. In this article two idealtypical expressions of black female homosexuality and the outlines of their underlying cosmologies are sketched: mati-ism and black lesbianism. Mati (or matisma) is the Sranan Tongo word for women who have sexual relations with other women, but who typically also will have had or still have relationships with men, simultaneously. More often than not they will also have children. While both types can only be understood via a constructionist view of homosexuality, the institution of mati-ism will be shown to have retained more Afrocentric, working class elements, while black lesbianism has more middle class, Eurocentric features. PMID:24784944

  2. Diapause and its regulation in the whitefly Trialeurodes lauri.

    PubMed

    Gerling, D; Guershon, M; Erel, E; Inbar, M

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of synchronization between the life cycle of the oligophagous whitefly, Trialeurodes lauri (Signoret), and its evergreen host tree Arbutus andrachne in Mediterranean chaparral. Whitefly infestations vary considerably among trees. The adults of the univoltine (one generation per year) whitefly emerge en masse during April and May and oviposit on the new spring foliage. Following approximately one month of development to the early fourth instar, the nymphs enter nine-month diapauses, terminating in February. This diapause is induced and maintained by the plant and can be experimentally avoided (in the case of developing young nymphs) or terminated (in the case of diapausing fourth instars), if whitefly-bearing branches are severed from the tree and placed in water under laboratory conditions. This study is the first report of a whitefly diapausing through both summer and winter seasons. The role of the host plant in the process is discussed. PMID:21092381

  3. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract…

  4. Antibacterial activity of LauriPure in vitro and on skin of processed broilers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the ability of LauriPure to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus simulans, and Listeria innocua isolates recovered from processed broiler carcasses. In vitro studies were conducted using the Bioscreen C Microbiology Reader t...

  5. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  6. Between Voice and Voicelessness: Transacting Silence in Laurie Halse Anderson's "Speak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Quinn, Elaine J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Laurie Halse Anderson's insightful novel, "Speak" (1999), reminds readers of the distance women have come in identifying the "oppressive and unhealthy behavior of the silences that so often betray them." Concludes that the oppression of silence which generations of women have stoically accepted is now being challenged publicly and…

  7. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI) Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules using VUV Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-01-28

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) has been performed for Ar, N2, O2, N2O, H2O, C2H2, and C6H6. MATI allows for a better determination of ionization energies compared to those derived from photoionization efficiency curves traditionally used in synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The separation of the long-lived Rydberg state from the directly-formed prompt ion, essential for a meaningful MATI spectrum, has been accomplished by employing an arrangement of ion optics coupled to unique electric-field pulsing schemes. For Ar, a number of resolved bands below the ionization energy are observed, and these are ascribed to high-n,l Rydberg states prepared in the MATI scheme. The first vibrational stateresolved MATI spectra of N2 and O2 are reported and spectral characteristics are discussed in comparison with previously-reported threshold photoelectron spectroscopic studies. While MATI performed with synchrotron radiation is intrinsically less sensitive compared to laser based sources, this work demonstrates that MATI spectroscopy performed with widely tunable VUV radiation is a complementary technique for studying the ionization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules.

  8. Mati-ism and black lesbianism: two idealtypical expressions of female homosexuality in black communities of the Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Wekker, G

    1993-01-01

    There are different ways in which black women in the Diaspora have given expression to their erotic fascination with other women. In this article two idealtypical expressions of black female homosexuality and the outlines of their underlying cosmologies are sketched: mati-ism and black lesbianism. Mati (or matisma) is the Sranan Tongo word for women who have sexual relations with other women, but who typically also will have had or still have relationships with men, simultaneously. More often than not they will also have children. While both types can only be understood via a constructionist view of homosexuality, the institution of mati-ism will be shown to have retained more Afrocentric, working class elements, while black lesbianism has more middle class, Eurocentric features. PMID:8505534

  9. Voyage dans le noir. Trous noirs, matière noire, énergie noire et antimatière

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-26

    Et si nous faisions avec les physiciens un voyage dans le noir ? De l'astrophysique à la physique des particules les trois noirs, la matière noire, l'énergie noire ou l’antimatière intriguent et fascinent. Que sont ces objets qui bousculent nos idées et qui véhiculent parfois des craintes irraisonnées? Luis Alvarez-Gaume, Michael Doser et Christophe Grojean, physiciens du CERN vous invitent à mettre en lumière (!) les constituants de base de la matière et à explorer les mystères de la physique contemporaine. Une soirée lumineuse pour éclairer des concepts et ne plus avoir peur du noir.

  10. Voyage dans le noir. Trous noirs, matière noire, énergie noire et antimatière

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si nous faisions avec les physiciens un voyage dans le noir ? De l'astrophysique à la physique des particules les trois noirs, la matière noire, l'énergie noire ou l?antimatière intriguent et fascinent. Que sont ces objets qui bousculent nos idées et qui véhiculent parfois des craintes irraisonnées? Luis Alvarez-Gaume, Michael Doser et Christophe Grojean, physiciens du CERN vous invitent à mettre en lumière (!) les constituants de base de la matière et à explorer les mystères de la physique contemporaine. Une soirée lumineuse pour éclairer des concepts et ne plus avoir peur du noir.

  11. One-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy of pyridine: Determination of accurate ionization energy and cationic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Hong Lae E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr; Kwon, Chan Ho E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr

    2014-11-07

    Ionization energies and cationic structures of pyridine were intensively investigated utilizing one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The present one-photon high-resolution MATI spectrum of pyridine demonstrated a much finer and richer vibrational structure than that of the previously reported two-photon MATI spectrum. From the MATI spectrum and photoionization efficiency curve, the accurate ionization energy of the ionic ground state of pyridine was confidently determined to be 73 570 ± 6 cm{sup −1} (9.1215 ± 0.0007 eV). The observed spectrum was almost completely assigned by utilizing Franck-Condon factors and vibrational frequencies calculated through adjustments of the geometrical parameters of cationic pyridine at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. A unique feature unveiled through rigorous analysis was the prominent progression of the 10 vibrational mode, which corresponds to in-plane ring bending, and the combination of other totally symmetric fundamentals with the ring bending overtones, which contribute to the geometrical change upon ionization. Notably, the remaining peaks originate from the upper electronic state ({sup 2}A{sub 2}), as predicted by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction calculations. Based on the quantitatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results, it was concluded that upon ionization the pyridine cation in the ground electronic state should have a planar structure of C{sub 2v} symmetry through the C-N axis.

  12. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  13. Analysis of the (1)A' S1 ← (1)A' S0 and (2)A' D0 ← (1)A' S1 band systems in 1,2-dichloro-4-fluorobenzene by means of resonance-enhanced-multi-photon-ionization (REMPI) and mass-analyzed-threshold-ionization (MATI) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sascha; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2016-03-14

    Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy have been applied in order to investigate the vibrational structure of 1,2-dichloro-4-fluorobenzene (1,2,4-DCFB) in its first excited state (S1) and the cationic ground state (D0). The selection of the state prior to ionization resulted in MATI spectra with different intensity distributions thus giving access to many vibrational levels. To support the experimental findings, geometry optimizations and frequency analyses at DFT (density functional) and TDDFT (time-dependent density functional) levels of theory have been applied. Additionally, a multidimensional Franck-Condon approach has been used to calculate the vibrational intensities from the DFT calculations. An excellent agreement between simulated and measured REMPI and MATI spectra allowed for a confident assignment of vibrational levels and mechanisms active during excitation and ionization. In order to avoid any ambiguity regarding the assignment of the vibrational bands to normal modes, Duschinsky normal mode analysis has been performed to correlate the ground state (S0) normal modes of 1,2,4-DCFB with the benzene derived Wilson nomenclature. From the REMPI spectra the electronic excitation energy (EE) of 1,2-dichloro-4-fluorobenzene could be determined to be 35 714 ± 2 cm(-1) while the MATI spectra yielded the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of 1,2-dichloro-4-fluorobenzene which could be determined to be 73 332 ± 7 cm(-1). PMID:26884269

  14. An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of digoxin: The Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) Pilot Study CCQM-P20.f (Digoxin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Choteau, T.; Mesquida, C.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Windust, A.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Kato, K.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; LeGoff, T.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Siekmann, L.; Esker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.f, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2007/2008. Nine national measurement institutes, four expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of digoxin present as the main component in the comparison sample (CCQM-P20.f) which consisted of digoxin material obtained from a commercial supplier stated to comply with USP requirements. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of digoxin for the material, participants were requested, but not obliged, to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. In contrast with the previous round of the CCQM-P20 series, in which the mass fraction content of theophylline in two comparison samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2) was determined, a wider range of results were reported for the mass fraction content of digoxin in the CCQM-P20.f comparison. A minority of participants did not appear to use conditions capable of fully resolving and/or quantifying the major related structure impurities present in the comparison sample. Among those that did achieve suitable separations, there was further variation in their reported quantifications of the individual and total related substance content which reflected in part the limited availability of reference standards for these materials and the resulting assumptions that had to be made regarding the structure and response factors relative to digoxin for each individual impurity. This was particularly relevant because of the span of molecular masses of the impurities present in the sample, which ranged from aglycones to glycones with tetrameric carbohydrate chains, relative to that of digoxin. A significant additional factor also contributed to the observed variation of

  15. Meet Laurie Hand: Cherokee Nation Child Care and Development Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Cherokee Nation, along with 257 grantees, representing more than 500 Indian Tribes, Alaskan Native Villages, and Native Hawaiian Organizations, receives federal block grant funds to improve child care for Indian children. This article discusses child care, service, relationship between programs, initiative, implementation, cooperation, and setting…

  16. Étude expérimentale de l'interaction laser-matière dans le cas du soudage d'un acier inoxydable austénitique par laser Nd:YAG continu de 2 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumord, E.; Jouvard, J. M.; Grevey, D.; Druetta, M.; Ottavi, P.

    1997-05-01

    The laser-matter interaction acting during cw 2 kW Nd:YAG laser welding of an austenitic stainless steel is studied and particulary the effects linked to the presence of a keyhole in the liquid bath. This is done in order to define parameters useful to the process modelling. The absorption factor of target has been measured in order to better understand the Nd:YAG laser/stainless steel 304 interaction. Then an experimental approach of the keyhole angle value determination is proposed. Values are presented showing the important keyhole angle at the bottom of the bead. Finally a study relative to the plume above the keyhole shows that it is responsible for the formation of the nail-head part, observed on the experimental melting zone, by laser beam scattering. L'interaction laser-matière se produisant lors du soudage par laser Nd:YAG continu de 2kW d'un acier inoxydable austénitique est étudiée, et notamment les effets liés à la présence du capillaire dans le bain liquide, de façon à définir les paramètres utiles à la modélisation du processus. Le facteur d'absorption des cibles utilisées a été mesuré afin de mieux appréhender l'interaction laser Nd:YAG/acier inoxydable austénitique 304. Puis une approche expérimentale de détermination de l'angle d'inclinaison du capillaire est proposée. Des valeurs sont présentées montrant la forte inclinaison du capillaire en fond de cordon. Finalement une étude relative au panache présent audessus du capillaire met en évidence qu'il est responsable de la formation de la partie en tête de clou observée sur les zones fondues expérimentales par diffusion du faisceau laser

  17. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  18. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  19. Extracted ion current density in close-coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source: CC-MATIS

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y. E-mail: oka@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Shoji, T.

    2014-02-15

    Positive ions are extracted by using a small extractor from the Close-Coupling Multi-Antenna Type radio frequency driven Ion Source. Two types of RF antenna are used. The maximum extracted ion current density reaches 0.106 A/cm{sup 2}. The RF net power efficiency of the extracted ion current density under standard condition is 11.6 mA/cm{sup 2}/kW. The efficiency corresponds to the level of previous beam experiments on elementary designs of multi-antenna sources, and also to the efficiency level of a plasma driven by a filament in the same chamber. The multi-antenna type RF plasma source is promising for all metal high density ion sources in a large volume chamber.

  20. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species. PMID:26114728

  1. Sociological Support for the Job Placement of Students and Graduates of Higher Educational Institutions: The Experience of the Moscow Institute of Aviation and Technology (MATI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolotin, I. S.; Basalai, S. I.; Pugach, V. F.; Mikhailov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The weak connection between Russia's system of higher education and the labor market in Russia requires that greater attention be paid to preparing students for successful, employment. This will require more careful research into best practices, and the development of more effective links between employers and educational institutions.

  2. Une vie saine et active : des directives en matière d’activité physique chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’épidémie d’obésité juvénile augmente partout dans le monde. Même si les facteurs de risque d’obésité sont multifactoriels, bon nombre sont liés au mode de vie et se prêtent à une intervention. Ces facteurs incluent le comportement sédentaire et la thermogenèse sans activité physique, de même que la fréquence, l’intensité, la quantité et le type d’activité physique. Les dispensateurs de soins de première ligne sont en position idéale pour surveiller le taux d’activité physique des enfants, des adolescents et de leur famille, évaluer les choix liés au mode de vie et offrir des conseils pertinents. Le présent document de principes contient des directives visant à réduire le comportement sédentaire et à accroître le taux d’activité physique au sein de la population pédiatrique. Des recommandations d’activités physiques adaptées au développement et visant les nourrissons, les tout-petits, les enfants d’âge préscolaire, les enfants et les adolescents sont présentées. Des stratégies de promotion d’une vie saine et active sur les scènes locale, municipale, provinciale, territoriale et fédérale sont proposées.

  3. Les conseils des cliniciens canadiens en matière de commotion dans le sport sont-ils cohérents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, James D.; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les connaissances et l’utilisation des recommandations concernant la prise en charge de la commotion dans le sport (CDS) démontrées par les spécialistes de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice (SMSE) et les urgentologues afin d’évaluer la réussite du transfert des connaissances sur la CDS au Canada. Conception Un sondage à choix multiples envoyé par courriel et autoadministré par des SMSE et des urgentologues. La validité du contenu du sondage a fait l’objet d’une évaluation. Contexte Canada. Participants Le sondage a été complété entre mai et juillet 2012 par des SMSE qui ont réussi l’examen menant au diplôme de l’Académie canadienne de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice et des urgentologues qui n’avaient pas ce diplôme. Principaux paramètres à l’étude La connaissance et l’identification des sources d’information sur la prise en charge des commotions, l’utilisation des stratégies de diagnostic de la commotion et l’utilisation d’une terminologie courante et cohérente dans l’explication des stratégies de repos aux patients après une CDS. Résultats Le taux de réponse était de 28 % (305 sur 1085). Les taux de réponse par les SMSE et les urgentologues se situaient respectivement à 41 % (147 sur 360) et 22 % (158 sur 725). Parmi les répondants, 41 % des urgentologues et 3 % des SMSE n’étaient pas au courant de l’existence de déclarations consensuelles sur la commotion dans le sport; 74 % des SMSE utilisaient « habituellement ou toujours » la version 2 de l’Outil d’évaluation de la commotion dans le sport (SCAT2), tandis que 88 % des urgentologues n’utilisaient jamais le SCAT2. Aucune réponse uniforme n’a été documentée à la question visant à connaître les meilleurs modes de repos cognitif. Conclusion Nous avons cerné des différences et un manque d’uniformité chez les SMSE et les urgentologues dans la mise en application des recommandations concernant les patients ayant subi une CDS. Il semble que le SCAT2 soit davantage utilisé dans le milieu des SMSE que dans le contexte de l’urgence. Des efforts plus poussés de transfert des connaissances et en recherche devraient atténuer les obstacles à des conseils plus uniformes donnés par les médecins qui soignent des patients ayant subi une CDS.

  4. 76 FR 69770 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Filer, Center for Human Capital Management Services, Office of... Officer; Mark Reinhold, Deputy Associate Director for Human Resources-- Executive Secretariat....

  5. 76 FR 4150 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... comment period was published on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21385-21386). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before February 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Laurie Flaherty, Program Analyst..., 202-366-2705 or via e-mail at laurie.flaherty@dot.gov , 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., W44-322,...

  6. New Routes from Books to Teens. Laurie Halse Anderson Speaks: An Interview; Celebrate Reading: A Literature Festival for the Whole Community; The Book Group behind Bars; Authors and Teens Online: Enhancing Book Discussions with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Christine M.; Carlson, Chris; Sherman, Chris; Angier, Naomi; O'Dell, Katie; Diller, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    These four articles address issues related to teens and reading. Highlights include an interview with a young adult literature author; a community literature festival in St. Charles (Illinois) that introduces students to authors, poets, journalists, and storytellers; library services for youth in detention centers, including book discussion…

  7. Managing Restored Wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to Reduce Methane Emissions and Increase Carbon Uptake Laurie Koteen, Sara Knox, Cove Sturtevant, Joseph Verfaillie, Jaclyn Hatala, Dennis Baldocchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, L. E.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Matthes, J. H.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California is a region transformed by more than a century of agricultural practices. Beginning in the 19th century, substantial regions were first drained of water and then converted to cropland in order to take advantage of the area's rich peatland soils. In the intervening time period, soil oxidation and subsidence have led to huge peat losses of up to 10 m in some places, and river water now threatens to topple the levees that were erected to keep fields from flooding. Within this region, we have been monitoring greenhouse gas exchange of several agricultural sites, a degraded pasture, and two restored wetlands. Of these land use types, restoration of wetlands is of particular interest to Delta managers as these sites attain many of the region's most pressing ecological goals, including improved water quality, increased wildlife habitat, and soil accretion. In our current investigation, we hope to assess if wetland management activities can be implemented to achieve greenhouse gas management goals as well. While we find that the restored wetlands are able to take up and store a substantial amount of carbon via rapid growth rates, they also emit methane; a greenhouse gas 25 times more potent than CO¬2. We are currently in the process of implementing two management activities with the goals of reducing methane emissions and increasing carbon uptake. Evidence from the wetland literature indicates that periodic lowering of the water table below the soil surface can reduce wetland methane emissions by: 1. Reintroducing oxygen into the soil column. This both supports growth of the methanotrophic bacteria that consume methane produced in the anaerobic zones of the soil column, and suppresses the methanogens that produce it. 2. Re-oxidization of formerly reduced compounds in the soil, (i.e. NO3-, SO42-) which can serve as alternative terminal electron acceptors of the decomposition byproducts (i.e. H2 and acetate) that lead to methane formation. Under these conditions, it becomes more energetically favorable for alternative chemical transformations to occur in which CO2 and not CH4¬ is released. A second management activity would be implemented to see if wetland carbon uptake could be increased. As wetlands mature, perennial wetland vegetation often develops a significant thatch layer which can reduce photosynthesis of growing shoots by blocking radiation from leaf surfaces. Here we propose to remove the stalks of established vegetation. This would serve two goals: 1. Decomposing vegetation would be incorporated into the soil, leading to soil accretion, and 2. Thatch removal would liberate fledgling shoots, potentially increasing carbon uptake through subsequent seasons. A third investigation would compare CO2 and CH4 fluxes at an existing tower atop low salinity sediments with a new tower where site salinity is relatively high. This effort would inform new site selection efforts for wetland restoration projects. Sites located closer to the San Francisco Bay Area are tidally-influenced, and therefore have higher salinity than the impounded freshwater systems of our current study within the Delta region.

  8. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  9. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science... concerning this meeting, contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: January 11, 2010. Kelly R. Fennington, Special Assistant to the Director, Office of...

  10. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science.... Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science.... Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE...

  11. 76 FR 74805 - Draft Environmental Assessment, Incidental Take Plan, and Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... application from the MDIFW for an incidental take permit in a November 9, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR.... ADDRESSES: Send comments by U.S. mail to Attn: Lynx HCP, Laury Zicari, Field Supervisor, U.S. Fish...

  12. Parents, Take Heed: Your Kids Copy Your Heart Health Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults who have metabolic risk factors," said Pamela Koch, executive director of the Tisch Center for Food, ... cardiologist, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Pamela Koch, executive director, Laurie M. Tisch Center for Food, ...

  13. A Home for the Whole Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Laurie and Jeff Schutz can't imagine how they ever survived. It was not that long ago that the Schutz family of five was living in an 1,100 square foot, two bedroom house. Under normal circumstances, this would have been cramped for any family. The Schutzes, however, have a son with cerebral palsy. Laurie Schutz had about as normal a first-time…

  14. Multi-Mission Automated Task Invocation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Cecilia S.; Patel, Rajesh R.; Sayfi, Elias M.; Lee, Hyun H.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-Mission Automated Task Invocation Subsystem (MATIS) is software that establishes a distributed data-processing framework for automated generation of instrument data products from a spacecraft mission. Each mission may set up a set of MATIS servers for processing its data products. MATIS embodies lessons learned in experience with prior instrument- data-product-generation software. MATIS is an event-driven workflow manager that interprets project-specific, user-defined rules for managing processes. It executes programs in response to specific events under specific conditions according to the rules. Because requirements of different missions are too diverse to be satisfied by one program, MATIS accommodates plug-in programs. MATIS is flexible in that users can control such processing parameters as how many pipelines to run and on which computing machines to run them. MATIS has a fail-safe capability. At each step, MATIS captures and retains pertinent information needed to complete the step and start the next step. In the event of a restart, this information is retrieved so that processing can be resumed appropriately. At this writing, it is planned to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for monitoring and controlling a product generation engine in MATIS. The GUI would enable users to schedule multiple processes and manage the data products produced in the processes. Although MATIS was initially designed for instrument data product generation,

  15. Évolution thermique des séries sédimentaires de la Marge ardéchoise : étude pétrographique de la matière organique et des argilesThermal evolution of the sedimentary series of the Ardèche Margin: petrological studies of organic matter and clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis; Duplay, Joëlle; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Disnar, Jean Robert; Farjanel, Geneviève; Larqué, Philippe; Liewig, Nicole

    2002-11-01

    Two wells, Balazuc (BA1) and Morte-Mérie (MM1), located in a confined area (1200 m apart) and separated by the Uzer fault (a Liassic structure with a dip fault of 1300 m) were analysed using conventional methodologies and techniques (PRV, TAI, XRD, STEM) in order to compare the diagenetic evolution of clays and organic matter. The thermal convective process allows the circulation of hot fluids and the oxidation of organic matter. The conductive process allows the maturation of the organic matter, the expulsion of hydrocarbons and the deposit of pyrobitumes in the migration channels. To cite this article: L. Martinez et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1021-1028.

  16. Géodynamique et évolution thermique de la matière organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raïoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Bélayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  17. High-resolution mass-analyzed threshold ion spectrum of Argon obtained on beamline 9.0.2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Lu, K.T.; Evans, M.

    1997-04-01

    The first mass analyzed threshold ion (MATI) spectrum using dc electric fields and a continuous wave light source has been obtained on End Station 2 of the Chemical Dynamics Beamline (9.0.2.2) at the Advanced Light Source. MATI provides researchers with fundamental spectroscopic information about atomic and molecular ions with the added advantage of mass analysis. The MATI technique involves the detection of ions formed by field ionization of long-lived high-n Rydberg states approaching an ionization threshold. The MATI apparatus consists of a differentially pumped supersonic molecular beam source, a photoionization region followed by a series of electrostatic lenses, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a Daly-type detector. The MATI technique can be used to probe the Rydberg states approaching an ionization continuum and yield information about the lifetimes of these states. In addition, MATI could be used to obtain the spectrum of a single species present in a sample mixture due to the mass selective nature of the experiment. MATI could also be used to form mass selected and state specific ions for use in ion molecule reaction experiments.

  18. California Perspectives: An Anthology from the California Tomorrow Education for a Diverse Society Project, Fall 1991, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Carol, Ed.; Kam, Katherine, Ed.

    Focusing on the issue of culture and its impact on education in California, this document offers glimpses into the lives of individuals who ask the question, "Is there now or will there ever be a common American culture?" Organized into 10 articles, the first article, "Whose Culture is This? Whose Curriculum Will It Be?" (Laurie Olsen), examines…

  19. Sparking Innovative Learning & Creativity. 2008 NMC Summer Conference Proceedings (Princeton, NJ, Jun 11-14, 2008))

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachel S., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The conference proceedings include the following papers: (1) Digital Storytelling: An Alternative Instructional Approach (Ruben R. Puentedura); (2) Digital Storytelling: Old Ways, New Tools (Laurie Burruss); (3) The Adding Machine: Remote Digital Storytelling and Performance (George Brown and James Ferolo); (4) Building and Supporting a…

  20. Early Childhood Folio 3: A Collection of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Judith, Ed.; Podmore, Valerie, Ed.

    This booklet is a collection of articles addressing current issues in early childhood education. The first article, "Would You Like to Pack Away Now?: Improving the Quality of Talk in Early Childhood Programs," (Laurie Makin) addresses how teachers talk to children. The second article, "Persistence When It's Difficult: A Disposition to Learn for…

  1. 75 FR 8348 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...) foreign manufactured wind turbine for the DeLauri Pump Station Renewable Energy Project in Charlestown... MWRA, it has been determined that there is currently no domestically manufactured wind turbine... a foreign manufactured 1.5 MW wind turbine by the MWRA, as specified in its November 19,...

  2. Research Issues in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on research issues in human resource development (HRD). "Data for HRD Research and the 1997 Human Performance Practices Survey" (Laurie J. Bassi, George S. Benson), describes two research projects undertaken by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD): publication of the "ASTD…

  3. Learning Technologies: Prospects and Pathways. Selected papers from EdTech '96 Biennial Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Melbourne, Australia, July 7-10, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents a series of conference papers dealing with educational technology. The papers are: "The Role of Educational Technology in Upgrading Teacher Education in Pakistan" (M. Hashim Abbasi and Alex C. Millar); "Report on the Teaching and Learning on the Internet Project--RMIT TAFE" (Laurie Armstrong); "A Dissemination Strategy for…

  4. The Pull of the Earth: Participatory Ethnography in the School Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This book is Laurie Thorp's dirt-under-the-fingernails ethnography of four years in an elementary school garden and the ways in which this garden catalyzed cultural transformation and inspired hope, growth, and community. Filled with photographs, sketches, poetry, and journal entries, Thorp's engaging book describes the educational benefits of…

  5. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... institutions, industrial groups) use the ambient air quality data for many purposes. Some of the more prominent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Trinca, Air Quality Assessment Division, Environmental Protection... pollution control agencies, and tribal entities which collect and report ambient air quality data for...

  6. National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE). Annual Conference Journal, NABE '92-'93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malave, Lilliam M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on bilingual education, presented at the previous two NABE annual conferences, focuses on special programs, gifted and talented education, special education, and innovative teaching approaches. Articles include: "Writing Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students: A Survey of Teachers' Perceptions" (Laurie R.…

  7. Blueprint for Learning: Constructing College Courses to Facilitate, Assess, and Document Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richlin, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    Laurie Richlin has been running a workshop on course design for higher education for over fifteen years, modifying and improving it progressively from the feedback of participants, and from what they in turn have taught her. Her goals are to enable participants to appropriately select teaching strategies, to design and create the conditions and…

  8. Iberian Spanish "Macho": Vantages and Polysemy in Culturally Defined Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Caroline A.; Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This study explores some specific aspects of compatibility between cognitive models. Robert E. MacLaury's theory of vantages as arrangements of coordinates and Lakoff's concept of radial categories are mutually reinforcing to an analysis of semantic polysemy. Vantage Theory (VT) includes the notions of "zooming in" and "zooming out", allowing…

  9. 76 FR 69758 - Draft Environmental Assessment, Incidental Take Plan, and Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... the applicant that would authorize take of the federally threatened Canada lynx incidental to... Attn: Lynx HCP, Laury Zicari, Field Supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Maine Field Office, 17... an incidental take permit to take the federally threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)...

  10. The Adolescent: Taking on the Task of Humanity--Conducting the Dialogue between Nature and Supranature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Defining what it means to be in the "bosom of nature," to use Montessori's words, Laurie Ewert-Krocker points out that the adolescent period of storm and stress is quelled by the natural world. But most important, when socialization is the essential developmental focus of the young adolescent, positive social organization is fostered by…

  11. A Passion for Teaching & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Laurie Barron, the principal of Smokey Road Middle School in Newnan, GA, is the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National Middle Level Principal of the Year. This article presents a conversation with Barron on her passion for teaching and learning. She shares her biggest motivator as a school leader and how she motivates her students and staff members to fully…

  12. Authors in the Fast Lane!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follos, Alison M. G.; Rubin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces various writers, including Laurie Halse Anderson, Linda Sue Park, Richard Peck, James Patterson, and Charles R. Smith, Jr., who will give their presentations at the 2009 American Association of School Librarians (AASL) National Conference & Exhibition in Charlotte. This November the AASL National Conference and Exhibition…

  13. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  14. Beyond Looking: Using Data to Coach for Instructional Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael; Taylor, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    As a team of job-embedded instructional coaches in an ethnically and economically diverse learning environment, the authors are dedicated to thinking through and troubleshooting the improvement of teaching and learning in the three learning communities that make up Clover Park High School. They agree with commentator Laurie Olsen who writes, "Data…

  15. CFOs Talk about Finances: Glimmers of Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antolovic, Laurie G.; Horvath, Albert G.; Plympton, Margaret F.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2009, three senior financial leaders in higher education--Laurie G. Antolovic, Albert G. Horvath, and Margaret F. Plympton--participated in a panel session, moderated by Philip J. Goldstein, at the EDUCAUSE Enterprise Information and Technology Conference. The three also shared their thoughts in an audio interview conducted by Gerry Bayne,…

  16. Methodological Pluralism and Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…

  17. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  18. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance work…

  19. Vantage Theory, Statistics and the Mental Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewiara, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates Polish punk and hip hop (rap) song lyrics broken down into frequency lists. In an analysis inspired by MacLaury's view of categorization, the construals of punk and hip hop worldviews are shown to vary in the distance of the observer from the world, the width of the viewing frame, as well as the granularity and density of…

  20. "We Are Special, beyond Our Special Needs": E*LIT Project Entry Inspires Pride in Disabilities' Students. Spotlight Feature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopke-Wilson, MariRae

    2007-01-01

    The spin on Frazer School Librarian Laurie LeFever's entry for Syracuse University's 2007 E*LIT competition is what made her school literacy project for children with disabilities really unique. Instead of working with students to create a project that would be targeted toward children with disabilities, she actually used students with…

  1. Scaffolding for Discovery in the Third Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Laurie Ewert-Krocker emphasizes the teacher's role in nature's prepared environment. Without directing or controlling the child's work, learning spaces can be maximized for concentration by connecting the adolescent's intrinsic learning to the beauty and order of the natural world. The most artful balance is the global understanding of the…

  2. Families, Disability, and Empowerment: Active Coping Skills and Strategies for Family Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Powers, Laurie E., Ed.

    This book presents strategies for building strong partnerships between service providers and the families of individuals with disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Contributing to Resilience in Families: An Overview" (George H. S. Singer and Laurie E. Powers); "Parent to Parent Programs: A Unique Form of Mutual Support for…

  3. Centers for Collaboration: Diversity for the New Decade: Selected Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Writing Centers Association (32nd, St. Cloud, Minnesota, October 5-6, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Dave, Comp.

    This packet contains 10 selected papers on writing centers in both secondary and post-secondary settings: "Keynote Address: Collaboration, Control, and the Idea of a Writing Center" (Andrea A. Lunsford); "Diversifying for Disabilities: Making Writing a Mode of Encouragement" (Laurie Bertamus); "When Cultures Collide: The Effects of Hidden Taboos…

  4. Using Second Life with Learning-Disabled Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Stephanie; Horspool, Agi; Willers, Renee; Safie, Omar; Richlin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    The educational potential of Second Life is still in the process of being developed and harnessed. According to Stephanie McKinney, Agi Horspool, Renee Willers, Omar Safie, and Laurie Richlin, an essential step in this development will be to figure out how to use Second Life to support learning-disabled (LD) students who face numerous challenges…

  5. Women and Work. Exploring Race, Ethnicity, and Class. Women and Work, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth, Ed.; Romero, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers exploring the effects of race, ethnicity, and class on women in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Series Editors' Introduction" (Ann Stromberg, Barbara A. Gutek, Laurie Larwood); "Introduction" (Elizabeth Higginbotham). The book is organized in four parts. Part I, "Historical and Economic…

  6. 13-3016 - Community Association for Restoration of the Environment Inc et al v. Cow Palace LLC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2015-01-14

    ... 2012, Cow Palace reported its herd size to number over 11,000, with 7,372 milking cows, 897 dry cows...-contaminated water from washing the cows and 40,383,850 gallons of liquid manure excreted by the herd. 2 ECF No... animal waste so that neither surface or ground water contamination will occur”).7 7 Laurie Crowe,...

  7. 78 FR 48142 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Procedures for Considering Requests and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Act, and for providing relief under section 322(b) of the Act. In Proclamation No. 8341 (74 FR 4105... Requests and Comments From the Public Under the Textile Safeguard Provision of the United States-Peru Free... instructions should be directed to Laurie Mease, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of...

  8. Download: Postcards Home Contemporary Art and New Technology in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herne, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Postcards Home using photography, scanning, digital image manipulation, text and colour printing was the third Download project devised by the education department of the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, England. It was led by artist Laurie Long with teachers and pupils from Pooles Park primary school in Islington, an inner city borough in North…

  9. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Milton D., Ed.; Richlin, Laurie, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This annual journal presents articles by college faculty about teaching in higher education based on their pedagogical research and their classroom experiences. Articles in the issue for 1991 have the following titles and authors: "The Scholarship of Pedagogy: A Message From the Editors" (Laurie Richlin and Milton D. Cox); "The Social Cognition…

  10. 76 FR 35399 - Glenn/Colusa Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest... inspect comments received at Grindstone Ranger District, Stonyford Work Center, 5171 Stonyford-Elk Creek... comments and requests for time for oral comments must be sent to Stonyford Work Center, Attn: Laurie...

  11. Modular Building Institute. 2003 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Michael; Robert, Laurie; Reynolds, Pamela; Ulrey, Bill; Crawford, Doug; Shield, Tom; Soenksen, Steven

    "Commercial Modular Construction Magazine" regularly contains articles where the use of modular schools and classrooms is highlighted. This document contains a selection of those articles, including: (1) "Relocatable Classrooms Come of Age" (Michael Roman); (2) "Systems Building" (Laurie Robert); (3) "Realizing Modular's Merits" (Michael Roman);…

  12. Divorce: The Impact on Children and Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (June 19, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the impact of divorce on children and families. Opening statements are included from Congressmen George Miller, Dan Coats, and Thomas Bliley. Witnesses providing testimony include: (1) Laurie Dixon, managing editor of "The Pitch" and…

  13. "Be the Tree": Classical Literature, Art Therapy, and Transcending Trauma in "Speak"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Jessi

    2014-01-01

    Laurie Halse Anderson's young adult novel "Speak" concerns the rape and subsequent silence of ninth grade protagonist Melinda Sordino. By relying on extensive literary allusions involving trees, rape, silence, and transformation, Anderson creates a young adult problem novel that is both of the moment and timeless in its themes. The…

  14. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 7, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Koh, Amy J; Dang, Ming; Mi, Xue; Chang, Wenhan; Ma, Peter X; McCauley, Laurie K

    2016-07-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Laurie K. McCauley et al., is based on the Article Calcium Sensing Receptor Function Supports Osteoblast Survival and Acts as a Co-Factor in PTH Anabolic Actions in Bone, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25447. PMID:27145428

  15. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  16. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions with attosecond bichromatic intense XUV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-01-01

    Angular distributions of molecular above-threshold ionization (MATI) in bichromatic attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) linear polarization laser pulses have been theoretically investigated. Multiphoton ionization in a prealigned molecular ion H2+ produces clear MATI spectra which show a forward-backward asymmetry in angular and momentum distributions which is critically sensitive to the carrier envelope phase (CEP) φ, the time delay Δτ between the two laser pulses, and the photoelectron kinetic energies Ee. The features of the asymmetry in MATI angular distributions are described well by multiphoton perturbative ionization models. Phase differences of continuum electron wave functions can be extracted from the CEP φ and time delay Δτ dependent ionization asymmetry ratio created by interfering multiphoton ionization pathways. At large internuclear distances MATI angular distributions exhibit more complex features due to laser-induced electron diffraction where continuum electron wavelengths are less than the internuclear distance.

  17. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  18. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  19. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument to Measure Teachers' Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used for…

  20. Mobile opioid agonist treatment and public funding expands treatment for disenfranchised opioid-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gerod; Neighbors, Charles J; Iheoma, Jude; Dauber, Sarah; Adams, Merribeth; Culleton, Robert; Muench, Fred; Borys, Suzanne; McDonald, Rebecca; Morgenstern, Jon

    2014-04-01

    The New Jersey Medication Assisted Treatment Initiative (NJ-MATI) sought to reduce barriers to treatment by providing free, opioid agonist treatment (OAT, methadone or buprenorphine) via mobile medication units (MMUs). To evaluate barriers to OAT, logistic regression was used to compare opioid dependent patients enrolled in NJ-MATI to those entering treatment at fixed-site methadone clinics or non-medication assisted treatment (non-MAT). Client demographic and clinical data were taken from an administrative database for licensed treatment providers. The MMUs enrolled a greater proportion of African-American, homeless, and uninsured individuals than the fixed-site methadone clinics. Compared to non-MAT and traditional methadone clients, NJ-MATI patients were more likely to be injection drug users and daily users but less likely to have a recent history of treatment. These observations suggest that the patient-centered policies associated with NJ-MATI increased treatment participation by high severity, socially disenfranchised patients who were not likely to receive OAT. PMID:24468235

  1. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  2. Update on Groupthink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner-Weber, Cheryl

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the definition and origin of the term "groupthink." Examines three studies on groupthink by John Courtright (1978), Matie Flowers (1977), and Philip Tetlock (1979). Concludes none of the three is superior to another but that it can be learned from all three that group decision making is fraught with danger. (ABL)

  3. Sensitivity of the Lanczos recurrence to Gaussian quadrature data: How malignant can small weights be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnerman, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Stability of passing from Gaussian quadrature data to the Lanczos recurrence coefficients is considered. Special attention is paid to estimates explicitly expressed in terms of quadrature data and not having weights in denominators. It has been shown that the recent approach, exploiting integral representation of Hankel determinants, implies quantitative improvement of D. Laurie's constructive estimate. It has also been demonstrated that a particular implementation on the Hankel determinant approach gives an estimate being unimprovable up to a coefficient; the corresponding example involves quadrature data with a small but not too small weight. It follows that polynomial increase of a general case upper bound in terms of the dimension is unavoidable.

  4. Talking about Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction Timothy Ferris, Iris Fry, Steven Dick, Ann Druyan, Pinky Nelson, Neil Tyson, Steve Benner and William Bains; Part II. Earth Roger Buick, Lynn Rothschild, John Baross, Joe Kirschvink, Andrew Knoll, Simon Conway Morris, Roger Hanlon and Lori Marino; Part III. Solar System Chris McKay, David Grinspoon, Jonathan Lunine, Carolyn Porco, Laurie Leshin, Guy Consolmagno and Peter Smith; Part IV. Exoplanets Alan Boss, Geoff Marcy, Debra Fischer, Sara Seager, David Charbonneau and Vikki Meadows; Part V. Frontiers Jill Tarter, Seth Shostak, Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Ben Bova and Jennifer Michael Hecht; Reading list; Glossary; Index.

  5. Hayes Receives 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    I am deeply honored to be the inaugural recipient of the Ronald Greeley Early Career Award. Ron was an icon in the field of planetary science, and the establishment of this award is a fitting way to pay tribute to his legacy. I applaud Laurie Leshin, Bill McKinnon, and the rest of the AGU Planetary Science section officers and selection committee for taking the time to organize this memorial. Ron is remembered not only for his fundamental scientific contributions but also for his mentorship and support of early-career scientists, both his own students and postdocs and those of his colleagues.

  6. High Rydberg states of DABCO: Spectroscopy, ionization potential, and comparison with mass analyzed threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogaarts, Maarten G. H.; Holleman, Iwan; Jongma, Rienk T.; Parker, David H.; Meijer, Gerard; Even, Uzi

    1996-03-01

    Doubly-resonant excitation/vibrational autoionization is used to accurately determine the ionization potential (IP) of the highly symmetric caged amine 1,4 diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO). The IP of DABCO excited with one quantum of the ν24(e') vibration lies at (59 048.62±0.03) cm-1, based on fitting 56 components of the npxy Rydberg series (δ=0.406±0.002) to the Rydberg formula. Rydberg state transition energies and linewidths are determined using standard calibration and linefitting techniques. The IP determined from Rydberg state extrapolation is compared with that determined by mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI). Effects of static electric fields on MATI signals measured for the high Rydberg states are discussed.

  7. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, Kevin; Jovanovic, Goran; Paul, Brian

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  8. Mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of p-methylphenol and p-ethylphenol cations and the alkyl substitution effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung Lee; Li, Changyong; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2004-06-01

    The mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of p-methylphenol and p-ethylphenol have been recorded by ionizing via various vibronic levels. The adiabatic ionization energies (IEs) of p-methylphenol and p-ethylphenol are determined to be 65918±5 and 65628±5 cm-1, which are less than that of phenol by 2707 and 2997 cm-1, respectively. This redshift indicates that the interaction between the alkyl group and the ring of alkylphenols in the cationic D0 state is greater than that in the neutral S0 state. Moreover, a longer alkyl group gives rise to a greater redshift in the IE. Analysis of the MATI spectra shows that most of the active modes are related to the in-plane ring vibrations of these two cations. However, the length of the alkyl group has an insignificant effect on the frequency of the observed ring vibrations. No band with frequency less than 350 cm-1 is observed for the p-methylphenol cation. In contrast, many low-frequency bands resulting from the characteristic motions (e.g., the C-C2H5 torsion and C-C2H5 and C-OH bending vibrations) appear in the MATI spectra of p-ethylphenol. The present results show that the ethyl group enhances the substituent-sensitive and many large-amplitude vibrations of the cation.

  9. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  11. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PMID:22329705

  12. An ab initio study of the influence of substituents and intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the carbonyl bond length, and the harmonic and anharmonic stretching force constants. I. Monosubstituted carbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel; George, Philip

    1981-11-01

    The CO bond length and the quadratic, cubic and quartic stretching force constants, calculated ab initio using the unscaled 4-31G basis set with full geometry optimization, are reported for three series of monosubstituted carbonyl compounds in which the atom directly bonded to the carbonyl carbon is another carbon, a nitrogen, or an oxygen atom, respectively. The data are analyzed in terms of the In ƒ versus In re relationship, and also the generalized power functions and exponential functions proposed by Herschbach and Laurie. Not only does the atom directly bonded to the carbonyl carbon affect the magnitude of re and the force constants, but the rest of the substituent group is found to be capable of exerting an even greater influence. Within each series of compounds the overall progression from the shortest to the longest CO bonds is tentatively attributed to a diminishing electron density in the bonding region.

  13. Recommandations sur l’examen pelvien de dépistage systématique

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les lignes directrices de 2014 de l’American College of Physicians (ACP) en matière d’examens pelviens de dépistage du cancer (autre que du col), des maladies inflammatoires pelviennes ou d’autres affections gynécologiques bénignes afin de déterminer si les lignes directrices de l’ACP en matière d’examens pelviens systématiques sont conformes aux normes établies par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (GECSSP) et peuvent être adaptées ou adoptées. Méthodologie La méthode SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) a servi à déterminer si les lignes directrices de l’ACP étaient conformes aux normes du GECSSP et pouvaient être adaptées ou adoptées. Recommandations Le GECSSP recommande de ne pas effectuer un examen pelvien de dépistage des cancers non cervicaux, des maladies inflammatoires pelviennes ou d’autres affections gynécologiques chez les femmes asymptomatiques. Il s’agit d’une forte recommandation reposant sur des données probantes de qualité modérée. Conclusion Le GECSSP adopte la recommandation en matière d’examen pelvien de dépistage, comme publiée par l’ACP en 2014.

  14. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyáš et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  15. Hydrogenic Rydberg States of Molecular van der Waals Complexes: Resolved Rydberg Spectroscopy of DABCO-N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, Martin C.; Watkins, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The complementary threshold ionization techniques of MATI and ZEKE spectroscopy have been used to reveal well-resolved, long-lived (>10 μs) hydrogenic Rydberg series (50≤n≤98) in a van der Waals complex formed between a polyatomic molecule and a diatomic molecule for the first time. The series are observed within 50 cm-1 of the adiabatic ionization threshold as well as two core-excited thresholds corresponding to excitation of up to two quanta in the van der Waals vibra­tional mode.

  16. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  17. Discovering General Multidimensional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ben; Murrell, Daniel; Murrell, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    When two variables are related by a known function, the coefficient of determination (denoted R2) measures the proportion of the total variance in the observations explained by that function. For linear relationships, this is equal to the square of the correlation coefficient, ρ. When the parametric form of the relationship is unknown, however, it is unclear how to estimate the proportion of explained variance equitably—assigning similar values to equally noisy relationships. Here we demonstrate how to directly estimate a generalised R2 when the form of the relationship is unknown, and we consider the performance of the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC)—a recently proposed information theoretic measure of dependence. We show that our approach behaves equitably, has more power than MIC to detect association between variables, and converges faster with increasing sample size. Most importantly, our approach generalises to higher dimensions, estimating the strength of multivariate relationships (Y against A, B, …) as well as measuring association while controlling for covariates (Y against X controlling for C). An R package named matie (“Measuring Association and Testing Independence Efficiently”) is available (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/matie/). PMID:26991498

  18. Effect of noncovalent interactions on conformers of the n-butylbenzene monomer studied by mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy and basis-set convergent ab initio computations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Cerný, Jirí; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2008-07-01

    Two conformational isomers of the aromatic hydrocarbon n-butylbenzene have been studied using two-color MATI (mass analyzed threshold ionization) spectroscopy to explore the effect of conformation on ionization dynamics. Cationic states of g auche-conformer III and anti- conformers IV were selectively produced by two-color excitation via the respective S 1 origins. Adiabatic ionization potentials of the gauche- and anti-conformations were determined to be 70146 and 69872 +/- 5 cm (-1) respectively. Spectral features and vibrational modes are interpreted with the aid of MP2/cc-pVDZ ab initio calculations, and ionization-induced changes in the molecular conformations are discussed. Complete basis set (CBS) ab initio studies at MP2 level reveal reliable energetics for all four n-butylbenzene conformers observed in earlier two-color REMPI (resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization) spectra. For the S 0 state, the energies of conformer III, IV and V are above conformer I by 130, 289, 73 cm (-1), respectively. Furthermore, the combination of the CBS calculations with the measured REMPI, MATI spectra allowed the determination of the energetics of all four conformers in the S 1 and D 0 states. PMID:18533642

  19. Effect of noncovalent interactions on the n-butylbenzene...Ar cluster studied by mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy and ab initio computations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Cerný, Jirí; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Clusters of Ar bound to isomers of the aromatic hydrocarbon n-butylbenzene (BB) have been studied using two-color REMPI (resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization) and MATI (mass analyzed threshold ionization) spectroscopy to explore noncovalent vdW interactions between these two moieties. Blue shifts of excitation energy were observed for gauche-BB...Ar clusters, and red shifts for anti-BB...Ar clusters were observed. Adiabatic ionization energies (IEs) of the conformer BB-I...Ar and BB-V...Ar were determined as 70052 and 69845 +/- 5 cm (-1), respectively. Spectral features and vibrational modes were interpreted with the aid of UMP2/cc-pVDZ ab initio calculations. Data of complexation shifts of the alkyl-benzenes and their argon clusters were collected and discussed. Using the CCSD(T) method at complete basis set (CBS) level, interaction energies for the neutral ground states of BB-I...Ar and BB-V...Ar were obtained as 650 and 558 cm (-1), respectively. Combining the CBS calculation results and the REMPI and MATI spectra allowed further the determination of the interaction energies and the energetics of BB...Ar in the excited neutral S 1 and the D 0 cationic ground states. PMID:18533640

  20. Threshold Ionization and Spin-Orbit Coupling of Ceracyclopropene Formed by Ethylene Dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Schmidt, Michael W; Kumari, Sudesh; Gordon, Mark S; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    A Ce atom reaction with ethylene was carried out in a laser-vaporization metal cluster beam source. Ce(C2H2) formed by hydrogen elimination from ethylene was investigated by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy, isotopic substitutions, and relativistic quantum chemical computations. The theoretical calculations include a scalar relativistic correction, dynamic electron correlation, and spin-orbit coupling. The MATI spectrum exhibits two nearly identical band systems separated by 128 cm(-1). The separation is not affected by deuteration. The two-band systems are attributed to spin-orbit splitting and the vibrational bands to the symmetric metal-ligand stretching and in-plane carbon-hydrogen bending excitations. The spin-orbit splitting arises from interactions of a pair of nearly degenerate triplets and a pair of nearly degenerate singlets. The organolanthanide complex is a metallacyclopropene in C2v symmetry. The low-energy valence electron configurations of the neutral and ion species are Ce 4f(1)6s(1) and Ce 4f(1), respectively. The remaining two electrons that are associated with the isolated Ce atom or ion are spin paired in a molecular orbital that is a bonding combination between a 5d Ce orbital and a π* antibonding orbital of acetylene. PMID:27548080

  1. Rotations of molecular photoelectron angular distributions in above threshold ionization of H2+ by intense circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2014-10-01

    We present molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in multi-photon ionization processes by circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses. Simulations are performed on the single electron aligned molecular ion H_2^+ by solving corresponding 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Numerical results of molecular above threshold ionization (MATI) show that rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular and polarization axes depend on pulse intensities and photoelectron kinetic energies. We attribute the rotation to Γ, the difference between parallel and perpendicular ionization probabilities. It is found that in a resonant ionization process, the rotation angle is also a function of the symmetry of intermediate electronic states. The coherent population transfer between the initial and the resonant electronic states is controlled by pulse intensities. Such dependence of rotations on the pulse intensity is absent in Rydberg resonant ionizations as well as in MATI at large energy photons ℏω > Ip, where ω is angular frequency of photons and Ip is the molecular ionization potential. We describe these processes by a multi-photon perturbation theory model. Effects of molecular alignment and pulse ellipticities on rotations are investigated, confirming the essence of the ionization parameter Γ in rotations of MPADs.

  2. Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumanova, X.; Marku, S.; Fröjdö, S.; Jacks, G.

    2014-06-01

    The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by δ18O results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (δ34S >21 ‰) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (δ34S <10 ‰), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

  3. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Werner; Meinnel, Jean

    2003-02-01

    En 1994, l'attribution du prix Nobel à Cliff Shull et Bert Brockhouse pour leurs travaux de pionniers pendant les années 50, concernant tant la diffusion élastique des neutrons que la diffusion inélastique, a été la reconnaissance éclatante de l'importance de la diffusion neutronique pour toute la communauté scientifique.Le grand intérêt du neutron pour la recherche s'appuie principalement sur ses propriétés physiques particulières :- les neutrons utilisés pour la caractérisation de la matière (et fournis en relativement grandes quantités par les réacteurs ou les sources à spallation) disposent de longueurs d'onde et d'énergies correspondant directement aux distances interatomiques et aux énergies d'agitation de la matière. Ainsi, par diffusion neutronique, on peut étudier en même temps la structure et le comportement dynamique de la matière ;- le fait que le neutron soit doué d'un moment magnétique lui permet d'interagir avec tout atome porteur d'un moment magnétique. Ceci permet de caractériser intimement le comportement magnétique de la matière à l'échelle microscopique ;- la possibilité de pouvoir varier facilement le contraste d'un même élément en utilisant ses différents isotopes fait du neutron un outil irremplaçable en chimie et physique du solide ainsi qu'en biologie et matière molle ;- enfin, n'ayant pas de charge électrique, les neutrons peuvent pénétrer la matière sans être absorbés significativement, ce qui rend possible une caractérisation non destructive des contraintes et textures sur de grosses pièces des matériaux.Toutes les qualités des neutrons mentionnées ci-dessus permettent de comprendre l'importance de la diffusion neutronique pour des domaines très nombreux et très différents à la fois en recherche fondamentale mais aussi pour des applications industrielles. L'utilisation de l'outil-neutron demande toutefois non seulement une bonne connaissance des différents mécanismes d

  4. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  5. The General History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2010-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. The Birth of Astrophysics and Other Late Nineteenth-Century Trends (c.1850-c.1920); 1. The origins of astrophysics A. J. Meadows; 2. The impact of photography on astronomy John Lankford; 3. Telescope building, 1850-1900 Albert Van Helden; 4. The new astronomy A. J. Meadows; 5. Variable stars Helen Sawyer Hogg; 6. Stellar evolution and the origin of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram David DeVorkin; Part II. Observatories and Instrumentation: 7. Astronomical institutions. Introduction Owen Gingerich, Greenwich Observatory Philip S. Laurie, Paris Observatory Jacques Lévy, Pulkovo Observatory Aleksandr A. Mikhailov, Harvard College Observatory Howard Plotkin, United States Naval Observatory Deborah Warner, Lick Observatory Trudy E. Bell, Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory Dieter B. Herrmann; 8. Building large telescopes, 1900-1950 Albert Van Helden; 9. Astronomical institutions in the southern hemisphere, 1850-1950 David S. Evans; 10. Twentieth-century instrumentation Charles Fehrenbach, with a section on 'Early rockets in astronomy' Herbert Friedman; 11. Early radio astronomy Woodruff T. Sullivan III; Appendix: The world's largest telescopes, 1850-1950 Barbara L. Welther; Illustrations: acknowledgements and sources; Index.

  6. Paving the Path for Human Space Exploration: The Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Lauri Hansen, Director of Engineering at NASA Johnson Space Center will discuss the challenges of human space exploration. The future of human exploration begins with our current earth reliant missions in low earth orbit. These missions utilize the International Space Station to learn how to safely execute deep space missions. In addition to serving as an exploration test bed and enabling world class research, the International Space Station enables NASA to build international and commercial partnerships. NASA's next steps will be to enable the commercialization of low earth orbit while concentrating on developing the spacecraft and infrastructure necessary for deep space exploration and long duration missions. The Orion multi-purpose crew vehicle and the Space Launch System rocket are critical building blocks in this next phase of exploration. There are many challenges in designing spacecraft to perform these missions including safety, complex vehicle design, and mass challenges. Orion development is proceeding well, and includes a significant partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop and build the Service Module portion of the spacecraft. Together, NASA and ESA will provide the capability to take humans further than we have ever been before - 70,000 km past the moon. This will be the next big step in expanding the frontiers of human exploration, eventually leading to human footprints on Mars.

  7. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  8. Food and the body politic.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Americans are in the midst of a food-consciousness revival: on television, in the mouth of the First Lady, in endless articles celebrating urban agriculture can be found a sudden enthusiasm for the politically and, perhaps, spiritually curated dinner table. In this special section, writers explore the perilous state of food and food politics in America and a wide range of responses on the Left. Marion Nestle, in her essay on the farm bill, describes how the existing policy disaster came to be, along with the relationship between Reagan-era deregulation and the obesity epidemic. Mark Engler describes both the successes and coopting of the strands of left-wing responses—buying organic, eating local, and agitating for fair trade—and asks, "What's a radical to eat?" Laurie Woolever uncovers the kind of labor exploitation endemic to the elite dining experience. Karen Bakker Le Billon compares American to French school lunches, unpacking the relationship between food and citizenship. Juliana DeVries explores vegetarianism and the politics of everyday life. PMID:22834043

  9. Right Language to Release the River of Health in the Medical Industry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Performance artist Laurie Anderson appropriated an idea from beat writer William Burroughs a few years back. Language, Anderson sings, is a virus.1 The words we choose lock in ideas and discharge reverberations. They subtly evoke personal, professional, and societal power relationships. Language is a virus. By extension, changes of language can shift power relations. The removal of a conquest name of a former US president from the highest point in the northern part of the western hemisphere is a case in point. US President Barack Obama re-anointed Mt McKinley as Mt Denali, the name used by the indigenous people whose descendants still live in its presence.2 The act replaced a European surname linked to cultural suppression and colonization with one that honors the first human inhabitants. The renaissance of indigenous medical practices is effecting a similar renaming of what many view to be the high point in the development of medicine. “Traditional medicine” has for decades been misused to describe biomedical and industrial practices that are less than a century old. Better to qualify this medicine with “conventional” or “bio-.” Let “traditional medicine” indicate practices that carry the weight of history. These choices move toward right language. PMID:26665015

  10. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive controlled release tablets of alfuzosin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rudraswamy-Math, Nijaguni Revansiddayya; Gupta, Vankdari Rama-Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Alfuzosin hydrochloride is a novel drug used in the treatment of urinary incontinency. The purpose of this research was to develop controlled release floating matrix formulations of Alfuzosin HCl. Floating matrix tablets of Alfuzosin HCl were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Polyethylene oxide (PEO), Carbopol 971P NF polymer (Direct compressible) and Blend of Polyvinyl Acetate and Povidone 30 (80:19:1(0.8% sodium laury sulfate and 0.2% silica)). Combination of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were also used as gas forming agent. Matrix formulations were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for floating, in vitro drug release profile and swelling characteristics. The mechanism of drug release was found to follow non-Fickian or anomalous type. The data obtained from the invitro release studies demonstrated that the floating matrix tablets containing HPMC 100K CR (controlled-release) and carbopol along with sodium CMC were found to sustain the release of drug over a period of 12 hours. Formulations containing 25% PEO 303WSR was also capable of sustaining delivery the release of Alfuzosin HCl. PMID:26639508

  11. Bylaws for GP Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Individual sections of AGU are governed by collections of bylaws adopted by each membership. The GP Section, at the present time, has no bylaws. Such a document would include articles defining the name, objectives, and membership of the section. Also present would be a description of officers (president, president-elect, and secretary), their duties, nomination and election procedures, and information on committees, meetings, and publications. The GP Section now functions by following some standard, although unwritten, procedures. The usual bylaws used by AGU sections would not change any of the functions or procedures used by our section but would put in writing the structure that we follow. It is possible, in the membership clause, to allow members to be affiliated with more than one section and to no longer claim only a “primary” section. The GP Executive Committee intends to discuss the possibility of adopting our own bylaws at the spring business meeting. We would appreciate any input from GP membership on this topic prior to May. Please direct your comments to Laurie Brown or Subir Banerjee (addresses above).

  12. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  13. Right Language to Release the River of Health in the Medical Industry.

    PubMed

    Weeks, John

    2015-11-01

    Performance artist Laurie Anderson appropriated an idea from beat writer William Burroughs a few years back. Language, Anderson sings, is a virus.(1) The words we choose lock in ideas and discharge reverberations. They subtly evoke personal, professional, and societal power relationships. Language is a virus. By extension, changes of language can shift power relations. The removal of a conquest name of a former US president from the highest point in the northern part of the western hemisphere is a case in point. US President Barack Obama re-anointed Mt McKinley as Mt Denali, the name used by the indigenous people whose descendants still live in its presence.(2) The act replaced a European surname linked to cultural suppression and colonization with one that honors the first human inhabitants. The renaissance of indigenous medical practices is effecting a similar renaming of what many view to be the high point in the development of medicine. "Traditional medicine" has for decades been misused to describe biomedical and industrial practices that are less than a century old. Better to qualify this medicine with "conventional" or "bio-." Let "traditional medicine" indicate practices that carry the weight of history. These choices move toward right language. PMID:26665015

  14. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  15. Construction of In-house Databases in a Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Tetsuo

    As computer technology, communication technology and others have progressed, many corporations are likely to locate constructing and utilizing their own databases at the center of the information activities, and aim at developing their information activities newly. This paper considers how information management in a corporation is affected under changing management and technology environments, and clarifies and generalizes what in-house databases should be constructed and utilized from the viewpoints of requirements to be furnished, types and forms of information to be dealt, indexing, use type and frequency, evaluation method and so on. The author outlines an information system of Matsushita called MATIS (Matsushita Technical Information System) as an actual example, and describes the present status and some points to be reminded in constructing and utilizing databases of REP, BOOK and SYMP.

  16. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons? Une introduction pour des non spécialistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-11-01

    Le neutron est une particule élémentaire qui a été découverte en 1932 par James Chadwick. Ses caractéristiques principales sont résumées dans le tableau I. Il a été utilisé pour la première fois par Clifford Shull en 1946 comme outil pour des expériences de diffusion. Cette technique s'est depuis constamment développée pour concerner tous les aspects de la matière condensée: physique, chimie, matériaux, biologie. Il s'agit d'un outil tout à fait exceptionnel car le neutron possède des propriétés uniques et particulièrement adaptées pour ces études.

  17. Hybrid Multifoil Aerogel Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Paik, Jong-Ah; Jones, Steven; Nesmith, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This innovation blends the merits of multifoil insulation (MFI) with aerogel-based insulation to develop a highly versatile, ultra-low thermally conductive material called hybrid multifoil aerogel thermal insulation (HyMATI). The density of the opacified aerogel is 240 mg/cm3 and has thermal conductivity in the 20 mW/mK range in high vacuum and 25 mW/mK in 1 atmosphere of gas (such as argon) up to 800 C. It is stable up to 1,000 C. This is equal to commercially available high-temperature thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of the aerogel is 36 percent lower compared to several commercially available insulations when tested in 1 atmosphere of argon gas up to 800 C.

  18. Les considérations éthiques relatives à la désadoption d'aspects inefficaces ou nuisibles des soins de santé.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    La désadoption désigne l'abandon d'une pratique médicale ou d'un service de santé inefficace ou nuisible après une période d'adoption. Tandis que les dépenses croissantes en matière de santé menacent de paralyser les sociétés qui les financent, le fait de faciliter la désadoption peut faire partie intégrante de systèmes de santé durables qui prodiguent des soins de qualité. Le présent article explore des enjeux éthiques qui se rapportent à la désadoption, y compris les principes sous-jacents de bénéficience, de non-maléficience, de justice et d'autonomie. PMID:27576859

  19. Threshold ionization spectroscopic investigation of supersonic jet-cooled, laser-desorbed Tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherkhani, Mehran; Armentano, Antonio; Černý, Jiří; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) was studied by two-colour Photoionization Efficiency (PIE) and Mass Analysed Threshold Ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using a laser desorption apparatus. Conformer A of Trp was excited into the S1 state (34,878 cm-1) and the second laser was scanned around the D0 cation ground and the D1 excited state. No ionization signal into the D0 state could be found, but a clear threshold was observed for the D1 state with an ionization energy of 66,704 ± 3 cm-1 (8.27 eV). This observation is explained in terms of the electronic configurations of the S1 and cationic states.

  20. Mass analyzed threshold ionization of phenolṡCO: Intermolecular binding energies of a hydrogen-bonded complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Stephen R.; Dessent, Caroline E. H.; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    1999-08-01

    [PhenolṡCO]+ was studied using a combination of two-color resonant zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy to investigate the interaction of the CO ligand with a hydrogen-bonding cation. Vibrational progressions were observed in three intermolecular modes, the in-plane bend (42 cm-1), stretch (130 cm-1), and in-plane wag (160 cm-1), and are consistent with a planar hydrogen-bonded structure where the CO bonds through the carbon atom to the phenol OH group. Dissociation energies for the S0, S1, and D0 states were determined as 659±20, 849±20, and 2425±10 cm-1, respectively. The cationic and neutral dissociation energies of the phenolṡCO complex are considerably stronger than those of phenolṡN2, demonstrating the extent to which the larger quadrupole of CO affects the strength of binding.

  1. Structures and vibrations of neutral and cationic 3- and 4-aminophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterberg, C.; Gerlach, A.; Jansen, A.; Gerhards, M.

    2004-10-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study on the structures and vibrations of 3- and 4-aminophenol in their neutral and ionic ground states is presented. The vibrations of the two possible isomers of 3-aminophenol and the one isomer of 4-aminophenol are investigated by mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy in the ionic ground state and by infrared resonant 2-photon ionization (IR/R2PI) spectroscopy in the neutral ground state. The experimentally observed vibrational frequencies of all isomers are in excellent agreement with the calculated values obtained by density functional theory (DFT) and at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory. The calculations support the assignment of different isomers. Furthermore, the experimentally observed ionization potentials are well predicted by CASMP2//CASSCF calculations.

  2. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  3. Nonresonant two-photon mass analyzed threshold ionization and zero kinetic energy photoelectron investigation of the X˜ 2B1 ground state of CH2CO+ and CD2CO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiliang; Shi, Yujun; Jakubek, Zygmunt J.; Barnett, Michael; Simard, Benoit; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Liu, Ching-Ping; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2002-10-01

    Rotationally resolved nonresonant two-photon mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) and zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectra of CH2CO+ and CD2CO+ are reported. The spectra are dominated by the origin band and totally symmetric a1 vibrations, ν4 (C=C symmetric stretch) and ν2 (C=O asymmetric stretch) for CH2CO+, and ν1 (C=O asymmetric stretch), ν3 (C=C symmetric stretch), and ν4 (CD2 scissor) for CD2CO+. In addition, several weaker bands are observed in the MATI spectra: ν3 (CH2 scissor) in CH2CO+; b1 vibrations ν5 and ν6 (C=C=O linear bend and CH2 wag) in both isotopomers; b2 vibration ν8 (CD2 rock) for CD2CO+; b2 vibration ν9 (C=C=O linear bend) for CH2CO+; as well as overtones and combination bands. Rotational structure of the origin band is dominated by three very strong ΔKa=±1 bands with 2 orders of magnitude weaker ΔKa=+3 bands. A similar ΔKa=±1 three-band pattern is observed for the a1 vibrational modes. For the b1 modes a single-band pattern resulting from the ΔKa=0 selection rule is present. Fundamental wave numbers for six vibrational modes of CH2CO+ and seven modes of CD2CO+ are determined. Rotational analysis of the partially resolved ZEKE spectra yields the ionization potentials (77539.4±2.0 cm-1 for CH2CO and 77534.3±2.0 cm-1 for CD2CO) and rotational constants for the ground states of both ketene cations.

  4. Threshold ionization, structural isomers, and electronic states of M{sub 2}O{sub 2} (M = Sc, Y, and La)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lu; Zhang, Changhua; Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2014-06-14

    M{sub 2}O{sub 2} (M = Sc, Y, and La) were synthesized in a pulsed laser-vaporization molecular beam source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) and several vibrational frequencies were measured accurately for the first time from the MATI spectra. Six possible structural isomers of M{sub 2}O{sub 2} were considered in the calculations and the three converged structures were used in the spectral analysis. A planar cyclic structure in D{sub 2h} point group was predicted to be the most stable one by the theory and observed by the experiment. The cyclic structure is formed by joining two MO{sub 2} fragments together through two shared oxygen atoms. In forming the ground state clusters, each metal atom loses two (n − 1)d electrons and as a result, has only one ns electron in the metal-based valence orbital. The ground electronic state of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 2} is {sup 1}A{sub g}, and those of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2} and La{sub 2}O{sub 2} are {sup 3}B{sub 1u}. Ionization of both {sup 1}A{sub g} and {sup 3}B{sub 1u} neutral states yields the {sup 2}A{sub g} ion state by removing one of the two ns electrons, and the resultant ion has a similar geometry to the neutral cluster. The AIEs of the clusters are 5.5752 (6), 5.2639 (6), 4.5795 (6) eV for M = Sc, Y, and La, respectively. The vibrational frequencies of the observed modes, including O-M and M-M stretches, are in the range of 200–800 cm{sup −1}.

  5. C-O and O-H Bond Activation of Methanole by Lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ruchira; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between methanol (CH_3OH) molecules and laser-vaporized La atoms resulted in the cleavage of C-O and O-H bonds and the formation of three major products, LaH_2O_2, LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2, in a supersonic molecular beam. These products were identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and their electronic spectra were obtained using mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectra, adiabatic ionization energies of the three complexes were measured to be 40136 (5), 39366 (5) and 38685 (5) cm-1 for LaH_2O_2, LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2, respectively. The ionization energies of these complexes decrease as the size of the coordinated organic fragments increases. The most active vibrational transitions of all three complexes were observed to be the M-O stretches in the ionic state. A metal-ligand bending mode with a frequency of 127 cm-1 was also observed for [LaH_2O_2]^+. However, the spectra of the other two complexes were less resolved, due to the existence of a large number of low frequency modes, which could be thermally excited even in the supersonic molecular beams, and of multiple rotational isomers formed by the free rotation of the methyl group in these systems. The electronic transitions responsible for the observed spectra were identified as ^1A_1 (C2v) ← ^2A_1 (C2v) for LaH_2O_2 and ^1A (C_1) ← ^2A (C_1) for LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2.

  6. Isotopic assessment of the recharge of a coastal aquifer in N. Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacks, Gunnar; Kumanova, Xhume; Marku, Sonila

    2013-04-01

    The River Mati coastal plain aquifers serve as a groundwater source for about 250 000 people. A major concern is the rate of recharge from an alluvial fan at the entry of River Mati into the coastal plain. The investigation revealed brackish groundwater close to the Adriatic coast. However, the groundwater was artesian indicating the sea water intrusion is not currently a threat. As per ^18O analysis this water was not a mix of old sea water but had the signature of the river water. The salinity is likely to be derived by diffusion from intercalated clay layers. 14C dating of the water showed ages of the most brackish water up to 7 000 years. Upstream there are a large number of active and abandoned copper mines and about 10 M ton of waste rock from these mines. The ^34S in the river water was close to the value for sulphides in this waste rock. Also the groundwater showed values close to that of the river. Only the brackish groundwater close to the sea shore had a sea water signature, probably derived from sulphate diffusion from the above mentioned clay layers. Thus currently the groundwater extracted in a large well-field for the Durres town is more or less completely fed by recharge from the river. Large scale sand and gravel extraction in the alluvial cone is a threat to this recharge, lowering the head for flow and also presenting a risk for pollution by oil and fuel from the vehicles used for the sand and gravel extraction. It is recommended that a number of the artesian wells close to the Adriatic coast are monitored regarding the head above ground level.

  7. Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollma, Merita

    2010-05-01

    Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin This paper is about the natural and human factors role impact on the geomorphology of the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin. The morphotectonic and morphologic evolution of this zone is closely connected to the Adriatic sea and Mat, Ishem rivers activities. An important role in this evolution has also played the tectonic faults, where Mat and Ishem rivers flow. River delta advancing in this zone, besides the littoral cordons, is connected to the river solid loads (about 5380 ton/km2), which manage to compensate the continuous tectonic subsidents of its structural basement. The presence of the lagoons (Patok, Merxhan, Ceka), dead meanders and marshlands along a distance of 2-4 km of this zone, are the evidences of continues morphologic evolution of the present coastline, especially between these two rivers. The higher tectonic subsident values of the basement along Mat fault have also defined the smaller size of the alluvial field of this river compare to the alluvial field created by Ishem river. This tectonic phenomena is evidenced with the different thickness of the quaternary depositions along the Ishem river sector (30-80m) and along Mati river (250-290 m). Human impact on the geomorphologic evolution of this zone has caused the total destruction of Patok beach, due to the deviation of the Ishem river flow to the lagoon of Patok. The creation of the artificial reservoirs along Mat river (Ulez, Shkopet) and Ishem river (Bovilla), besides the extraction of the river inert materials along Mati riverbed and destruction of the river banks concretes, have decreased the solid river load. This has caused the beginning of the erosion process of the coastline in some sectors of this zone. Consequently the damages on the natural environment of this zone caused by the human impact are severe and their rehabilitation and management needs an integrated approach from different actors.

  8. Do infants perceive word boundaries? An empirical study of the bootstrapping of lexical acquisition.

    PubMed

    Christophe, A; Dupoux, E; Bertoncini, J; Mehler, J

    1994-03-01

    Babies, like adults, hear mostly continuous speech. Unlike adults, however, they are not acquainted with the words that constitute the utterances; yet in order to construct representations for words, they have to retrieve them from the speech wave. Given the apparent lack of obvious cues to word boundaries (such as pauses between words), this is not a trivial problem. Among the several mechanisms that could be explored to solve this bootstrapping problem for lexical acquisition, a tentative but reasonable one posits the existence of some cues (other than silence) that signal word boundaries. In order to test this hypothesis, infants were used as informants in our experiments. It was hypothesized that if word boundary cues exist, and if infants are to use them in the course of language acquisition, then they should at least perceive these cues. As a consequence, infants should be able to discriminate sequences that contain a word boundary from those that do not. A number of bisyllabic stimuli were extracted either from within French words (e.g., mati in mathématicien), or from between words (e.g., mati in panorama typique). Three-day-old infants were tested with a non-nutritive sucking paradigm, and the results of two experiments suggest that infants can discriminate between items that contain a word boundary and items that do not. It is therefore conceivable that newborns are already sensitive to cues that correlate with word boundaries. This result lends plausibility to the hypothesis that infants might use word boundary cues during lexical acquisition. PMID:8176060

  9. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  10. Early onset of magma ocean crystallization revealed by coupled 146,147Sm-142,143Nd systematics of Nulliak ultramafics (3.78 Ga, Labrador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morino, P.; Caro, G.; Reisberg, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Early onset of magma ocean crystallization revealed by coupled 146,147Sm-142,143Nd systematics of Nulliak ultramafics (3.78 Ga, Labrador) Precillia Morino1, Guillaume Caro1, Laurie Reisberg 1 1CRPG-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France Coupled 146,147Sm-142,143Nd systematics provides constraints on the timing of magma ocean crystallization on Mars, the Moon and Vesta. Estimates for the Earth's mantle, however, are less accurate owing to the sparsity of Eoarchean mantle-derived rocks with undisturbed 147Sm-143Nd systematics. This study attempts to establish a coherent 142,143Nd dataset for the Eoarchean mantle using well-preserved ultramafic rocks from the Nulliak assemblage (Labrador). Samples include meta-dunites, -pyroxenites and -peridotites exhibiting only minor serpentinization and limited element mobility. The presence of "Barberton type" komatiitic compositions (low Al/Ti, HREE depletion) is suggestive of a deep mantle source. 146,147Sm-142,143Nd and 187Re-187Os analyses yield a crystallization age of 3.78±0.09 Ga with ɛ143Ndi=1.5±0.2 and ɛ142Nd=8.6±2 ppm. This 142,143Nd signature yields a model age of mantle differentiation of 4.43±0.05 Ga (assuming a BSE with chondritic Sm/Nd and ɛ142Nd=0). Superchondritic Sm/Nd compositions for the BSE would translate into older model ages. Irrespective of the choice of primitive mantle composition, Nulliak ultramafics provide differentiation ages 100 Ma older than those estimated from Akilia tonalites but remarkably similar to that estimated from the 2.7 Ga Theo's flow (Abitibi). If Nulliak ultramafics originated from deep melting of a hot plume, their model age could reflect the early onset of magma ocean crystallization in the lowermost mantle.

  11. Maximizing your return on people.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture. PMID:17348175

  12. More Than A SketchUp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Derrick D.

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 summer internship assignment at John F. Kennedy Space Center (K.S.C) was conducted with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Technology (NE) group in support of the Control and Data Systems Division (NE-C) within the Test, Operations & Support Software Engineering Branch (NE-C2). The primary focus of this project was to assist Branch Chief Laurie B. Griffin, to support NASA's Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) mission, by mastering the capabilities of 3-D modeling software called SketchUp. I used SketchUp to create a virtual environment for different laboratories of the NE-00 Division. My mission was to have these models uploaded into a K.S.C Partnerships Website and be used as a visual aid to viewers who browsed the site. The leads of this project were Kay L. Craig, Business and Industry Specialist (AD-A) and Steven E. Cain, (FA-C). I teamed with fellow intern Tait Sorenson of the Flight Structures and Thermal Protection Systems Branch (NE-M5) and met with many K.S.C lab managers willing to display their lab's structure and capabilities. The information collected during these lab tours was vital to the building of the K.S.C Partnerships Website. To accomplish this goal Sorenson and I later teamed with fellow Marketing intern Marlee Pereda-Ramos, of the Spaceport Planning Office In Center Planning And Development (AD-A) Along with Ramos, Tait and I toured an array of laboratories and got first hand exposure to their functions and capabilities.

  13. Qualité des eaux de la station de traitement de la ville de Skikda, Algérie Essais d'optimisation de la clarification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzili, B.; Medjram, M. S.; Achour, S.

    2005-05-01

    A cause de la sécheresse qui a sévit durant une décennie, la station de traitement de l'eau potable de la ville de Skikda Algérie, en vue de combler le déficit en eau, utilise un mélange des eaux de surface (barrage) et des eaux souterraines (forage). Les résultats des analyses physico-chimiques de ces eaux montrent la présence de micropolluants, notamment le mercure, avec une concentration de 0.035 mg/l pour les eaux de surface et une concentration de 0.02 mg/l pour les eaux souterraines. Ces résultats obtenus, montrent également que la concentration en matières organiques dépasse, pour les deux sources, les normes OMS. Afin de réduire les effets de cette pollution, nous avons calculé les doses nécessaires des différents réactifs utilisés sur la base des essais d'optimisation réalisés en laboratoire. Les résultats obtenus nous ont permis de conclure que les doses de 30 à 60 mg/l de sulfate d'aluminium (S.A) sont nécessaires à une bonne élimination de la turbidité et des matières organiques (M.O) et que l'utilisation du charbon active en poudre (C.A.P) permet la réduction de la teneur en mercure au dessous du seuil admissible. L'utilisation d'un adjuvant (chaux vive) permet d'améliorer les résultats surtout pour la turbidité (4 mg/l). Une préchloration au break point semble intéressante pour améliorer la phase de floculation.

  14. Full dimensional quantum-mechanical simulations for the vibronic dynamics of difluorobenzene radical cation isomers using the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Faraji, Shirin; Vendrell, Oriol; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2012-10-01

    Full dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) calculations of the dynamics of the three difluorobenzene cationic isomers in five lowest-lying doublet electronic states using the ab initio multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model are carried out using the Heidelberg MCTDH package. The same dynamical problems, but treated with the MCTDH scheme and using a reduced dimensional ab initio MMVCH model, have been previously reported [S. Faraji, H.-D. Meyer, and H. Köppel, "Multistate vibronic interactions in difluorobenzene radical cations. II Quantum dynamical simulations," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 074311 (2008), 10.1063/1.2958918]. For easy comparison with the reduced dimensional results, 11D or 10D ML-MCTDH calculations are also performed. Extensive ML-MCTDH test calculations are performed to find appropriate ML-MCTDH wavefunction structures (ML-trees), and the convergence of the ML-MCTDH calculations are carefully checked to ensure accurate results. Based on the appropriate ML-trees, the photoelectron (PE) spectrum and the mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectrum are simulated, analyzed, and compared with corresponding experimental spectra. Because of its efficient simulation capability for large systems, ML-MCTDH calculations save a considerable amount of central processing unit (CPU)-time, even when a reduced dimensional MMVCH is used, i.e., the same reduced model as in the corresponding MCTDH calculations. Simulations of the experimental PE spectra by full dimensional ML-MCTDH calculations reproduced main peaks, which originate from different electronic states. The agreement is improved as compared to the reduced dimensionality calculations. Unfortunately, the experimental PE spectra are not very well resolved. Therefore, we compare our calculations additionally with highly resolved MATI spectra, which, however, are only available for the tilde{X} state. Based on a series of ML-MCTDH simulations with

  15. Full dimensional quantum-mechanical simulations for the vibronic dynamics of difluorobenzene radical cation isomers using the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyong; Faraji, Shirin; Vendrell, Oriol; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2012-10-01

    Full dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) calculations of the dynamics of the three difluorobenzene cationic isomers in five lowest-lying doublet electronic states using the ab initio multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model are carried out using the Heidelberg MCTDH package. The same dynamical problems, but treated with the MCTDH scheme and using a reduced dimensional ab initio MMVCH model, have been previously reported [S. Faraji, H.-D. Meyer, and H. Köppel, "Multistate vibronic interactions in difluorobenzene radical cations. II Quantum dynamical simulations," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 074311 (2008)]. For easy comparison with the reduced dimensional results, 11D or 10D ML-MCTDH calculations are also performed. Extensive ML-MCTDH test calculations are performed to find appropriate ML-MCTDH wavefunction structures (ML-trees), and the convergence of the ML-MCTDH calculations are carefully checked to ensure accurate results. Based on the appropriate ML-trees, the photoelectron (PE) spectrum and the mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectrum are simulated, analyzed, and compared with corresponding experimental spectra. Because of its efficient simulation capability for large systems, ML-MCTDH calculations save a considerable amount of central processing unit (CPU)-time, even when a reduced dimensional MMVCH is used, i.e., the same reduced model as in the corresponding MCTDH calculations. Simulations of the experimental PE spectra by full dimensional ML-MCTDH calculations reproduced main peaks, which originate from different electronic states. The agreement is improved as compared to the reduced dimensionality calculations. Unfortunately, the experimental PE spectra are not very well resolved. Therefore, we compare our calculations additionally with highly resolved MATI spectra, which, however, are only available for the X̃ state. Based on a series of ML-MCTDH simulations with longer propagation time

  16. Non-linearite et couplages lumiere-matiere en electrodynamique quantique en circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, Jerome

    L'électrodynamique quantique en circuit est un contexte unique pour l'optique quantique et le calcul quantique. Dans cette architecture où des qubits supraconducteurs, composés de jonctions Josephson, sont fortement couplés au champ électromagnétique de résonateurs coplanaires, la dynamique du système est semblable à celle des atomes dans des cavités optiques. La polyvalence de la conception des circuits supraconducteurs permet d'étudier l'interaction lumière-matière de différents régimes et manières. Ainsi, plusieurs qubits peuvent être couplés à un seul résonateur afin de les enchevêtrer. Une jonction Josephson peut également être intégrée directement au résonateur afin de produire une interaction non linéaire entre les photons. De la même manière, il a été suggéré que le couplage qubitrésonateur pourrait devenir l'échelle d'énergie dominante du système : le régime de couplage ultrafort. Malgré que la dynamique qubit-résonateur soit bien comprise, les modèles actuels ne permettent pas de prédire correctement les effets dispersifs du résonateur sur les qubits tels : le décalage de Lamb, l'interaction d'échange virtuelle et le temps de relaxation. Comme il n'y a pas non plus de modèle général permettant de déterminer les caractéristiques d'un résonateur non linéaire, on comprend mal comment rendre la non-linéarité plus forte, ni même si le régime de couplage ultrafort peut être physiquement réalisé dans ces circuits. Dans le cadre de ma thèse, je me suis intéressé à la modélisation de qubits et de résonateurs afin de mieux comprendre l'interaction lumière-matière en circuits, dans le but de développer des conceptions alternatives d'architectures plus performantes ou qui explorent des régimes d'interactions méconnus. Pour ce faire, j'ai développé une méthode analytique générale permettant de trouver l'hamiltonien exact de circuits distribués non linéaires, une méthode basée sur la m

  17. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  18. Rapport d’évaluation des besoins de formation de l’Association canadienne de gastro-entérologie 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rostom, Alaa; Daniels, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    C’est en avril 2009 que l’Association canadienne de gastroentérologie a mené son plus récent sondage annuel en ligne auprès de ses membres afin de connaître leurs besoins en matière de formation. En tout, 261 personnes ont répondu au sondage. Comme lors des années précédentes, les sujets entourant les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin (MII) et plus particulièrement, les traitements pour la maladie de Crohn et la colite ulcéreuse (CU), de même que les cas de MII rebelles, ont été les plus en demande pour les activités de formation à venir. Parmi les autres thèmes populaires, mention-nons les techniques et les traitements endoscopiques, la maladie cœliaque, la prise en charge des infections gastro-intestinales (IGI) et l’endoscopie en direct. Les deux types d’activités de formation les plus attrayantes ont été les conférences et les présentations en Webdiffusion et le portail didactique de l’ACG offrant des liens vers des présentations en ligne, des tests d’auto-évaluation et le suivi des crédits de maintien du certificat (MainCert).

  19. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  20. Nova Sagittarii 2014 = PNV J18250860-2236024 AND Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-02-01

    Details of discovery of Nova Sagittarii 2014 (PNV J18250860-2236024) and procedures for observing and reporting observations are announced. Discovered by Sigeru Furuyama (Tone-machi, Ibaraki-ken, Japan) andreported by S. Nakano (Sumoto, Japan) at unfiltered CCD magnitude 8.7 on 2014 Jan. 26.857 UT. Coordinates: R.A. 18 25 08.60 Decl. = -22 36 02.4 (2000.0). Nova Sgr 2014 is Fe II-type classical nova past maximum, per low-resolution spectra obtained by A. Arai on 2014 Jan. 30.87 UT. Announced in IAU CBAT CBET 3802 (D. W. E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations. Also, an Erratum is reported. In AAVSO Alert Notice 496, Mati Morel (MMAT, Thornton, NSW, Australia) was credited with the discovery of the 1989 outburst of V745 Sco. The discoverer was William Liller (LIW, Vina del Mar, Chile), who observed V745 Sco on 1989 July 30.08 UT at magnitude 9.7 (PROBLICOM discovery using 2415 film with orange filter).

  1. Regles de fusion en theorie des champs conformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begin, Luc

    1999-10-01

    Les théories de champs conformes constituent un domaine de recherche très actif avec de nombreuses applications en physique statistique, en matière condensée, en théorie des cordes, en mathématiques, etc. Nous analysons ici le calcul des règles de fusion dans les modèles Wess- Zumino-Witten par des méthodes positives. Les règles de fusion sont des quantités importantes puisqu'elles indiquent comment se combinent les champs primaires de la théorie. L'approche présentée est basée sur l'hypothèse que les règles de fusion sont décrites par un système d'inéquations linéaire et homogène et mène au concept original de «base de fusion». Cette approche simple et générale permet d'utiliser les méthodes combinatoires et de programmation linéaire pour construire les fonctions génératrices et les bases de fusion. Cette méthode permet d'obtenir des résultats originaux et explicites pour les algèbres su (3), su (4) et sp (4).

  2. Overcoming the Challenges of Implementing a Multi-Mission Distributed Workflow System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias; Cheng, Cecilia; Lee, Hyun; Patel, Rajesh; Takagi, Atsuya; Yu, Dan

    2009-01-01

    A multi-mission approach to solving the same problems for various projects is enticing. However, the multi-mission approach leads to the need to develop a configurable, adaptable and distributed system to meet unique project requirements. That, in turn, leads to a set of challenges varying from handling synchronization issues to coming up with a smart design that allows the "unknowns" to be decided later. This paper discusses the challenges that the Multi-mission Automated Task Invocation Subsystem (MATIS) team has come up against while designing the distributed workflow system, as well as elaborates on the solutions that were implemented. The first is to design an easily adaptable system that requires no code changes as a result of configuration changes. The number of formal deliveries is often limited because each delivery costs time and money. Changes such as the sequence of programs being called, a change of a parameter value in the program that is being automated should not result in code changes or redelivery.

  3. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K28: Tributyltin in sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, Céline S. J.; Wahlen, Raimund; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2006-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM K-28 was undertaken to assess the measurement capabilities for quantitation of (C4H9)3Sn+ (TBT) in a prepared marine sediment by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), which are members of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). It follows a previous pilot study, CCQM-P18. [1, 2] This exercise was sanctioned by the 8th CCQM meeting, 18-19 April 2002, as an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group and was jointly coordinated by the Institute for National Measurement Standards of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and LGC, UK. Eight NMIs initially indicated their interest, with seven ultimately submitting their results. All NMIs relied on isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a species-specific 117Sn-enriched TBT standard, which was supplied by LGC. No analytical methodology was prescribed for this study. As a result, a variety of extraction approaches was adopted by the participants, including mechanical shaking, sonication, accelerated solvent extraction, microwave assisted extraction and heating in combination with ethylation and direct sampling. Detection techniques included ICP-MS (coupled to GC or HPLC for the separation of Sn species) and GC-MS. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. L'équation d'état nucléaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraud, E.

    We present part of our (direct or indirect) knowledge on the equation of state of nuclear matter in a density-temperature domain for which nucleonic effects are dominant (densities smaller than 2-4 times the saturation density and temperatures smaller than 10-20 MeV). The text is divided into three parts corresponding, respectively, to direct studies close to the saturation, to the astrophysical case and to the studies involving heavy-ion collisions. In chapter one, after a brief introduction to the concept of equation of state, we disçuss the saturation property of nuclear matter. The notion of incompressibility modulus is also introduced and its value is discussed in detail. Nuclear matter calculations trying to reproduce saturation from a nucleon-nucleon interaction are also briefly presented. In chapter two we study the equation of state in the astrophysical context. The role of the nuclear component is discussed in detail for the final phase of the collapse of supernovae cores. A brief presentation of calculations of the dense matter constituting neutron stars is also given. Chapter three is devoted to heavy-ion collisions below 500-600 MeV per nucleon. After a brief presentation of both theoretical and experimental frameworks, we focus on three particular aspects which could have a link with the nuclear matter equation of state: the formation of intermediate mass fragments, flow effects and subthreshold particle production. Nous présentons quelques unes de nos connaissances (directes et indirectes) sur l'équation d'état de la matière nucléaire dans un régime de densités et températures pour lesquelles la physique reste largement dominée par les effets nucléoniques (densités inférieures à 2-4 fois la densité de saturation, températures inférieures à 10-20 MeV). Le texte est divisé en trois parties correspondant respectivement aux études directes du voisinage de la saturation, au cas astrophysique et aux études menées à l'aide des

  5. A computational model that simulates mucociliary clearance in the bronchial tree, and a concomitant study on energetics and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolidis, Michail; Isabey, Daniel; Louis, Bruno; Grotberg, James; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Systemic deterministic models of mucociliary clearance in the bronchial tree are currently scarce. While analytical/computational efforts have focused on microscopic modeling of mucociliary propulsion, macroscopic approaches have been restricted mainly to stochastic methods. We present an analytical/computational model that simulates mucociliary clearance in macroscopic physical domains. The analytical foundations of the model are based on a Stokes flow assumption, whereby, in addition to viscous forces originating in ciliary forcing, the role of surface tension is also considered. The governing equations are solved computationally on a three-dimensional surface mesh. Flow is simulated in an anatomically/geometrically representative bifurcation of the bronchial tree. The directionality of ciliary forcing in our model is optimized in order to maintain near-uniform mucus film thickness throughout the flow field. Based on the optimized version of the model, energetic considerations, as well as aspects of optimality in nature are analyzed and presented. 2nd affiliation: Professor, Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.

  6. Les enjuex éthiques entourant la recherche en santé sur les enfants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La recherche en santé est un devoir moral parce qu’elle est la base des soins probants prodigués par tous les dispensateurs de soins. Des politiques et des règlements précis régissent la tenue des recherches sur des humains. Il faut procéder à une évaluation éthique d’un projet de recherche donné avant de pouvoir l’entreprendre. La recherche sur les enfants pose d’énormes défis en matière de consentement éclairé et d’assentiment, de vulnérabilité et de potentiel de conflit d’intérêts (CDI). Les chercheurs en santé pédiatrique devraient prôner la participation des enfants à la recherche, tout en se montrant attentifs à en limiter les risques.

  7. Evidence for a strong intermolecular bond in the phenolṡN2 cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. R.; Geppert, W. D.; Chapman, D. M.; Watkins, M. J.; Dessent, C. E. H.; Cockett, M. C. R.; Müller-Dethlefs, K.

    1998-12-01

    The phenolṡN2 complex cation has been studied with a combination of two-color resonant zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopies to probe the interaction of a polar cation with a quadrupolar solvent molecule. Extended vibrational progressions are observed in three modes which are assigned as the in-plane bend (35 cm-1), the stretch (117 cm-1), and in-plane wag (130 cm-1) intermolecular vibrations, and are consistent with a structure where the N2 forms a directional bond to the phenol OH group in the plane of the aromatic ring. Ab initio calculations at the UMP2/6-31G*, UHF/cc-pVDZ, and UMP2/cc-pVDZ levels of theory support this assignment. The spectra also provide a value for the adiabatic ionization energy (67 423 cm-1±4.5 cm-1) and an estimate of the dissociation energy of the cluster (1650±20 cm-1) which illustrate that the quadrupolar nitrogen molecule binds considerably more strongly to the phenol cation than a rare gas atom. These results constitute the first report of an aromaticṡN2 complex where the interaction can be described in terms of weak hydrogen bonding, rather than in terms of a van der Waals bond to the π-system of the benzene ring.

  8. Proton transfer in the [phenol-NH3]+ system: An experimental and ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Tae; Green, Richard J.; Qian, Jun; Anderson, Scott L.

    2000-04-01

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) has been used to prepare phenol cations in selected vibrational states, including the ground state. Reactions of ground state C6H5OH+ with ND3, studied in a guided ion-beam apparatus, are reported, along with related ab initio calculations. This paper focuses on the energetics and product branching in the proton transfer (PT) channel. Based on thermochemistry in the literature, combined with calculations of the intracomplex PT barrier, PT was expected to make up a large fraction of the total reactive scattering. Experimentally, it is found that PT has a small cross section with clear threshold behavior, and the conclusion is that the PT reaction is endoergic by 4.5±1 kcal/mole. Assuming that NH3 has a proton affinity of 204.0 kcal/mole, this results in a proton affinity for phenoxy radical of 208.7 kcal/mole, and a neutral PhO-H bond energy of 91.1 kcal/mole. The results are used to reinterpret previous dissociative photoionization studies of phenol-ammonia complexes.

  9. Une déshydratation révélant un déficit en 3ßéta Hydroxystéroïde Déshydrogénase: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Latrech, Hanane; Gaouzi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Le déficit en 3ßéta Hydroxystéroïde Déshydrogénase (3β HSD) est un désordre autosomique récessif rare touchant les voies de synthèse de tous les stéroïdes actifs dans les surrénales et les gonades. Cliniquement, il inclut, à des degrés variables, un syndrome de perte de sel et une hypomasculination des garçons. Ces dernières années, plusieurs avancées en matière de dosages hormonaux et de génétique ont été réalisées ce qui a permis de comprendre les bases moléculaires et le phénotype hormonal de ces patients. Nous exposons à travers un cas clinique les difficultés diagnostiques de ce déficit ainsi que la prise en charge thérapeutique.

  10. Overview of intestinal parasitic prevalence in rural and urban population in Lucknow, north India.

    PubMed

    Nitin, Shukla; Venkatesh, V; Husain, N; Masood, J; Agarwal, G G

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infestations are a common finding in the developing world, however, the patterns of parasitic distribution and rates are different everywhere. Intestinal parasitic prevalece in urban and rural areas in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh were determined in this community-based study. Multistage random sampling was adopted to collect stool samples from urban and rural population in Lucknow district. Door to door survey was done. Stool samples were processed by standard methods for parasitological examination. One thousand and seventy one stool samples were collected from urban Alambagh, (n=648) and rural Mati, (n=343) areas. Overall one hundred and twenty three (11.5%) subjects had intestinal infection. Intestinal infestation rate was 5.4% and 20.8% in the urban and rural areas respectively. Giardia lamblia (22%) was the commonest pathogenic protozoan detected. The soil transmitted helminths detected were Ascaris (11.4%) and Hookworm (2.4%). Infection had no predilection for either sex or age group in both areas. The prevalence of parasitic infection appears to be relatively low in this region, probably due to improving access to health care. However due to the sheer numbers of affected individuals involved, intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health problem. PMID:18697590

  11. CFD study of isothermal water flow in rod bundle with split-type spacer grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A. G.

    2014-06-01

    The design of rod bundles in nuclear application nowadays is assessed by CFD (computational fluid dynamics). The accuracy of CFD models need validation. Within the OECD/NEA benchmark MATiS-H (Measurement and Analysis of Turbulent Mixing in Sub-channels - Horizontal) a single-phase water flow in a 5x5 rod bundle is studied. In the benchmark, two types of spacer grids are tested, the swirl type and the split type, where the current study focuses on the split type spacer grid. Comparison of CFD results obtained at Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) with experimental results of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) are presented. In the benchmark velocities components along selected lines downstream of the spacer grid are measured and compared to CFD results. The CFD code STAR CCM+ with the Realized k-ɛ model is used. Comparisons with experimental results show quantitative and qualitative agreement for the averaged values of velocity components. Comparisons of results to other benchmark partners using different modeling show that the selected mesh size and models for the analysis of the current case gives relatively accurate results. However, the used turbulent model (Realized k-ɛ does not capture the turbulent intensity correctly. Computation shows that the flow has very high mixing due to the spacer grid, which does not decay within the measurements domain (z/ DH =0-10 downstream of spacer grid). The same conclusion can be drawn from experimental data.

  12. The CONV-3D code for DNS CFD calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudanov, Vladimir; ALCF ThermHydraX Team

    2014-03-01

    The CONV-3D code for DNS CFD calculation of thermal and hydrodynamics on Fast Reactor with use of supercomputers is developed. This code is highly effective in a scalability at the high performance computers such as ``Chebyshev'', ``Lomonosov'' (Moscow State University, Russia), Blue Gene/Q(ALCF MIRA, ANL). The scalability is reached up to 106 processors. The code was validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh (106-1016) and Reynolds (103-105. Such code was validated on the blind tests OECD/NEA of the turbulent intermixing in horizontal subchannels of the fuel assembly at normal pressure and temperature (Matis-H), of the flows in T-junction and the report IBRAE/ANL was published. The good coincidence of numerical predictions with experimental data was reached, that specifies applicability of the developed approach for a prediction of thermal and hydrodynamics in a boundary layer at small Prandtl that is characteristic of the liquid metal reactors. Project Name: ThermHydraX. Project Title: U.S.-Russia Collaboration on Cross-Verification and Validation in Thermal Hydraulics.

  13. A Sensitive Mass-spectrum Assay to Characterize Engineered Methionine Adenosyltransferases with S-Alkyl Methionine Analogues as Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zheng, Weihong; Luo, Minkui

    2014-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) catalyze the formation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) inside living cells. Recently, S-alkyl analogues of SAM have been documented as cofactor surrogates to label novel targets of methyltransferases. However, these chemically synthesized SAM analogues are not suitable for cell-based studies because of their poor membrane permeability. This issue was recently addressed under a cellular setting through a chemoenzymatic strategy to process membrane-permeable S-alkyl analogues of methionine (SAAM) into the SAM analogues with engineered MATs. Here we describe a general, sensitive activity assay for engineered MATs by converting the reaction products into S-alkyl-thioadenosines, followed by HPLC/MS/MS quantification. With this assay, 40 human MAT mutants were evaluated against seven SAAM as potential substrates. The structure-activity-relationship revealed that, besides better engaged SAAM binding by the MAT mutants (lower Km value in contrast to native MATs), the gained activity towards the bulky SAAM stems from their ability to maintain the desired linear SN2 transition state (reflected by higher kcat value). Here the I117A mutant of human MATI was identified as the most active variant for biochemical production of SAM analogues from diverse SAAM. PMID:24374249

  14. Complementary slip distributions of the August 4, 2003 Mw 7.6 and November 17, 2013 Mw 7.8 South Scotia Ridge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Koper, Keith D.; Smalley, Robert; Rivera, Luis; Bevis, Michael G.; Zakrajsek, Andrés F.; Teferle, Felix Norman

    2014-09-01

    The South Scotia Ridge Transform (SSRT) plate boundary between the Scotia and Antarctic plates experienced large strike-slip earthquakes on August 4, 2003 (Mw 7.6) and November 17, 2013 (Mw 7.8). These events have overlapping aftershock zones, which is unusual. A 36°-45° southward dipping fault zone ruptured with left-lateral displacements in each event along the northern margin of the South Orkney micro-continent near 60°S. Slip distributions for the two events are determined using teleseismic body and surface wave recordings along with constraints from GPS ground motion recordings at station BORC on Laurie Island (South Orkney Islands), just south of the SSRT. The aftershock distributions, high-frequency back-projections, and unconstrained body wave finite-fault inversions permit significant overlap of the 2003 and 2013 slip zones; however, the GPS static displacements resolve differences in the large-slip regions of the two ruptures. The 2013 earthquake sequence along the SSRT initiated with Mw 6.1 (November 13) and Mw 6.8 (November 16) foreshocks located ∼50 km west of the mainshock hypocenter, and had aftershocks extending ∼250 km eastward. The rupture spread primarily eastward at ∼2.5 km/s with a total rupture duration of about 120 s, with two distinct patches of large-slip located northwest and northeast of the South Orkney Islands. The rupture swept past BORC, with high-rate GPS (HRGPS) ground motion recordings capturing the time-varying slip history of the faulting. Traditional GPS data require that the largest-slip region of the shorter rupture in 2003 is located in the gap NNE of BORC between the two patches that ruptured in 2013. There appears to be some overlap of lower slip regions. The complementary slip distributions comprise a relatively uniform offset along this portion of the SSRT, which is one of the most seismically active regions of the entire Antarctic plate boundary.

  15. HANFORD REGULATORY EXPERIENCE REGULATION AT HANFORD A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    HAWKINS AR

    2007-09-24

    describes how the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE),EPA, and Ecology interact in its regulation. In addition, the response to a recent $1 million regulatory fine is described to show actual interactions and options in this aspect of the regulatory process. The author acknowledges the significant contributions by Messrs. Clifford Clark and Owen Robertson. Ms. Nancy Williams provided graphics support and Ms. Laurie Kraemer edited the report.

  16. Conference Comments by the Editors

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    acknowledge our corporate supporters: Caen Nuclear, Eljen Technology, Hilger Crystals and GE Global Research. Finally, we thank the members of the local organizing committee: Diana Attila, Thomas Budinger, Joe Chew, Daniel Chivers, Rob Johnson, Laurie O'Brien, Donna Raziano, Emily Sause, and Brian Wirth for doing all the work that actually made this conference happen.

  17. La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé constitue le nouvel énoncé national sur la nutrition du nourrisson, de la naissance à l’âge de 24 mois. Il s’agit d’un projet conjoint de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, des Diététistes du Canada et de Santé Canada. Cet ouvrage est une synthèse de la documentation scientifique actuelle en matière de nutrition du nourrisson ; il contient des principes et recommandations afin d’aider les professionnels de la santé à promouvoir la prestation des meilleurs soins alimentaires possibles pour les nourrissons du Canada, compte tenu de l’état actuel de la recherche. La collaboration entre les trois principaux organismes qui s’intéressent à cette question a permis d’uniformisé le message que les professionnels transmettront au public. Le document aborde quatre grands sujets relatifs à la première année d’existence : l’allaitement, les laits de remplacement, les autres liquides dans le régime du nourrisson et la transition aux aliments solides. On y examine ensuite la question de la sécurité dans l’alimentation, puis celle de la nutrition durant la deuxième année. La dernière section couvre les autres questions liées à la nutrition du nourrisson ; on y traite de sujets tels que les allergies alimentaires, les coliques, la constipation, les matières grasses dans le régime alimentaire, la carie dentaire, la gastroentérite, le diabète, l’anémie ferriprive et les régimes végétariens. Le document contient également un répertoire complet de plus de 200 citations. Le sommaire des principes et recommandations paraîtra dans les revues officielles de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie (Paediatrics and Child Health, 1998) et des Diététistes du Canada (Revue canadienne de pratique et de recherche en diététique, juin 1998). On peut télécharger le document intégral à partir des sites Web respectifs des trois organismes associés ; on peut aussi obtenir la

  18. Étude théorique et expérimentale du transfert du dioctyl phtalate à partir d'un disque de PVC plastifié plongé dans une huile comestible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djilani, S.-E.; Toubal, A. A.; Messadi, D.

    1998-10-01

    When polymer and liquid are contacted with each other, as in packaging, some mass exchanges may occur, which constitute a major drawback when the liquid is a foodstuff or blood. However, these mass transfers in the polymers can appear as very interesting from the industrial point of view, if one is able to use and control them. It is then necessary to have a good knowledge of these transfer processes which are controlled by diffusion. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) migration into an edible oil was studied under worst conditions: high plasticization level (50% by weight) and temperature(30 circC). The quantitative analysis of DOP in a such complex liquid medium and in the PVC itself was made easy by the use of the radioactive tracer technique. A simplified mathematical model, obtained by neglecting the oil transport in the PVC, was evaluated. This model based on the research of a finite differences explicit solution allows to reproduce for the DOP, the concentration profiles in the polymer and the kinetics of transfer in the oil, with a P-value ≥ 0.001. La mise en contact polymère-liquide se traduit généralement par des échanges de matière entre les 2 milieux considérés, ce qui constitue un inconvénient majeur lorsque le liquide est un aliment ou le sang. Cependant, ces transferts de matière dans les polymères peuvent apparaître comme très intéressants sur le plan industriel, si l'on est capable de les utiliser et de les contrôler. Il est donc nécessaire d'avoir une bonne connaissance de ces processus de transfert qui sont contrôlés par diffusion. Nous avons étudié la migration du dioctyl phtalate (DOP) dans une huile comestible en nous plaçant dans les conditions les plus défavorables: taux de plastification (50% en poids) et température (30°C) élevés. L'analyse quantitative du DOP dans un milieu liquide aussi complexe et dans le PVC lui- même a été facilitée par l'utilisation de la technique des traceurs radioactifs. Un modèle math

  19. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    Le premier colloque Rayons X et Matière (Rx 95) s'est tenu à Strasbourg en 1995. Il était destiné à célébrer le centenaire de la découverte des rayons X par ROENTGEN et a alors réuni plus de cent trente chercheurs et industriels concernés par les rayons X et les matériaux. Parmi eux se trouvaient les Professeurs André GUINIER et Hans NEFF ainsi que Monsieur Michel BRUNEL qui hélas ne sont plus parmi nous à ce jour. La qualité et la convivialité des échanges entre les participants lors de cette première réunion ne pouvaient que nous inciter à la reconduire et nous avons pris rendez vous pour 1997, puis 1999, puis 2001 et enfin pour 2003, soient cinq colloques, un tous les deux ans pendant dix ans. Au cours des années, nous avons essayé d'adapter les thèmes abordés à l'évolution de la recherche et des techniques. Ces thèmes se sont naturellement ajoutés aux thèmes classiques comme la diffraction et la fluorescence. Les nanomatériaux, les microfaisceaux en sont des exemples. A de très rares exceptions les communications présentées étaient de très bon niveau et nous avons toujours eu beaucoup de plaisir à les publier. Ces colloques ont bien fonctionné en raison de la participation des industriels qui, dans leur grande majorité, nous ont accompagnés régulièrement. Ces colloques présentent l'avantage, par rapport à des colloques spécialisés, de couvrir (presque) tout le champ des applications des rayons X et seulement ce domaine. Toutefois il est clair que les données économiques évoluent et que la situation est chaque aimée plus difficile pour tout le monde, chercheurs et industriels. Temps et moyens sont comptés et maintenant chacun doit faire de plus en plus de choix, rentabilité oblige ! Le maintien du colloque Rayons X et Matière passera obligatoirement par une réflexion globale : redéfinition des objectifs, augmentation de l'ouverture européenne, recherche d'autres formes de participation associant mieux les

  20. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials. PMID:9463884

  1. External radiation exposure and mortality in a cohort of French nuclear workers

    PubMed Central

    Telle‐Lamberton, M; Samson, E; Caër, S; Bergot, D; Bard, D; Bermann, F; MGélas, J; Giraud, J M; Hubert, P; Metz‐Flamant, C; Néron, M O; Quesne, B; Tirmarche, M; Hill, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of external radiation exposure on the mortality of French nuclear workers. Methods A cohort of 29 204 workers employed between 1950 and 1994 at the French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)) or at the General Company of Nuclear Fuel (COmpagnie GEnérale des MAtières nucléaires (Cogema, now Areva NC)) was followed up for an average of 17.8 years. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed with reference to French mortality rates. Dose‐effect relationship were analysed through trend tests and Poisson regression, with linear and log‐linear models. Results The mean exposure to X and gamma radiation was 8.3 mSv (16.9 mSv for exposed worker population). A total of 1842 deaths occurred between 1968 and 1994. A healthy worker effect was observed, the number of deaths in the cohort being 59% of the number expected from national mortality statistics. Among the 21 main cancer sites studied, a statistically significant excess was observed only for skin melanoma, and an excess of borderline statistical significance was observed for multiple myeloma. A dose‐effect relationship was observed for leukaemia after exclusion of chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). The relative risk observed for non‐CLL leukaemia, n = 20, was 4.1 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.4 to 12.2), linear model and 2.2 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.2 to 3.3), log‐linear model. Significant dose‐effect relationship were also observed for causes of deaths associated with alcohol consumption: mouth and pharynx cancer, cirrhosis and alcoholic psychosis and external causes of death. Conclusion The risk of leukaemia increases with increasing exposure to external radiation; this is consistent with published results on other nuclear workers cohorts. PMID:17522135

  2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect PCR products of the rfbS gene from serogroup D salmonellae: a rapid screening prototype.

    PubMed Central

    Luk, J M; Kongmuang, U; Tsang, R S; Lindberg, A A

    1997-01-01

    We describe a digoxigenin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DIG-ELISA) following a PCR to detect the amplified lipopolysaccharide rfbS gene as a means for rapid screening of serogroup D salmonellae in stool specimens. For pure bacterial cultures, the sensitivity of the PCR DIG-ELISA was approximately 10 bacteria. In the presence of stool materials, the salmonellae were first isolated by an immunomagnetic separation technique with an O9-specific monoclonal antibody. MATy-O9, followed by PCR and DIG-ELISA. The corresponding sensitivity was about 10 to 100 bacteria. To evaluate the assay performance clinically, 203 stool samples from patients with diarrhea were subjected to the routine culture techniques and the PCR ELISA method with overnight enrichment. The conventional culture method identified 145 salmonellae (31 serogroup B, 27 serogroup C, 83 serogroup D, and 5 serogroup E isolates) and 58 non-salmonella bacteria. The PCR ELISA method correctly identified all 82 serogroup D salmonellae (A405 by ELISA, 2.54 +/- 0.74) but was negative for the other Salmonella serogroups (A405, 0.26 +/- 0.08; n = 63) and non-Salmonella isolates (A405, 0.16 +/- 0.04; n = 58). In order to obtain a visible result, the assay takes approximately 6 h (PCR, 4 h; ELISA, 2 h), along with brief enrichment cultivation of the samples (from 4 to 16 h). Thus, the PCR DIG-ELISA offers a fast, accurate, semiquantitative means of detecting infectious agents such as salmonellae, and future robotic automation is possible. PMID:9041418

  3. Neuronal Calcium Sensor 1 Has Two Variants with Distinct Calcium Binding Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baisheng; Boeckel, Göran R; Huynh, Larry; Nguyen, Lien; Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Kaftan, Edward J; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 Var1) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in most tissues. We examined a poorly characterized variant of NCS-1 (Var2), identified only in humans where the N-terminal 22 amino acid residues of native NCS-1(MGKSNSKLKPEVVEELTRKTY) were replaced with 4 different residues (MATI). Because alterations in the level of expression of NCS-1 Var1 and the expression of NCS-1 variants have been correlated with several neurological diseases, the relative expression and functional role of NCS-1 Var2 was examined. We found that NCS-1 Var2 mRNA levels are not found in mouse tissues and are expressed at levels ~1000-fold lower than NCS-1 Var1 in three different human cell lines (SHSY5Y, HEK293, MB231). Protein expression of both variants was only identified in cell lines overexpressing exogenous NCS-1 Var2. The calcium binding affinity is ~100 times weaker in purified NCS-1 Var2 than NCS-1 Var1. Because truncation of NCS-1 Var1 has been linked to functional changes in neurons, we determined whether the differing properties of the NCS-1 variants could potentially contribute to the altered cell function. In contrast to previous reports showing that overexpression of NCS-1 Var1 increases calcium-dependent processes, functional differences in cells overexpressing NCS-1 Var2 were undetectable in assays for cell growth, cell death and drug (paclitaxel) potency. Our results suggest that NCS-1 Var1 is the primary functional version of NCS-1. PMID:27575489

  4. Greffe de cornée: expérience du service d'ophtalmologie au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Belghmaidi, Sarah; Hajji, Ibtissam; Soummane, Hasna; Ennassiri, Wiam; Essafi, Hafsa; Moutaouakil, Abdeljalil

    2016-01-01

    La kératoplastie transfixiante est l'une des plus fréquentes des greffes de tissus et transplantations d'organes. Le but de notre travail est de rapporter notre expérience en matière de greffe de cornée. C'est une étude prospective de 195 patients ayant bénéficié d'une greffe de cornée sur une période allant d'aout 2009 à Août 2015. Le recul moyen est de 21 mois. Les indications de la greffe étaient le kératocône 33.8%, les séquelles de traumatisme 10.7%, la kératopathie bulleuse 19.5%, les dystrophies héréditaires 10.7%, et les kératites herpétiques 9.2%. L'acuité visuelle initiale était inférieure à 1/10 dans 90% des cas. Nous avons observé une réaction de rejet dans 19 yeux dont 14 étaient récupérables, 33 hypertonies oculaires, 20cataracte, et 2 décollements descmetiques. La greffe de cornée apparaît comme une intervention donnant de bons résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels. Les résultats ne doivent pas occulter une surveillance post opératoire étroite et régulière pour dépister à temps d’éventuelles complications, en particulier le rejet de greffe. PMID:27303575

  5. A simple approximation of moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of an extended stochastic theta-logistic model with non-integer powers.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Subhadip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic versions of the logistic and extended logistic growth models are applied successfully to explain many real-life population dynamics and share a central body of literature in stochastic modeling of ecological systems. To understand the randomness in the population dynamics of the underlying processes completely, it is important to have a clear idea about the quasi-equilibrium distribution and its moments. Bartlett et al. (1960) took a pioneering attempt for estimating the moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the stochastic logistic model. Matis and Kiffe (1996) obtain a set of more accurate and elegant approximations for the mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the same model using cumulant truncation method. The method is extended for stochastic power law logistic family by the same and several other authors (Nasell, 2003; Singh and Hespanha, 2007). Cumulant truncation and some alternative methods e.g. saddle point approximation, derivative matching approach can be applied if the powers involved in the extended logistic set up are integers, although plenty of evidence is available for non-integer powers in many practical situations (Sibly et al., 2005). In this paper, we develop a set of new approximations for mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution under more general family of growth curves, which is applicable for both integer and non-integer powers. The deterministic counterpart of this family of models captures both monotonic and non-monotonic behavior of the per capita growth rate, of which theta-logistic is a special case. The approximations accurately estimate the first three order moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution. The proposed method is illustrated with simulated data and real data from global population dynamics database. PMID:26561778

  6. La Sociéte Française d'Exobiologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.

    2010-12-01

    L'exobiologie est une jeune science, très pluridisciplinaire qui, de façon générale, a pour objet l'étude de la vie dans l'univers. Plus précisément, elle inclut l'étude des conditions et des processus qui ont permis l'émergence du vivant sur notre planète, et ont pu oumo pourraient le permettre ailleurs, l'étude de l'évolution de la matière organique vers des structures complexes dans l'univers, et les recherches qui concernent la distribution de la vie sous toutes les formes qu'elle pourrait revêtir, et son évolution. La Société Française d'Exobiologie a été fondée en mai 2009. Elle a pour buts principaux de fédérer les recherches en exobiologie au niveau français en facilitant l'établissement de contacts interdisciplinaires entre les chercheurs français et faire connaître et expliquer l'exobiologie pour satisfaire la demande socio culturelle provenant d'un public diversifié, par le biais de conférences, d'ateliers, d'expositions. La SFE est reconnue comme Société savante. Elle compte actuellement 140 membres et vient d'organiser son premier colloque national d'exobiologie à Biarritz.

  7. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  8. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  9. The STARK-B database as a resource for “STARK” widths and shifts data: State of advancement and program of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Moreau, Nicolas; Ben Nessib, Nabil

    2014-10-01

    “Stark” broadening theories and calculations have been extensively developed for about 50 years and can now be applied to many needs, especially for accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling. This requires the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Nowadays, the access to such data via an online database becomes essential. STARK-B is a collaborative project between the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade and the Laboratoire d’Étude du Rayonnement et de la matière en Astrophysique (LERMA). It is a database of calculated widths and shifts of isolated lines of atoms and ions due to electron and ion collisions (impacts). It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. Hence, the domain of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is wide and depends on the ionization degree of the considered ion. STARK-B has been fully opened since September 2008 and is in free access. The first stage of development was ended in autumn 2012, since all the existing data calculated with the impact semiclassical-perturbation method and code by Sahal-Bréchot, Dimitrijević and coworkers have now been implemented. We are now beginning the second stage of the development of STARK-B. The state of advancement of the database and our program of development are presented here, together with its context within VAMDC. VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center) is an international consortium which has built a secure, documented, flexible interoperable platform e-science permitting an automated exchange of atomic and molecular data.

  10. Virtual laboratory astrophysics : The STARK-B database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.

    2012-02-01

    Stark broadening theories and calculations have been extensively developed for about 50 years. The theory can now be considered as mature for many applications, especially for accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling. This requires the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles, especially for very low abundant atoms and ions which are used as probes for modern spectroscopic diagnostics in astrophysics. Nowadays, the access to such data via an on line database becomes essential. STARK-B (http://stark-b.obspm.fr) is a collaborative project between the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade and the Laboratoire d'Étude du Rayonnement et de la matière en Astrophysique (LERMA). It is a database of calculated widths and shifts of isolated lines of atoms and ions due to electron and ion collisions (impacts). It is devoted to modelling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. Hence, the domain of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is wide and depends on the ionization degree of the considered ion. The STARK-B database is a part of VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre, http://www.vamdc.eu), which is an European Union funded collaboration between groups involved in the generation and use of atomic and molecular data. VAMDC aims to build a secure, documented, flexible and interoperable e-science environment-based interface to existing atomic and molecular data.

  11. Douleurs et conflits : Approche comparative et implications pour la qualité des soins en fin de vie

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Verloo, Henk; Rapin, Charles-Henri; Chastonay, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Le conflit serait-il à l’organisation ce que la douleur est à un organisme ? OBJECTIFS: Explorer les similitudes et les differences entre les douleurs et les conflits dans les contextes de soins de fin de vie. Mieux comprendre le rôle des conflits dans la qualité de ces soins. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Méthode comparative et réflexive autour des politiques de prise en charge des douleurs et des conflits dans les systèmes de soins. RÉSULTATS: Les conflits et les douleurs présentent de nombreuses similitudes de par leur identité, leur typologie, leur prévalence, leur fonction d’alerte, leurs coûts économiques et sociaux, le déni ou l’occultation qui les entourent et les obstacles à leur prise en charge adéquate. À l’inverse, des différences apparaissent dans la prise en charge des douleurs comparée à celle des conflits. Ces différences portent sur l’existence des programmes de prévention et de lutte sur les scènes nationale et internationale, la mise en œuvre des activités de recherche et de formation et la visibilité sociale. Pour les conflits, cette mise en œuvre n’existe pas encore. CONCLUSION: Les décideurs en clinique et en santé publique devraient intégrer les conflits comme un indicateur de la qualité des soins et élaborer des politiques pertinentes en matière de santé. PMID:19714268

  12. Land cover effects on infiltration and preferential flow pathways in the high rainfall zone of Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwartendijk, Bob; van Meerveld, Ilja; Ravelona, Maafaka; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitohaina; Ghimire, Chandra; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno; Jones, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Shortened slash-and-burn cycles exhaust agricultural land and have resulted in extensive tracts of highly degraded land across the tropics. Land degradation typically results in decreased rainfall infiltration due to a reduced field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil because of a progressive decline in soil organic matter, exposure to raindrop impact, surface sealing and compaction. This results, in turn, in enhanced surface runoff and erosion, and consequently less subsurface flow and groundwater recharge. On the other hand, natural vegetation regrowth or active reforestation can lead to a renewed accumulation of soil organic matter, macropore development and increased infiltration rates. As part of the P4GES project (Can Paying 4 Global Ecosystem Services values reduce poverty?; www.p4ges.org), we study the effects of land use change and reforestation on water resources in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ) in eastern Madagascar. In this poster, we present the results of infiltration and preferential flow measurements in four different land uses in the southern part of the CAZ: (i) closed canopy forest, (ii) 3-14 year-old regrowth on fallow land (savokas), (iii) exhausted and severely degraded land (tany maty), and (iv) recently reforested sites (6-8 years old). The results show that infiltrability increases significantly after several years of forest regrowth after land abandonment, but it remains unclear whether active replanting decreases the time required for restoration of soil hydrological functioning. Preferential flow pathways differed strikingly between the respective land cover types: infiltration in mature forests was predominantly characterized by macropore flow (preferential flow pathways), whereas infiltration in exhausted agricultural land was dominated by matrix flow (few preferential flow pathways). Occurrence of preferential flow pathways in reforestation and fallow sites varied considerably. These results suggest that land

  13. CCQM-K86/P113.1: Relative quantification of genomic DNA fragments extracted from a biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbisier, P.; Vincent, S.; Schimmel, H.; Kortekaas, A.-M.; Trapmann, S.; Burns, M.; Bushell, C.; Akgoz, M.; Akyürek, S.; Dong, L.; Fu, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Pérez Urquiza, M.; Bautista, J. L.; Garibay, A.; Fuller, B.; Baoutina, A.; Partis, L.; Emslie, K.; Holden, M.; Chum, W. Y.; Kim, H.-H.; Phunbua, N.; Milavec, M.; Zel, J.; Vonsky, M.; Konopelko, L. A.; Lau, T. L. T.; Yang, B.; Hui, M. H. K.; Yu, A. C. H.; Viroonudomphol, D.; Prawettongsopon, C.; Wiangnon, K.; Takabatake, R.; Kitta, K.; Kawaharasaki, M.; Parkes, H.

    2012-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K86 was performed to demonstrate and document the capacity of interested national metrology institutes (NMIs) and designated institutes (DIs) in the determination of the relative quantity of two specific genomic DNA fragments present in a biological tissue. The study provides the support for the following measurement claim: "Quantification of the ratio of the number of copies of specified intact sequence fragments of a length in the range of 70 to 100 nucleotides in a single genomic DNA extract from ground maize seed materials". The study was carried out under the auspices of the Bioanalysis Working Group (BAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) and was piloted by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) in Geel (Belgium). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in this key comparison: AIST (Japan), CENAM (Mexico), DMSc (Thailand), GLHK (Hong Kong), IRMM (European Union), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LGC (United Kingdom), MIRS/NIB (Slovenia), NIM (PR China), NIST (USA), NMIA (Australia), TÜBITAK UME (Turkey) and VNIIM (Russian Federation). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in a pilot study that was organized in parallel: LGC (United Kingdom), PKU (PR China), NFRI (Japan) and NIMT (Thailand). Good agreement was observed between the reported results of eleven participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  14. La prévention des blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les blessures non intentionnelles sont la principale cause de décès chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones canadiens, à un taux de trois à quatre fois la moyenne nationale. Non seulement les décès et les blessures invalidantes dévastent les familles et les communautés, mais elles font également d’énormes ravages sur les ressources de santé. L’absence de statistiques, de surveillance continue ou de programmes de prévention des blessures à l’égard des enfants et adolescents autochtones exacerbe les coûts en matière de main-d’œuvre et de santé. Les communautés autochtones sont hétérogènes sur le plan culturel, qu’il s’agisse de l’accès aux ressources ou même des risques et des types de blessures. Pourtant, en général, ces communautés sont beaucoup plus susceptibles d’être pauvres, d’habiter dans un logement insalubre et d’éprouver de la difficulté à accéder aux soins de santé, des facteurs qui accroissent le risque et les conséquences des blessures. Il existe un besoin urgent de surveillance des blessures, de recherche, de renforcement des capacités, de diffusion des connaissances et de programmes de prévention des blessures qui sont axés sur les populations autochtones. Pour prévenir les blessures de manière efficace, il faut adopter des démarches multidisciplinaires, coopératives et durables, fondées sur des pratiques exemplaires, tout en étant spécifiques et sensibles sur le plan culturel et linguistique.

  15. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  16. Low-dose methotrexate inhibits methionine S-adenosyltransferase in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Chiang, En-Pei Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the only reaction that produces the major methyl donor in mammals. Low-dose methotrexate is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in human rheumatic conditions. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that methotrexate inhibits MAT expression and activity in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cells were cultured under folate restriction or in low-dose methotrexate with and without folate or methionine supplementation. Male C57BL/6J mice received methotrexate regimens that reflected low-dose clinical use in humans. S-adenosylmethionine and MAT genes, proteins and enzyme activity levels were determined. We found that methionine or folate supplementation greatly improved S-adenosylmethionine in folate-depleted cells but not in cells preexposed to methotrexate. Methotrexate but not folate depletion suppressed MAT genes, proteins and activity in vitro. Low-dose methotrexate inhibited MAT1A and MAT2A genes, MATI/II/III proteins and MAT enzyme activities in mouse tissues. Concurrent folinate supplementation with methotrexate ameliorated MAT2A reduction and restored S-adenosylmethionine in HepG2 cells. However, posttreatment folinate rescue failed to restore MAT2A reduction or S-adenosylmethionine level in cells preexposed to methotrexate. Our results provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that low-dose methotrexate inhibits MAT genes, proteins, and enzyme activity independent of folate depletion. Because polyglutamated methotrexate stays in the hepatocytes, if methotrexate inhibits MAT in the liver, then the efficacy of clinical folinate rescue with respect to maintaining hepatic S-adenosylmethionine synthesis and normalizing the methylation reactions would be limited. These findings raise concerns on perturbed methylation reactions in humans on low-dose methotrexate. Future studies on the clinical physiological consequences of MAT inhibition by methotrexate and the potential benefits of S

  17. Neuronal Calcium Sensor 1 Has Two Variants with Distinct Calcium Binding Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baisheng; Boeckel, Göran R.; Huynh, Larry; Nguyen, Lien; Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Kaftan, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 Var1) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in most tissues. We examined a poorly characterized variant of NCS-1 (Var2), identified only in humans where the N-terminal 22 amino acid residues of native NCS-1(MGKSNSKLKPEVVEELTRKTY) were replaced with 4 different residues (MATI). Because alterations in the level of expression of NCS-1 Var1 and the expression of NCS-1 variants have been correlated with several neurological diseases, the relative expression and functional role of NCS-1 Var2 was examined. We found that NCS-1 Var2 mRNA levels are not found in mouse tissues and are expressed at levels ~1000-fold lower than NCS-1 Var1 in three different human cell lines (SHSY5Y, HEK293, MB231). Protein expression of both variants was only identified in cell lines overexpressing exogenous NCS-1 Var2. The calcium binding affinity is ~100 times weaker in purified NCS-1 Var2 than NCS-1 Var1. Because truncation of NCS-1 Var1 has been linked to functional changes in neurons, we determined whether the differing properties of the NCS-1 variants could potentially contribute to the altered cell function. In contrast to previous reports showing that overexpression of NCS-1 Var1 increases calcium-dependent processes, functional differences in cells overexpressing NCS-1 Var2 were undetectable in assays for cell growth, cell death and drug (paclitaxel) potency. Our results suggest that NCS-1 Var1 is the primary functional version of NCS-1. PMID:27575489

  18. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d

  19. NASA Space Science Day Events-Engaging Students in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, S.; Mosie, A.; Allen, J.; Kent, J.; Green, A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Science Day Event follows the same format of planning and execution at all host universities and colleges. These institutions realized the importance of such an event and sought funding to continue hosting NSSD events. In 2014, NASA Johnson Space Center ARES team has supported the following universities and colleges that have hosted a NSSD event; the University of Texas at Brownsville, San Jacinto College, Georgia Tech University and Huston-Tillotson University. Other universities and colleges are continuing to conduct their own NSSD events. NASA Space Science Day Events are supported through continued funding through NASA Discovery Program. Community Night begins with a NASA speaker and Astromaterials display. The entire community surrounding the host university or college is invited to the Community Night. This year at the Huston-Tillotson (HTU) NSSD, we had Dr. Laurie Carrillo, a NASA Engineer, speak to the public and students. She answered questions, shared her experiences and career path. The speaker sets a tone of adventure and discovery for the NSSD event. After the speaker, the public is able to view Lunar and Meteorite samples and ask questions from the ARES team. The students and teachers from nearby schools attended the NSSD Event the following day. Students are able to see the university or college campus and the university or college mentors are available for questions. Students rotate through hour long Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) sessions and a display area. These activities are from the Discovery Program activities that tie in directly with k- 12 instruction. The sessions highlight the STEM in exploration and discovery. The Lunar and Meteorite display is again available for students to view and ask questions. In the display area, there are also other interactive displays. Angela Green, from San Jacinto College, brought the Starlab for students to watch a planetarium exhibit for the NSSD at Huston

  20. Proterozoic granitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapala, I.; Lahtinen, R.; Rämö, O. T.

    2003-04-01

    The main tectonic units of the Fennoscandian Shield are 1) the Archean 3.1--2.6 Ga granite gneiss (GGT) -- greenstone belt domain in the east, 2) the broad orogenic Svecofennian domain (1.9--1.8 Ga), and 3) the Southwest Scandinavian domain that consists of granitic gneisses, Gothian arc-type volcanic -- sedimentary and plutonic rocks (1.7--1.55 Ga), and has a Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) overprint. The Svecofennian domain was formed by sequential accretion of volcanic arcs to the Archean craton (Lahtinen, 1994; Nironen, 1997). Rifting of the Archean craton at 2.50--2.44 Ga led to emplacement of a bimodal suite of layered mafic intrusions and minor A-type quartz syenites -- granites into the Archean crust in nortern Finland and adjacent Russia. Nd isotopes suggest Archean crustal source for some of the silicic plutons (Lauri and Mänttäri, 2003). The earliest Svecofennian granitoid rocks are ˜1.92 Ga gneissic calc-alkalic tonalities and granodiorites in central and northernmost Finland close to the Archean craton. I-type 1.89--1.87 Ga calc-alkalic granitoids of tonalite-granodiorite-granite association are common in the Svecofennian belts. In the Central Finland Granitoid Complex two suites can be separated: the 1.89--1.88 Ga calc-alkalic deformed granodiorites and granites, and the massive 1.88--1.87 Ga alkali-calcic or alkalic quartz monzonites and monzogranites (Nironen et al., 2000; Rämö et al., 2001). Southern Finland is characterized by 1.84--1.80 Ga migmatite-forming peraluminous S-type granites that were formed by anatectic melting of mainly sedimentary -- volcanic rocks of the thick Svecofennian crust. The Svecofennian plutonism was finished by intrusion of extension-related postorogenic (post-collisional) 1.80--1.77 Ga granite stocks that have a shoshonitic affinity and were possibly derived from enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd isotopes of the 1.81--1.77 Ga granites of northern Finland and the 1.88--1.86 Ga granites of eastern Finland near the

  1. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the

  2. Obituary: Charles Latif Hyder, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Oran Richard

    2004-12-01

    My friend and colleague, Charles Hyder, was a true physicist with a sound intuitive grasp of fundamentals in modern physics and the underlying mathematics. I admired his knowledge of the history of modern physics and quantum mechanics when we discussed contemporary problems in interpreting solar observations. He had the ability to present his ideas clearly and persuasively to both students and his colleagues. His insatiable curiosity about life in general led him to consider the effects of nuclear weapons development on the human race. Appreciation of the biological effects of radioactive materials produced in the course of weapons and power reactor development led him to a more public career beyond traditional research. Charles Hyder was born April 18, 1930 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He graduated from Albuquerque High School and served in the Air Force during the Korean War. He received a BS and MS in physics from the University of New Mexico (1958, 1960) and a PhD in astrogeophysics at the University of Colorado (1964). His positions included the Department of Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics at UCLA (1964-65), Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory (1965-1970) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (1970-1977). He also taught at the University of New Mexico (1970-1977) and was active on the Solar Maximum Mission science team (1970-1977, 1980-1984). He was married twice with both marriages ending in divorce. He and his first wife Ann had three children (Paul, Roxanne and Querida) and he and his second wife Laurie had a son Niels. Charles Hyder's professional career in solar physics began in 1961 during his graduate studies at the Department of AstroGeophysics of the University of Colorado and continued until 1983 when he chose to follow his convictions to expose the threat of nuclear proliferation. His early research was in the study of the quantum mechanics of polarized light produced in the presence of magnetic fields. Application of this work to interpretation

  3. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Trevino, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    display the large num- ber of flights in which EVA played a role. This approach also makes apparent significant EVA gaps, for example, the U.S. gap between 1985 and 1991 following the Challenger accident. This NASA History Monograph is an edited extract from an extensive EVA Chronology and Reference Book being produced by the EVA Project Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. The larger work will be published as part of the NASA Formal Series in 1998. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance rendered by Max Ary, Ashot Bakunts, Gert-Jan Bartelds, Frank Cepollina, Andrew Chaikin, Phillip Clark, Richard Fullerton, Steven Glenn, Linda Godwin, Jennifer Green, Greg Harris, Clifford Hess, Jeffrey Hoffman, David Homan, Steven Hopkins, Nicholas Johnson, Eric Jones, Neville Kidger, Joseph Kosmo, Alexei Lebedev, Mark Lee, James LeBlanc, Dmitri Leshchenskii, Jerry Linenger, Igor Lissov, James McBarron, Clay McCullough, Joseph McMann, Story Musgrave, Dennis Newkirk, James Oberg, Joel Powell, Lee Saegesser, Andy Salmon, Glen Swanson, Joseph Tatarewicz, Kathy Thornton, Chris Vandenberg, Charles Vick, Bert Vis, David Woods, Mike Wright, John Young, and Keith Zimmerman. Special thanks to Laurie Buchanan, John Charles, Janet Kovacevich, Joseph Loftus, Sue McDonald, Martha Munies, Colleen Rapp, and Jerry Ross. Any errors remain the responsibility of the authors.

  4. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    ., Jokinen, J., Koistinen, E., Kontinen, A., Korhonen, J., Korpisalo, J., Kurimo, M.,Lahti, I., Laine, E., Levaniemi, H., Sorjonen-Ward, P. & Torppa, J. 2014. Developing deep exploration methods in the Outokumpu Mining Camp area. In: Lauri, L. S., Heilimo, E., Levaniemi, H., Tuusjarvi, M., Lahtinen, R. & Holtta, P. (eds) Current Research: 2nd GTK Mineral Potential Workshop, Kuopio, Finland, May 2014. Geological Survey of Finland,Report of Investigation 207. Koistinen, T. J., 1981. Structural evolution of an early Proterozoic strata-bound Cu-Co-Zn deposit, Outokumpu, Finland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 72, pp. 115-158. Kontinen,A., 1987.An early Proterozoic ophiolite -- the Jormuamafic-ultramafic complex, northern Finland. Precambrian Research 35, 313-341. Peltonen, P. & Kontinen, A. 2004. The Jormua Ophiolite: a mafic-ultramafic complex from an ancient ocean-continent transition zone. In: Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks. Developments in Precambrian geology 13. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 35-71. Saalmann, K.; Laine, E.L, 2014. Structure of the Outokumpu ore district and ophiolite-hosted Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits revealed from 3D modeling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data. Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 62, October 2014, Pages 156-180. Vuollo, J., and Piirainen, T., 1989. Mineralogical evidence for an ophiolite from the Outokumpu serpentinites in North Karelia, Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 61, 95-112.

  5. Ozonolysis of a series of biogenic organic volatile compounds and secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, François; Quilgars, Alain; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Grosselin, Benoît.; Daele, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K.

    2010-05-01

    obtained will be compared with those from the literature when available and discussed in terms of their atmospheric impact. Berndt, T., O. Böge and F. Stratmann (2003). Gas-phase ozonolysis of a-pinene: gaseous products and particle formation. Atmospheric Environment, 37: 3933-3945. Bonn, B. and G.K. Moortgat (2003). Sesquiterpene ozonolysis: Origin of atmospheric new particle formation from biogenic hydrocarbons. Journal of Geophysical Research, 30(11). Kavouras, I. and E.G. Stephanou (2002). Direct evidence of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation in forest atmosphere through heteromolecular nucleation. Environmental Science and Technology, 36: 5083-5091. Koch, S., R. Winterhalter, E. Uherek, A. Kolloff, P. Neeb and G.K. Moortagt (2000). Formation of new particles in the gas-phase ozonolysis of monoterpenes. Atmospheric Environment, 34: 4031-4042. Kulmala, M., V.-M. Kerminen, T. Anttila, A. Laaksonen and C.D. O'Dowd (2004b). Organic aerosol formation via sulphate cluster activation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(D04205): 1-7. Kulmala, M., H. Vehkamäki, T. Petäjä, M. Dal Maso, A. Lauri, V.-M. Kerminen, W. Birmili and P.H. McMurry (2004a). Formation and growth rates of ultra-fine atmospheric particles: a review of observations. Journal of Aerosol Science, 35: 143-176. Lee, S. and R.M. Kamens (2005). Particle nucleation from the reaction of a-pinene and O3. Atmospheric Environment, 39: 6822-6832.

  6. Pulse-to-pulse correlation in CryoSat SAR mode radar altimeter echoes from the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    amplitude decays with lag at a rate that depends on wave height, and without zero crossings. This is in contrast to Walsh's theory, which established the conventional wisdom based on the first zero crossing of Bessel function J1. These results may be applied to determine the optimally weighted average of SAR echoes that yields the best conventional waveform for inter-calibration of SAR and conventional measurements. This calibration is useful for CryoSat and will be necessary for Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS. The present work finds that a conventional altimeter may obtain useful data at rates as high as 9 kHz. This suggests that the interleaved mode option under consideration for Jason-CS could yield optimal conventional measurements as well as simultaneous SAR. I gratefully acknowledge Ron Abileah, Eric Leuliette, John Lillibridge, Laury Miller, Tom Newman and the CryoSat team for helpful discussions.

  7. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone ecosystem as influenced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Another paper by Paul Carrara describes the recent movement of a large landslide block dated by tree-ring analyses in the Tower Falls area. The section under Yellowstone Lake studies begins with a classic paper by J. David Love and others on ancestral Lake Yellowstone. Other papers in this section include results and interpretation of the high-resolution bathymetric, seismic reflection, and submersible studies by Lisa Morgan and others. Ken Pierce and others describe results from their studies of shorelines along Yellowstone Lake and their interpretation of inflation-deflation cycles, tilting, and faulting in the Yellowstone caldera. The influence of sublacustrine hydrothermal vent fluids on the geochemistry of Yellowstone Lake is described by Laurie Balistrieri and others. In Pat Shanks and others' chapter, hydrothermal reactions, stable-isotope systematics, sinter deposition, and spire formation are related to the geochemistry of sublacustrine hydrothermal deposits in Yellowstone Lake. The geochemical studies section considers park-wide geochemical systems in Yellowstone National Park. In Bob Rye and Alfred Truesdell's paper, the question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park is discussed. Irving Friedman and Dan Norton report on the chloride flux emissions from Yellowstone in their paper questioning whether Yellowstone is losing its steam. Wildlife issues as addressed by examining trace-element and stable-isotope geochemistry are discussed in a chapter by Maurice Chaffee and others. In another chapter by Chaffee and others, natural and anthropogenic anomalies and their potential impact on the environment using geochemistry is reported. Pam Gemery-Hill and others present geochemical data for selected rivers, lake waters, hydrothermal vents, and subaerial geysers for the time interval of 1996-2004. The life cycle of gold deposits near th

  8. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d

  9. Les astronomes européens auscultent les cieux avec le plus grand télescope du monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, F.

    2008-09-01

    À l'heure des projets de télescopes extrêmement grands, l'Europe a déjà une longueur d'avance. Le télescope européen (VLT), en mode interférométrique avec l'instrument AMBER devient le plus grand télescope jamais utilisé dans le domaine optique aussi bien en surface de miroir (plus de 150 m2) qúen finesse de résolution qui atteint celle d'un télescope de 130 m de diamètre. Le journal professionnel Astronomy & Astrophysics a publié en 2007 un numéro spécial qui rapporte les premiers résultats obtenus avec l'instrument AMBER (Astronomical MultiBEam Recombiner) par le très grand télescope européen. Ces articles couvrent pratiquement tous les stades de l'évolution stellaire depuis la formation des étoiles et des planètes jusqu'a l'observation de l'explosion de type nova dans un système stellaire évolué. Ces résultats inédits ont été obtenus en utilisant simultanément 3 des 4 télescopes du VLT basés à l'Observatoire européen austral du mont Paranal au Chili. L'instrument AMBER équipant le VLTI (mode interférométrique du VLT) permet dâatteindre une résolution angulaire inégalée de l'ordre du millième de seconde d'angle autorisant l'observation des astres dans différentes longueurs d'onde, dans l'infrarouge proche. Les astronomes obtiennent donc des observations avec une finesse 13 fois plus importante que celle d'un télescope seul. Il devient alors possible de sonder les régions de formation de planètes, d'observer les vents des étoiles en rotation très rapide, d'étudier les différents types de matières éjectées par une étoile massive, de séparer les deux composantes d'une étoile double serrée et de voir en direct l'évolution d'une nova quelques jours seulement après son explosion.

  10. Development of coffee somatic and zygotic embryos to plants differs in the morphological, histochemical and hydration aspects.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Hervé; Bertrand, Benoît; Georget, Frédéric; Lartaud, Marc; Montes, Fabienne; Dechamp, Eveline; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Barry-Etienne, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    In Coffea arabica L., the development of direct sowing of somatic embryos (SE) in planting substrate, with subsequent nursery production of plants, has promoted the industrialization of somatic embryogenesis. However, plant conversion rates are still low and require improvements to enhance the cost-effectiveness of commercial micropropagation. With the aim of improving plant regeneration from SE, we studied the morphological and histological criteria and water characteristics during germination and plant conversion of zygotic embryos (ZE) and SE. At the cotyledonary stage, SE produced in a 1 l RITA(®) temporary immersion bioreactor (area 55.8 cm(2)) were morphologically similar in size (2-3 mm) but abnormal as compared with mature ZE. Protein and starch reserve levels were extremely low throughout germination and conversion to plantlets, while the water status remained steady [water content (WC) from 76 to 87%, Ψ from -0.37 to -0.47 MPa, pressure potential from 0.69 to 0.24 MPa]. In ZE, spectacular hydration occurred during the first 3 weeks (WC from 37 to 75%; Ψ from -6.24 to -1.0 MPa). Cotyledons remained undifferentiated for 10 weeks after sowing. Conversely, after only 3 weeks under germination conditions in a RITA(®) bioreactor, spongy and palisade parenchyma and stomata formed in SE cotyledons. The ZE plant conversion was faster than that of SE (14 vs. 22 weeks) and more efficient (rates 96 vs. 55%), with much more substantial hypocotyl and cotyledon development. The use of a new 5 l MATIS(®) bioreactor (area 355 cm(2)), designed especially to favor embryo dispersion and light transmittance to SE, markedly improved the embryo-to-plantlet conversion rate (91%). These results highlight the morphological heterogeneity and lack of protein reserves in SE at the beginning of the germination phase and marked differences in water characteristics. However, they also reveal high phenotypic plasticity, leading to a highly efficient plantlet conversion rate due to

  11. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  12. Évolution des lignes directrices sur le traitement de la dyslipidémie

    PubMed Central

    John Bosomworth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comprendre comment les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge du risque cardiovasculaire publiées par l’American Heart Association et l’American College of Cardiology (AHA-ACC) peuvent être interprétées et utilisées dans le contexte canadien. Sources des données Les lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC ont été examinées, de même que toutes les références. Des recherches indépendantes dans PubMed ont été effectuées pour inclure l’ajout aux statines d’autres antihyperlipidémiants et l’emploi de calculatrices médicales visant à aider le patient à comprendre. Message principal Les nouvelles lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC s’appuient sur les meilleures données probantes disponibles actuellement en matière de traitement de la dyslipidémie. Cela inclut le risque cardiovasculaire (CV) sur 10 ans comme seuil thérapeutique au lieu du taux de cholestérol des lipoprotéines de faible densité, de même que l’abandon des cibles thérapeutiques de lipoprotéines de faible densité. On met de plus en plus l’accent sur les interventions alimentaires et l’exercice, avec l’amorce d’un effort pour quantifier l’effet de ces interventions. Les statines constituent la principale intervention pharmacologique, et l’ajout d’autres médicaments pour accentuer la baisse lipidique n’est plus recommandé. En ce qui concerne l’application au Canada, les tables de risque de Framingham sont plus appropriées pour évaluer le risque que les équations de cohortes regroupées utilisées aux États-Unis. Les calculatrices du risque de maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV) devraient contenir de l’information sur l’âge cardiovasculaire et devraient pouvoir illustrer le risque et les interventions de rechange afin d’aider le patient à comprendre et de favoriser la prise de décision éclairée. Conclusion L’attention sur les meilleures données probantes concernant le risque CV peut simplifier le traitement de la

  13. Étude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la médecine traditionnelle de la région Maritime du Togo

    PubMed Central

    Holaly, Gbekley Efui; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Kodjovi, Agbodeka; Kokou, Anani; Tchadjobo, Tchacondo; Amegnona, Agbonon; Komlan, Batawila; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les plantes constituent une grande source de principes actifs qui peuvent être utilisés pour traiter de nombreuses maladies, dont le diabète. L'objectif de cette étude était de recenser les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter le diabète dans la région Maritime du Togo. Méthodes De janvier 2013 à juin 2014, une enquête ethnobotanique a été réalisée auprès de 164 guérisseurs traditionnels dans la région Maritime par des interviews directes à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi structuré. Résultats Les données recueillies ont permis d'identifier 112 espèces végétales appartenant à 51 familles. Les familles les plus représentées ont été les Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae avec 9 espèces, suivie des Euphorbiaceae et des Compositae avec 8 espèces chacune. Les espèces les plus citées ont été Allium sativum, Alium cepa, Guilandina bonduc, Moringa oleifera et de Picralima nitida qui ont eu une valeur usuelle de 0,05. En termes de recettes, 132 recettes sont préparées à partir des 112 espèces de plantes. Les recettes à plantes uniques ont été au nombre de 78, tandis que 54 recettes sont obtenues par des associations de plantes. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées ont été les feuilles suivies par les racines. La principale méthode de préparation reste la décoction. Conclusion La région maritime du Togo dispose d'une biodiversité floristique importante en matière de plantes antidiabétiques. Ces résultats constituent une bonne base de données pour le criblage biologique dans la recherche de molécules antidiabétiques à base des plantes. PMID:26309469

  14. Case Studies On Recent Stark Broadening Calculations And Stark-B Database Development In The Framework Of The European Project Vamdc (Virtual Atomic And Molecular Data Center)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.

    2010-07-01

    Stark broadening theories and calculations have been extensively developed for about 50 years. The theory can now be considered as mature for many applications, especially for accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelisation. In astrophysics, with the increasing sensitivity of observations and spectral resolution, in all domains of wavelengths from far UV to infrared, it has become possible to develop realistic models of interiors and atmospheres of stars and interpret their evolution. For hot stars, especially white dwarfs, Stark broadening is the dominant collisional line broadening process. This requires the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles, especially for very weakly abundant atoms and ions that are used as useful probes for modern spectroscopic diagnostics. Hence, calculations based on a simple but enough accurate and fast method is indispensable for obtaining numerous results. Ab initio quantum calculations are also a useful domain of development, especially for ion emitters. Nowadays, the access to such data via an on line database becomes indispensable. The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC, http://www.vamdc.eu) is a European Union funded collaboration between groups involved in the generation and use of atomic and molecular data. VAMDC aims to build a secure, documented, flexible and interoperable e-science environment-based interface to existing atomic and molecular data. In this framework, the Stark-B (http://starkb.obspm.fr) database, which is a part of VAMDC, is a collaborative project between the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade and the Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique (LERMA). It is a database of calculated widths and shifts of isolated lines of atoms and ions due to electron and ion collisions (i.e. impacts are separated in time). This database is devoted to modelisation and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes. In addition, it is relevant to

  15. KEY COMPARISON: Key comparison CCQM-K60: Total selenium and selenomethionine in selenised wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K60 was performed to assess the analytical capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total selenium (at low mg kg-1 levels) in selenised wheat flour. It was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) as a follow-up key comparison to the previous pilot study CCQM-P86 on selenised yeast tablets. LGC Limited (Teddington, UK) and the Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council Canada (NRCC, Ottawa, Canada) acted as the coordinating laboratories. CCQM-K60 was organized in parallel with a pilot study (CCQM-P86.1) involving not only NMIs but also expert laboratories worldwide, thus enabling them to assess their capabilities, discover problems and learn how to modify analytical procedures accordingly. Nine results for total Se and four results for SeMet were reported by the participant NMIs. Methods used for sample preparation were microwave assisted acid digestion for total Se and multiple-step enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrolysis with methanesulfonic acid for SeMet. For total Se, detection techniques included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with external calibration, standard additions or isotope dilution analysis (IDMS); instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with external calibration. For determination of SeMet in the wheat flour sample, the four NMIs relied upon measurements using species-specific IDMS (using 76Se-enriched SeMet) with HPLC-ICP-MS. Eight of the nine participating NMIs reported results for total Se within 3.5% deviation from the key comparison reference value (KCRV). For SeMet, the four participating NMIs reported results within 3.2% deviation from the KCRV. This shows that the performance of the majority of the CCQM-K60 participants was very good

  16. Multi-State Vibronic Interactions in Fluorinated Benzene Radical Cations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, S.; Köppel, H.

    2009-06-01

    Conical intersections of potential energy surfaces have emerged as paradigms for signalling strong nonadiabatic coupling effects. An important class of systems where some of these effects have been analyzed in the literature, are the benzene and benzenoid cations, where the electronic structure, spectroscopy, and dynamics have received great attention in the literature. In the present work a brief overview is given over our theoretical treatments of multi-mode and multi-state vibronic interactions in the benzene radical cation and some of its fluorinated derivatives. The fluorobenzene derivatives are of systematic interest for at least two different reasons. (1) The reduction of symmetry by incomplete fluorination leads to a disappearance of the Jahn-Teller effect present in the parent cation. (2) A specific, more chemical effect of fluorination consists in the energetic increase of the lowest σ-type electronic states of the radical cations. The multi-mode multi-state vibronic interactions between the five lowest electronic states of the fluorobenzene radical cations are investigated theoretically, based on ab initio electronic structure data, and employing the well-established linear vibronic coupling model, augmented by quadratic coupling terms for the totally symmetric vibrational modes. Low-energy conical intersections, and strong vibronic couplings are found to prevail within the set of tilde{X}-tilde{A} and tilde{B}-tilde{C}-tilde{D} cationic states, while the interactions between these two sets of states are found to be weaker and depend on the particular isomer. This is attributed to the different location of the minima of the various conical intersections occurring in these systems. Wave-packet dynamical simulations for these coupled potential energy surfaces, utilizing the powerful multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method are performed. Ultrafast internal conversion processes and the analysis of the MATI and photo-electron spectra shed new light

  17. Les conseils et la prise en charge en prévision d’une très grande prématurité

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L; Kirpalani, Haresh M

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ En cas de très grande prématurité (accouchement entre la 220/7 et la 256/7 semaine d’âge gestationnel [AG]), les parents doivent souvent faire des choix complexes sur les soins de leur nourrisson. Les professionnels de la santé ont un rôle important à jouer en matière d’information, d’orientation et de soutien. Les parents qui font face à la naissance d’un très grand prématuré doivent avoir la possibilité de rencontrer les dispensateurs de soins obstétricaux et pédiatriques ou néonatals pour recevoir de l’information exacte sur le pronostic de leur nourrisson, transmise avec clarté et compassion. La prise de décision entre les parents et les professionnels de la santé doit découler d’un processus éclairé et partagé, et toutes les décisions de prise en charge doivent être consignées. Il est important de consulter un centre périnatal de soins tertiaires et d’y prévoir le transfert de la mère et du fœtus afin d’assurer leurs soins. Puisque la survie des nourrissons venus au monde avant 22 semaines complètes d’AG demeure rare, il est recommandé de ne pas intervenir, mais à 23, 24 et 25 semaines d’AG, il faut adapter les conseils sur les issues et la prise de décision à chaque nourrisson et à sa famille, compte tenu des facteurs qui influent sur le pronostic. Il faut prodiguer des soins palliatifs compatissants à tous les grands prématurés qui ne sont pas réanimés ou qui ne répondent pas à la réanimation.

  18. Comparaison de deux scores pronostiques dans les hémorragies digestives hautes non variqueuses dans un centre hospitalier d'Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Rakotondrainibe, Aurélia; Randrianambinina, Thierry Pierre; Randriamizao, Harifetra Mamy Richard; Rasoaherinomenjanahary, Fanjandrainy; Randriamiarana, Mialimanana Joël; Samison, Luc Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Il est actuellement recommandé de stratifier les hémorragies digestives hautes, en fonction de leur risque, par des scores pronostiques. L'objectif de cette étude a été d'appliquer ces scores en vue de les comparer, dans un centre hospitalier malgache. Etude prospective sur 419 patients, sur une période entre janvier et décembre 2011, au Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire d'Antananarivo. Les scores de Rockall initial et de Blatchford ont été calculés pour chaque patient présentant une hémorragie digestive haute non variqueuse dont les dossiers été complets, avec notamment la valeur de l'urémie et de l'hémoglobine. Une comparaison de ces deux scores a été faite pour déterminer le pronostic et l’évolution de cette pathologie. 46,3% des dossiers n'avaient pas de valeur d'urémie ni de l'hémoglobine. Les 185 patients retenus, avaient une moyenne d’âge de 48,2 ± 18,2 ans et une prédominance masculine (72,4%). Le risque clinique était élevé dans 62,7% des cas, dont 59,4% ont bénéficié d'une transfusion. Une mortalité de 9,7% a été observée. Le score de Blatchford était plus prédictif du risque clinique par rapport au score de Rockall initial (AUROC = 0,82 vs 0,64; p < 0,0001), mais aussi de la nécessité d'une transfusion (AUROC = 0,79 vs 0,62; p= 0,00013). L'instauration d'un score clinico-biologique est assez limitée par faute de moyens, alors que le score de Blatchford aiderait en matière de pronostic des hémorragies digestives hautes. PMID:24839534

  19. Morbidité et mortalité hospitalière des maladies cardiovasculaires en milieu tropical: exemple d'un centre hospitalier à Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Damorou, Findibe; Baragou, Soodougoua; Pio, Machihuede; Afassinou, Yaovi M; N'da, N'kenon W; Pessinaba, Soulemane; Tchérou, Tchaa; Attiogbé, Halé; Ehlan, Koffi; Goeh-Akue, Edem; Yayehd, Komlavi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) occupent une place importante dans la mortalité en Afrique, situation inquiétante traduisant une transition épidémiologique rapide. La connaissance des groupes nosologiques les plus mortelles devrait aider à l’élaboration de politiques en matière de traitement et de prévention. Méthodes Il's agit d une étude rétrospective du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010, ayant inclus les patients hospitalisés pour une MCV selon la classification Internationale des maladies (CIM-10). Résultats La fréquentation hospitalière pour maladie MCV a augmenté au fil du temps; les maladies hypertensives étaient le premier motif d hospitalisation (66.8%). Les autres pathologies fréquentes étaient la maladie thromboembolique (9.1%), les syndromes coronaires aigus (SCA) (7.3%), l'insuffisance cardiaque (5.5%), les cardiomyopathies (5.3%). La majorité des sujets étaient jeunes (âge moyen: 55.1 ans) et il n'y avait pas de corrélation entre la durée d'hospitalisation et l’âge: r = + 0.024, p = 0.09. La mortalité globale était élevée (11%) et les taux de létalité élevés dans le SCA (27.9%), l'embolie pulmonaire (25%) et la péricardite (25%). Conclusion Les MCV sont responsables d'une hospitalisation croissante dans nos hôpitaux. L'absence d unité de soins intensifs cardiologiques et des méthodes de revascularisation coronaire, le manque de personnels qualifiés associés l'inexistence de sécurité sociale expliquent une mortalité élevée dans nos pays en voie de développement qui sans avoir achevé leur transition démographique entre en pleine transition épidémiologique. PMID:25018812

  20. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-03-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations. PMID:24594489

  1. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  2. Profil évolutif et pronostic des tumeurs urothéliales de la vessie chez le sujet jeune

    PubMed Central

    Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Saadi, Ahmed; Kerkeni, Walid; Chakroun, Marouene; Cherif, Mohamed; Ayed, Haroun; Selmi, Selim; Derouiche, Amine; Benslama, Riadh Mohamed; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Résumé But: Les tumeurs urothéliales de la vessie sont rares chez le jeune adulte. Leur profil évolutif et leur pronostic restent matière à contro-verse. Nous rapportons notre expérience à propos de 54 patients. Méthodologie: Entre 1990 et 2010, 54 patients de moins de 40 ans au moment du diagnostic ont été traités pour carcinome à cellules transitionnelles de la vessie. Nous avons étudié le profil évolutif de ces tumeurs en séparant les patients en deux groupes (moins de 30 ans, et 30 à 40 ans). Résultats: La tumeur n’infiltrait pas le muscle vésical dans 37 cas et l’infiltrait dans 17 cas. Pour les tumeurs n’infiltrant pas le muscle vésical, elles étaient de stade Ta dans 20 cas et de grade I–II dans 36 cas. Le pronostic de ces tumeurs était meilleur avant l’âge de 30 ans avec un taux de récidive de 15,3 % sans progression. Pour les patients de 30 à 40 ans, le taux de récidive était de 33,3 %, et 25 % des tumeurs qui ont récidivé ont présenté une progression du stade. Pour les tumeurs infiltrant le muscle vésical, le pronostic était sombre (localement avancées dans neuf cas et métastatiques d’emblée dans cinq cas). Conclusion: Le profil évolutif des tumeurs n’infiltrant pas le muscle vésical a semblé meilleur avant l’âge de 30 ans. Entre 30 et 40 ans, le profil évolutif s’est approché de celui des sujets âgés. Les tumeurs infiltrantes étaient souvent évoluées et agressives, évoquant un potentiel évolutif particulier. PMID:27330577

  3. Kystes de l'ovaire: score échographique de malignité

    PubMed Central

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Bettaieb, Hajeur; Derbel, Mohammed; Triki, Amel; Gara, Mohammed Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Les kystes de l'ovaire constituent l'un des motifs les plus fréquents de consultation en gynécologie. L’étape diagnostique repose principalement sur l’échographie. Nous proposons dans ce travail un score échographique reproductible prédictif de malignité. Nous évaluons la fiabilité de ce score après confrontations des données échographiques et histologiques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 3 ans. Nous avons élaboré un score basé sur les signes échographiques décrits dans la littérature comme prédictifs de malignité et avons classé les examens échographiques préopératoires selon leurs scores respectifs. Les données échographiques étaient comparées aux résultats histologiques et un seuil prédictif de malignité a été déterminé pour le score adopté. 150 patientes ont été colligées. Les deux signes échographiques les plus prédictifs de malignité étaient: les végétations endo-kystiques, avec une Valeur Prédictive Positive (VPP) à 86,67% et une Valeur Prédictive Négative (VPN) à 100%, et le caractère vascularisé au Doppler couleur avec une VPP à 72,52% et une VPN à 100%. Le seuil retenu pour le score proposé était de 6 avec une spécificité de 100%, une sensibilité de 100%, une VPP de 100% et une VPN de 100%. L’échographie joue un rôle décisif dans la conduite à tenir devant une masse ovarienne. Seul un faisceau d'arguments permet d’évoquer la malignité lors de l'examen échographique. L'utilisation de scores basés sur des signes simples, reproductibles augmente la valeur diagnostique de l’échographie en matière de malignité. PMID:25419341

  4. PREFACE: XXIVth Conference of the Danubian Countries on the Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Bases of Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Bonacci, Ognjen; Nachtnebel, Peter Hans; Szolgay, Ján; Balint, Gabor

    2008-10-01

    and Gabor Balint Editorial Board International Scientific Committee: P Hubert: Centre d'Informatique Géologique, France H P Nachtnebel: Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Austria H Weber: Bavarian Water Management Administration, Germany H Moser: Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany M Domokos: VITUKI, Hungary P Stanciu: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Romania O Bonacci: University of Split, Croatia S Prohaska: Institute Jaroslav Černi, Belgrade, Serbia J Szolgay: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic K Tzankov: Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia, Bulgaria E Soukalová: Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Czech Republic B Matičič: National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Slovenia M Mikoš: University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia J Rakovec: University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia M Brilly: University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia M Veselič: ARAO, Slovenia

  5. Catherine Cesarsky - ESO's Next Director General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The ESO Council has appointed Dr. Catherine Cesarsky as Director General for a five year period, succeeding Professor Riccardo Giacconi, whose term ends this year. Dr. Cesarsky will take up her duties on September 1, 1999, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). Dr. Cesarsky was born in France in 1943. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp) , Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). She headed the theoretical group of the SAp (1978-1985), was Head of SAp (1985-1993) and has been Director of DSM since 1994. The DSM encompasses, at the CEA, activities of basic research in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences and comprises about 3000 scientists, engineers, technicians, etc. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. The first part of her career was devoted to the high-energy domain. This has involved studies of the propagation and composition of galactic cosmic rays, of matter and fields in the diffuse interstellar medium, as well as the acceleration of particles in astrophysical shocks, e.g. in connection with supernovae. She then turned to infrared astronomy. She is the Principal Investigator of the ISOCAM camera onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) of the European Space Agency (ESA) and, as such, she leads the ISOCAM central programme. It studies, in a coordinated way, the infrared emission from a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources and is yielding new and exciting results on star formation and galactic evolution. Dr. Cesarsky received the COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Space Science Award in 1998. She is a member of many

  6. Enjeux de fin de vie dans les cas de démence avancée

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Répondre aux questions souvent posées sur la prise en charge de la pneumonie en phase terminale, de l’apport nutritionnel insuffisant et de la déshydratation dans les cas de démence avancée. Sources des données Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid pour des articles pertinents publiés jusqu’en février 2015. Aucune étude de niveau I n’a été relevée; la plupart des articles fournissaient des preuves de niveaux III. Les suggestions en matière de prise en charge des symptômes s’appuient en partie sur une récente participation à une approche Delphi visant à concevoir une directive pour le soulagement optimal des symptômes chez les patients atteints de pneumonie et de démence. Message principal Les sondes d’alimentation ne sont pas recommandés chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. L’alimentation de confort manuelle est préférable. L’hydratation parentérale pourrait être utile, mais elle peut aussi contribuer à l’inconfort à la fin de la vie. Si les soins buccaux sont adéquats, l’abstention ou la cessation de l’alimentation et de l’hydratation artificielles ne sont généralement pas associées à des manifestations d’inconfort. Puisque la pneumonie est habituellement très inconfortable, les cliniciens doivent être attentifs à la maîtrise des symptômes. La sédation pour maîtriser l’agitation est souvent utile chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. Conclusion Les soins à visée symptomatique sont une option appropriée pour les manifestations terminales de la démence avancée. Les lignes directrices de prise en charge des symptômes proposées s’appuient sur une revue de la littérature et sur un consensus d’experts.

  7. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  8. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  9. Prediction uncertainty of plume characteristics derived from a small number of measuring points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.

    sensibles à la dimension du panache en fonction de la distance entre les différents points de mesure. Afin de réduire les erreurs de prédiction de la variance, la distance entre les points de mesure doit être inférieure au double de l'écart-type du panache examiné. La dimension totale de l'ensemble doit couvrir une étendue de plusieurs écarts-types du panache pour éviter qu'une partie de la matière échappe à la zone surveillée. Des simulations numériques du panache en dispersion (les calculs de comparaison sont basés sur 9000 nœuds avec 30 points de mesure) montrent que le centre vertical et le centre horizontal de la matière dispersée ont été bien prédits à tous les degrés d'hétérogénéité, de même que pour les variances horizontales. Les variances verticales ont été plus sensibles aux erreurs de prédiction, mais les estimations étaient du même ordre de grandeur que les valeurs réelles. Resumen Un número pequeño de puntos de medida puede producir un sesgo en la caracterización en campo del flujo y transporte de solutos en la zona no saturada. La simulación de transporte advectivo (no difusivo) de un penacho Gaussiano a travs de un conjunto de 30 puntos de medida regularmente distribuidos revelan fluctuaciones temporales regulares de los momentos espaciales del penacho. Una distribución irregular de puntos de medida predijo a su vez fluctuaciones irregulares, más alejadas de la realidad, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de muestreo regulares. Los momentos espaciales fueron sensibles a la relación entre tamaño del penacho y distancia entre puntos de medida. Para reducir los errores en la predicción de la varianza, la distancia entre puntos de observación debe ser menor que dos veces la desviación estándar del penacho. El tamaño del área muestreada debe cubrir varias desviaciones estándar del penacho para evitar perder parte de la masa. Las simulaciones numricas en un penacho dispersivo, comparando los c

  10. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  11. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    és dans les sols des hautes terres par évapotranspiration, avec le ruissellement et l'infiltration dans les playas et les fossés (modifiée localement par l'écoulement en retour des eaux usées et des laisses d'irrigation). Des réactions probables intervenant au cours de la recharge sont l'oxydation de la matière organique, la dissolution et le dégazage du CO2, la dissolution du CaCO3, l'altération des silicates et l'échange de cations. Les données concernant Si et 14C laissent penser qu'il existe une drainance descendante à partir d'aquifères perchés vers l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines. Des modèles vraisemblables de bilan de matière pour l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines prennent en compte des scénarios d'écoulement avec drainance mais sans réactions, des écoulements avec réactions mais sans drainance et des écoulements sans réactions ni drainance. Les mécanismes de recharge et d'évolution chimique déterminés dans cette étude sont en accord avec ceux mis en évidence dans d'autres aquifères du centre sud et du sud-ouest des états-Unis. Resumen. El acuífero libre de High Plains (Ogallala) es el mayor de los Estados Unidos y supone la fuente principal de abastecimiento en la región semiárida del sur de High Plains (Texas) y de Nuevo México. Los análisis de agua y suelos realizados al nordeste de Amarillo (Texas), junto con los datos de otros estudios regionales, indican que los procesos que tienen lugar durante la recarga del acuífero controlan la composición de las aguas subterráneas en la mitad septentrional de los High Plains del Sur. Los datos isotópicos y hidroquímicos son coherentes con una secuencia de episodios de precipitación, concentración de solutos en la parte superior del suelo por evapotranspiración, escorrentía, e infiltración a través de 'playas' y zanjas (modificadas localmente por los flujos de retorno de aguas residuales y de excedentes de riego).

  12. Obituary: Edmond M. Reeves, 1934-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Robert; Parkinson, William

    2009-01-01

    . At a Retirement Symposium dedicated to Ralph Nicholls in 1992, Ed recalled that at a coffee break about twenty years earlier, during the Skylab program at Houston, he, Bob Noyes, and Bob MacQueen outlined the need to develop a rocket-borne coronagraph to observe the hydrogen Lyman-alpha corona. Later, after returning to the CfA, Ed, Bob Noyes, and Bill Parkinson planned a rocket-borne spectrograph to image the extended corona, expecting to use a circular occulter. John Kohl joined the fledgling coronagraph project, and he realized that a linear external occulter would be better and also would match a spectrometer slit. This project became the origin of the Lyman-Alpha Coronagraph series of rocket and Spacelab experiments under John Kohl's leadership, culminating in the still-operating Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer [UVCS] experiment on the SOHO spacecraft. In 1978, Ed joined the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, Colorado, where he was Head of Administration and Support before moving to NASA Headquarters in 1982. There he became Director of the Flight Systems Office in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, with responsibility for integrated planning and science operations for research using the Spacelab, Spacehab, and Mir missions. He led the activities for the research requirements and planning for the International Space Station and served as the Space Station Senior Scientist, the Executive Secretary of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Subcommittee, and the Executive Secretary of the Space Station Utilization Board at NASA Headquarters He also served as NASA's representative to the international Users Operations Panel, which coordinates the utilization planning for the Station across the international partners. Ed retired from NASA in 1998. Ed was an outdoors man who enjoyed camping, canoeing, and cross-country skiing with his family. He is survived by his wife Vivian, son Dr. Geoffrey Reeves, daughter Laurie Webster, and

  13. Usable Translational Hand Controllers for NASA's Habitability Design Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Arduino itself. When I successfully achieved the goal I wrote an instructions manual for the process so that the HDC will be able to do this easily in the future for any human interface device they may want to create. I also created a detailed CAD model of my THC design with construction instructions. My THC utilizes three ultrasonic sensors, one for each axis of motion. I wrote a code that stimulates these sensors continuously and feeds back values from each axis ranging from -%100 to %100 of the min/max position in relation to the neutral position of each axis. This was the data that the Graphics and Visualization Lab required to interface with their simulation. I truly enjoyed working in the HDC surrounded by passionate, proactive, and brilliantly creative people. I felt valued and respected as a part of their team. I was given the time and support of my mentor whenever I asked for it. Beyond my positive project experience, I was fortunate enough to be able to take advantage of many of the extra activities that JSC has to offer. I took Russian Phase One during my lunch break every day and can now read Russian and accomplish basic verbal communication. I was heavily involved with the co-tern music video, which led to numerous incredible experiences and friendships. I saw every facility, attended every lecture, and met everyone that I could. I had coffee with Lauri Hansen. I played on an intern volleyball team at the Gilruth. I traveled to Michoud, Stennis, NOLA, and Big Bend National Park. I had the time of my life and I fell in love with JSC. In the next month I will return to Maryland and start my senior year of my undergraduate degree. As I work through it I will remember that all of the studying I do, all of the concentration I give, and all of the sacrifices that I make for school are so that I can work at a place like JSC where I am proud and excited to go into work every day. This internship was an invaluable experience for me, both professionally and personally.

  14. Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aleisa C

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE Aleisa Bloom, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) Robert Lyon (bob.lyon@aecom.com), Laurie Stenberg, and Holly Brown (AECOM, Germantown, Maryland, USA) ABSTRACT: Past disposal practices at Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Delaware, created a large solvent plume called Area 6 (about 1 mile long, 2,000 feet wide, and 345 acres). The main contaminants are PCE, TCE, and their degradation products. The remedy is in-situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB). AAB started in 2006 and is focusing on source areas and downgradient plume cores. Direct-push injections occurred in source areas where contamination is typically between 5 and 20 feet below ground surface. Lower concentration dissolved-phased contamination is present downgradient at 35 and 50 feet below ground surface. Here, permanent injection/extraction wells installed in transects perpendicular to the flow of groundwater are used to apply AAB. The AAB substrate is a mix of sodium lactate, emulsified vegetable oil, and nutrients. After eight years, dissolved contaminant mass within the main 80-acre treatment area has been reduced by over 98 percent. This successful application of AAB has stopped the flux of contaminants to the more distal portions of the plume. While more time is needed for effects to be seen in the distal plume, AAB injections will soon cease, and the remedy will transition to natural attenuation. INTRODUCTION Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Science Division (ORNL) and AECOM (formerly URS Corporation) have successfully implemented in situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB) to remediate chlorinated solvent contamination in a large, multi-sourced groundwater plume at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). AAB has resulted in significant reductions of dissolved phase chlorinated solvent concentrations. This plume, called Area 6, was originally over 1 mile in length and over 2,000 feet wide (Figure 1

  15. Formation and growth rates of atmospheric nanoparticles: four years of observations at two West Siberian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Arshinova, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Riipinen, I., Wagner, R., Hussein, T., Aalto, P. P., and Lehtinen, K. E. J. (2005). Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, Boreal Environ. Res. 10, 323-336. Dal Maso, M., Sogacheva, L., Aalto, P., Riipinen, I., Komppula, M., Tunved, P., Korhonen, L., Suur-uski, V., Hirsikko, A., Kurten, T., Kerminen, V., Lihavainen, H., Viisanen, Y., Hansson, H., and Kulmala, M. (2007). Aerosol size distribution measurements at four Nordic field stations: identification, analysis and trajectories analysis of new particle formation bursts, Tellus B 59, 350-361. Hamed, A., Joutsensaari, J., Mikkonen, S., Sogacheva, L., Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Cavalli F., Fuzzi S., Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Mircea, M., Lehtinen, K. E. J., and Laaksonen, A. (2007). Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 355-376. Hirsikko, A., Nieminen, T., Gagné, S., Lehtipalo, K., Manninen, H. E., Ehn, M., Hõrrak, U., Kerminen, V.-M., Laakso, L., McMurry, P. H., Mirme, A., Mirme, S., Petäjä, T., Tammet, H., Vakkari, V., Vana, M., and Kulmala, M. (2011). Atmospheric ions and nucleation: a review of observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 767-798. Kulmala, M., Vehkamäki, H., Petäjä, T., Dal Maso, M., Lauri A., Kerminen, V.-M., Birmili, W., and McMurry, P. H. (2004a) Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations, J. Aerosol Science 35, 143-176.

  16. Gravitational lensing in observational cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottale, L.

    éformations subies par la section d'un faisceau lumineux au cours de sa propagation, à la distribution matérielle et énergétique qu'il rencontre sur son trajet entre la source et l'observateur. Les deux contributions aux effets d'optique apparaissant dans ces équations (et leurs solutions) sont les termes de matière et les termes de cisaillement. Nous montrons comment une nouvelle distance peut être introduite, la distance optique, en fonction de laquelle les équations se simplifient et de nouvelles solutions analytiques peuvent être établies. En particulier, nous démontrons que la formule d'amplification gravitationnelle peut s'écrire sous une forme très générale sous la simple hypothèse que l'Univers est en moyenne de type Friedmann-Robertson-Walker. De nouveaux résultats sont aussi présentés concernant la distribution de probabilité des amplifications, les rapports entre termes de matière et termes de cisaillement (les premiers donnant la moyenne des seconds), et le problème de la conservation de l'énergie. Nous rappelons comment une formule analytique peut être obtenue pour des amplifications multiples et présentons des solutions nouvelles au problème de l'amplification par des hétérogénéités à très grande échelle. Enfin, les effets de décalages spectraux gravitationnels sont aussi considérés, qu'ils soient dus à des effets de traversée d'excès de densité, ou intrinsèques à ceux-ci ; dans ce dernier cas, une généralisation de solutions déjà connues est proposée. On considère ensuite le problème de la mise en évidence observationnelle des divers effets d'optique gravitationnelle, qu'ils soient de nature statistique ou qu'ils concernent des objets individuels. A la suite d'une analyse décrivant la dépendance de la formule d'amplification en fonction des différents paramètres y intervenant, nous insistons tout particulièrement sur le rôle cosmologique que jouent probablement les amas de galaxies très riches de d

  17. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    des données de niveaux 4 et 5 concernant des besoins en matière de santé non satisfaits qu’ont des personnes victimes d’une LME vivant dans la communauté. En dépit du fait que les patients atteints d’une LME utilisent beaucoup les soins primaires et les services de santé en général, les données scientifiques font valoir que les besoins de renseignements de ces patients en particulier ne sont pas adéquatement satisfaits. Conclusion Un solide système de soins primaires représente la meilleure assurance de bons résultats sur le plan de la santé et d’une utilisation raisonnable des services de santé chez les personnes victimes d’une LME, notamment un bilan de santé annuel complet, un recours approprié aux autres spécialistes et une attention accordée à l’accessibilité et aux besoins insatisfaits.

  18. Éviscération vaginale post hystérectomie récidivante

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Boubacar Zan; Benmansour, Anis; Hachim, Hajar; Saoud, Oumar; Ekogha, Jean Claude Ekogha; Mbida, Rachida; Chkoff, Rachid Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    L’éviscération vaginale après hystérectomie, bien que rare, est une complication postopératoire grave pour les patients jeunes et les personnes âgées. Chez la femme ménopausée, elle est très souvent due à une chirurgie pelvienne, associée à un trouble de soutien du plancher pelvien. L'iléon distal est l'organe le plus fréquent d’éviscération, mais le prolapsus de l’épiploon, appendice et des trompes de Fallope a été rapportés. Une patiente âgée de 53 ans était admise au service des urgences chirurgicales viscérales en raison d'une masse vaginale apparue sans effort notable. Ses antécédents comportaient une hystérectomie vaginale réalisée en 2009 pour une pathologie bénigne et une éviscération vaginale en 2011 traitée par voie vaginale. L'examen gynécologique révélait une éviscération vaginale d'anses intestinales par une rupture du sommet du vagin. Le segment intestinal hernié, sale, œdématié avec infiltration de la graisse mésentérique est jugé viable. La patiente était opérée en urgence immédiatement après le diagnostic par laparotomie médiane sous-ombilicale. La réintégration en douceur de l'intestin permettait d'objectiver une perforation du sommet du vagin. Cette dernière était fermée par un surjet au fil résorbable après ravivement des berges de la perforation. Le vagin était ensuite fixé au promontoire par des points séparés. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente sortait de l'hôpital après six jours d'hospitalisation. L’éviscération vaginale est une urgence chirurgicale dont les modalités de prise en charge doivent être connues. Si la laparotomie a longtemps été la technique de référence, la voie vaginale exclusive peut être réalisée en cas d'exploration aisée du segment éviscéré. PMID:25667704

  19. La genèse du concept de champ quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, O.

    This is a historical study of the roots of a concept which has proved to be essential in modern particle physics : the concept of quantum field. The first steps were accomplished by two young theoreticians : Pascual Jordan quantized the free electromagnetic field in 1925 by means of the formal rules of the just discovered matrix mechanics, and Paul Dirac quantized the whole system charges + field in 1927. Using Dirac's equation for electrons (1928) and Jordan's idea of quantized matter waves (second quantization), Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli provided in 1929-1930 an extension of Dirac's radiation theory and the proof of its relativistic invariance. Meanwhile Enrico Fermi discovered independently a more elegant and pedagogical formulation. To appreciate the degree of historical necessity of the quantization of fields, and the value of contemporaneous critics to this approach, it was necessary to investigate some of the history of the old radiation theory. We present the various arguments however provisional or naïve or wrong they could be in retrospect. So we hope to contribute to a more vivid picture of notions which, once deprived of their historical setting, might seem abstruse to the modern user. Nous présentons une étude historique des origines d'un concept devenu essentiel dans la physique moderne des particules : le concept de champ quantique. Deux jeunes théoriciens franchirent les premières étapes : Pascual Jordan quantifia le champ électromagnétique en 1925 grâce aux règles formelles de la mécanique des matrices naissante, et Paul Dirac quantifia le système complet charges + champ en 1927. Au moyen de l'équation de l'électron de Dirac (1928) et de l'idée de Jordan d'ondes de matière quantifiées (deuxième quantification), Werner Heisenberg et Wolfgang Pauli donnèrent en 1929-1930 une extension de la théorie du rayonnement de Dirac et la preuve de son invariance relativiste. Pendant ce temps Enrico Fermi découvrit ind

  20. Manifestations de la transition solide-liquide dans les agrégats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.

    énomènes thermodynamiques liés à la taille finie, et dépendant fortement de la nature physico-chimique de la matière à ces échelles. Ces phénomènes sont étudiés à l'aide de simulations Monte Carlo ou de dynamique moléculaire, et sont, successivement: la fusion de surface observée sur des agrégats de gaz rares, la transition solide-liquide par étapes successives observée sur des agrégats ioniques, les spécificités de cette transition pour des agrégats moléculaires, et enfin le problème plus complexe des agrégats métalliques libres ou solvatés.

  1. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    Phase 1 to Phase 2 review in favor of studying the slurry-form of AB as it appeared to be difficult to transport a solid form of AB through the thermolysis reactor. UTRC demonstrated the operation of a compact GLS in the laboratory at a scale that would be required for the actual automotive application. The GLS met the targets for weight and volume. UTRC also reported about the unresolved issue associated with the high vapor pressure of fluids that could be used for making a slurry-form of AB. Work on the GLS was halted after the Phase 2 to Phase 3 review as the off-board regeneration efficiency of the spent AB was below the DOE target of 60%. UTRC contributed to the design of an adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system through measurements of the thermal conductivity of a compacted form of Metal Organic Framework (MOF) number 5 and through the development and sizing of a particulate filter. Thermal conductivity is important for the design of the modular adsorbent tank insert (MATI), as developed by Oregon State University (OSU), in order to enable a rapid refueling process. Stringent hydrogen quality requirements can only be met with an efficient particulate filtration system. UTRC developed a method to size the particulate filter by taking into account the effect of the pressure drop on the hydrogen adsorption process in the tank. UTRC raised awareness about the potential use of materials-based H2 storage systems in applications outside the traditional light-duty vehicle market segment by presenting at several conferences about niche application opportunities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), portable power and others.

  2. Hydrochemistry of waters from five cenotes and evaluation of their suitability for drinking-water supplies, northeastern Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcocer, Javier; Lugo, Alfonso; Marín, Luis E.; Escobar, Elva

    Waters from five cenotes that are currently being used for aquatic recreational activities and that lie along the Cancun-Tulum touristic corridor, Mexico, were evaluated hydrochemically to determine whether the cenotes may be considered as potential drinking-water sources. Several parameters exceed the Mexican Drinking Water Standards (MDWS), but since they do not pose a significant health threat, four of the five cenotes may be used as drinking-water sources. The common contaminants in the Yucatan Peninsula, fecal coliforms and nitrate, are in most cases below the MDWS (0-460 MPN/100ml and 0.31-1.18mg/L, respectively). Although these four cenotes meet the MDWS, a careful groundwater management policy needs to be developed to avoid contamination (fecal and nitrates) and salt-water intrusion. Résumé Les eaux de cinq cénotés, qui sont normalement utilisées pour des activités de plein air, dans la région touristique de Cancun-Tulum (Mexique), ont été soumises à analyses chimiques pour savoir si les cénotés peuvent être considérés comme des sources d'eau potable. Plusieurs paramètres dépassent les normes mexicaines en matière d'eau potable; mais comme ceux-ci ne posent pas de problème réel de santé, quatre des cinq cénotés peuvent être captés pour l'eau potable. Les contaminants habituels dans les eaux de la presqu'île du Yucatan, coliformes fécaux et concentrations élevées en nitrate, sont la plupart du temps au-dessous des normes (respectivement 0 à 460 germes/100ml et 0,31 à 1,18mg/l). Bien que ces quatre cénotés satisfassent aux normes, il est nécessaire de mettre en place des règles précises de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, afin d'éviter la contamination par les germes fécaux et par les nitrates, ainsi que l'intrusion marine. Resumen Se analizó hidroquímica y bacteriológicamente el agua de algunos cenotes localizados a lo largo del corredor turístico Cancun-Tulum, que actualmente se utilizan para diversas actividades

  3. Bilan de santé chez l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Jane; Ischayek, Amanda; Dubey, Vinita; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire les mises à jour apportées à Soins préventifs - Fiche de contrôle© pour aider les médecins à se tenir au fait des plus récentes recommandations en matière de soins de santé préventifs. Qualité des données Une recension dans la base de données Ovid MEDLINE a été effectuée à l’aide de mots-clés et d’autres paradigmes pertinents au bilan de santé périodique. Des sources secondaires, comme le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs, l’Agence de la santé publique du Canada, la base de données Trip et l’Infobanque de l’Association médicale canadienne, ont aussi fait l’objet d’une recherche. Nous avons révisé les recommandations relatives aux soins préventifs pour des adultes à risque moyen. Les recommandations de bonne qualité et passables sont présentées respectivement en caractères gras et italiques. Message principal La fiche de contrôle a été mise à jour en fonction des recommandations du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventif relatives au dépistage de l’obésité (2015), du cancer du col (2013), de la dépression (2013), de l’ostéoporose (2013), de l’hypertension (2012), du diabète (2012, 2013) et du cancer du sein (2011). D’autres mises à jour se fondent sur les recommandations d’autres organisations canadiennes concernant le dépistage du VIH (2013), le dépistage des infections transmises sexuellement (2013), les immunisations (2012 à 2014), le dépistage de la dyslipidémie (2012), le counseling en fertilité chez la femme (2011, 2012) et le dépistage du cancer colorectal (2010). Certaines recommandations antérieures ont été éliminées et d’autres, peu étayées par des données probantes, n’ont pas été incluses. Conclusion Soins préventifs - Fiche de contrôle a été mise à jour pour inclure les recommandations récentes afin de permettre aux médecins de famille d’offrir des soins complets et fondés sur des

  4. Catherine Cesarsky - President Elect of the International Astronomical Union (IAU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia), has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President Elect for a three-year period (2003-2006). The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents. The IAU General Assembly also elected Prof. Ron Ekers (Australia) as President (2003 - 2006). Dr. Cesarsky will then become President of the IAU in 2006, when the General Assembly next meets in Prague (The Czech Republic). Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman scientist to receive this high distinction. "The election of Catherine Cesarsky as President-Elect of the IAU is an important recognition for a scientist who has made impressive contributions to various areas of modern astrophysics, from cosmic rays to the interstellar medium and cosmology" , commented the outgoing IAU President, Prof. Franco Pacini. "It is also an honour and an important accolade for the European astronomical community in general and ESO in particular." Dr. Cesarsky, who assumed the function as ESO Director General in 1999, was born in France. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp), Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). As Director of DSM (1994 - 1999), she was leading about 3000 scientists, engineers and technicians active within a broad spectrum of basic research programmes in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma

  5. Dynamic modelling and humus balances as tools for estimating and upscaling soil carbon stock changes in temperate cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Holenstein, Hildegard; Mayer, Jochen; Leifeld, Jens

    2010-05-01

    Humusbilanzierung im ökologischen Landbau. Abschlussbericht zum Projekt 03OE084, http://forschung.oekolandbau.de unter der BÖL-Bericht-ID 16447,184 pp. Fliessbach A, Oberholzer H.-R., Gunst L., Mäder P., 2007. Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118, 273-284. Leifeld J., Reiser R., Oberholzer H.-R., 2009. Consequences of conventional vs. organic farming on soil carbon: Results from a 27-year field experiment. Agronomy Journal 101, 1204-1218. Neyroud J.-A., 1997. La part du sol dans la production intégrée 1. Gestion de la matière organique et bilan humique. Revue suisse d'agriculture, 29, 45-51. VDLUFA, 2004. VDLUFA-Standpunkt: Humusbilanzierung - Methode zur Beurteilung und Bemessung der Humusversorgung von Ackerland. Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten, Selbstverlag.

  6. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.a (estradiol): An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Wang, Hongjie; Rodrigues, Jainana; Wollinger, Wagner; Windust, Anthony; Kang, Ma; Fuhai, Su; Philipp, Rosemarie; Kuhlich, Paul; Wong, Siu-kay; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Pérez, Melina; Avila, Marco; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo, D.; de Vos, J.; Visser, R.; Archer, M.; LeGoff, Thierry; Wood, Steve; Bearden, Dan; Bedner, Mary; Boroujerdi, Arezue; Duewer, David; Hancock, Diane; Lang, Brian; Porter, Barbara; Schantz, Michele; Sieber, John; White, Edward; Wise, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.a, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2009/2010. Eleven national measurement institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of estradiol present as the main component in the comparison sample (CCQM-K55.a) which consisted of a bulk estradiol hemihydrate material obtained from a commercial supplier that had been extensively but not exhaustively dried prior to sub-division into the units supplied for the comparison. Estradiol was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molar mass range 300-500 Da] and low polarity (pKOW < -2) for which related structure impurities can be quantified by capillary gas phase chromatography (GC) or by high performance liquid chromatography (LC). The majority of participants used a mass balance approach to determine the estradiol content. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) for estradiol in CCQM-K55.a was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned by consensus from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. This allowed participants to demonstrate the efficacy (or otherwise) of their implementation of the mass balance approach and to demonstrate that their assigned value for the main component agreed with the KCRV through use of internally consistent contributing methods. The KCRV for the estradiol content of the material was 984.3 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.42 mg/g. The individual participant results showed that a relative expanded uncertainty for the purity assignment of 0.2% is a reasonable estimate of the best achievable result by an individual laboratory for a material of this complexity available in this amount at this level of

  7. La place de la thoracoscopie dans la prise en charge des pathologies thoraciques: à propos de 104 cas

    PubMed Central

    Lakranbi, Marwane; Rabiou, Sani; Ghalimi, Jamal; Issoufou, Ibrahim; Ouadnouni, Yassine; Smahi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La thoracoscopie est l'exploration endoscopique de la cavité pleurale, des organes avoisinants (diaphragme, péricarde, médiastin) et du poumon. Le but de ce travail se veut d'abord didactique; décrivant la thoracoscopie, ses techniques ainsi que sa place dans la prise en charge de la pathologie thoracique (indications et perspectives thérapeutiques) et informatif en rapportant l'expérience de notre équipe. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective intéressant 104 thoracoscopies à visée diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique réalisées au service de chirurgie thoracique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès, sur une période de 04 ans (Août 2008-décembre 2012). Nous avons exclu de notre étude les cas ayant bénéficié d'une médiastinoscopie ainsi que les cas ayant bénéficié d'une thoracoscopie dans le cadre des traumatismes fermés du thorax ou des plaies thoraciques. Résultats L’ âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans, avec des extrêmes allant de 18 à 80 ans, et une légère prédominance masculine à 54%. La thoracoscopie est d'ordre pleural chez 86 patients, pulmonaire chez 10 patients et médiastinale chez 8 patients. La thoracoscopie avait une indication à visée diagnostique chez 87 cas et thérapeutique chez 52 patients (talcage dans 45 cas, décortication pleuropulmonaire dans 2 cas, résection de kystepleuro-péricardique dans 2 cas, cure de pneumothorax dans 2 cas et une fenêtre péricardique). L’évolution post opératoire etait marquée par une amélioration clinico-radiologique chez 40 malades, 11 ont présenté une amélioration clinique seule, 6 ont présenté une persistance ou une récidive de l’épanchement. Conclusion La thoracoscopie représente un réel gain en matière de diagnostic de certaines pathologies intra-thoraciques. Son intérêt thérapeutique limité doit être éventuellement étendu grâce à la chirurgie thoracique vidéo assistée, qui est une technique récente fiable

  8. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.c, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2012. Twenty National Measurement Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of valine present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.c. The comparison samples were prepared from analytical grade L-valine purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. Valine was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of low structural complexity [molecular weight range 100-300] and high polarity (pKOW > -2). The KCRV for the valine content of the material was 992.0 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.3 mg/g. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 1 mg/g to 6 mg/g when using mass balance based approaches alone, 2 mg/g to 7 mg/g using quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR) based approaches and from 1 mg/g to 2.5 mg/g when a result obtained by a mass balance method was combined with a separate qNMR result. The material provided several analytical challenges. In addition to the need to identify and quantify various related amino acid impurities including leucine, isoleucine, alanine and α-amino butyrate, care was required to select appropriate conditions for performing Karl Fischer titration assay for water content to avoid bias due to in situ formation of water by self-condensation under the assay conditions. It also proved to be a challenging compound for purity assignment by qNMR techniques

  9. Prise en charge en soins primaires des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool et de la consommation à risque

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir aux médecins de soins primaires de l’information et des conseils fondés sur des données probantes sur le dépistage et l’évaluation de la consommation d’alcool à risque et des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool (TUA). Sources des données Nous avons effectué une recherche documentaire non systématique en utilisant des expressions de recherche portant sur les soins primaires, les TUA, la dépendance à l’alcool, l’abus d’alcool, l’usage abusif d’alcool, la consommation d’alcool néfaste pour la santé, ainsi que le dépistage, la détermination et l’évaluation dans le contexte des soins primaires. Principaux messages Les médecins de famille devraient faire passer un test validé de dépistage de l’abus d’alcool à tous les patients, au moins une fois par année. Dépister les patients qui se présentent avec des problèmes médicaux ou psychosociaux pouvant être reliés à l’usage d’alcool. Déterminer si les patients qui obtiennent des résultats positifs lors du dépistage sont des consommateurs d’alcool à risque ou s’ils ont des TUA. Si les patients ont des TUA, déterminer si les troubles sont légers, modérés ou sévères en utilisant les critères de la 5e édition du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux. Communiquer le diagnostic aux patients et leur offrir de l’aide. Effectuer une évaluation plus approfondie des patients ayant des TUA. Procéder à un dépistage de la consommation d’autres substances, des troubles concomitants et des traumatismes. Déterminer s’il est nécessaire de rapporter le cas aux services de protection de l’enfance ou au ministère des Transports. Déterminer les besoins en matière de prise en charge médicale du sevrage alcoolique. Effectuer un bref examen physique et prescrire l’exécution de tests de laboratoire pour évaluer la formule sanguine complète et les taux de transaminases hépatiques, comprenant les

  10. Caractérisation spectrale et temporelle de l'émission X issue de l'interaction laser-agrégats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, C.; Fourment, C.; Harmand, M.; Jouin, H.; Micheau, S.; Peyrusse, O.; Pons, B.; Santos, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Les agrégats de gaz rares constituent un état de la matière intermédiaire entre les cibles solides massives et les atomes en phase gazeuse. Il a été démontré que les agrégats irradiés sont sources d'ions, d'électrons, de neutrons ainsi que de rayonnement allant du visible aux X durs. Cette source peut-être produite avec un taux de répétition élevé et a l'avantage de ne pas produire de débris, dommageables pour les optiques notamment, et de présenter une très forte conversion de l'énergie laser incidente. Nous nous intéressons au rayonnement X particulièrement, en le caractérisant en intensité, spectre et durée, comme préalable à toute application de cette source X et comme moyen privilégié d'étude de la physique des plasmas nanométriques chauds et denses. En collaboration avec l'INRS-Énergie (Varenne, Qc, Canada), nous avons mis en œuvre une caméra à balayage de fente dont la résolution temporelle est de 800 fs rms. En focalisant des impulsions laser courtes (30 fs 5 ps) et intenses (jusqu'à 1017 W/cm2) sur des agrégats d'argon dont le rayon varie de 15 à 30 nm, nous avons démontré que l'émission X dont l'énergie est supérieure à 2 keV est plus courte que 2 ps, limité par la résolution temporelle. En couplant la caméra à un cristal tronconique, dont la conception a été réalisée au LULI (Palaiseau, France), nous nous sommes intéressés au rayonnement de couche K dans la gamme 2,9 - 3,2 keV. Nous avons démontré que ce rayonnement a une durée inférieure à 3 ps (limite de la résolution temporelle), et que les raies étaient émises avec un écart relatif inférieur à 1 ps. Une simulation basée sur le modèle nano-plasma proposé par T. Ditmire et sur le code collisionnel-radiatif Transpec a été développée au CELIA. Les spectres X résolus en temps calculés reproduisent à la fois la brièveté d'émission du rayonnement X et les états de charge élevés observés.

  11. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

    2009-01-01

    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que

  12. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.b (aldrin): An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of aldrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Mesquida, Charline; Wielgosz, Robert; Rosso, Adriana; Ruiz de Arechavaleta, Mariana; Davies, Stephen; Wang, Hongjie; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; de Freitas Guimarães, Evelyn; Vinicius Barreto Sousa, Marcus; Monteiro, Tânia Maria; Alves das Neves Valente, Laura; Marques Violante, Fernando Gustavo; Rubim Ribeiro Almeida, Renato; Baptista Quaresma, Maria Cristina; Nogueira, Raquel; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Shao, Mingwu; Wei, Chao; Wong, Siu-kay; Cabillic, Julie; Gantois, Fanny; Philipp, Rosemarie; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Hein, Sebastian; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Castro, Esther; Gonzalez, Norma; Krylov, Anatoly; Tang Lin, Teo; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; Prévoo, D.; Archer, M.; Visser, R.; Nlhapo, N.; de Vos, B.; Ahn, Seonghee; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Wiangnon, Kanjana; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Muaksang, Kittiya; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Mine; LeGoff, Thierry; Bearden, Dan; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David; Hancock, Diane; Lang, Brian; Lippa, Katrice; Schantz, Michele; Sieber, John

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.b, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2010/2011. Nineteen national measurement institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of aldrin present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.b which consisted of technical grade aldrin obtained from the National Measurement Institute Australia that had been subject to serial recrystallization and drying prior to sub-division into the units supplied for the comparison. Aldrin was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molar mass range 300 Da to 500 Da] and low polarity (pKOW < -2) for which related structure impurities can be quantified by capillary gas phase chromatography (GC). The key comparison reference value (KCRV) for the aldrin content of the material was 950.8 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.85 mg/g. The KCRV was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned by consensus from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 0.3% to 0.6% using a mass balance approach and 0.5% to 1% using a qNMR method. The major analytical challenge posed by the material proved to be the detection and quantification of a significant amount of oligomeric organic material within the sample and most participants relying on a mass balance approach displayed a positive bias relative to the KCRV (overestimation of aldrin content) in excess of 10 mg/g due to not having adequate procedures in place to detect and quantify the non-volatile content—specifically the non-volatile organics content—of the comparison sample. There

  13. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  14. Recent sedimentary study of the shelf of the Basque country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.; Champilou, N.; Cirac, P.; Muxika, I.; Borja, A.; Pascual, A.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Donard, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Northern Iberian margin of the Spanish Basque country (provinces of Gipuzkoa and Viscaia) is characterized by a narrow continental platform, which receives inputs of riverine particulate matter from the numerous riverine systems located within the Basque country. This particulate matter is subsequently deposited within the Bay of Biscay, and Gouf de Capbreton [Frouin, R., Fiuza, A.F.G., Ambar, I., Boyd, T.J., 1990. Observations of a poleward surface current off the coasts of Portugal and Spain during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (C1), 679-691]. The main goal of this study is to establish a map of the surface sediment distribution of the Basque continental shelf and more specifically to map the muddy patch located at the eastern side of that continental shelf. Three oceanographic cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2004. From these campaigns 340 surface samples, 12 short cores and 3 gravity cores have been collected over the mid and outer shelf from depths ranging between 50 m and 150 m deep. 3 seismic profiles were obtained across the shelf mud patch using a Sparker device. Sediment grain-size analyses were performed by the classical physical method of sieving and use of settling columns. The POC (Particular Organic Carbon) amounts in sediment and water samples were determined using the Strickland and Parsons' method [Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., 1972. Determination of particulate carbon. In : A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries ResearchBoard of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 207-211] as adapted by Etcheber [Etcheber, H., 1981. Comparaison des diverses méthodes d'évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain. Journal de Recherche Océanographique VI (2), 37-42]. Radioisotopic measurements ( 210Pb exc) were made using a semi-planar germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Radiographical analysis was performed with an X-ray equipment

  15. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  16. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K81: Chloramphenicol in pig muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzer, Joachim; Henrion, Andre; Gowik, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM-K81 'Chloramphenicol in pig muscle', was coordinated by BVL and PTB in 2009/2010. Six NMIs/DIs participated in this comparison. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic which can in principle be used for the treatment of humans and animals. Its use for the treatment of food-producing animals is, however, forbidden worldwide in many countries due to potential severe side effects. The key comparison was the follow-up to the successful pilot study 'CCQM-P90: chloramphenicol in milk'. With this key comparison it was intended to demonstrate the capability of NMIs/DIs to analyse traces of CAP in food at concentration levels resulting from legal requirements for food control. Additionally, the quality of this kind of analysis with respect to compliance with legal requirements for food control methods and the international comparability of measurements should be evaluated in general. The study was classified as a 'track C' study (studies in emerging areas of global interest). For the study incurred lyophilised pig muscle material containing CAP (at a mass-fraction level around the maximum allowable level for import for a number of countries) has been produced as a candidate reference material by BVL and IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, JRC of the European Commission). Animal treatment and slaughtering of the animal to gain incurred muscle material as well as pre-testing of the CAP content was done at the BVL. The IRMM did further processing of the material and testing of homogeneity and stability. Participants were invited to assign the mass fraction of free CAP in the comparison sample. CCQM-K81 demonstrated successfully the capability of the participating laboratories to assign chloramphenicol values in tissue down to residue levels of around 0.3 ng/g (referring to the

  17. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait plus ??lev??e chez les oiseaux immatures (< 1 an) que chez les oiseaux adultes (> 1 an). Les concentrations m??dianes de base sont demeur??es plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les immatures durant tout l'automne et tout l'hiver. Nous avons ??galement constat?? que plus de m??les immatures que de femelles immatures avaient des concentrations ??lev??es de plomb. Les taux plus ??lev??s d'ingestion de nourriture et de mati??res min??rales (y compris des plombs de chasse) expliquent probablement en partie la pr??sence de concentrations ??lev??es de plomb chez les Bernaches du Canada immatures.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    project ever undertaken, is discussed. Since World War II support from governments for physics has increased enormously, but the fortunes of many physicists have remained entwined with the military establishment and many others now work within megaprojects such as CERN. At the end of the century the numbers of physicists and of papers published have grown a hundred-fold, and funding by an even larger factor. Other aspects have changed less. Physics is still male-dominated and largely a North American and European enterprise. Latterly there has been some reduction in support. Physics, along with the rest of science, has also been under attack for the problems it has created. The beginning of the twenty-first century promises to be as interesting for physics as recent decades have been. Comparison with the other recent work in this field, the three-volume Twentieth Century Physics edited by Laurie Brown, Abraham Pais and Brian Pippard (Institute of Physics Publishing and American Institute of Physics Press, 1995), is unavoidable. They fill different niches. Twentieth Century Physics is a massive and expensive work by some 30 leading physicists, destined mainly for the shelves of academic libraries. Quantum Generations is a book by a professional historian covering much of the same physics, albeit more briefly, but written with a broader sweep that takes in more of the political and cultural milieu within which the physicists worked. References are given sparingly so as not to break up the text, but there are suggestions for further reading for each chapter, and there is an extensive bibliography. It is not a book for those with no background at all in physics - there are too many equations of nuclear reactions for that, and in any case such a book would be a superficial thing. Even many physicists will find some of the more esoteric ideas, such as the grand unified theories and superstring theory, heavy going. It is, however, accessible to a wide readership, and a book that

  19. Sources de photons uniques et expérience à choix retardé de Wheeler : la dualité onde corpuscule à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, V.

    Young's double-slit experiment realized with particles sent one at a time through an interferometer is at the heart of quantum mechanics. The striking feature is that the phenomenon of interference, interpreted as a wave following simultaneously two paths, is incompatible with our common sense representation of a particle following one route or the other but not both. The work described in this book is dedicated to the study of wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's biprism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. In such experiment, the choice either to observe interference fringes, obviously associated to a wave-like behavior, or to know which path of the interferometer has been followed, according to a particle-like behavior, is made whereas the photon has already entered into the interferometer. Furthermore, the choice is made by a quantum random number generator and is relativistically separated from the entering of the photon into the interferometer. The results of that experiment show once again that no classical physical reality can be attributed to the photon independent of the measurement apparatus, as stated by the complementarity principle. La théorie quantique nécessite de renoncer à certaines images classiques héritées du sens commun. Elle stipule en particulier une description duale de la lumière et de la matière, présentant simultanément les propriétés d'une onde et d'une particule et conduisant ainsi à des repr

  20. Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, F.

    2003-03-01

    régime quantique à très basse température. Le refroidissement est obtenu par évaporation du ^7Li dans un piège magnétique très confinant. Puisque le refroidissement évaporatif d'un gaz de fermion polarisé est impossible, le ^6Li est refroidi sympathiquement par contact thermique avec le ^7Li. Dans une première série d'expériences, les propriétés des gaz quantiques dans les états hyperfins les plus élevés, piégés magnétiquement, sont étudiées. Un gaz de 10^5 fermions a une température de 0,25(5) fois la température de Fermi (T_F) est obtenu. L'instabilité du condensat pour plus de 300 atomes condensés, à cause des interactions attractives, limite la dégénérescence que l'on peut atteindre. Pour s'affranchir de cette limite, une autre série d'expérience est menée dans les états hyperfins bas, piégeable magnétiquement, où les interactions entre bosons sont faiblement répulsives. Les collisions inter-isotopiques permettent alors la thermalisation du mélange. Le mélange d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein (CBE) de ^7Li et d'un mer de Fermi de ^6Li est produit. Le condensat est quasi unidimensionnel et la fraction thermique peut être négligeable. La dégénérescence atteinte correspond à T/T_C=T/T_F=0{,}2(1). La température est mesurée à partir de la fraction thermique des bosons qui disparaît aux plus basses températures, et limite notre précision de mesure. Dans une troisième série d'expérience, les bosons sont transférés dans un piège optique, et placé dans l'état interne |F=1,m_F=1rangle, l'état fondamental pour les bosons. Une résonance de Feshbach est repérée puis exploitée pour former un condensai où les interactions sont ajustables. Quand les interactions effectives entre les atomes sont attractives, on observe la formation d'un soliton brillant de matière. La propagation de ce soliton sans dispersion sur une distance de 1{,}1 mm est observée.

  1. Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

    Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivi

  2. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    écialisés dans cette nouvelle discipline sont employés dans le système de santé de district depuis 2011. L'objet de cette étude était d‘étudier les perceptions des gestionnaires de district sur l'impact que les des médecins de famille avaient sur les processus cliniques, la performance du système de santé et les résultats des systèmes de santé des districts (DHS) du Western Cape. Méthodes: On a effectué neuf entrevues approfondies: sept avec les gestionnaires de district et deux avec les directeurs principaux du DHS rural et métropolitain. On a enregistré, transcrit et analysé les entrevues en utilisant ATLAS-ti et la méthode de structure. Résultats: Il y a eu un effet positif sur les processus cliniques du VIH et/ou du SIDA, la Tuberculose, le traumatisme, les maladies chroniques non-contagieuses, la santé mentale, et la santé de la mère et de l'enfant. La performance du système de santé a été positivement affectée en termes d'accès, coordination, exhaustivité et efficacité. On s'attendait à un impact sur les résultats en matière de santé. L'impact n’était pas uniforme dans toute la province en raison du nombre différent de médecins de famille et des différentes capacités à fonctionner de manière optimale. On avait aussi l'impression que l'impact positif des médecins de famille en était aux premiers stades de développement. Les effets inattendus comprenaient leurs inquiétudes d'avoir à gérer et à former les étudiants, ainsi que les tensions avec les médecins de carrière. Conclusion: Les premiers commentaires des directeurs de district indiquent que quand on emploie des médecins de famille qui ont la possibilité de fonctionner d'une manière optimale, ils ont un impact important sur la performance du système de santé et la qualité du proces

  3. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    techniques, ont aidé à l' élucidation des élucider les mécanismes d'écoulement et de transport dans les systèmes d'eaux souterraines, et à la compréhension des archives informations paléo-environnementales. Les informations hydrochimiques et isotopiques peuvent être utilisées pour interpréter l'origine et le mode de recharge des eaux souterraines, affiner l'estimation des temps de recharge et d' écoulements, déchiffrer les processus de réaction, apporter une meilleure information paléohydrogéologique et calibrer les modèles d'écoulement des eaux souterraines. Beaucoup de progrès ont besoin d'être réalisés pour obtenir des échantillons représentatifs. Des améliorations sont nécessaires dans l'interprétation des informations obtenues, et dans la construction et l'interprétation de modèles numériques utilisant des données hydrochimiques. La meilleure approches arsurément un processus itératif optimisé entre la collection de données de terrain et l'analyse, l'interprétation, et l'application d'outils de modélisation statistique, inverse et direct. Des avancées sont anticipées par les dans le demeine des études microbiologiques, dans la caractérisation des matières organiques naturelles, le marquage isotopique, les mesures de gaz dissous, les réactions cinétiques la compréhension des couplages. Une perspectives thermodynamique pourraient faciliter la comparaison et la compréhension des multiples processus physiques, chimiques et biologiques qui affectent les systèmes hydrogéologiques. La geoquímica ha contribuido significativamente al entendimiento de los sistemas de aguas subterráneas durante los últimos 50 años. Entre los avances históricos puede incluirse el desarrollo del concento de facies hidroquímicas, la aplicación de la teoría de equilibrio, investigación de los procesos oxidación-reducción, y datación con radiocarbono. Otros conceptos, herramientas y técnicas hidroquímicas han ayudado a esclarecer los

  4. Hydrography and silica budget of the Angola Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bennekom, A. J.; Berger, G. W.

    la matière en suspension dans la partie côtière du canyon. Une coupe des salinités à travers la totalité des Bassins de la Guinée et de l'Angola montre une fois de plus l'influence prédominante de l'eau profonde nord-atlantique (NADW). Les eaux du fond du Bassin de l'Angola contiennent 20-30% d'eau profonde antarctique (AABW). Les deux NADW et AABW sont amenés à travers les zônes de fracture de Romanche et Chain; des eaux froides, riche en AABW, amenées à travers du Walvis Passage, ne s'étendent que jusquà 30°S. Les sédiments silicieux dans le Bassin de la Guinée et le partie NE du Bassin de l'Angola ont des concentrations interstitielles en silice dissoute de 300-400 μmol·1 -1 et un flux diffusif montant de 3,5 μmol·cm -2·a -1; les sédiments calcaires des parties sud et ouest de Bassin de l'Angola ont 80-110 μmol·1 -1 et 0,21-1 μmol·cm -2·a -1. Les flux diffusif montant ne peut pas expliquer le maximum prononcé dans l'exces en silice dissoute, trouvé à 2000 m du fond, à partir des graphes salinité-silicate. L'intrusion récente d'une masse d'eau du fond, contenant rélativement peu de silice dissoute est suggeré comme explication alternative, conformément à la distribution de 14C. Le bilan de la silice dans l'extérieur de l'éventail sédimentaire profond montre que presque la totalité des squelettes silicieux sont dissolues dans les 50 m supérieures; environ 6% arrivent au fond et seulement 2% s'enterrent. Dans la partie intérieure de l'éventail, presque la moitié de la silice biogène produit dans le panache, arrive au fond et 20% s'enterrent. Des quantités très élevées de l'aluminium dans les squelettes siliceux avancent leur préservation.

  5. Long-term immigrant adaptation: eight-year follow-up study among immigrants from Russia and Estonia living in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2008-02-01

    panel. Les 282 répondants étaient des immigrés en Finland provenant de l'ancienne Union Soviétique nés entre 1961 et 1976. Les résultats suggèrent que l'adaptation de ces immigrants s'est développée favorablement. En huit ans, les répondants avaient amélioré leurs habiletés en finlandais sur le marché de travail. Aucune différence n'a été observée dans leurs niveaux de bien-être psychologique entre les deux évaluations. Parmi les trois dimensions de l'adaptation évaluées, l'adaptation socio-culturelle telle que mesurée par la capacité de comprendre, de parler, de lire et d'écrire le finlandais s'est avérée être le prédicteur le plus significatif des deux autres résultats à long-terme de l'adaptation de l'immigré (i.e., socio-économique et psychologique). Particulièrement, meilleure avait été la connaissance initiale du finlandais, meilleurs étaient leurs résultats de l'adaptation socio-économiques et psychologiques après 8 ans de résidence. Ces résultats démontrent l'importance des évaluations parallèles et longitudinales de différents résultats de l'adaptation de l'immigré pour mieux étudier quelles dimensions particulières de l'adaptation sont les plus critiques au début de l'acculturation en matière de la détermination du développement positif et de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré. El estudio consistió en una investigación longitudinal sobre tres diferentes dimensiones de adaptación de inmigrantes a largo plazo (i.e. adaptación psicológica, sociocultural, socioeconómica) y la relación entre ellas en 8 años de seguimiento con los datos de grupo. Los 282 encuestados fueron inmigrantes en Finlandia procedentes de los países de la antigua Union Sovietica, nacidos entre 1961 y 1976. Los resultados sugieren que la adaptación de estos inmigrantes se desarrolló favorablemente. En ocho años, los encuestados han mejorado sus conocimientos del idioma finlandes y su posición en el mercado laboral. No se

  6. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  7. Rainforest Pharmacopeia in Madagascar Provides High Value for Current Local and Prospective Global Uses

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Christopher D.; Rasolofoniaina, B. J. Rodolph; Anjaranirina, E. J. Gasta; Nicolas, Lilien; Ravaoliny, Laurent; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    tropical forests for sustainable use. Botanique de la diversité apporte de la valeur à l’homme par la séquestration du carbone, de l’air et de purification de l’eau, et le provisionnement des aliments sauvages et ethnomedicines. Ici, nous calculons la valeur de ethnomedicines botaniques dans une région de forêt de Madagascar, la zone protégée de Makira, en utilisant une méthode de substitution qui combine les coûts de remplacement et la modélisation des choix. Le bassin versant de Makira peut comprendre environ 0,8% de la diversité botanique mondiale et possède une valeur énorme à la fois dans sa capacité à fournir ethnomedicines botaniques à la population locale et en tant que source de nouveaux médicaments potentiellement pharmaceutiques pour la société dans son ensemble. Environ 241 espèces localement reconnus sont utilisés comme ethnomedicines, y compris 113 espèces d’agricoles ou de mauvaises herbes. Nous assimilé chaque traitement ethnomédicales à la valeur monétaire d’un traitement comparable pharmaceutique ajusté en fonction des préférences personnelles en matière d’efficacité perçue (plutôt que de l’équivalence médicament connu ou supposé). La valeur de l’avantage de ces ethnomedicines botaniques par individu est de $5,40 à 7.90 par année lors de l’utilisation de la valeur des produits pharmaceutiques malgaches fortement subventionnés et de $100,60 à 287,40 lors de l’utilisation de la valeur des produits pharmaceutiques américains. Utilisation de produits pharmaceutiques locales comme des substituts, la valeur par ménage est de $30.24 à 44.30 par an, équivalent à 43–63% du revenu médian des ménages annuelle, ce qui démontre leur importance locale. Utilisation de la valeur des produits pharmaceutiques

  8. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SULTATS La prévalence globale des fumeurs actuels est de 28,1%. Près de la moitié des personnes âgées ont fumé à un moment quelconque dans leur vie et parmi celles-ci, 44% ont cessé de fumer. Les personnes âgées ont cessé de fumer lorsqu’elles en ont perçu les effets négatifs sur la santé. Le fait d’avoir au moins une maladie chronique et de souffrir d’une incapacité fonctionnelle ont augmenté d’une façon significative les chances d’arrêt du tabagisme. De plus, le fait d’être un ancien fumeur a augmenté le risque d’admission hospitalière. CONCLUSIONS Cette étude est d’une importance particulière car ses implications s’élargissent à des collectivités à faibles revenus similaires et chez les réfugiés dans la région ainsi qu’ailleurs. Il est nécessaire que les responsables de la santé publique fassent un effort plus concerté pour cibler les personnes âgées comme groupe en vue d’interventions d’arrêt du tabagisme, d’autant plus que les avantages en matière de mortalité et de santé ont aujourd’hui été bien documentés. RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Investigar los tipos de hábito tabáquico en una población de personas ancianas, de bajos ingresos y determinar los factores pronósticos del abandono del hábito. Asimismo, se analizó la importancia del tabaquismo en relación con otros factores de riesgo de hospitalización. DISEÑO Los datos formaban parte de un estudio de salud urbana de 740 personas de ≥60 años de edad, en tres comunidades suburbanas de bajo estrato socioeconómico en Beirut, una de las cuales era un campo de refugiados. Se administró una entrevista estructurad

  9. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörgen Stevefelt, Henri Bachau Et

    2003-06-01

    'impulsions attosecondes qui permettra d'explorer la matière à l'echelle de temps atomique. En même temps la caractérisation de ces impulsions nécessite la conception de techniques nouvelles d'analyse du signal aux temps ultra brefs.L'intéret particulier du colloque UVX est de réunir les communautés de scientifiques qui vont des chercheurs s'intéressant aux processus fondamentaux à ceux travaillant dans les domaines les plus appliqués, voire industriels. Une caractéristique marquante de notre discipline est la rapidité avec laquelle les progrès réalisés dans les laboratoires de recherche sont diffusés vers les applications industrielles. Il est donc important de maintenir un bon équilibre entre les recherches a caractères fondamental et appliqué dans les laboratoires.Nous tenons remercier les membres du comité d'organisation, le comité scientifique et les différents partenaires, institutionnels et industriels, qui par leur soutien ont permis que le colloque UVX puisse se dérouler. Ce colloque a été parrainé par les départements des Sciences Physiques et Mathématiques (SPM) et des Sciences pour l'Ingénieur (SPI) du CNRS, la Délégation Générale de l'Armement (DGA), le CEA DRECAM, le CEA DAM, le Conseil Géneral de Charente Maritime, l'Université de Bordeaux I, la Société Française d'optique, le Groupement de Recherche “SAXO" du CNRS et la société Air Liquide.

  10. Contributions de la geographie et de la modelisation predictive a une etude de potentiel archeologique prehistorique en Gaspesie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc

    La Gaspésie, région péninsulaire à l'extrême est du Québec, possède un héritage archéologique préhistorique riche qui s'étend de 9 000 ans jusqu'à 450 ans avant aujourd'hui. L'archéologie a livré de nombreux sites préhistoriques dans la région, surtout dans le nord de la péninsule, un constat en partie attribuable à la présence de sources de matières premières lithiques, d'axes de circulation potentielles, mais aussi à la répartition spatiale inégale des efforts de recherche. L'étude du potentiel archéologique préhistorique gaspésien, c'est la première étape de la démarche archéologique, est donc nécessaire pour orienter les travaux futurs dans cette région. Trois secteurs représentatifs de la Gaspésie ont été étudiés pour développer une nouvelle approche d'étude de potentiel : Sainte-Anne-des-Monts, le lac Sainte-Anne et New Richmond. Ensemble, ces secteurs s'étirent au travers de la péninsule sur un axe nord-sud et correspondent à un possible axe de circulation préhistorique. L'évaluation du potentiel archéologique de ces aires d'étude dépend notamment de contexte géographique gaspésien. Celui-ci est complexe, particulièrement depuis la déglaciation qui a engendré une succession de transformations du paysage. Les variations du niveau marin relatif, le passage de la toundra à un milieu forestier et d'autres changements environnementaux ont conditionné la façon dont les populations préhistoriques se sont adaptées au territoire. L'étude de potentiel dépend également des connaissances archéologiques existantes pour la région, car elles conditionnent la sélection de variables environnementales représentatives des sites connus. À partir de la confrontation des données géographiques et archéologiques, nous avons proposé des schèmes d'établissement pour les périodes chronoculturelles de la préhistoire gaspésienne. Ces patrons informationnels permettent d'illustrer la façon dont les populations

  11. The significance of microbial processes in hydrogeology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Francis H.

    Microbial processes affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the hydraulic properties of aquifers in both contaminated and pristine groundwater systems. The patterns of water-chemistry changes that occur depend upon the relative abundance of electron donors and electron acceptors. In many pristine aquifers, where microbial metabolism is limited by the availability of electron donors (usually organic matter), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulates slowly along aquifer flow paths and available electron acceptors are consumed sequentially in the order dissolved oxygen >nitrate>Fe(III)>sulfate>CO2 (methanogenesis). In aquifers contaminated by anthropogenic contaminants, an excess of available organic carbon often exists, and microbial metabolism is limited by the availability of electron acceptors. In addition to changes in groundwater chemistry, the solid matrix of the aquifer is affected by microbial processes. The production of carbon dioxide and organic acids can lead to increased mineral solubility, which can lead to the development of secondary porosity and permeability. Conversely, microbial production of carbonate, ferrous iron, and sulfide can result in the precipitation of secondary calcite or pyrite cements that reduce primary porosity and permeability in groundwater systems. Les processus microbiologiques peuvent affecter la composition chimique de l'eau souterraine et les propriétés hydrauliques des nappes aussi bien dans les systèmes aquifères pollués que dans les systèmes indemnes de pollution. Les changements de chimisme des eaux qui se produisent dépendent de l'abondance relative des donneurs et des accepteurs d'électrons. Dans les aquifères non contaminés, où le métabolisme microbien est limité par la disponibilité des donneurs d'électrons (en général la matière organique), le carbone minéral dissous (CMD) s'accumule lentement le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et les accepteurs d'électrons disponibles sont

  12. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    que des pratiques forestières non coordonnées sont susceptibles d'exacerber les crues. La recharge des nappes est affectée par la foresterie, surtout à cause de prélèvements plus importants de l'eau du sol par les arbres et à cause de la capacité accrue des sols forestiers à retenir de l'eau, conduisant à de plus fortes teneurs en matières organiques. Les taux de recharge sous les forêts peuvent être réduits d'un dixième par rapport à la prairie ou à la lande. La qualité de l'eau souterraine peut être affectée par une acidification accrue et par une nitrification sous les forêts, provoquées pour une part par une fixation des polluants atmosphériques par le couvert forestier et pour une autre part par un dépôt plus important d'une litière plus fortement acide. Les taux de recharge plus lente des nappes sous les forêts conduisent à des retards importants dans la manifestation de la détérioration de la qualité de l'eau souterraine. Resumen. Se han iniciado los planes para duplicar la proporción de terrenos reforestados en Irlanda hacia el año 2035. El plan, impulsado por fines económicos, ignora los impactos potenciales medioambientales de la silvicultura, y, en particular, los impactos a los recursos de aguas subterráneas y a su calidad. Puesto que el 25 % del agua potable en Irlanda es suministrada por medio de aguas subterráneas, dichos impactos son importantes. Las investigaciones de campo indican que la reforestación lleva a una reducción de la escorrentía de hasta un 20 %, fundamentalmente por la interceptación de la lluvia en las copas de los árboles, mientras que la deforestación tiene el impacto opuesto. Las implicaciones son tales que las prácticas forestales descoordinadas pueden aumentar enormemente el riesgo de inundaciones. También la recarga a los acuíferos se ve afectada por la reforestación, debido, sobre todo, al uso del agua del suelo por los árboles y a la mayor capacidad de retención de los suelos en

  13. Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

    2000-09-01

    de l'aquifère plus profond, ce qui aura, à long terme, des implications sur la qualité de l'eau. Les résultats fournis par des forages carottés et des piézomètres peu profonds sont présentés. La combinaison entre une concentration élevée en matières organiques, provenant de la recharge par les eaux usées domestiques, et la faible profondeur de la nappe a produit des conditions fortement réductrices dans le niveau supérieur et une mobilisation de l'arsenic. Un modèle analytique simple montre que les échelles de temps pour la drainance vers le bas, à partir de la surface au travers de l'imperméable supérieur vers l'aquifère semi-captif, sont de l'ordre de quelques dizaines d'années. Resumen. Muchas ciudades en el sur y sudeste de Asia carecen de sistemas de saneamiento, por lo que las aguas residuales urbanas son a menudo vertidas bien directamente al suelo o bien a canales de aguas superficiales. Esta práctica puede provocar la contaminación difusa de las aguas subterráneas someras. En Hat Yai, al sur de Tailandia, la percolación de aguas residuales urbanas ha producido un deterioro substancial de la calidad del acuífero somero sobre el que se sitúa la ciudad. Por ello, la mayor parte del suministro de agua potable se obtiene a partir de aguas subterráneas de acuíferos semiconfinados más profundos, localizados entre 30 y 50 m bajo la superficie. No obstante, el goteo desde el acuífero freático constituye una fracción importante de la recarga al acuífero profundo, hecho que tiene implicaciones en lo que respecta a la calidad del agua a largo plazo. Se presentan en este artículo los resultados de testigos de sondeos y de multi-piezómetros someros. El alto contenido en materia orgánica de las aguas urbanas, unido a la cercanía del nivel freático, ha producido la movilización de arsénico al crearse condiciones altamente reductoras. Un modelo matemático sencillo indica que el tiempo de tránsito desde la superficie hasta el acu

  14. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    ée de canal de marée est étudiée. L'évolution hydrochimique de la lentille d'eau douce est reconstituée, révélant que les principales réactions chimiques sont l'échange de cations, la dissolution de calcite et l'oxydation de matières organiques. La formation et l'évolution de la lentille d'eau douce sont modélisées en recourant à un modèle en deux dimensions de transport de soluté dépendant de la densité la sensibilité au drainage et les conductivités sont étudiées. Le niveau du drainage influence surtout la profondeur de la lentille d'eau douce, alors que le temps de formation de la lentille est surtout influencé par la conductivité. Resumen. La distribución de las aguas dulces y salinas en acuíferos costeros está influenciada por muchos procesos. Se ilustra la influencia de la heterogeneidad del medio y de la interferencia humana mediante acciones tales como la recuperación de terrenos en la llanura costera belga, donde, hacia el año 1200 D.C., se aprovechó un medio sometido a fluctuaciones mareales. La salinidad del acuífero, que fue invadido por agua salada, está siendo rebajada desde entonces. La distribución espacial de turba, arcilla, limo y arena influencia el flujo general y la distribución de agua dulce y salina, además de afectar el esquema de drenaje, y origina el desarrollo de lentejones de agua dulce. Se inspecciona la calidad del agua en y en torno a los lentejones de agua dulce bajo la cresta de un canal mareal invertido. Se reconstruye la evolución hidroquímica de los lentejones de agua dulce, proponiendo como reacciones principales el intercambio catiónico, la disolución de calcita y la oxidación de materia orgánica. Se modela la formación y evolución de los lentejones mediante un modelo bidimensional de transporte con densidad variable, y se estudia la sensibilidad del drenaje y de las conductividades. El nivel de drenaje influencia sobretodo la profundidad de los lentejones de agua dulce, mientras el tiempo

  15. The significance of microbial processes in hydrogeology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Francis H.

    Microbial processes affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the hydraulic properties of aquifers in both contaminated and pristine groundwater systems. The patterns of water-chemistry changes that occur depend upon the relative abundance of electron donors and electron acceptors. In many pristine aquifers, where microbial metabolism is limited by the availability of electron donors (usually organic matter), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulates slowly along aquifer flow paths and available electron acceptors are consumed sequentially in the order dissolved oxygen >nitrate>Fe(III)>sulfate>CO2 (methanogenesis). In aquifers contaminated by anthropogenic contaminants, an excess of available organic carbon often exists, and microbial metabolism is limited by the availability of electron acceptors. In addition to changes in groundwater chemistry, the solid matrix of the aquifer is affected by microbial processes. The production of carbon dioxide and organic acids can lead to increased mineral solubility, which can lead to the development of secondary porosity and permeability. Conversely, microbial production of carbonate, ferrous iron, and sulfide can result in the precipitation of secondary calcite or pyrite cements that reduce primary porosity and permeability in groundwater systems. Les processus microbiologiques peuvent affecter la composition chimique de l'eau souterraine et les propriétés hydrauliques des nappes aussi bien dans les systèmes aquifères pollués que dans les systèmes indemnes de pollution. Les changements de chimisme des eaux qui se produisent dépendent de l'abondance relative des donneurs et des accepteurs d'électrons. Dans les aquifères non contaminés, où le métabolisme microbien est limité par la disponibilité des donneurs d'électrons (en général la matière organique), le carbone minéral dissous (CMD) s'accumule lentement le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et les accepteurs d'électrons disponibles sont

  16. Le don après un décès d'origine cardiocirculatoire au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shemie, Sam D.; Baker, Andrew J.; Knoll, Greg; Wall, William; Rocker, Graeme; Howes, Daniel; Davidson, Janet; Pagliarello, Joe; Chambers-Evans, Jane; Cockfield, Sandra; Farrell, Catherine; Glannon, Walter; Gourlay, William; Grant, David; Langevin, Stéphan; Wheelock, Brian; Young, Kimberly; Dossetor, John

    2006-01-01

    engagement des intervenants, mécanismes d'assurance de la sécurité et de la qualité et information du public. Il est recommandé de commencer par un program de DDC contrôlé à l'unité de soins intensifs où, après une décision par consentement mutuel de cesser le traitement de maintien des fonctions vitales, la mort est attendue, mais n'est pas survenue, ce qui rend possible des discussions non précipitées sur le consentement. Un don non contrôlé, en cas de décès après un arrêt cardiaque non prévu, doit être envisagé seulement une fois que le program de DDC contrôlé a été établi. Bien qu'il soit recommandé de restreindre le programme initial au don de reins, le don d'autres organes peut aussi être envisagé selon l'expertise régionale en matière de transplantation. Les répercussions d'un DDC, y compris les interventions pratiquées avant et après le décès, sur la famille du donneur, la disponibilité des organes, la fonction du greffon et la survie du receveur doivent être documentées de façon méthodique et examinées.

  17. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  18. Chemical response to groundwater extraction southeast of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizar-Alvarez, R.; Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Ángeles-Serrano, G.; Hergt, T.; Cardona, A.

    procédure a été appliquée pour caractériser le système d'écoulement souterraine et sa source, les conditions hydrauliques de l'aquifère et la réponse hydraulique des puits considéré. L'analyse de cette information suggérer la présence des systèmes d'écoulement suivantes. (i) local avec18 et 19.5 °C de température, RS de 127-600 mg/L, et Na de 24-178 mg/L, (ii) intermédiaire avec une température de 20 á 22 °C, le RS de 203-940 mg/L et Na 30-370 mg/L, (iii) régional avec 300 à 700 mg/L de RS et 80 à 230 mg/L de Na, une température de 23 à 24.8 °C. Dans le premier cas, l'eau traverse des roches basaltiques, dans le deuxième, des sédiments clastiques avec matière organique de l'aquitard, dans le troisième, des roches volcaniques et calcaires. La chimie de l'eau des quelques puits et sa réponse hydraulique met en évidence l'influence de l'eau de L'aquitard, des effluents de surface et écoulement régional. La conception du régime d'écoulement obtenu, a permis reconnaître les conditions hydrauliques des puits plus correspondantes au contexte hydrogéologique, que si uniquement les données rabattement vs temps auraient été analysé La interpretación conjunta de la gráfica de prueba de bombeo, valores de temperatura y sólidos totales disueltos (STD) del agua subterránea extraída, medidos simultáneamente en campo y la composición química del agua extraída como apoyo adicional; se utilizó como un procedimiento alternativo para interpretar los datos de pruebas de bombeo. Toda esa información fue aplicada para caracterizar el sistema de flujo subterráneo y el origen de éste, las condiciones hidráulicas del acuífero y la respuesta hidráulica de los pozos de extracción. El análisis de la información indica la presencia de: (i) flujo local con temperatura de 18-19.5 °C, STD de 127-600, y Na de 24-178 mg/L (ii) flujo intermedio con temperatura de 20-22 °C, los STD y Na son de (203-940 y 30-370 mg/L), respectivamente; (iii

  19. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    èle d'accrétion autour d'un trou noir massif a alors été implementé dans le code d'évolution des galaxies. Ce modèle sera opérationnel au début de l'automne et fera des prédictions sur l'évolution de la fonction de luminosité des quasars, leur connexion aux galaxies Seyfert et aux starbursts, leur durée de vie et leur pourcentage dans les différent types de galaxies. Le grand intérêt du modèle sera la sortie, en même temps, d'une fonction de luminosité pour les quasars et de l'histoire du taux de formation stellaire, deux phénomènes qui pourront être étudiés simultanément. Par ailleurs, j'ai développé un modèle analytique basé sur les instabilités des disques d'accrétion, en collaboration avec A. Siemiginowska et M. Elvis du CfA, Cambridge, USA, donnant des résultats satisfaisants sur la fonction de luminosité des quasars à grand redshift. L'hypothèse d'une relation linéaire entre les masses du trou noir central et du halo de matière noire qui l'héberge a été rejetée. Le même modèle impose des contraintes sur la valeur de l'exposant du spectre de puissance primordial, P(k), qui décrit les fluctuations primordiales.

  20. Environnement des Systèmes Binaires Jeunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, Gaspard

    2000-07-01

    %. Dans les amas les plus denses, cette fraction peut ensuite être rapidement réduite du fait des nombreuses interactions gravitationnelles destructrices entre systèmes proches. D'autres interprétations restent toutefois envisageables. Je m'intéresse ensuite au phénomène d'accrétion dans les binaires T Tauri par la spectroscopie visible des composantes de ces systèmes. Cette approche révèle que le phénomène d'accrétion perdure aussi longtemps sur les deux composantes d'une même binaire. De plus, la comparaison des luminosités émises dans la raie H? montre que le primaire présente généralement le taux d'accrétion le plus élevé. Une interprétation possible de ces observations est que ces binaires possèdent des réservoirs circumbinaires de matière, probablement sous la forme d'une vaste enveloppe, qui alimentent simultanément les deux disques circumstellaires. Enfin, je présente des images à haute résolution angulaire des disques circumbinaires de GG Tau et UY Aur et des disques circumstellaires de HK Tau B et HV Tau C. Ces observations, obtenues dans le visible, le proche infrarouge et le domaine radio, permettent une description fine de l'environnement de ces binaires. Je détaille également l'analyse de cartes de polarisation des deux disques circumbinaires obtenues à 1 micron. Afin de déterminer les propriétés géométriques de ces disques et celles des grains de poussière qui s'y trouvent, j'ai entrepris une modélisation de la diffusion multiple de la lumière en utilisant une approche Monte-Carlo. Cette étude indique que l'anneau circumbinaire de GG Tau est géométriquement épais (avec un rapport d'aspect h/r~0.18), qu'il comporte des grains de poussière très petits (<1 micron) et que la masse totale de poussière dans l'anneau est au moins 10-3 masses solaires. L'environnement de UY Aur apparaît beaucoup plus complexe que celui de GG Tau: le disque circumbinaire, dont l'inclinaison est ré-évaluée à environ 60 degr

  1. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    techniques, ont aidé à l' élucidation des élucider les mécanismes d'écoulement et de transport dans les systèmes d'eaux souterraines, et à la compréhension des archives informations paléo-environnementales. Les informations hydrochimiques et isotopiques peuvent être utilisées pour interpréter l'origine et le mode de recharge des eaux souterraines, affiner l'estimation des temps de recharge et d' écoulements, déchiffrer les processus de réaction, apporter une meilleure information paléohydrogéologique et calibrer les modèles d'écoulement des eaux souterraines. Beaucoup de progrès ont besoin d'être réalisés pour obtenir des échantillons représentatifs. Des améliorations sont nécessaires dans l'interprétation des informations obtenues, et dans la construction et l'interprétation de modèles numériques utilisant des données hydrochimiques. La meilleure approches arsurément un processus itératif optimisé entre la collection de données de terrain et l'analyse, l'interprétation, et l'application d'outils de modélisation statistique, inverse et direct. Des avancées sont anticipées par les dans le demeine des études microbiologiques, dans la caractérisation des matières organiques naturelles, le marquage isotopique, les mesures de gaz dissous, les réactions cinétiques la compréhension des couplages. Une perspectives thermodynamique pourraient faciliter la comparaison et la compréhension des multiples processus physiques, chimiques et biologiques qui affectent les systèmes hydrogéologiques. La geoquímica ha contribuido significativamente al entendimiento de los sistemas de aguas subterráneas durante los últimos 50 años. Entre los avances históricos puede incluirse el desarrollo del concento de facies hidroquímicas, la aplicación de la teoría de equilibrio, investigación de los procesos oxidación-reducción, y datación con radiocarbono. Otros conceptos, herramientas y técnicas hidroquímicas han ayudado a esclarecer los

  2. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    irreversible processes are also relevant. Thermal processes like the training effect manifesting itself in changes in the hysteretic characteristics depending on magnetic history can lead to changes in the magnetic configurations. This section contains an increasing number of investigations of dynamics in exchange bias coupled bilayers, and in particular those of the intriguing asymmetric magnetization reversal in both branches of a hysteresis loop. The Editors of the topical issue: Alexandra Mougin Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR CNRS 8502, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay, France Stéphane Mangin Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7556, Université Henri Poincaré, F-54506 Nancy, France Jean-Francois Bobo Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée - NMH, FRE 2686 CNRS ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France Alois Loidl Experimentalphysik V, EKM, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-86135, Augsburg, Germany

  3. Chemical response to groundwater extraction southeast of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizar-Alvarez, R.; Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Ángeles-Serrano, G.; Hergt, T.; Cardona, A.

    procédure a été appliquée pour caractériser le système d'écoulement souterraine et sa source, les conditions hydrauliques de l'aquifère et la réponse hydraulique des puits considéré. L'analyse de cette information suggérer la présence des systèmes d'écoulement suivantes. (i) local avec18 et 19.5 °C de température, RS de 127-600 mg/L, et Na de 24-178 mg/L, (ii) intermédiaire avec une température de 20 á 22 °C, le RS de 203-940 mg/L et Na 30-370 mg/L, (iii) régional avec 300 à 700 mg/L de RS et 80 à 230 mg/L de Na, une température de 23 à 24.8 °C. Dans le premier cas, l'eau traverse des roches basaltiques, dans le deuxième, des sédiments clastiques avec matière organique de l'aquitard, dans le troisième, des roches volcaniques et calcaires. La chimie de l'eau des quelques puits et sa réponse hydraulique met en évidence l'influence de l'eau de L'aquitard, des effluents de surface et écoulement régional. La conception du régime d'écoulement obtenu, a permis reconnaître les conditions hydrauliques des puits plus correspondantes au contexte hydrogéologique, que si uniquement les données rabattement vs temps auraient été analysé La interpretación conjunta de la gráfica de prueba de bombeo, valores de temperatura y sólidos totales disueltos (STD) del agua subterránea extraída, medidos simultáneamente en campo y la composición química del agua extraída como apoyo adicional; se utilizó como un procedimiento alternativo para interpretar los datos de pruebas de bombeo. Toda esa información fue aplicada para caracterizar el sistema de flujo subterráneo y el origen de éste, las condiciones hidráulicas del acuífero y la respuesta hidráulica de los pozos de extracción. El análisis de la información indica la presencia de: (i) flujo local con temperatura de 18-19.5 °C, STD de 127-600, y Na de 24-178 mg/L (ii) flujo intermedio con temperatura de 20-22 °C, los STD y Na son de (203-940 y 30-370 mg/L), respectivamente; (iii

  4. Good clinical outcomes from a 7-year holistic programme of fistula repair in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Delamou, Alexandre; Diallo, Moustapha; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Delvaux, Thérèse; Millimono, Sita; Kourouma, Mamady; Beattie, Karen; Barone, Mark; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Khogali, Mohamed; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Ruminjo, Joseph; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    ée. L'objectif de cet article est de présenter et de discuter les résultats cliniques de sept années de travail impliquant 2116 femmes traitées dans trois hôpitaux à travers le pays. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective utilisant des données extraites des dossiers médicaux de réparations de fistules menées de 2007 à 2013. Les données de l’étude ont été analysées au cours de la période allant d'avril à août 2014. Résultats La majorité des 2116 femmes qui ont subi une réparation chirurgicale avaient une fistule vésico vaginale (n = 2 045, 97%) et 3% avaient une fistule recto vaginale ou une combinaison des deux. Au total, 1748 (83%) femmes ont eu leur fistule refermée et sont devenues continentes d'urine immédiatement après la chirurgie. À la sortie, 1795 femmes (85%) avaient une fistule fermée et 1680 (79%) étaient sèches, c'est à dire qu'elles n'avaient plus de fuite d'urine et/ou de matières fécales. 115 (5%) femmes avaient toujours une incontinence résiduelle malgré la fermeture de la fistule. Le suivi à trois mois a été complété par 1663 (79%) femmes dont 1405 (84,5%) ont eu leur fistule fermée et 80% étaient continentes. 21% ont été perdues au suivi. Conclusion La réparation programmatique de routine de la fistule obstétricale dans les régions à faibles ressources peut donner de bons résultats. Toutefois, davantage d'efforts sont nécessaires pour remédier à la perte au suivi, maintenir les résultats et prévenir l'apparition et/ou la réapparition de fistules. Objetivos La fístula genital femenina continúa siendo una preocupación de salud pública en países en vías de desarrollo. Entre Enero 2007 y Septiembre 2013, el proyecto Fistula Care, manejado por EngenderHealth junto con el Ministerio de Salud de Guinea, y financiado por USAID, integró los servicios de reparación de fistula en las maternidades de hospitales generales en Guinea. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar y

  5. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    ère sur onduleurs et 22 sur aimants de courbure. Les premiers “utilisateurs” sont prévus au printemps 2006 avec couverture de l'IR jusqu'aux X durs pour des études variées notamment dans le domaine de la matière condensée. - La LIL (ligne d'intégration laser) du LMJ fonctionne avec 4 faisceaux (de 30 kJ à 351 nm) et un ensemble de diagnostics plasma est en cours de validation (énergie, imagerie X, spectrométrie X). Un souci d'ouverture collaborative (France et étranger) est affiché. - LASERIX (LIXAM, LOA) a pour but de doter les scientifiques français d'un laser émettant en “quasi-routine” de l'émission laser X à 6 tirs/mn basée sur différents schémas collisionnels et donc différentes longueurs d'ondes, et mettant en oeuvre un laser saphir-titane ultra bref de 40 J pour la génération plasma. - Le projet Arc en Ciel (CEA, LOA) se penche sur la possibilité de mise en oeuvre d'une source de “4^ogénération”. Ces sources se veulent à la fois brillantes, cohérentes, dans la gamme des 100 femtosecondes, ce qui conduit à tourner le dos aux anneaux de stockage pour se focaliser sur la combinaison accélérateur linéaire/onduleur, complétée par un laser saphir-titane (génération d'harmoniques UV/X dans des gaz). - Une avancée particulièrement intéressante a été récemment réalisée, notamment au LOA, par injection d'un laser X (plasma) par un faisceau X de bonne qualité (polarisation, divergence, temps, contraste...) issu de la génération d'harmoniques élevées par une chaîne saphir-titane femto. - On notera aussi les avancées réalisées dans le domaine des sources incohérentes de forte intensité dans le domaine des X par interaction optimisée de l'interaction laser de puissance-agrégats (GPS-Paris 6 et 7, CEA Saclay), ainsi que par techniques X-pinch à fils à foyer de 10 microns (LPTP-École Polytechnique). - La génération d'harmoniques d'ordres élevés à partir de chaînes laser amplifiées a continué à faire l

  6. Grands principes de symétrie à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depommier, P.

    nombres leptoniques partiels. Dans la plupart des extensions du modèle standard on met en évidence plusieurs mécanismes de conversion d'un lepton en un lepton d'une autre famille, avec comme conséquences expérimentales : les désintégrations μ → e γ , μ → e γ γ et μ → e e e la conversion muon-électron dans un noyau, les oscillations de neutrinos. La possibilité d'obtenir une résonance lors de l'oscillation des neutrinos dans la matière a des conséquences importantes pour l'astrophysique. En principe, l'isospin n'était pas au menu du cours, puisque traité par un autre professeur. On a cependant ajouté, à la demande de l'éditeur, un chapitre sur les expériences recherchant une violation de la symétrie de charge dans les forces nucléaires (chapitre 10).