Science.gov

Sample records for law project carried

  1. 'May issue' gun carrying laws and police discretion: Some evidence from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G

    2015-08-01

    In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial. PMID:25880883

  2. Periodic Checkup, Report of a Law School Term Paper Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis M.

    1978-01-01

    A law school term paper project for a course in preventative law is described which requires students to gather information concerning a client and use it to judge legal health. The project requirements, a list of the contents of the "Manual for Periodic Checkup," and a copy of the form used to obtain legal documents are appended. (JMD)

  3. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  4. 42 CFR 55a.105 - How must grantees carry out their projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must grantees carry out their projects? 55a.105 Section 55a.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROGRAM GRANTS FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.105 How must grantees carry out...

  5. 42 CFR 55a.105 - How must grantees carry out their projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must grantees carry out their projects? 55a.105 Section 55a.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROGRAM GRANTS FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.105 How must grantees carry out...

  6. 42 CFR 55a.105 - How must grantees carry out their projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must grantees carry out their projects? 55a.105 Section 55a.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROGRAM GRANTS FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.105 How must grantees carry out...

  7. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  8. The Study on Law Disputes in Construction Project Contract Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhang

    Because the disputes and case facts of construction project contracts are intricate, there are many new conditions and problems involved in application of law, it's very difficult to dispose in the judicial practice with the difference in judicial theories and understanding spirit of the laws, and the juridical criterions of judgment are not unified in the courts of various regions. As judicial organs, people's courts should keep pace with the times, take precautions, and do well investigations and researches on such application of law in such cases in order to give full play to the judicial function, to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of disadvantaged groups and to promote the sustained, rapid and sound development of real estate market.

  9. Survey of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics efforts carried out in the frame of Mars exploration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynier, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is a survey of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics data related to Mars entry. The survey includes the studies carried out in the frame of projects aiming at preparing exploration missions involving entry probes into Mars atmosphere and the efforts have been concentrated on the aerothermodynamics developments. Russian (including former Soviet Union), European and NASA aerothermodynamics developments for preparing such missions have been accounted for. If a focus has been dedicated to the flight data gathered during Viking and Mars Pathfinder entries, the experimental and numerical activities carried out for the different projects have been also considered. The emphasis has been put on the post-flight analysis of flight experiments. The objective of the activity has been to develop a database of the developments performed for Mars entry that will be of interest for the preparation of future missions and for testing new models related to radiative transfer, and chemical kinetics schemes based on a state-to-state approach.

  10. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - IV. The extinction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino; Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, Daniel; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Cignoni, Michele; Grebel, Eva K.; Larsen, Søren; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zeidler, Peter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Aloisi, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    We report on the study of interstellar extinction across the Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project in the 0.3-1.6 μm range. The considerable and patchy extinction inside the nebula causes about 3500 red clump stars to be scattered along the reddening vector in the colour-magnitude diagrams, thereby allowing an accurate determination of the reddening slope in all bands. The measured slope of the reddening vector is remarkably steeper in all bands than in the the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. At optical wavelengths, the larger ratio of total-to-selective extinction, namely RV = 4.5 ± 0.2, implies the presence of a grey component in the extinction law, due to a larger fraction of large grains. The extra large grains are most likely ices from supernova ejecta and will significantly alter the extinction properties of the region until they sublimate in 50-100 Myr. We discuss the implications of this extinction law for the Tarantula Nebula and in general for regions of massive star formation in galaxies. Our results suggest that fluxes of strongly star-forming regions are likely to be underestimated by a factor of about 2 in the optical.

  11. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  12. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  13. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  14. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  15. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

  16. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  17. Law-Related Education Evaluation Project (United States), 1979-1984 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    The "Law-Related Education Evaluation Project" evaluated the degree of awareness of and receptivity to law-related education (LRE) among selected relevant professional groups, the progress toward institutionalization of LRE at certain sites, and the impact of LRE on students, especially in terms of delinquency rates. The project ran from 1979 to…

  18. Quality initiatives: planning, setting up, and carrying out radiology process improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Eric P; Szklaruk, Janio; Puthooran, Leejo; Stone, Danna; Stevens, Brian L; Modaro, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    In the coming decades, those who provide radiologic imaging services will be increasingly challenged by the economic, demographic, and political forces affecting healthcare to improve their efficiency, enhance the value of their services, and achieve greater customer satisfaction. It is essential that radiologists master and consistently apply basic process improvement skills that have allowed professionals in many other fields to thrive in a competitive environment. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of process improvement from the perspective of a radiologic imaging practice by describing their experience in conducting a process improvement project: to increase the daily volume of body magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at their institution. The first step in any process improvement project is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the work process. Next, an effective project team must be formed that includes representatives of all participants in the process. An achievable aim must be formulated, appropriate measures selected, and baseline data collected to determine the effects of subsequent efforts to achieve the aim. Each aspect of the process in question is then analyzed by using appropriate tools (eg, flowcharts, fishbone diagrams, Pareto diagrams) to identify opportunities for beneficial change. Plans for change are then established and implemented with regular measurements and review followed by necessary adjustments in course. These so-called PDSA (planning, doing, studying, and acting) cycles are repeated until the aim is achieved or modified and the project closed. PMID:22745219

  19. 50 CFR 80.97 - May an agency barter goods or services to carry out a grant-funded project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services without the use of cash. Barter transactions are subject to the Cost Principles at 2 CFR part 220, 2 CFR part 225, or 2 CFR part 230. ... carry out a grant-funded project? 80.97 Section 80.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH...

  20. 50 CFR 80.97 - May an agency barter goods or services to carry out a grant-funded project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services without the use of cash. Barter transactions are subject to the Cost Principles at 2 CFR part 220, 2 CFR part 225, or 2 CFR part 230. ... carry out a grant-funded project? 80.97 Section 80.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH...

  1. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Projections of grounding line retreat in West Antarctica carried out with an adaptive mesh model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, Stephen; Payne, Antony; Martin, Daniel; Le Brocq, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Present and future sea level rise associated with mass loss from West Antarctica is typically attributed to marine glaciers retreating in response to a warming ocean. Warmer waters melt the floating ice shelves that restrain some, if not all, marine glaciers, and the glaciers themselves respond by speeding up. That leads to thinning and in turn grounding line retreat. Satellite observations indicate that Amundsen Sea Embayment and, in particular, Pine Island Glacier, are undergoing this kind of dynamic change today. Numerical models, however, struggle to reproduce the observed behavior because either high resolution or some other kind special treatment is required at the grounding line. We present 200-year projections of three major glacier systems of West Antarctica: those that drain into the Amundsen Sea , the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and the Ross Ice shelf. We do so using the newly developed BISICLES ice­ sheet model, which employs adaptive ­mesh refinement to maintain sub-kilometer resolution close to the grounding line and coarser resolution elsewhere. Ice accumulation and ice­ shelf melt-rate are derived from a range of models of the Antarctic atmosphere and ocean forced by the SRES A1B and E1 scenarios. We find that a substantial proportion of the grounding line in West Antarctica retreats, however the total sea level rise is less than 50 mm by 2100, and less than 100 mm by 2200. The lion's share of the mass loss is attributed to Pine Island Glacier, while its immediate neighbor Thwaites Glacier does not retreat until the end of the simulations.

  3. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  4. Detection of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Carried Out in the Influenza Project - Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness (I-MOVE).

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Kosek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The project Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness-Monitoring (I-MOVE) is part of the European research carried out by the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control), aimed at monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination in Europe during the growing incidence of flu and influenza-like illnesses in the coming epidemic seasons. Laboratory studies using molecular RT-PCR biology methods for detection of genetic material of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses were performed by Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in Poland. The validation of the results of swabs taken from the nose and throat were carried out in the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center in Warsaw. The study involved 210 samples from patients across Poland. Positive results were recorded for 72.4 % of the samples; influenza virus type A was detected in 43 and type B in 38 cases, whereas in 71 cases other respiratory viruses were detected, which included Human parainfluenza virus type 1-4; Human respiratory syncytial virus type A and B; Human coronavirus 229E/NL63, OC43; Human rhinovirus type A, B, and C; Human enterovirus; and Human adenovirus. The results show that although influenza viruses predominated in the 2010/2011 season in Poland, other flu-like viruses also abounded. PMID:25252895

  5. Tracer dispersion experiments carried out in London during 2003 and 2004 as part of the DAPPLE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Shallcross, D.; Nickless, G.; White, I.

    2005-12-01

    Transport, dispersion and ultimate fate of pollutants has very important implications for the environment at the urban, regional and global scales. Localised emissions of both man-made and naturally produced pollutants can both directly and indirectly impact the health of the inhabitants. The DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollutants and their Penetration into the Local Environment) consortium consists of six universities, which comprises of a multidisciplinary approach to study relatively small-scale urban atmospheric dispersion. Wind tunnel modelling studies, computer fluid dynamical simulations, fieldwork studies using tracers and dispersion modelling were all carried out in an attempt to achieve this. In this paper we report on tracer dispersion experiments carried out in May 2003 and June 2004. These involve the release of various perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers centred on Marylebone Road in London. These compounds are inert, non-reactive and have a very low atmospheric background concentration with little variability. These properties make them the ideal atmospheric tracer and this combined with an ultra sensitive analytical technique (sample pre-concentration on carbon based adsorbents followed with detection by Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) makes very small release amounts feasible. The source-receptor relationship is studied for various source and receptor positions and distances. Source receptor relationships for both rooftop and indoor positions were evaluated as part of the project. Results of concurrent meteorological measurements are also presented as well as comparison with a number of simple dispersion models.

  6. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.

  7. Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) phase 1. Volume 3: Project cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) cost modeling activities were initiated in phase 1 to establish the ground rules and cost model that would apply to both phase 1 and phase 2 cost analyses. The primary emphasis in phase 1 was development of a cost model for a LAWS instrument for the Japanese Polar Orbiting Platform (JPOP). However, the Space Station application was also addressed in this model, and elements were included, where necessary, to account for Space Station unique items. The cost model presented in the following sections defines the framework for all LAWS cost modeling. The model is consistent with currently available detail, and can be extended to account for greater detail as the project definition progresses.

  8. A Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Student Participants' Contribution to Carrying out an Online International Collaborative Project on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Chizuko; Ishida, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Shota; Schultheis, Klaudia; Riedhammer, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates an international collaborative project developed and practiced on the internet, as a form of SNS, focusing on how much university students from six countries worldwide participated in the project, from the viewpoint of the participants' contribution to the forum discussion of their own group's topic on education. The 66…

  9. [Knowledge of laws by students with hearing impairment: results from the GINKO-project].

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Weber, U; Schlenker-Schulte, C; Schulte, K

    2013-12-01

    Legislation for people with disabilities has also changed due to other changes in the law, especially due to the recent ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These laws, in particular the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with its inclusion of the right to equitable and universal access to education for people with disabilities and their implementation, are of central importance for students who are impaired. As part of the GINKO (the legislative effect laws have on the professional integration of those who are hard of hearing, people who have gone deaf and those who are deaf through communication and organization; promotion: BMAS) project, the following questions were also brought up for discussion and were investigated: to what extent hearing-impaired students are aware of legislation that benefits them, whether these laws will be implemented, and what factors have an impact on this legal knowledge or its implementation. Overall, 4,825 handicapped individuals with hearing impairments - including n=166 students - took part in the survey. The results of the evaluation of the group of hearing-impaired students indicate that many of them are not informed about laws important to them. It was also found that the knowledge of a law cannot be equated with its implementation. This survey also resulted in a resolve for the future, to demand information about legal options be reinforced, and to adjust this information to fit the needs of specific target groups, e.g. this information could be disseminated through sign language films. On the other hand, these results also apply to higher education, for these institutions to create learning conditions where existing regulatory design options for students with disabilities are implemented, thereby affording students an equal opportunity to participate in higher education. PMID:23824568

  10. Project CLEA - The Moons of Jupiter: Understanding the Kepler's Laws in Astronomy 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on a study of impact of Project CLEA - Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy software on students’ understanding of the Kepler's Third Law. The study was conducted at the University of Missouri among 26 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course. There were 16 female and 15 male students participants between age of 18 and 24. The study was designed to find out whether students had different attitudes toward the simulation: its visual design and its intuitiveness and easiness to use. The study tested whether these attitudes reflected on the students’ learning outcomes of the discussed astronomy topic. To measure students’ computer proficiency and how comfortable they were using computers they were given a computer attitude inventory. The participants took a pretest and a posttest designed by the Project CLEA developers for the Moons of Jupiter module. The students also filled out a questionnaire where they reflected on their experience of using the software. Two weeks later the research participants took a final astronomy course examination which included a question on the Kepler's Third Law. Our research shows that students who indicated that they liked the simulation performed better on the posttest.. At the same time, we found that there was no relationship between the students’ attitude towards the simulation and their performance on the final exam. Students, who used CLEA simulation regardless of their attitudes towards it, significantly outperformed their classmates during the final exam on the Kepler's third law question. It is also interesting to note that students performed better on five out of six posttest questions - there was no change on a question involved mathematical application of the Kepler's Third Law formula.

  11. Project Directors' Management Manual: Migrant Education Projects. Title I Migrant Amendment. Public Law 89-750.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jose D.; Minkler, Elton D.

    Designed to provide the prospective subgrantee with information necessary to plan, develop, and administer a Title I Migrant project in accordance with federal and state requirements, the manual presents extracts from federal statutes and regulations, Oregon Revised Statutes and Oregon Administrative Rules, Oregon Department of Education…

  12. Seventeen Projects Carried out by Students Designing for and with Disabled Children: Identifying Designers' Difficulties during the Whole Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier, Cecile; Thomann, Guillaume; Villeneuve, Francois

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to identify the difficulties that may arise when designing assistive devices for disabled children. Seventeen design projects involving disabled children, engineering students, and special schools were analysed. A content analysis of the design reports was performed. For this purpose, a coding scheme was built based on a review…

  13. 42 CFR 137.377 - Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to construction project agreements performed under section 509 of the Act ? 137.377 Section 137.377... procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed under section 509 of the... pertaining to Federal procurement (including Executive Orders) shall apply to any construction...

  14. Dealing with Law Enforcement Authorities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 22. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses dealing with law enforcement authorities. It is designed to teach immigrants the following: understand laws and consequences of breaking them; how the law enforcement agencies…

  15. Cohesive zone laws for void growth — II. Numerical field projection of elasto-plastic fracture processes with vapor pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Huck Beng; Hong, Soonsung; Kim, Kyung-Suk

    2009-08-01

    Modeling ductile fracture processes using Gurson-type cell elements has achieved considerable success in recent years. However, incorporating the full mechanisms of void growth and coalescence in cohesive zone laws for ductile fracture still remains an open challenge. In this work, a planar field projection method, combined with equilibrium field regularization, is used to extract crack-tip cohesive zone laws of void growth in an elastic-plastic solid. To this end, a single row of void-containing cell elements is deployed directly ahead of a crack in an elastic-plastic medium subjected to a remote K-field loading; the macroscopic behavior of each cell element is governed by the Gurson porous material relation, extended to incorporate vapor pressure effects. A thin elastic strip surrounding this fracture process zone is introduced, from which the cohesive zone variables can be extracted via the planar field projection method. We show that the material's initial porosity induces a highly convex traction-separation relationship — the cohesive traction reaches the peak almost instantaneously and decreases gradually with void growth, before succumbing to rapid softening during coalescence. The profile of this numerically extracted cohesive zone law is consistent with experimentally determined cohesive zone law in Part I for multiple micro-crazing in HIPS. In the presence of vapor pressure, both the cohesive traction and energy are dramatically lowered; the shape of the cohesive zone law, however, remains highly convex, which suggests that diffusive damage is still the governing failure mechanism.

  16. [The Bilbao declaration: international meeting on the law concerning the human genome project].

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The Bilbao statement was the result of a work meeting, held the day before the closing session by a group of representative experts, formed by general chairmen and meeting organizers. The compelled and necessary consent gave rise to the document that was read and communicated to the world's public opinion during the closing act on may 26, 1993. Notwithstanding, the working group considered that the divulged version was provisory and committed to continue the task of re-elaborating the statement. The aim was to complete and improve it, taking the greatest advantage of the important meeting achievements. The document that is next reproduced is the definitive integral version of the Bilbao Statement. The expert group that takes the responsibility of this Statement is Jean Dausset, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1980); Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1976); Santiago Grisolía president of UNESCO committee for the Genome Project; Michael Kirby, President of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, Australia; Aaron Klug, member of the Constitutional Council, Paris, France; Rafael Mendizábal, Judge of the Constitutional Court, Madrid, Spain; Juan Bautista Pardo, President of the Superior Court of Justice of the Basque Country and Carlos María Romeo Casabona, Director of the Chair of Law and Human Genome of the University of Deusto (Bilbao). PMID:7732218

  17. A project-based course on Newton’s laws for talented junior high-school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbeheim, Elon

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that project-based learning promotes student interest in science and improves understanding of scientific content. Fostering student motivation is particularly important in accelerated science and technology programmes for talented students, which are often demanding and time-consuming. Current texts provide little guidance on ways to employ challenging, open-ended investigations in physics suitable for the more capable students. This paper presents a project-based approach for teaching Newton’s laws in a programme for talented eighth-grade students. Evidence from student work demonstrates that project-based learning is a feasible classroom practice, challenging yet fulfilling for both students and teachers.

  18. Current Federal Indian Law and Its Precedents. Wisconsin Woodland Indian Dissemination Project. Bulletin No. 0408.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Susan

    This curriculum unit introduces students to the relationship between the federal government and American Indians through five narrative descriptions of the related legislation, laws, and court interpretations. The narratives cover: (1) the historical basis of federal Indian law and the government-to-government relationship; (2) legal definitions…

  19. Social Work and the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Gerald; Davis, King

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a statute existing in 26 states that permits health insurance companies to deny payment for claims made by individuals who have sustained injuries as a result of drug or alcohol use. This law presents a series of complicated clinical and ethical dilemmas for social workers and other…

  20. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  1. CONspiracies to crush competition. Hospitals using CON laws to thwart rival's projects.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1991-07-01

    In their eagerness to protect their market share and check advances by rivals, hospitals are trying to use state certificate-of-need laws to their advantage. Some hospitals are clinging to CON laws, which require state approval of new construction and renovation, because they protect them from competitors who threaten their market. A look into CON wars in five states uncovers some competitive tactics. PMID:10111448

  2. South Dakota Public Law 89-313 Projects: 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn; Rentfrow, Diane

    The booklet summarizes the projects conducted by 15 agencies in South Dakota using funds from P.L. 89-313 (Amendments to Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act), designed to help meet special education needs of handicapped students. Each summary provides the following information: project title, state agency, project location, type…

  3. Finding the "Fittest" for a "Survival Law" Curriculum: The Sturgeon Lake Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butschler, Monica

    1983-01-01

    A high school level legal education curriculum development project undertaken in a small locally-controlled school district in Canada is described. Specifically discussed are project background, the process used to develop the curriculum, the project objectives, and resources used. (RM)

  4. Cohesive-zone laws for void growth — I. Experimental field projection of crack-tip crazing in glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonsung; Chew, Huck Beng; Kim, Kyung-Suk

    2009-08-01

    A hybrid framework for inverse analysis of crack-tip cohesive-zone model is developed in this two-part paper to measure cohesive-zone laws of void growth in polymers by combining analytical, experimental, and numerical approaches. This paper focuses on experimental measurements of the cohesive-zone laws for two nonlinear fracture processes in glassy polymers, namely multiple crazing in crack-growth toughening of rubber-toughened high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) and crazing of steady-state crack growth in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) under a methanol environment. To this end, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is first applied to measure the crack-tip displacement fields surrounding the fracture process zones in these polymers. These fields are subsequently equilibrium smoothed and used in the extraction of the cohesive-zone laws via an analytical solution method of the inverse problem, the planar field projection method (P-FPM) [Hong, S., Kim, K.-S., 2003. Extraction of cohesive-zone laws from elastic far-fields of a cohesive crack tip: a field projection method. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 51, 1267-1286]. Results show that the proposed framework of the P-FPM could provide a systematic way of finding the shape of the cohesive-zone laws governed by the different micro-mechanisms in the fracture processes. In HIPS, inter-particle multiple crazing develops and the craze zone broadens ahead of a crack-tip under mechanical loading. The corresponding cohesive-zone relationship of the multiple-craze zone is found to be highly convex, which indicates effectiveness of rubber particle toughening. It is also observed that the effective peak traction, 7 MPa, in the crack-tip cohesive zone of HIPS (30% rubber content) is lower than the uniaxial yield stress of 9 MPa, presumably due to stress multi-axiality effects. In contrast, in PMMA, methanol localizes the crack-tip craze, weakening the craze traction for craze-void initiation to about 9 MPa

  5. The Italian drilling project of the Mont Blanc road tunnel in the late fifties: an example of no geological care and lack of ethics in carrying out a big work.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosso, Guido; Croce, Giuseppe; Matteucci, Ruggero; Peppoloni, Silvia; Piacente, Sandra; Wasowski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    national renaissance probably committed the Italian team to a fast conclusion, skipping attention from geological urgencies. But did attitudes change since then? This late episode gives us the opportunity to reflect on the necessity of making politicians seriously aware of the importance of geology when carrying out big works, to impose by law more effective policies and make interrelations between the involved professionals mandatory. Firm geoethic principles should guide choices and decisions in projects of great environmental impact.

  6. Social work and the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Davis, King

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a statute existing in 26 states that permits health insurance companies to deny payment for claims made by individuals who have sustained injuries as a result of drug or alcohol use. This law presents a series of complicated clinical and ethical dilemmas for social workers and other medical personnel. The majority of contributions to the national discussion regarding the UPPL have been produced by the medical, nursing, and policy/legal disciplines. Social work has, however, remained silent. It is paramount that social workers add their perspective and insight to this debate. This article discusses the first survey, to the authors' knowledge, of social workers practicing in health care settings regarding their knowledge and beliefs about the UPPL. PMID:22768627

  7. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  8. A Project-Based Course on Newton's Laws for Talented Junior High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbeheim, Elon

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that project-based learning promotes student interest in science and improves understanding of scientific content. Fostering student motivation is particularly important in accelerated science and technology programmes for talented students, which are often demanding and time-consuming. Current texts provide little guidance on…

  9. Staff Working Papers of the Drug Law Evaluation Project. A Companion Volume to the Final Report of the Joint Committee of New York Drug Law Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The papers in this volume were prepared as part of an evaluation of the effects of the strict 1973 New York State drug laws. The first paper explores the effects of the laws on heroin use. It analyzes the trends of various indicators of heroin use in New York State over a period of several years. In order to isolate movements unique to New York,…

  10. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  11. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  12. PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-08-11

    This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

  13. So You Have Agreed to Help...A Resource Guide for Lawyers to Help Solicit Funds for Local Law-Related Education Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides assistance to the lawyer who has volunteered to help a law-related education project by soliciting supplementary funds from local business, civic, or other sources. Specifically, the guide offers guidance in identifying and approaching potential donors, preparing the request for funds, and organizing supporting data and…

  14. Carrying Backpacks: Physical Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 40 million U.S. youth carry school materials in backs, routinely carrying books, laptop computers, personal and other items used on a daily basis. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates that 7,277 emergency visits each year result from injuries related to backpacks. Injury can occur when a child…

  15. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  16. "Christian carrying goomies".

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Passingan Usurup tells critics of his pragmatic approach on condom promotion that he is a Christian carrying condoms for Christ. He is head of the University of Papua New Guinea Medical Center and is credited with developing an AIDS/HIV policy for the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The condoms were named Goomy and promoted at launching in 1992 in a blue packet under the slogan "The bond that guards." Goomy was chosen as the name because it is pidgin for rubber, chewing gum, and anything associated with rubber. Blue packets were chosen over the calls of most soldiers for a camouflage design because of its universal appeal as the color of the sea and sky and because it was the preference of women in the airlines. Once firmly ensconced in his role at the University, Usurup plans to develop a policy for students and staff and help to conduct AIDS prevention and education activities on campus. He will encourage students to test for HIV rather than highlighting the gloom and doom of infection and disease. PMID:12345555

  17. Keeping up with Changes in Laws Affecting Immigrants. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 20. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses keeping up with changes in laws affecting immigrants. Its objective is to teach students to track the legal framework that affects immigrants' lives and to build problem-solving…

  18. 42 CFR 137.377 - Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.377 Do...

  19. 42 CFR 137.377 - Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.377 Do...

  20. 42 CFR 137.377 - Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.377 Do...

  1. 42 CFR 137.377 - Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply to construction project agreements performed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do Federal procurement laws and regulations apply... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.377 Do...

  2. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations. PMID:27627325

  3. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws. PMID:23590749

  4. Infant Stimulation Project. Final Report. Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (Public Law 91-230, Title VI, Part C).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semel, Eleanor

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a federally-funded program designed to meet the needs of high risk hearing impaired children with multiple handicaps from 0-2 years of age--a population not served at the time by local, state, or federal programs. The project's hypothesis was that the initiation of a "total communication"…

  5. On fast carry select adders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  6. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  7. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  8. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  9. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  10. Pegasus Carried by B-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a Pegasus being carried to altitude by B-52. An air-launched, three stage, all solid-propellant, three-axis stabilized vehicle, the Pegasus can set a 400-1,000 pound payload into low-Earth orbit. For more information about Pegasus, please see Chapter 5 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  11. Loren Shriver carries Olympic torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver proudly displays the Olympic torch that he carried to the top of Launch Pad 39A as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Nineteen other KSC runners also participated in the relay effort at the Center. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind Shriver, poised for the STS-79 mission, which will feature the fourth docking of the Shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  12. A 40-month multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and carry-over effect of repeated intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid in knee osteoarthritis: the AMELIA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Sarabia, F; Coronel, P; Collantes, E; Navarro, F J; de la Serna, A Rodriguez; Naranjo, A; Gimeno, M; Herrero-Beaumont, G

    2011-01-01

    Objective AMELIA (OsteoArthritis Modifying Effects of Long-term Intra-articular Adant) was designed to compare against placebo the efficacy and safety of repeated injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) and its effect on disease progression over 40 months. Methods A multicentre, randomised, patient and evaluator-blinded, controlled study in 306 patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology criteria for knee osteoarthritis, radiological grades II–III (Kellgren–Lawrence) and joint space width ≥2 mm. Patients received four cycles of five intra-articular HA or placebo injections with a follow-up of 6 months after the first and second cycles, and 1 year after the third and fourth cycles. Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) 2004 responder criteria were used to assess efficacy. The consumption of rescue medication was a secondary outcome. Adverse events were recorded for safety purposes. Results At the 40-month visit significantly more patients responded to HA compared with placebo (OARSI 2004, p=0.004). The number of responders to HA increased through the study, whereas those to placebo did not change. Significant differences were also found in favour of HA for each individual component of the OARSI 2004. No safety problems were recorded. Conclusions The results of AMELIA offer pioneer evidence that repeated cycles of intra-articular injections of HA not only improve knee osteoarthritis symptoms during the in-between cycle period but also exert a marked carry-over effect for at least 1 year after the last cycle. In this respect, it is not possible to establish if this carry-over effect reflects true osteoarthritis remission or just a modification of the disease's natural course. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00669032 PMID:21852252

  13. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  14. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews four recent court decisions affecting school law. A Circuit Court of Appeals ruling upheld Norfolk Schools' decision to abolish busing and reinstate neighborhood schools. The United States Supreme Court dismissed appeals to lower court decisions involving a minimum grade prerequisite, a teacher's privacy rights, and an "adult" movie…

  15. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  16. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  17. Law and Community Service: The Appalachian School of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    At southwest Virginia's new Appalachian School of Law, students volunteer 25 hours each semester on community service projects. Projects fall into two categories: pure service by sharing a skill or interest, and service that draws on legal skills, such as presenting legal seminars to senior citizens' groups or conducting conflict resolution…

  18. Using the Hearst Text: Fundamentals of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, Second Edition: The Rules for Deliberative Assemblies. The National Parliamentary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joan E.

    The instructor of a course entitled "Leadership in Meetings" used as a textbook of "Fundamentals of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, Second Edition: The Rules for Deliberative Assemblies," sponsored by the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Despite a strong endorsement of the text, the instructor had some reservations. For example, although the…

  19. Biological Determinism and the Concept of Mental Retardation: The Lesson of Carrie Buck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    This paper reviews the case of Carrie Buck, who was the first person sterilized (in 1927) under a Virginia law allowing sterilization of persons identified as incompetent and likely to genetically transmit physical, psychological, or social deficiencies to their offspring. This law was later upheld by the Supreme Court in Buck v. Bell, which…

  20. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an...

  1. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  2. Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) phase 1. Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the 12-month phase 1 work effort. The objective of phase 1 was to establish the conceptional definition of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) sensor system, including accommodations analyses to ensure compatibility with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) Polar Orbiting Platform (POP). Various concepts were investigated with trade studies performed to select the configuration to be carried forward to the phase 2 Preliminary Design Definition. A summary of the LAWS system and subsystem trade studies that were performed leading to the baseline design configuration is presented in the appendix. The overall objective of the LAWS Project is to define, design, and implement an operational space based facility, LAWS, for accurate measurement of Earth wind profiles. Phase 1 addressed three major areas: (1) requirements definition; (2) instrument concepts and configurations; and (3) performance analysis. For the LAWS instrument concepts and configurations, the issues which press the technological state of the art are reliable detector lifetime and laser performance and lifetime. Lag angle compensation, pointing accuracy, satellite navigation, and telescope design are significant technical issues, but they are considered to be currently state of the art. The primary issues for performance analysis concern interaction with the atmosphere in terms of backscatter and attenuation, wind variance, and cloud blockage. The phase 1 tasks were formulated to address these significant technical issues and demonstrate the technical feasibility of the LAWS concept. Primary emphasis was placed on analysis/trade and identification of candidate concepts. Promising configurations were evaluated for performance, sensitivities, risks, and budgetary costs. Lockheed's baseline LAWS configuration is presented.

  3. Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) phase 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the 12-month phase 1 work effort. The objective of phase 1 was to establish the conceptional definition of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) sensor system, including accommodations analyses to ensure compatibility with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) Polar Orbiting Platform (POP). Various concepts were investigated with trade studies performed to select the configuration to be carried forward to the phase 2 Preliminary Design Definition. A summary of the LAWS system and subsystem trade studies that were performed leading to the baseline design configuration is presented in the appendix. The overall objective of the LAWS Project is to define, design, and implement an operational space based facility, LAWS, for accurate measurement of Earth wind profiles. Phase 1 addressed three major areas: (1) requirements definition; (2) instrument concepts and configurations; and (3) performance analysis. For the LAWS instrument concepts and configurations, the issues which press the technological state of the art are reliable detector lifetime and laser performance and lifetime. Lag angle compensation, pointing accuracy, satellite navigation, and telescope design are significant technical issues, but they are considered to be currently state of the art. The primary issues for performance analysis concern interaction with the atmosphere in terms of backscatter and attenuation, wind variance, and cloud blockage. The phase 1 tasks were formulated to address these significant technical issues and demonstrate the technical feasibility of the LAWS concept. Primary emphasis was placed on analysis/trade and identification of candidate concepts. Promising configurations were evaluated for performance, sensitivities, risks, and budgetary costs. Lockheed's baseline LAWS configuration is presented.

  4. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  5. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1985-01-01

    Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. "Bush Law 101": Realising Place Conscious Pedagogy in the Law Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Amanda; Mundy, Trish; Nielsen, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, a team of academics from six universities worked on an OLT-funded project, "Rethinking Law Curriculum: developing strategies to prepare law graduates for practice in rural and regional Australia." The project was motivated by the declining proportion of lawyers being attracted to and remaining in practice in rural and regional…

  7. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law...

  8. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law...

  9. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law...

  10. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law...

  11. 36 CFR 327.26 - State and local laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.26 State and local laws. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part or by Federal law...

  12. 34 CFR 350.13 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must a grantee do in carrying out a research... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.13 What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity? In carrying out a research activity under...

  13. 34 CFR 350.13 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What must a grantee do in carrying out a research... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.13 What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity? In carrying out a research activity under...

  14. 34 CFR 350.13 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.13 What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity? In carrying out a research activity under this... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must a grantee do in carrying out a...

  15. 34 CFR 350.13 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.13 What must a grantee do in carrying out a research activity? In carrying out a research activity under this... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must a grantee do in carrying out a...

  16. 34 CFR 350.14 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a training activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.14 What must a grantee do in carrying out a training activity? In carrying out a training activity under this... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must a grantee do in carrying out a...

  17. 34 CFR 350.14 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a training activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.14 What must a grantee do in carrying out a training activity? In carrying out a training activity under this... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What must a grantee do in carrying out a...

  18. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  19. Taking on Titan: Meet Carrie Anderson

    NASA Video Gallery

    When she was a little girl, Carrie Anderson dreamed of becoming an astronomer. Now, as a space scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Carrie studies the atmosphere on Titan: one of Saturn's...

  20. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land...

  1. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  2. WESTERN WATER LAWS AND IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of water law allocation and use of waters within the Western United States is currently recognized as one of the major constraints to adaptation by irrigated agriculture of more efficient operation practices. This project provides a background of the law and evaluation...

  3. View of openspandrel concrete arch that carries the road crossing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of open-spandrel concrete arch that carries the road crossing Grand Coulee Dam over the spillways, looking west. Note the drum gate in its nearly fully raised position. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  4. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  5. Carry it on the bad side!

    PubMed

    Tan, V; Klotz, M J; Greenwald, A S; Steinberg, M E

    1998-10-01

    Patients with diseased hips often must carry objects while walking, yet they are rarely instructed which hand to use because little has been published on the subject. We sought to evaluate the situation mathematically by determining the hip forces that result when a load is carried in the ipsilateral versus the contralateral hand. Using a free-body diagram of single-leg supported stance, we found that when a load was carried in the contralateral hand, the resultant forces on the hip were increased considerably. Conversely, when the weight was carried in the ipsilateral hand, the forces were actually lower than when no weight was carried at all. Thus, carrying a weight on the opposite side resulted in hip forces that were substantially greater than when the weight was carried on the same side. PMID:9796709

  6. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219... Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When TSA decides, after being notified by... private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out the requirements of § 1542.215, TSA...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219... Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When TSA decides, after being notified by... private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out the requirements of § 1542.215, TSA...

  8. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  9. [Teaching about Family Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

  10. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  11. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  12. Law As a Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

  13. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  14. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  15. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  20. Didactical formulation of the Ampère law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The Ampère law is useful to calculate the magnetostatic field in the cases of distributions of current with high degree of symmetry. Nevertheless the magnetic field produced by a thin straight wire carrying a current I requires the Biot-Savart law and the use of the Ampère law leads to a mistake. A didactical formulation of the Ampère law is proposed to prevent misinterpretations.

  1. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  2. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  3. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eczema should probably avoid aquariums. continue Dogs and Cats Dogs and cats are popular pets but can carry infections such ... be in the intestinal tract of infected dogs, cats, hamsters, birds, and certain farm animals. A person ...

  4. CCP: Sierra Nevada Captive-Carry Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space System's Dream Chaser design passed one of its most complex tests to date with a successful captive-carry test conducted near the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan A...

  5. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  6. Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Lia Q.

    2008-04-01

    In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

  7. Carrying Loads on Heads. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  8. Effects of box handle position and carrying range on bi-manual carrying capacity for females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Loiu, Yi; Chien, Te Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study utilizes a psychophysical approach to examine the effects on carrying capacity for bi-manual carrying tasks involving different handle positions and carrying ranges. A total of 16 female subjects participated in the experiment in groups of two people, and each group of subjects performed the tasks in a random order with 12 different combinations of carrying task. The independent variables are handle position (upper, middle, lower) and carrying range (F-F: floor height carried to floor height, F-W: floor height carried to waist height, W-W: waist height carried to waist height, W-F: waist height carried to floor height), the dependent variable is the maximum acceptable carried weight (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The results show that the handle position has a significant effect on MAWC and overall RPE but no significant effect on HR. Carrying range has a significant effect on the MAWC and HR, but no significant effect on overall HR. The handle position and carrying range have a significant interaction on the MAWC and HR. The RPE for different body parts shows significant differences, and the hands feel the most tired. Overall, this study confirms that the lower handle position with the W-W carrying range is the best combination for a two-person carrying task. PMID:26212410

  9. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    PubMed

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments. PMID:9025816

  10. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalazo, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author, Program Administrator of the Pinellas County Sheriff's Office (PCSO) Project New Attitudes in Clearwater, Florida, describes the project. The PCSO is the country's largest law enforcement agency, providing law enforcement services to over 400,000 of its residents who reside in the unincorporated areas of the county and…

  11. Arithmetic coding with constrained carry operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfoodh, Abo-Talib; Said, Amir; Yea, Sehoon

    2015-03-01

    Buffer or counter-based techniques are adequate for dealing with carry propagation in software implementations of arithmetic coding, but create problems in hardware implementations due to the difficulty of handling worst-case scenarios, defined by very long propagations. We propose a new technique for constraining the carry propagation, similar to "bit-stuffing," but designed for encoders that generate data as bytes instead of individual bits, and is based on the fact that the encoder and decoder can maintain the same state, and both can identify the situations when it desired to limit carry propagation. The new technique adjusts the coding interval in a way that corresponds to coding an unused data symbol, but selected to minimize overhead. Our experimental results demonstrate that the loss in compression can be made very small using regular precision for arithmetic operations.

  12. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  13. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  14. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  15. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  16. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  17. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  18. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  19. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  20. Must-Carry and Public Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elizabeth K.

    Because of the United States Court of Appeal's ruling ("Quincy Cable TV vs. Federal Communications Commission") that government regulation of what cable television stations can broadcast violates their First Amendment rights, a number of consequences have arisen concerning what cable stations are required to broadcast (must-carry rules), and how…

  1. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (d) Carrying capacities shall be stated in terms of sheep units yearlong, in the ratio of horses, mules, and burros 1 to 5; cattle 1 to 4; goats 1 to 1. The latter figure in each case denotes sheep units. Sheep, goats, cattle, horses, mules, and burros one year of age or older shall be counted...

  2. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying... capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended adjustments in... Committee, and the Navajo Tribal Council for review and recommendations prior to presentation to the...

  3. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6... carrying capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended adjustments... Grazing Committee, and the Navajo Tribal Council for review and recommendations prior to presentation...

  4. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6... carrying capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended adjustments... Grazing Committee, and the Navajo Tribal Council for review and recommendations prior to presentation...

  5. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  6. Desmoplastic Melanoma Carries High Mutation Burden.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The first thorough sequencing of desmoplastic melanoma samples has shown that these tumors carry a median of 62 mutations per megabase-among the highest known for all cancers. The results suggest that patients may respond well to immunotherapy, which relies on detecting differences between normal and cancerous cells. PMID:26432107

  7. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  8. Lorentz Contraction and Current-Carrying Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The force between two parallel current-carrying wires is investigated in the rest frames of the ions and the electrons. A straightforward Lorentz transformation shows that what appears as a purely magnetostatic force in the ion frame appears as a combined magnetostatic and electrostatic force in the electron frame. The derivation makes use of a…

  9. Characterization of microbes carried in dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is still a lack of understanding of how soil microbial community distribution is controlled by wind erosion. This information is of international concern as eroded sediments can potentially carry away the active labile organic soil particulates containing key microorganisms involved in soil bi...

  10. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  11. EOS Laser Atmosphere Wind Sounder (LAWS) investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, George D.

    1991-01-01

    The related activities of the contract are outlined for the first year. These include: (1) attend team member meetings; (2) support EOS Project with science related activities; (3) prepare and Execution Phase plan; and (4) support LAWS and EOSDIS related work. Attached to the report is an appendix, 'LAWS Algorithm Development and Evaluation Laboratory (LADEL)'. Also attached is a copy of a proposal to the NASA EOS for 'LAWS Sampling Strategies and Wind Computation Algorithms -- Storm-Top Divergence Studies. Volume I: Investigation and Technical Plan, Data Plan, Computer Facilities Plan, Management Plan.'

  12. Culture and the law in Islam.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    Rather than living in a homogeneous world, Muslim women participate in vastly different cultures. The Women Living Under Muslim Law (WLUML) Network was set up to unite women in Muslim countries across the world and to stimulate them to analyze and reconceptualize the nature of their situation in order to formulate strategies for change. In Muslim countries, the law provides a web of rules which shape every aspect of women's lives. Because these laws have been presented as "Islamic," traditional human rights groups have been loathe to criticize them for fear of trampling religious rights. The WLUML started the "Women and the Law" project, therefore, to chart and conduct action-oriented research in law in 26 countries. This project is based on the conviction that the key to women gaining the power to control their destinies will lie in their ability to master the law that shapes their lives. This project should lay the foundation for the vindication of the human rights of Muslim women. PMID:12159820

  13. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  14. A decimal carry-free adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  15. 77 FR 25378 - Regulations Pertaining to the Disclosure of Return Information To Carry Out Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Information To Carry Out Eligibility Requirements for Health Insurance Affordability Programs AGENCY: Internal... compare available private health insurance options (qualified health plans, or QHPs) on the basis of price... offered by a health insurance issuer that meets minimum standards in the law and set by an...

  16. Vehicle for carrying an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Ferrante, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    A vehicle for carrying an object of interest across a supporting surface including a frame having opposite first and second ends; a first pair of wheels fixedly mounted on the first end of the frame; a second pair of wheels pivotally mounted on the second end of the frame; and a pair of motors borne by the frame, each motor disposed in driving relation relative to one of the pairs of wheels, the motors propelling the vehicle across the supporting surface.

  17. Vehicle for carrying an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Ferrante, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A vehicle for carrying an object of interest across a supporting surface including a frame having opposite first and second ends; a first pair of wheels fixedly mounted on the first end of the frame; a second pair of wheels pivotally mounted on the second end of the frame; and a pair of motors borne by the frame, each motor disposed in driving relation relative to one of the pairs of wheels, the motors propelling the vehicle across the supporting surface. 8 figs.

  18. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  19. Music carries a message to youths.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P L

    1986-01-01

    The most widely played song in Mexico in March 1986 is a special record designed to encourage young people to be sexually responsible and not to bring into the world children they cannot care for. "It's OK to say 'no,'" is the message of a unique new family planning and health communication project designed to reach young people in 11 Spanish speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. What makes this ambitious regional project so unique is not just the message or the remarkable success of the 1st song but the combination of materials that were produced, the way they were produced, and how they are now being used throughout the region. The Population Communication Services project in the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (JHU/PCS) has been working in Latin America and elsewhere for 4 years to support innovative family planning communication projects. It became evident that 1 key group was not being reached, i.e., young people aged 13-18 who comprise approximately 30% of the total population in Latin America. The fertility and sexual behavior of young people have a significant impact on their own lives, their community, their country, and the region. Early pregnancy is a major health and social problem throughout the region and the world. To address this problem, the JHU/PCS decided to develop a regional Latin American project to make young people more sharply aware of the personal advantages to them of responsible parenthood. JHU/PCS put together a financial, marketing, and institutional package. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) provided the finances. Analysis showed that the common denominator for young people throughout the region is music. The decision was made to produce 2 songs, each with a music video, pressed on each side of 45 rpm single records and enclosed in a full-size, full-color, 2-sided record jacket which folds out into a poster. The next step was to refine the general message of sexual responsibility to

  20. A Jolly Project for Teaching Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Jim

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students design and build an apparatus that can be used to rapidly determine the specific gravities of small substances is described. Calculations needed to determine the density of substances when using the Jolly balance are included. (KR)

  1. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  2. 34 CFR 403.63 - How does a State carry out the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... directly if it— (1) Carries out projects, services, or activities using its own staff (except at a school... projects, services, and activities are carried out by a school operated by the State board under paragraph... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State carry out the State Vocational...

  3. 34 CFR 403.63 - How does a State carry out the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... directly if it— (1) Carries out projects, services, or activities using its own staff (except at a school... projects, services, and activities are carried out by a school operated by the State board under paragraph... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a State carry out the State Vocational...

  4. Collective navigation of cargo-carrying swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shklarsh, Adi; Finkelshtein, Alin; Ariel, Gil; Kalisman, Oren; Ingham, Colin; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the study of swarming and collective navigation of micro-organisms, insects, fish, birds and other organisms, as well as multi-agent simulations and to the study of real robots. It is well known that insect swarms can carry cargo. The studies here are motivated by a less well-known phenomenon: cargo transport by bacteria swarms. We begin with a concise review of how bacteria swarms carry natural, micrometre-scale objects larger than the bacteria (e.g. fungal spores) as well as man-made beads and capsules (for drug delivery). A comparison of the trajectories of virtual beads in simulations (using different putative coupling between the virtual beads and the bacteria) with the observed trajectories of transported fungal spores implies the existence of adaptable coupling. Motivated by these observations, we devised new, multi-agent-based studies of cargo transport by agent swarms. As a first step, we extended previous modelling of collective navigation of simple bacteria-inspired agents in complex terrain, using three putative models of agent–cargo coupling. We found that cargo-carrying swarms can navigate efficiently in a complex landscape. We further investigated how the stability, elasticity and other features of agent–cargo bonds influence the collective motion and the transport of the cargo, and found sharp phase shifts and dual successful strategies for cargo delivery. Further understanding of such mechanisms may provide valuable clues to understand cargo-transport by smart swarms of other organisms as well as by man-made swarming robots. PMID:24312731

  5. Spread of Plasmids Carrying Multiple GES Variants.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Bogaerts, Pierre; Bauraing, Caroline; Huang, Te-Din; Bonnin, Rémy A; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Five GES-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates that displayed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype harbored two GES variants: GES-7 ESBL and GES-6 carbapenemase. In all isolates, the two GES alleles were located on the same integron that was inserted into an 80-kb IncM1 self-conjugative plasmid. Whole-genome sequencing suggested in vivo horizontal gene transfer of the plasmid along with clonal diffusion of Enterobacter cloacae To our knowledge, this is the first description in Europe of clustered Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying two GES β-lactamases, of which one has extended activity toward carbapenems. PMID:27216071

  6. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  7. Cost of carrying out clinical diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Barnard, D J; Bingle, J P; Garratt, C J

    1978-06-01

    The total cost of performing diagnostic tests in a hospital laboratory during one year was assessed. The largest single item of expenditure was the cost of the salaries of the technical staff, while the cost of reagents (including radiopharmaceuticals) was relatively small. The total costs of carrying out diagnostic tests are much higher than is often recognised by those who request them. The use of relatively expensive, commercially available assay kits saves time and gives good value for money. It may be worth taking this into account when planning hospital budgets. PMID:647338

  8. Cost of carrying out clinical diagnostic tests.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, D J; Bingle, J P; Garratt, C J

    1978-01-01

    The total cost of performing diagnostic tests in a hospital laboratory during one year was assessed. The largest single item of expenditure was the cost of the salaries of the technical staff, while the cost of reagents (including radiopharmaceuticals) was relatively small. The total costs of carrying out diagnostic tests are much higher than is often recognised by those who request them. The use of relatively expensive, commercially available assay kits saves time and gives good value for money. It may be worth taking this into account when planning hospital budgets. PMID:647338

  9. Estimation of human carrying capacity in rainforest areas.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, P M

    1990-06-01

    Tropical rainiorest areas are rapidly being settled as a result of continued growth of local populations, spontaneous migration from non-rainiorest areas and planned settlement projects undertaken by governments. National decision makers frequently view rainiorest settlement as a solution to the problems of other regions undergoing population growth, land tenure concentration, environmental degradation, agricultural mechanization and population displacement by development projects. Natural habitats are replaced by settlements that often cannot support the density of population expected of them. Inappropriate assumptions can lead to estimates that are orders of magnitude too high, such as an FAO calculation that Brazil could support over seven billion people if Amazonia were converted to intensive agriculture. Inadequate information on human carrying capacity allows planners to foster unrealistic expectations. PMID:21232352

  10. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  11. Dispersal in relation to carrying capacity

    PubMed Central

    Grant, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    Dispersal of the herbivorous vole Microtus pennsylvanicus from grassland to woodland was studied in an experimental field system during spring to autumn 1969. Dispersal first occurred when there was at least 100 times more energy available than was required by the population. Sodium and phosphorus were in short supply in the food. By feeding selectively or copiously, voles could make up nutrient deficits and still consume only 10% of what was available. However, calculations show that depletion of the food was potentially severe in the forthcoming winter; consumption of energy- and nutrient-sufficient food had the potential of approaching 100%. These results suggest the following explanation of presaturation dispersal. Nutrients may be more limiting to herbivores than is total energy. Selective or copious harvesting becomes increasingly necessary as density increases. Natural selection, acting upon known genetic variation in dispersal propensity, has favored a dispersal response to environmental conditions that presage food shortage. Aggressive behavior and other forms of interactive behavior are the means by which land-tenured breeding individuals control their access to food resources and by which nontenured individuals are excluded and induced to disperse. Herbivore populations in general are limited well below carrying capacity. Carrying capacity may have been overestimated by ignoring chemical quality of the food, but the relationship is still probably true. The above explanation helps us to understand it. Because animals need to feed selectively, exploitation is based on cost-benefit balances and is less than total. PMID:16592536

  12. Metabolic rate of carrying added mass: a function of walking speed, carried mass and mass location.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Eliran; Riemer, Raziel

    2014-11-01

    The effort of carrying additional mass at different body locations is important in ergonomics and in designing wearable robotics. We investigate the metabolic rate of carrying a load as a function of its mass, its location on the body and the subject's walking speed. Novel metabolic rate prediction equations for walking while carrying loads at the ankle, knees and back were developed based on experiments where subjects walked on a treadmill at 4, 5 or 6km/h bearing different amounts of added mass (up to 2kg per leg and 22kg for back). Compared to previously reported equations, ours are 7-69% more accurate. Results also show that relative cost for carrying a mass at a distal versus a proximal location changes with speed and mass. Contrary to mass carried on the back, mass attached to the leg cannot be modeled as an increase in body mass. PMID:24793822

  13. Reports of LSAC Sponsored Research: Volume III, 1975-1977. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law School Admission Council, Princeton, NJ.

    Nineteen research reports and summaries of projects studying law school admission and the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) are presented. These research projects were supported by the Law School Admission Council between 1975 and 1977. A subject and an author index, covering this and the previous two volumes (including research conducted from 1949…

  14. Reports of LSAC Sponsored Research: Volume II, 1970-1974. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law School Admission Council, Princeton, NJ.

    Thirty-four research reports and summaries of projects studying law school admission and the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) are presented. These research projects were supported by the Law School Admission Council between 1970 and 1974. A subject index and an author index for volume I, covering 1949-1969, and for this volume are also provided.…

  15. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Polymer microspheres carrying fluorescent DNA probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Xu, Shichao; Wu, Chunrong; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    A polymer microspheres carried DNA probe, which was based on resonance energy transfer, was presented in this paper when CdTe quantum dots(QDs) were as energy donors, Au nanoparticles were as energy accepters and poly(4- vinylpyrindine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) microspheres were as carriers. Polymer microspheres with functional group on surfaces were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization when ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was as crosslinker in acetonitrile. CdTe QDs were prepared when 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA) was as the stabilizer in aqueous solution. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the carboxyl groups of MPA on QDs and the pyrindine groups on the microspheres, the QDs were self-assembled onto the surfaces of microspheres. Then, the other parts of DNA probe were finished according to the classic method. The DNA detection results indicated that this novel fluorescent DNA probe system could recognize the existence of complementary target DNA or not.

  17. Colliding particles carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2011-05-01

    Photons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, using Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies was suggested. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted particles in the initial and/or final state. In order to avoid additional complications arising from nontrivial polarization states, we focus here on scalar fields only. We show that processes involving twisted particles allow one to perform a Fourier analysis of the plane-wave cross section with respect to the azimuthal angles of the initial particles. In addition, using twisted states, one can probe the autocorrelation function of the amplitude, which is inaccessible in the plane-wave collisions. Finally, we discuss prospects for experimental study of these effects.

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Mariana Santos de; Rodrigues, William Costa; Barbosa, Glaucia; Trilles, Luciana; Wanke, Bodo; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Silva, Manuela da

    2012-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis) positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants) found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus. PMID:22666855

  19. Corrosion cracking of gas-carrying pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, K.; Shaukat, A.; Hassan, F.

    1989-02-01

    Samples of soil and other materials adhering to the outer and inner surfaces of pipeline coatings, and pieces of rupture pipe were studied to investigate causes of gas-carrying pipeline failures in Pakistan. Chemical analysis of the ruptured pipe shows the pipeline steel had no material flaw. X-ray diffraction studies of the soil reveal that it contains clay and nonclay minerals normally found. The material adhering to the coating facing the pipeline surface contains carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium, namely, nahcolite and trona. This study shows that nahcolite and trona, as products of cathodic protection that were then synthesized in the vicinity of the pipeline surface, could have attacked the pipe surface over the years and caused corrosion.

  20. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  1. Law and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    Fourteen activity units are presented to help elementary and junior high students learn about laws, rules, and respect for others. A pretest introduces the materials by asking students why society has rules and laws, which ones apply to children, and what reactions students have to the word "cop." The subsequent units involve the students in group…

  2. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

  3. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  4. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  5. Nanotechnology and the Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  6. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  7. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  8. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  9. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  10. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  11. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as…

  12. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  13. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  14. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  15. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  16. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  17. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  18. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  19. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  20. Impact crater scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

  1. Retinal Oscillations Carry Visual Information to Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Kilian; Wang, Xin; Vaingankar, Vishal; Wei, Yichun; Wang, Qingbo; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Hirsch, Judith A.; Sommer, Friedrich T.

    2009-01-01

    Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs) and thalamic outputs (spikes) and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz), is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40–80 Hz) and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene. PMID:19404487

  2. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  3. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS INVOLVING THE DISCHARGE OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE...

  4. Intellectual Property Law Primer for Multimedia Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, J. Dianne; Radcliffe, Mark F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses legal issues involved in developing and distributing multimedia publications. Examines libel; rights of publicity; and such elements of copyright law as copyright protections and infringements, fair use and public domain policies, and use of ideas and factual materials. Uses a hypothetical multimedia project to illustrate the legal rules…

  5. How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…

  6. Designing a Blended School Law Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fankhauser, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in August 2006, the author modified a school law course by moving from fifteen (15) weekly class meetings to eight (8) weekly class meetings and seven (7) online sessions. The blended or hybrid delivery system was adopted as part of a pilot project sponsored by the university's Institute for Teaching and Learning Excellence. The course…

  7. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  8. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  9. The new energy law

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Z.

    1997-05-01

    Foreign companies, as well as Polish companies, have long awaited the introduction of a new environment for doing business in Poland`s energy sector. The adoption by the Sejm (lower house of the Polish Parliament) of a new Energy Law (Prawo Energetyczne) promises to move Poland into a brave new world for energy sector businesses. With this law, Poland hopes to leapfrog into the vanguard of European countries in terms of privatization and demonopolization of its energy sectors. Only the United Kingdom may be more progressive in this regard. During the past several months, a draft law was passed by the Sejm and sent to the Senate. The Senate introduced nearly 50 changes, passed the law and returned it to the Sejm. At that point, the Sejm committee responsible for this law recommended against almost all the Senate`s changes, returning the draft law to its original form. The actions by the Sejm, now awaited, will be final with only the signature of the president needed to put the law into force. Subsequently, this examination of the law is based upon the draft as originally passed by the Sejm and expected to be signed by Poland`s president. There are several key provisions of the proposed new law that make it so different from the current regulatory structure. The key terms that the Polish government likes to use are privatization and demonopolization, of which the latter is to come first. It is a leap forward from an energy sector that was owned entirely by the State, and where prices at all levels, from the coal mines to the residential consumer, were set without regard to cost.

  10. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  11. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Leontsinis, Stefanos

    2014-12-01

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the n-th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford's predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow the first digit law reasonable well, and that the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.

  12. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

  13. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  14. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:25770525

  15. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  16. Global carrying capacity: how many people?

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    During 1980-85 energy consumption in developing countries increased by 22%, of which 50% was used to maintain current levels of use and 50% pertained to real economic growth. Commercial energy consumption during 1970-89 tripled in developing countries. Population growth alone is expected to increase world energy consumption from the current 13.5 terawatts (13.5 trillion watts) to 18 terawatts by 2025 at the same level of use. The increased level of consumption (4.5 terawatts) is the equivalent of total current commercial energy consumption. One terawatt is equal to energy use from 5 billion barrels of oil yearly, 1 billion tons of coal, or 1.6 billion tons of wood. Economic development will require even greater levels of energy use. Since the oil price increases of the 1970s, developed countries increased their energy consumption by about 33%, even while becoming more fuel efficient. During 1990-2025, if developing countries double their per capita energy use and developed countries reduce their use by 50%, world energy consumption will still be almost 21 terawatts. If consumption remains constant at current levels without any population increase, the oil supply will be exhausted in 40 years. Coal consumption will last hundreds of years but air pollution will worsen, and global warming will be accelerated. Developed countries, which are wealthier, are having difficulty switching to non-fossil fuels, and the prospects for developing countries pose even greater challenges. Slowing growth buys time for technological development. World population is expected to reach 8 billion by 2020. Stabilization of growth at 8 billion would occur only if world fertility averages 1.7 children per woman by 2025. One opinion is that the carrying capacity has been reached with the present population of 5.4 billion. Others say that with changes in consumption and technological developments the earth can sustain 8 billion people. The physical limits are 1) the finite capacity of natural

  17. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations, 43 CFR 2; and 383 DM 15, Freedom of Information Act Handbook (see www.doi.gov); (g) To ensure... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3...

  18. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations, 43 CFR 2; and 383 DM 15, Freedom of Information Act Handbook (see www.doi.gov); (g) To ensure... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3...

  19. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations, 43 CFR 2; and 383 DM 15, Freedom of Information Act Handbook (see www.doi.gov); (g) To ensure... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3...

  20. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  1. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  2. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  3. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  4. What Is Benford's Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jonathan R.; Farnsworth, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The surprising property of many data sets that their first significant digits follow Benford's Law provides examples that can pique and hold students' interest. Several ideas for student activities are presented.

  5. Stokes' Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses limitations and corrections to be made in physics experiments involving the investigations of drag and terminal velocity on spheres falling through a liquid in accordance with Stokes' law. (SL)

  6. Magnetic Field Due to a Finite Length Current-Carrying Wire Using the Concept of Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In undergraduate E&M courses the magnetic field due to a finite length, current-carrying wire can be calculated using the Biot-Savart law. However, to the author's knowledge, no textbook presents the calculation of this field using the Ampere-Maxwell law: ?B [multiplied by] dl = µ[subscript 0] (I + e[subscript 0] dF/dt) [multiplied by] 1

  7. Audiovisual Enhancement of Classroom Teaching: A Primer for Law Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vincent Robert

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of audiovisual instruction in the law school classroom looks at the strengths, weaknesses, equipment and facilities needs and hints for classroom use of overhead projection, audiotapes and videotapes, and slides. (MSE)

  8. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Keyfitz, Barbara

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  9. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  10. 78 FR 56267 - Article 19-A of the State of New York's Vehicle and Traffic Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Law AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Department of Transportation (DOT... a determination that Article 19-A of the State of New York's Vehicle and Traffic Law governing drivers of passenger-carrying interstate motor vehicles is preempted by Federal law. FMCSA...

  11. Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.

    PubMed

    Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

    1999-01-01

    The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p < .01) while backpacking a 22.5 kg load. A decrease of EISM also appeared at the next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

  12. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Gabor

    1974-01-01

    Bioenergetic processes are viewed as processes of free energy transduction. The free energies of both local equilibrium and fluctuation states are being considered. It is shown that the exchange of thermal energy with the surrounding medium, acting as a reservoir, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics within broad limits. There is sufficient latitude for proteins to carry out their function of transduction utilizing thermal energy in the process. PMID:16592167

  13. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  14. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  15. Law of corresponding states for open collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardi, Marco; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the relation between number of contributors and product size in Wikipedia and GitHub. In contrast to traditional production, this is strongly probabilistic, but is characterized by two quantitative nonlinear laws: a power-law bound to product size for increasing number of contributors, and the universal collapse of rescaled distributions. A variant of the random-energy model shows that both laws are due to the heterogeneity of contributors, and displays an intriguing finite-size scaling property with no equivalent in standard systems. The analysis uncovers the right intensive densities, enabling the comparison of projects with different numbers of contributors on equal grounds. We use this property to expose the detrimental effects of conflicting interactions in Wikipedia.

  16. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  17. The Weyl law for contractive maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Maria E.; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Carlo, Gabriel

    2013-11-01

    We find an empirical Weyl law followed by the eigenvalues of contractive maps. An important property is that it is mainly insensitive to the dimension of the corresponding invariant classical set, the strange attractor. The usual explanation for the fractal Weyl law emergence in scattering systems (i.e., having a projective opening) is based on the classical phase space distributions evolved up to the quantum to classical correspondence (Ehrenfest) time. In the contractive case this reasoning fails to describe it. Instead, we conjecture that the support for this behavior is essentially given by the strong non-orthogonality of the eigenvectors of the contractive superoperator. We test the validity of the Weyl law and this conjecture on two paradigmatic systems, the dissipative baker and kicked top maps.

  18. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  19. 14 CFR 1274.939 - Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations. 1274.939 Section 1274.939 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... of the Project. (b) State or Territorial Law and Local Law. Except to the extent that a...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.939 - Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of Federal, State, and Local laws and regulations. 1274.939 Section 1274.939 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... of the Project. (b) State or Territorial Law and Local Law. Except to the extent that a...

  1. Discipline and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1996-01-01

    Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

  2. Evolution and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  3. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  4. Wisconsin Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

    A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

  5. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  6. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  7. Law Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law…

  8. The Law and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report reviews and analyzes six books on the subject of the law and racial equality, especially as related to school desegregation. The books examined are: (1)"Government by Judiciary" by Raoul Berger, which examines the Supreme Court's interpretation of the 14th Amendment; (2) "Disaster by Decree," by Lino A. Graglia, which criticizes…

  9. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  10. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…