Science.gov

Sample records for law

  1. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  3. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  4. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  5. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  6. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  7. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews four recent court decisions affecting school law. A Circuit Court of Appeals ruling upheld Norfolk Schools' decision to abolish busing and reinstate neighborhood schools. The United States Supreme Court dismissed appeals to lower court decisions involving a minimum grade prerequisite, a teacher's privacy rights, and an "adult" movie…

  8. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  9. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  10. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  11. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  12. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  13. Law As a Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

  14. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  15. [Teaching about Family Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

  16. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  17. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  18. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  19. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  20. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  1. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  2. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  3. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  4. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  5. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  6. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  7. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  8. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  9. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as…

  10. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  11. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  12. Law and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    Fourteen activity units are presented to help elementary and junior high students learn about laws, rules, and respect for others. A pretest introduces the materials by asking students why society has rules and laws, which ones apply to children, and what reactions students have to the word "cop." The subsequent units involve the students in group…

  13. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

  14. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  15. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  16. Nanotechnology and the Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  17. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  18. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  19. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  20. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  1. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  2. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  3. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  4. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  5. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  6. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  7. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  8. Impact crater scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

  9. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  10. The new energy law

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Z.

    1997-05-01

    Foreign companies, as well as Polish companies, have long awaited the introduction of a new environment for doing business in Poland`s energy sector. The adoption by the Sejm (lower house of the Polish Parliament) of a new Energy Law (Prawo Energetyczne) promises to move Poland into a brave new world for energy sector businesses. With this law, Poland hopes to leapfrog into the vanguard of European countries in terms of privatization and demonopolization of its energy sectors. Only the United Kingdom may be more progressive in this regard. During the past several months, a draft law was passed by the Sejm and sent to the Senate. The Senate introduced nearly 50 changes, passed the law and returned it to the Sejm. At that point, the Sejm committee responsible for this law recommended against almost all the Senate`s changes, returning the draft law to its original form. The actions by the Sejm, now awaited, will be final with only the signature of the president needed to put the law into force. Subsequently, this examination of the law is based upon the draft as originally passed by the Sejm and expected to be signed by Poland`s president. There are several key provisions of the proposed new law that make it so different from the current regulatory structure. The key terms that the Polish government likes to use are privatization and demonopolization, of which the latter is to come first. It is a leap forward from an energy sector that was owned entirely by the State, and where prices at all levels, from the coal mines to the residential consumer, were set without regard to cost.

  11. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Leontsinis, Stefanos

    2014-12-01

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the n-th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford's predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow the first digit law reasonable well, and that the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.

  12. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

  13. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  14. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:25770525

  15. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  17. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  18. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  19. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  20. What Is Benford's Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jonathan R.; Farnsworth, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The surprising property of many data sets that their first significant digits follow Benford's Law provides examples that can pique and hold students' interest. Several ideas for student activities are presented.

  1. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  2. Stokes' Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses limitations and corrections to be made in physics experiments involving the investigations of drag and terminal velocity on spheres falling through a liquid in accordance with Stokes' law. (SL)

  3. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  4. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  5. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  6. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  7. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  8. Environmental Law II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  9. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  10. School Law Update, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction" (Helm); (3)…

  11. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  12. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  13. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  14. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  15. Discipline and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1996-01-01

    Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

  16. Evolution and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  17. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  18. Wisconsin Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

    A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

  19. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  20. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  1. Law Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law…

  2. The Law and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report reviews and analyzes six books on the subject of the law and racial equality, especially as related to school desegregation. The books examined are: (1)"Government by Judiciary" by Raoul Berger, which examines the Supreme Court's interpretation of the 14th Amendment; (2) "Disaster by Decree," by Lino A. Graglia, which criticizes…

  3. Law and Ecomanagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayda, Jaro

    1986-01-01

    This article argues that environmental awareness has a substantial impact on law, both as a technical discipline and as a policy process. It further develops the concept of ecomanagement and reviews the role of environmental impact assessments in policy development. (JDH)

  4. Schools and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

    The basic areas of school law in the United States, from the governmental framework in which education functions to concerns about teachers, pupils, and school property, are covered in this book. Separate chapters describe the roles of governmental agencies at federal, state, and local levels and discuss regulation of what is taught as well as…

  5. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  6. Team Teaching School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

  7. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  8. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  9. The Hungarian Library Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This booklet includes the Law-Decree No. 15 on Libraries issued by the Presidium of the Hungarian People's Republic in 1976 and the decree of the Council of Ministers on its implementation. The purpose of the decree is to further the fulfilment of citizens' cultural demands, and meet the needs for special literature of both citizens and corporate…

  10. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  11. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  12. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  13. Teaching "Law and Education" Outside the Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.

    A symposium discussion is presented on the topic, "Teaching 'Law and Education' Outside the Law School." The participants were: Walter J. McCann of Harvard Graduate School of Education; E. Edmund Reutter, Jr., of Teachers College of Columbia University; Robert J. Simpson of University of Miami Center for Policy and Law in Education; Tyll Van Geel…

  14. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  15. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  16. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  17. Upstream health law.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." PMID:25565619

  18. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  19. [Abortion law in Italy].

    PubMed

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  20. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  1. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  2. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  3. Freedom under Law. Revised edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Schools, CO.

    This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

  4. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  5. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  6. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  7. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

  8. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  9. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  10. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  11. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  12. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  13. Epilepsy and law.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration. PMID:18234559

  14. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  15. Composition law for polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, J.; Giust, R.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    2008-09-01

    The polarization process when polarizers act on an optical field is studied. We give examples for two kinds of polarizers. The first kind presents an anisotropic absorption—as in a Polaroid film—and the second one is based on total reflection at the interface with a birefringent medium. Using the Stokes vector representation, we determine explicitly the trajectories of the wave light polarization during the polarization process. We find that such trajectories are not always geodesics of the Poincaré sphere as is usually thought. Using the analogy between light polarization and special relativity, we find that the action of successive polarizers on the light wave polarization is equivalent to the action of a single resulting polarizer followed by a rotation achieved, for example, by a device with optical activity. We find a composition law for polarizers similar to the composition law for noncollinear velocities in special relativity. We define an angle equivalent to the relativistic Wigner angle which can be used to quantify the quality of two composed polarizers.

  16. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  17. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  18. Unified scaling law for earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kim; Danon, Leon; Scanlon, Tim; Bak, Per

    2002-01-01

    We propose and verify a unified scaling law that provides a framework for viewing the probability of the occurrence of earthquakes in a given region and for a given cutoff magnitude. The law shows that earthquakes occur in hierarchical correlated clusters, which overlap with other spatially separated correlated clusters for large enough time periods and areas. For a small enough region and time-scale, only a single correlated group can be sampled. The law links together the Gutenberg–Richter Law, the Omori Law of aftershocks, and the fractal dimensions of the faults. The Omori Law is shown to be the short time limit of general hierarchical phenomenon containing the statistics of both “main shocks” and “aftershocks,” indicating that they are created by the same mechanism. PMID:11875203

  19. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  20. Regional differences in sodomy laws.

    PubMed

    Young, T J

    1991-02-01

    As of 1989, 24 states prohibited either heterosexual or homosexual sodomy. This raises for study the following question: in what ways do states with sodomy laws differ from states without sodomy laws. It was hypothesized that states with sodomy laws are more punitive (as measured by the rate of adults under correctional supervision and the number of restricted civil rights for a felony conviction), rural, and southern. Although the first two hypotheses were rejected, states with sodomy laws scored significantly higher than states without such laws on Gastil's Index of Southerness. Sodomy laws may be more commonly found in the South given regional differences in social values about sex, morality, and family life. PMID:2034763

  1. Rephrasing Faraday's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. Eric

    2010-09-01

    As physics educators, we must often find the balance between simplicity and accuracy. Particularly in introductory courses, it can be a struggle to give students the level of understanding for which they're ready without misrepresenting reality. Of course, it's in these introductory courses that our students begin to construct the conceptual framework that they'll flesh out over a physics curriculum. So a misrepresentation at this early stage will seed difficulties and stubborn misconceptions that can persist or even strengthen through subsequent courses, especially since many upper-level texts focus more on techniques and would not directly challenge mistaken concepts. In the worst cases, our students retain misunderstandings past graduation, and even pass them on to their own students. One important case is the common representation of Faraday's law as showing that a time-varying magnetic field causes a circulating electric field.

  2. LAWS hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, John

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.

  3. Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: the Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures…

  4. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  5. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  6. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  7. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  8. Everyday Law for Children. The Everyday Law Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to laws that affect children and families, and the dominant public debates that surround and drive these laws. Using real-world examples, the book exposes the tension between reliance on the private, autonomous family and the public's desire to secure child wellbeing. A look at some public systems,…

  9. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  10. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  11. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  12. On the Law of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  13. Lenz's law in the kitchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindorf, Wojciech

    1999-05-01

    A steel blade—a rather vital part of a mixer—has fallen behind a cupboard in my kitchen. The cupboard is heavy and quite permanently mounted between stove and fridge. Hopeless situation! Unless—you are an experimental physicist. This straightforward demonstration helps in appreciating the connection between Lenz's law and the law of conservation of energy.

  14. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  15. School Law in Review, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: (1) "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt); (2) "How Accommodating? High-Stakes Testing and Federal Laws That…

  16. Social Change and Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  17. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  18. [Psychiatric evaluation in civil law].

    PubMed

    Foerster, K

    1992-03-01

    Aspects of civil law of importance for the psychiatrist as expert witness are those dealing with disability pensions accident insurance, compensation in civil law and rights of the seriously disabled. The legal basis of each is briefly outlined, and some guidelines given for psychiatric court reports. Some outstanding theoretical and practical problems are mentioned. PMID:1579170

  19. Reference Service in Law Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasala, Kathleen M.

    Ten law librarians, at one private and three academic law libraries, were studied to ascertain what types of reference services they provide to their patrons. The current model employed in public libraries today was used as the baseline against which to measure these legal reference services. This model employs five traditional categories of:…

  20. The Coming Law School Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  1. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws. PMID:23086699

  2. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  4. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  5. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  6. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  7. Genetic discrimination and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Natowicz, M R; Alper, J K; Alper, J S

    1992-01-01

    The use of genetic tests can lead to genetic discrimination, discrimination based solely on the nature of an individual's genotype. Instances of the discriminatory uses of genetic tests by employers and insurance companies have already been reported. The recently enacted Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), together with other federal and state laws, can be used to combat some forms of this discrimination. In this article we define and characterize genetic discrimination, discuss the applicability of the various relevant federal and state laws, including the ADA, in the areas of employment and insurance discrimination, explore the limitations of these laws, and, finally, suggest some means of overcoming these limitations. PMID:1342778

  8. Generalized second law for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a novel generalized second law that can be applied in cosmology, regardless of whether an event horizon is present: the generalized entropy increases monotonically outside of certain hypersurfaces we call past Q-screens. A past Q-screen is foliated by surfaces whose generalized entropy (sum of area and entanglement entropy) is stationary along one future null direction and increasing along the other. We prove that our generalized second law holds in spacetimes obeying the quantum focusing conjecture. An analogous law applies to future Q-screens, which appear inside evaporating black holes and in collapsing regions.

  9. The Law of Attrition

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a “science of attrition”, that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call “law of attrition” here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the appplication. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually “works”, ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a “usage half-life”, and

  10. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  11. The South's First Black Woman Law Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1988-01-01

    Marilyn Yarbrough, the University of Tennessee's new law school dean, has impressive credentials, a reputation as an excellent administrator, and interests in increasing minority representation in law and reducing the financial burden of law students. (MSE)

  12. Law in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation is made of existing teacher guides and curricula, and proposals are given for curriculum improvements in the areas of Jurisprudence, Law, and Civics at the elementary and secondary level. (EJS)

  13. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  14. The brain and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  15. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  16. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  17. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  19. The brain and the law.

    PubMed

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-11-29

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  20. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  1. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  2. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  3. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. PMID:26192018

  4. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  5. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  6. Education Law Texts Usage: Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the textbooks professors use in education law courses, based on a survey of 110 members of the Education Law Association during 1996-97. Almost half preferred Alexander and Alexander's "American School Law," with McCarthy and Caqmbron-McCabe's "Public School Law" a close second. Only 44% required or suggested additional nontextbook…

  7. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  8. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  9. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other laws. 15.17 Section 15... TRAINING CENTER § 15.17 Other laws. Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  10. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  11. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  12. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  13. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  15. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  16. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  17. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  18. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  19. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  20. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  1. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  2. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  3. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  4. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  5. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  6. Conservation laws in embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this work is considered embedding theory, a theory in which independent variables which describe gravity are functions of the space-time embedding into a ten-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. Neother's theorem is used to find conservation laws for energy and angular momentum as a result from the action's invariance in relation to the rotation and translation of the system. The form of these conservation laws and their consequences depending on the different formulations of embedding theory is discussed. It is also analyzed a transition from embedding theory to a field theory in a flat space-time with a number of dimensions greater than four. The same procedure is followed in this case to find conservation laws, resulting in the solution of the problem of time present in Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  7. Power Law Distribution in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.; Chavarette, Fábio R.

    We studied the statistical distribution of student's performance, which is measured through their marks, in university entrance examination (Vestibular) of UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) with respect to (i) period of study-day versus night period (ii) teaching conditions - private versus public school (iii) economical conditions - high versus low family income. We observed long ubiquitous power law tails in physical and biological sciences in all cases. The mean value increases with better study conditions followed by better teaching and economical conditions. In humanities, the distribution is close to normal distribution with very small tail. This indicates that these power law tails in science subjects are due to the nature of the subjects themselves. Further and better study, teaching and economical conditions are more important for physical and biological sciences in comparison to humanities at this level of study. We explain these statistical distributions through Gradually Truncated Power law distributions. We discuss the possible reason for this peculiar behavior.

  8. Facing the Millenium: Law Schools, Law Librarians, and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the role of advancing technology in legal education looks at the administrative and organizational questions it poses, solutions developed at the Duke University (North Carolina) law school, and new possible roles for library directors in managing and planning the growing integration of information technology into all aspects of…

  9. Law in the Workplace. You and the Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Meant to help both employees and employers avoid problems by generally explaining the law of the workplace and suggesting places to turn for further information concerning particular situations, this booklet is presented in a question/answer format. The areas covered and their subtopics are as follows: (1) recruiting and hiring; (2) employees'…

  10. Law and Community Service: The Appalachian School of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    At southwest Virginia's new Appalachian School of Law, students volunteer 25 hours each semester on community service projects. Projects fall into two categories: pure service by sharing a skill or interest, and service that draws on legal skills, such as presenting legal seminars to senior citizens' groups or conducting conflict resolution…

  11. The Law of Teacher Evaluation: Case Law Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the law of teacher evaluation using recent cases. The purpose is to assist administrators in separating professional lore from legal requirements. Case analysis, with citations, is provided in several topic areas, including procedural default, remediation plans, statutory discrimination, and grievance arbitrability. (Author)

  12. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  13. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  14. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  15. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  16. Snell's Law for Spin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  17. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  18. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  19. Zipf law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshi

    2004-06-01

    Using an exhaustive list of Japanese bankruptcy in 1997, we discover a Zipf law for the distribution of total liabilities of bankrupted firms in high debt range. The life-time of these bankrupted firms has exponential distribution in correlation with entry rate of new firms. We also show that the debt and size are highly correlated, so the Zipf law holds consistently with that for size distribution. In an attempt to understand “physics” of bankruptcy, we show that a model of debtor-creditor dynamics of firms and a bank, recently proposed by economists, can reproduce these phenomenological findings.

  20. Power law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2007-01-01

    We consider the scaling behaviors for fluctuations of the number of Korean firms bankrupted in the period from 1 August 2002 to 28 October 2003. We observe a power law for the distribution of the number of the bankrupted firms. The Pareto exponent is close to unity. We also consider the daily increments of the number of firms bankrupted. The probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follows the Gaussian distribution in central part and has a fat tail. The tail parts of the probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follow a power law.

  1. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  2. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'. PMID:2207612

  3. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  4. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  6. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  7. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  8. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  9. Power laws and macroeconomic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffeo, Edoardo; Gallegati, Mauro; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Palestrini, Antonio

    2003-06-01

    We study the duration distribution of recessions and recoveries occurred in a pool of industrialized countries during the last 120 years. We find that for recessions the duration is distributed according to a power law, and that the power exponent is virtually invariant as we split up the time span into sub-periods. The evidence regarding the duration of recoveries is mixed, however.

  10. What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides legal explanations to the following concerns: (1) case law on specific learning disability (SLD) eligibility; (2) recent developments on response to intervention (RTI); (3) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) rules; and (4) the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) regulation. The author's…

  11. School Law in Review 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    This compilation of the presentations delivered at the NSBA Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar includes the following papers: (1) "The 'Dimensions' of Trial Advocacy" (Keith Evans); (2) "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Who Has It and Who Doesn't" (Jerry L. Wyckoff); (3) "Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment and…

  12. Law Students Practice in Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The glass walls and observation lounge of Hamline University Law Center's moot court allow passersby to glimpse the action day or night. Faculty offices, secretarial spaces, and several student organizations are housed on the second floor. The brick and masonry exterior was designed to fit in with other campus buildings. (Author/MLF)

  13. School Law in Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This book is a compilation of the presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association (NSBA) Council of School Attorneys Annual School Law Seminar on March 22-24, 2001, in San Diego, California. Presentations include: (1) "Religion and the Public Schools--What Hath the Supreme Court Wrought?" (Jay Worona and Patricia H. Gould); (2)…

  14. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  15. The Seed Is the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  16. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  17. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world. PMID:25630549

  18. A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Don L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate Boyle's law that provides pressure measurements in a familiar unit (psi) and makes no assumptions concerning atmospheric pressure. Items needed include bathroom scales and a 60-ml syringe, castor oil, disposable 3-ml syringe and needle, modeling clay, pliers, and a wooden block. Commercial devices use a…

  19. Fire and Water Demonstrate Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Luca, R.; Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe two classroom experiments that can be interpreted by means of Bernoulli's law. The first experiment uses a lighted candle in front of a mirror and a stream of air that is sent obliquely towards the mirror. The purpose of this experiment is to find out which way the flame will bend if air is blown at a given…

  20. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  1. Teaching Freedom of Information Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toran, Janice

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that a course on the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 is shaped largely by one question: how does the rhetoric behind the law match the reality of its operation? Issues such a course can address are identified, and possible course formats and teaching materials are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Measuring Law for Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Thomas, Sue; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations that combine social science and law have tremendous potential to illuminate the effects of governmental policies and yield insights into how effectively policy makers' efforts achieve their aims. This potential is infrequently achieved, however, because such interdisciplinary research contains often overlooked substantive and…

  3. Various Paths to Faraday's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent note, the author presented a derivation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction for a closed filamentary circuit C(t) which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves via the magnetic vector potential. Recently, Kholmetskii et al, while correcting an error in an equation, showed that it can be…

  4. Making School Bully Laws Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  5. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  6. Business Law Syllabus. 1977 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This business law curriculum guide for use with eleventh or twelfth grade students provides a modular course of study designed to be covered in one school year using a four or five class periods per week schedule. The guide begins with a brief section covering the course objectives, administrative considerations such as abbreviated courses,…

  7. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  8. Lotka's Law: A Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1985-01-01

    A step-by-step outline is presented for testing the applicability of Lotka's law of scientific productivity. Steps include the computation of the values of the exponent and constant based on Lotka's method and the test for significance of observed frequency distribution against the estimated theoretical distribution derived from Lotka's formula.…

  9. Law Enforcement and the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelvoorde, Rose; And Others

    The training program examines the relationship between law enforcement personnel and persons with disabilities. The curriculum is organized into four sections dealing with specific concerns of people with hearing impairments, visual impairments, mental retardation, and mobility impairments. Background information is presented for each disability…

  10. Law and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  11. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  12. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  13. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  14. A generalization of Snell's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Michael L.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main result of this research is the expression found for Snell's Law of Refraction in which the velocity of the light particles in the medium depends upon direction. We also use inverse problems to find the index of refraction needed to move along any desired family of curves. Finally, we derive a general expression that generates a family of curves given any index of refraction. This research has several applications in the area of acoustical and optical wave propagation. In the area of acoustics, the inverse problems enable us to predict the path followed by sound waves for a given medium. This has a military use in the area of prosecuting submarine contacts and in ocean bottom surveys. The inverse problems also have applications to the bending of light rays used in laser technology. Although this paper derives several generalizations of Snell's Law of Refraction there are still areas that require further research.

  15. School Law. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    Four subjects are the focus of this discussion of school law: sexual harassment, the copyright act, school discipline, and religion and the schools. In cases of sexual harassment of students by school personnel, a criterion for determining whether a school is liable involves the standard of "actual knowledge" in which school officials have…

  16. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  17. Copyright Law Symposium. No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, New York, NY.

    This book presents the five national prizewinning papers in the twenty-third copyright law symposium conducted by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). Titles of the papers are "The USSR Joins the Universal Copyright Convention" (first prize), "Copyright Misuse: Thirty Years Waiting for the Other Shoe" (second prize),…

  18. School Law in Review, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa, Ed.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: "From Vouchers to One Nation Under God: A Review of Recent Decisions Affecting the Separation of Church and State in the Context of Public Education" (Jay Worona); "ACLJ Memorandum: Religion in the…

  19. Effective Learning & Teaching in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Roger, Ed.; Hinett, Karen, Ed.; Paliwala, Abdul, Ed.; Varnava, Tracey, Ed.

    This book discusses key issues for the effective teaching of law from a range of experts in the United Kingdom. It includes material on teaching and the support of learning and on using learning materials and information technology in legal education. The chapters are: (1) Revising Legal Education (Tracey Varnava and Roger Burridge); (2) Learning…

  20. Rhetoric and Law: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon

    1970-01-01

    Rhetoric and law had mutually beneficial influences on each other during the Graeco-Roman era. The relationship deteriorated during the middle ages because of a universal decline in learning, culture, and social organization; the hostility of the church toward rhetoric as a pagan concept; and the feudal structure in which there was no system of…

  1. Family Law: Notes from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  2. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  3. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  4. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  5. School Law in Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This twenty-one chapter book deals with important, timely topics in school law. Topics include home instruction in place of public school attendance; judicial review of labor arbitration awards; procedures for nonrenewal of nontenured teachers that avoid constitutional problems; discipline by grade reduction and grade denial based on attendance;…

  6. The Coming of Secret Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1988-01-01

    Traces trends in the federal government's policy toward publication of statutes and publication practices from the time of the colonies to the present administration. The impairment of the publication of federal administrative law is then discussed in the context of the rise of a national security state. (118 notes with references) (CLB)

  7. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  8. Property law: a cognitive turn.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2010-04-01

    Despite more than a century of research by psychologists on issues relating to the law, most such research has focused on a small subset of topics relevant to the legal system. Here, I review several legal topics amenable to psychological research that fall under the broad umbrella of property law: (1) how the concepts of property and ownership are represented cognitively; (2) the relationship between wealth and happiness, consumer behavior, and the priming effect of money concepts; (3) animal and child development in cognition about and behavior toward property and ownership; and (4) the relevance of psychological research on home to legal policy. These and other areas provide potential research agendas for cognitive and social cognitive psychologists. After noting the importance of such research for legal doctrine, theory, and policy, I close with suggestions for effectively communicating empirical findings to the legal community. PMID:20382918

  9. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  10. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  11. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  12. Snell's Law for Spin Waves.

    PubMed

    Stigloher, J; Decker, M; Körner, H S; Tanabe, K; Moriyama, T; Taniguchi, T; Hata, H; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T; Back, C H

    2016-07-15

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications. PMID:27472134

  13. Nuclear weapons and the law.

    PubMed

    Murray, R K

    1999-01-01

    The history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is summarized, with a discussion of some of its earlier Advisory Opinions. The Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear arms is considered in the light of the principles of international humanitarian law and a review of nuclear weapons effects. The present government's position on nuclear weapons as outlined in the Strategic Defence Review (which ignores the issue of legality) is examined critically. PMID:10371869

  14. Environmental issues and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Henrichs, R

    1992-01-01

    This report first briefly reviews the history and lessons learned from our legislation regarding protection of our environment. Then, these lessons are combined with principles of general jurisprudence to suggest avenues for regulation of industrial ecology. Even though the law has important limitations, it can be used as a tool to identify national goals and to promote their achievement by means of incentives or sanctions. PMID:11607266

  15. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ)+〈Q〉_{F|m}≥0, where ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρ_{m} and 〈Q〉_{F|m} is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples. PMID:27627241

  16. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M.; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as Δ H (ρm,ρ ) + F |m≥0 , where Δ H (ρm,ρ ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρm and F |m is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples.

  17. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  18. Semantic grasping escapes Weber's law.

    PubMed

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H

    2015-04-01

    According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, semantic information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904

  19. Ethical issues in family law.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, S

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on a few key ethical issues which arise in the context of family law. One of the issues faces mental health practitioners who are often engaged as expert witnesses in family law disputes. In another realm, family law attorneys face several fundamental ethical dilemmas in the course of their work. The client's right to appropriate treatment will be considered in the light of multidisciplinary services. On a broader level, the courts need to examine the ethical implications of the commonly used guideline in judicial process, 'the best interests of the child'. When these ethical issues are considered, it becomes clear what changes need to be made in individual practice, professional standards and social policy. The underlying premise is based on the knowledge we have gained in recent years through research and clinical experience with divorcing families. It is suggested that a radically different approach to society's handling of divorce is needed. Denmark's administrative handling of these problems is presented as a working alternative model. PMID:8231692

  20. Facilitation for law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1997-02-01

    In todays world of rapid technology development, emerging technologies present to law enforcement agencies, one of a very limited number of legal responses to criminal initiatives. Yet in spite of the existence of very sophisticated enforcement technologies, many law enforcement organizations seem to lag behind in several important areas of technology response and adaptation. This paper will propose the idea that what is needed is a closer partnership between private industry`technology adaptors' and government officials who are the problem `identifiers'. This marriage of necessity would produce immediate operational results focussed on todays enforcement problems and tomorrows emerging solutions. The paper will also present the concept of the establishment of an independent body tasked with the creation of an enforcement technology `adaptor' registry for authorized and innovative, enforcement technology applications specialists. This registry would be created to assist enforcement agencies with the location and/or creation of new law enforcement technologies/products. These persons would locate and/or create quick response technology innovations developed to provide operational `fixes' and technologies designed to address emerging enforcement problems. The presentation will conclude by providing examples of up to 12 different existing technologies devices currently available (but not generally known by government agencies).

  1. Demonstrating Newton's Third Law: Changing Aristotelian Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests techniques to help eliminate students' misconceptions involving Newton's Third Law. Approaches suggested include teaching physics from a historical perspective, using computer programs with simulations, rewording the law, drawing free-body diagrams, and using demonstrations and examples. (PR)

  2. Introduction to Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Timothy H.

    1989-01-01

    Defines Law-Related Education and describes its goals: citizenship and ethics education, delinquency prevention, teaching survival, and critical thinking skills. Justifies Law-Related Education's place in the social studies curriculum. (CH)

  3. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  4. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  5. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  6. Consumerism in Business Law--A Natural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, John E.; Furjanic, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    Consumer protection should be a major objective in high school business law classes. Suggested units are the nature of law, sources of legal assistance, sales contracts, use of commercial paper, and rental or ownership of real property. (MS)

  7. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  8. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  9. The Teacher and the Copyright Law: Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the Alex Caughran article on the teacher and the copyright law, concluding that copyright law is a complicated field and to oversimplify it is a disservice to teachers. See also CS 705 949. (RD)

  10. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  11. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  12. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  13. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  14. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  15. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  16. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  17. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for...

  18. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  19. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  20. LAW, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARTMAN, PAUL; RABKIN, SOL

    THIS IS THE FIRST ISSUE OF A NEW PUBLICATION WHICH WILL PROVIDE PERIODIC REPORTS ON CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION. IT CONTAINS A 1965 STATE-BY-STATE SUMMARY OF NEW LAWS AND LAWS WHICH HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED TO FURTHER PROTECT CIVIL RIGHTS. MOST OF THESE LAWS PROHIBIT DISCRIMINATION IN HOUSING, HIRING PRACTICES, AND PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS. THE REPORT…

  1. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  2. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  3. Marriage law and practice in the Sahel.

    PubMed

    Boye, A K; Hill, K; Isaacs, S; Gordis, D

    1991-01-01

    The legal systems of Sahelian African countries combine customary law, Islamic law, French colonial law, and civil law introduced since independence in 1960. Utilizing a framework developed by the Faculty of Law, University of Dakar, Senegal, and the Development Law and Policy Program, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, the Sahel Institute undertook a comprehensive study of the legal and social status of women in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Since 1960, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal have replaced French family law with national marriage codes. Niger has not yet adopted a family code; the laws on the family inherited from the French remain in force. The postindependence marriage codes have attempted to give young women more say in choosing a husband, to regulate the practice of bride price, and to limit the practice of polygyny. They have done this by integrating customary law and government-passed civil law. Mali, Niger, and Senegal have repealed provisions in their codes prohibiting the distribution of contraception, based on a 1920 French law. Although it has taken no formal legal action, Burkina Faso has adopted family planning policies that effectively nullify the 1920 law. PMID:1792674

  4. Update on Law-Related Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of 3 volumes of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) offering background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three volumes include "International Law,""Crime and Freedom," and "Civil Law". Background articles are provided along with teaching…

  5. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  6. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  7. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  8. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  9. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “2007 ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  10. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  11. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from...

  12. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  13. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  14. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  15. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  16. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  17. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  18. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  19. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  20. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  1. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  2. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  3. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  4. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  5. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  6. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  7. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  8. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  9. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  10. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  11. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  12. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  13. 22 CFR 233.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 233.16 Section 233.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the...

  14. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  15. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  16. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  17. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  18. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “2007 ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  19. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  20. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  1. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  2. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  3. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  4. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  5. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  6. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  7. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  8. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  9. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  10. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  11. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  12. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  13. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  15. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  16. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  17. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  18. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  19. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  20. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  1. Laws of Scattering Applied to Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined Top 40 singles chart data to determine whether the frequency distribution of artist productivity fit either of two laws of scatter (Lotka Law of Scientific Productivity or Bradford Law of Scatter). Possible reasons for the lack of statistical significance found between the theoretical and observed distributions are…

  2. Revenge, or Moon (over) Your Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, John Henry

    1990-01-01

    Law reviews should contain articles that are more than useless compendia of rules. They should be about law, the legal system and how it operates or might operate, so they become truly practical knowledge. Editors should boldly reject articles that do not advance understanding about law. (MSE)

  3. LAW EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW, ADULT COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAENZLE, LAWRENCE W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS LATEST REVISION OF THE INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN LAW FOR LAYMEN (AS PRACTICED IN NEW YORK STATE) DISCUSSES THE NEW DIVORCE LAW, CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, PROTECTION AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION, AND TAKING AGAINST A WILL, AS WELL AS OTHER CHANGES IN THE LAW SINCE THE LAST REVISION IN 1961. COURSE 1 INCLUDES SESSIONS ON WILLS DEFINED, WILLS AND ESTATE…

  4. The Mixed Blessings of Sunshine Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; McLenson, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sunshine laws arose from public concern over how public officials make decisions. Every state has sunshine laws, and in every case those laws have been applied to public higher education systems and institutions. Operationally, they serve a variety of goals. These include helping to ensure that public colleges and universities are pursuing…

  5. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  6. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  7. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  8. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  9. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  10. 50 CFR 665.966 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.966 Section 665... Monument § 665.966 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen,...

  11. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  12. 50 CFR 665.966 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.966 Section 665... Monument § 665.966 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen,...

  13. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  14. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international... international law....

  15. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  16. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  17. The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colm; Hurley, Donal

    2013-01-01

    By introducing the mathematical concept of orientation, the significance of the minus sign in Faraday's law may be made clear to students with some knowledge of vector calculus. For many students, however, the traditional approach of treating the law as a relationship between positive scalars and of relying on Lenz's law to provide the information…

  18. The First Mental Health Law of China

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Jijun; Xie, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The first mental health law of China entered into effect on May 1, 2013. This is the biggest event in the mental health field in China. The present review introduced its legislative process, its main idea, and the principle and essence of formulating this mental health law. Current problems of the law and possible countermeasures are also discussed. PMID:25486869

  19. School Law: A Selected Bibliography to Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene, Comp.

    A bibliography containing annotated entries concentrates on school law but is relevant to all areas of law and court litigation. Entries are grouped under the following categories: (1) guides to legal research; (2) indexes; (3) law dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories, and handbooks; (4) federal statutes, reports, rules, and regulations; (5)…

  20. Law in the Classroom. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsello, Carmen J.

    An annotated bibliography of some 236 items relevant to discussions of school law, from novels to government-published law and court reports. The material is listed alphabetically by author within each document type (books; periodicals; documents; monographs and special reports; law reports; digests; newsletters; dictionaries, directories, and…

  1. The Integration of Women into Law Faculties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Elena N.

    The integration of women into law school faculties was studied to determine the interrelationships among cultural, institutional, and individual influences. Currently available data on women's representation in law schools were analyzed, and data were collected from a national law faculty recruitment conference and through on-site visits to 10 law…

  2. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  3. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  4. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  5. The Law Clerk's Duty of Confidentiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Judges were surveyed for their views on their law clerks' responsibility for confidentiality. Background is outlined, results are presented, and guidelines for law clerk conduct are suggested. The questionnaire is appended. Available from: Executive Editor, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 3400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, $6.50.…

  6. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  7. A Law-Related Education for Alaskans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgeon, Donald L.

    This paper reviews law-related education and suggests ways to implement this type of education in Alaska's secondary schools. Ten reasons for teaching law-related education are presented including the following: research demonstrates the effectiveness of such education; increases student interest in the law; helps students become effective…

  8. A Course Offering in Jewish Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Elliott N.; Rosett, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course taught at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Content was divided into four segments: an introduction to the literature and a brief history of its development, court procedures, marriage and family law, and commercial law. Origins of the course and problems, especially that of comparing two legal systems…

  9. Language and Content: The Case of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Colin J.

    A discussion of the teaching and learning of English for special purposes focuses on the interrelationship of content and language, particularly in the case of education for the legal professions. It is noted that law students must both study a large corpus of case and statute law and legal principles and learn the language of the law, with its…

  10. Ranking Techniques and the Empirical Log Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Bertram C.

    1984-01-01

    Four empirical laws of bibliometrics--anomalous number, Lotka's, Zipf's, and Bradford's--together with Laplace's "law of succession" and de Solla Price's cumulative advantage distribution are shown to be almost identical. A simple model shows that the frequency forms conform with inverse square law over appropriate interval. (Fifteen references)…

  11. Teaching Comparative Law in the 21st Century: Beyond the Civil/Common Law Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the inexorable shift to transnational and global legal practice demands a comparable shift in methods of teaching comparative law to move it beyond its current American common law/European civil law myopia. Proposes an introductory course, Law in Comparative Cultures, which exposes students to a panoply of international legal systems.…

  12. The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

  13. Law School Confidential: The Complete Law School Survival Guide--by Students, for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert H.

    This book aims to give students a thorough overview of the contemporary law school experience. It provides a comprehensive chronological account of what to expect, drawn from the experiences of recent law school graduates, designated the "'Law School Confidential' mentors." The chapters are: (1) "Thinking about Law School? Think Again..."; (2)…

  14. Justice: Law and Responsibility. A Case Study Approach to Law Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole County Public Schools, Sanford, FL.

    Teacher-developed law-related education lessons that can be integrated into secondary school world history and U.S. history courses are provided. The first of two major sections contains law lessons for world history. Lessons are varied and deal with topics such as sources of the law, laws in early civilizations (Rome, Greece, and Egypt), the Code…

  15. The Golden Arches Meet the Hallowed Halls: Franchise Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Danaya

    1995-01-01

    A law school course in franchise law focuses on how various legal issues and categories interact within the context of the narrowly defined business relationship of a franchise. Four major topics included federal and state disclosure regulations, trademarks and service marks, common law contract issues, and antitrust law. Class exercises included…

  16. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors. PMID:19518279

  17. Is Newton's second law really Newton's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourciau, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    When we call the equation f = ma "Newton's second law," how much historical truth lies behind us? Many textbooks on introductory physics and classical mechanics claim that the Principia's second law becomes f = ma, once Newton's vocabulary has been translated into more familiar terms. But there is nothing in the Principia's second law about acceleration and nothing about a rate of change. If the Principia's second law does not assert f = ma, what does it assert, and is there some other axiom or some proposition in the Principia that does assert f = ma? Is there any historical truth behind us when we call f = ma "Newton's second law"? This article answers these questions.

  18. Law school performance predicted by explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, J M; Monahan, J; Seligman, M E

    1997-01-01

    The explanatory styles of 387 law students were assessed prior to law school using the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Longitudinal performance measures were collected throughout law school and related to each student's initial explanatory style. In contrast to studies with undergraduates, students who made stable, global, and internal attributions for negative events combined with the converse attributions for success (typically called pessimists) outperformed more optimistic students on measures of grade point averages and law journal success. We discuss the limitations of current attributional research methodologies and suggest the prudent and cautious perspective necessary for law or skill-based professions may account for our findings. PMID:9160992

  19. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  20. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  1. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a study of the application of H infinity and mu synthesis techniques to the design of feedback control laws for the longitudinal dynamics of the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are presented. The objective of this study is to develop methods for the design of feedback control laws which cause the closed loop longitudinal dynamics of the HARV to meet handling quality specifications over the entire flight envelope. Control law designs are based on models of the HARV linearized at various flight conditions. The control laws are evaluated by both linear and nonlinear simulations of typical maneuvers. The fixed gain control laws resulting from both the H infinity and mu synthesis techniques result in excellent performance even when the aircraft performs maneuvers in which the system states vary significantly from their equilibrium design values. Both the H infinity and mu synthesis control laws result in performance which compares favorably with an existing baseline longitudinal control law.

  2. A Control Model: Interpretation of Fitts' Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical results for several models are given: a first order model where it is assumed that the hand velocity can be directly controlled, and a second order model where it is assumed that the hand acceleration can be directly controlled. Two different types of control-laws are investigated. One is linear function of the hand error and error rate; the other is the time-optimal control law. Results show that the first and second order models with the linear control-law produce a movement time (MT) function with the exact form of the Fitts' Law. The control-law interpretation implies that the effect of target width on MT must be a result of the vertical motion which elevates the hand from the starting point and drops it on the target at the target edge. The time optimal control law did not produce a movement-time formula simular to Fitt's Law.

  3. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-05-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  4. Scaling laws for bubbling bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Tokman, Cecilia; Hunt, Brian R.

    2009-11-01

    We establish rigorous scaling laws for the average bursting time for bubbling bifurcations of an invariant manifold, assuming the dynamics within the manifold to be uniformly hyperbolic. This type of global bifurcation appears in nearly synchronized systems, and is conjectured to be typical among those breaking the invariance of an asymptotically stable hyperbolic invariant manifold. We consider bubbling precipitated by generic bifurcations of a fixed point in both symmetric and non-symmetric systems with a codimension one invariant manifold, and discuss their extension to bifurcations of periodic points. We also discuss generalizations to invariant manifolds with higher codimension, and to systems with random noise.

  5. Environmental law deskbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-12

    JA 234 provides an overview of Environmental Law, particularly as it relates to the US Army and the Department of Defense. Chapter 1 addresses the development of the Army`s environmental program; funding, compliance, and enforcement issues associated with the program; and the Judge Advocate`s environmental role. Chapters 2--7 focus on environmental statutes that commonly impact on federal installations; specifically: The National Environmental Policy Act; The Clean Water Act; The Clean Air Act; The Endangered Species Act; The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

  6. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  7. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  8. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  9. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  10. Challenging the generalized second law

    SciTech Connect

    Eling, Christopher; Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    2009-01-15

    The generalized second law (GSL) of black hole thermodynamics states that the sum of changes in black hole entropy and the ordinary entropy of matter and fields outside the hole must be non-negative. In the classical limit, the GSL reduces to Hawking's area theorem. Neither law identifies the specific effects that make it work in particular situations. Motivated by Davies' recent gedanken experiment he used to infer a bound on the size of the fine structure constant from the GSL, we study a series of variants in which an electric test charge is lowered to a finite radius and then dropped into a Schwarzschild, a near-extremal magnetic Reissner-Nordstroem or a near-extremal Kerr black hole. For a classical charge, we demonstrate that a specific 'backreaction' effect is responsible for protecting the area theorem in the near-extremal examples. For the magnetically charged Reissner-Nordstroem hole an area theorem violation is defused by taking into account a subtle source of repulsion of the charge: the spinning up of the black hole in the process of bringing the charge down to its dropping point. In Kerr hole case, the electric self-force on the charge is sufficient to right matters. However, in all experiments involving an elementary charge, the full GSL would apparently be violated were the fine structure constant greater than about order unity. We argue that in this case a quantum effect, the Unruh-Wald quantum buoyancy, may protect the GSL.

  11. Is life law-like?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Buchanan, Anne V

    2011-08-01

    Genes are generally assumed to be primary biological causes of biological phenotypes and their evolution. In just over a century, a research agenda that has built on Mendel's experiments and on Darwin's theory of natural selection as a law of nature has had unprecedented scientific success in isolating and characterizing many aspects of genetic causation. We revel in these successes, and yet the story is not quite so simple. The complex cooperative nature of genetic architecture and its evolution include teasingly tractable components, but much remains elusive. The proliferation of data generated in our "omics" age raises the question of whether we even have (or need) a unified theory or "law" of life, or even clear standards of inference by which to answer the question. If not, this not only has implications for the widely promulgated belief that we will soon be able to predict phenotypes like disease risk from genes, but also speaks to the limitations in the underlying science itself. Much of life seems to be characterized by ad hoc, ephemeral, contextual probabilism without proper underlying distributions. To the extent that this is true, causal effects are not asymptotically predictable, and new ways of understanding life may be required. PMID:21828277

  12. Aerosol backscatter studies supporting LAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry

    1989-01-01

    Optimized Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS) algorithm for low backscatter conditions was developed. The algorithm converts backscatter intensity measurements from focused continuous-wave (CW) airborne Doppler lidar into backscatter coefficients. The performance of optimized algorithm under marginal backscatter signal conditions was evaluated. The 10.6 micron CO2 aerosol backscatter climatologies were statistically analyzed. Climatologies reveal clean background aerosol mode near 10(exp -10)/kg/sq m/sr (mixing ratio units) through middle and upper troposhere, convective mode associated with planetary boundary layer convective activity, and stratospheric mode associated with volcanically-generated aerosols. Properties of clean background mode are critical to design and simulation studies of Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), a MSFC facility Instrument on the Earth Observing System (Eos). Previous intercomparisons suggested correlation between aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelength and water vapor. Field measurements of backscatter profiles with MSFC ground-based Doppler lidar system (GBDLS) were initiated in late FY-88 to coincide with independent program of local rawinsonde releases and overflights by Multi-spectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), a multi-channel infrared radiometer capable of measuring horizontal and vertical moisture distributions. Design and performance simulation studies for LAWS would benefit from the existence of a relationship between backscatter and water vapor.

  13. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  14. The Louisiana State University Law Center's Bijural Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of Louisiana State University Law Center. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  15. Scaling Laws for Mesoscale and Microscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry

    1999-08-23

    The set of laws developed and presented here is by no means exhaustive. Techniques have been present to aid in the development of additional scaling laws and to combine these and other laws to produce additional useful relationships. Some of the relationships produced here have yielded perhaps surprising results. Examples include the fifth order scaling law for electromagnetic motor torque and the zero order scaling law for capacitive motor power. These laws demonstrate important facts about actuators in small-scale systems. The primary intent of this introduction into scaling law analysis is to provide needed tools to examine possible areas of the research in small-scale systems and direct research toward more fruitful areas. Numerous examples have been included to show the validity of developing scaling laws based on first principles and how real world systems tend to obey these laws even when many other variables may potentially come into play. Development of further laws may well serve to provide important high-level direction to the continued development of small-scale systems.

  16. 5 CFR 2421.9 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 2421.9 Section... Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases under 5...

  17. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9... LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is... a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law...

  18. Designing Law-Compliant Software Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siena, Alberto; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo

    New laws, such as HIPAA and SOX, are increasingly impacting the design of software systems, as business organisations strive to comply. This paper studies the problem of generating a set of requirements for a new system which comply with a given law. Specifically, the paper proposes a systematic process for generating law-compliant requirements by using a taxonomy of legal concepts and a set of primitives to describe stakeholders and their strategic goals. Given a model of law and a model of stakeholders goals, legal alternatives are identified and explored. Strategic goals that can realise legal prescriptions are systematically analysed, and alternative ways of fulfilling a law are evaluated. The approach is demonstrated by means of a case study. This work is part of the Nomos framework, intended to support the design of law-compliant requirements models.

  19. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause. PMID:11881213

  20. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  1. Environmental laws in health care.

    PubMed

    Ruff, G G

    1992-11-01

    Federal and state regulations regarding the management and disposal of medical waste are currently quite extensive and will only become more comprehensive in the future. The public's heightened awareness and concerns over infectious diseases and discoveries of medical waste on beaches in New Jersey, Alabama, and other states, as well as medical waste being found in open trash bins and at public landfills, has brought to the public's attention the need for governmental intervention into this growing area of concern. Because regulations originating from the local, state, and federal levels have the potential to significantly affect hospitals, it is important that a specific person or department within the organization have a clearly designated responsibility to stay informed and follow up on these regulations. The designated person or department must work closely with the hospital's attorney to make sure that he or she stays current on environmental laws and keeps the institution adequately advised of its legal responsibilities. PMID:10121995

  2. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  3. Commentary: Zoophilia and the law.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Rebekah; Fedoroff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We support the observation of Holoyda and Newman that common definitions of zoophilia are confusing and that legal definitions of bestiality and sentencing implications are inconsistent. We take issue with their contention that the finding of a history of sex with animals may be a significant risk factor for future harm to humans. We oppose their recommendation for new laws against bestiality to improve psychiatric knowledge about zoophilia. Instead, we advocate for better diagnostic criteria than are provided by the DSM-5, together with the provision of treatment to promote healthful sexual interests and activities by humans and the safety of animals. We believe this is best accomplished by not treating sexual interactions with animals simply as risk factors. Instead they should be assessed as signs of zoophilia, which is a psychiatric disorder for which treatment is available. PMID:25492067

  4. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  5. Scaling laws in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2004-10-15

    We analyze the decay laws of the kinetic and magnetic energies and the evolution of correlation lengths in freely decaying incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Scale invariance of MHD equations assures that, in the case of constant dissipation parameters (i.e., kinematic viscosity and resistivity) and null magnetic helicity, the kinetic and magnetic energies decay in time as E{approx}t{sup -1}, and the correlation lengths evolve as {xi}{approx}t{sup 1/2}. In the helical case, assuming that the magnetic field evolves towards a force-free state, we show that (in the limit of large magnetic Reynolds number) the magnetic helicity remains constant, and the kinetic and magnetic energies decay as E{sub v}{approx}t{sup -1} and E{sub B}{approx}t{sup -1/2} respectively, while both the kinetic and magnetic correlation lengths grow as {xi}{approx}t{sup 1/2}.

  6. Jupiter, Tether, and Lenz's Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Jupiter has a large, complex, and intense magnetic field that is thought to arise from electrical currents in the rapidly spinning metallic hydrogen interior. The strong magnetic field can induce currents when the conductive tether is directed toward or away from Jupiter. The currents can be stored and used for both propulsion and power generation. Therefore, our spacecraft might be able to visit several Jovian moons or maintain in the orbit around Jupiter. In our future space traveling, we also can use this technical skill to travel to other planets without any fuel. First-year physics textbooks describe Lenz's Law in which current is induced in a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field. A demonstration of induced current in a stationary conductor and moving magnetic field is described, which may have space-tether application.

  7. Biological weapons and US law.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J R

    1997-08-01

    During the past 8 years, the US Congress has developed a comprehensive legal framework to prevent the illegitimate use of toxins and infectious agents. As part of this framework, Congress has defined as a federal crime virtually every step in the process of developing or acquiring a biological agent for use as a weapon. At the same time, Congress has vested federal law enforcement agencies with broad civil and investigative powers to enable the government to intervene before such weapons are used or even developed. Finally, Congress has directed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish a regulatory regime to monitor the location and transfer of hazardous biological agents and to insure that any use of such agents complies with appropriate biosafety requirements. PMID:9244312

  8. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.

  9. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.

  10. Secret laws of the labyrinth.

    PubMed

    David, R; Berthoz, A; Bennequin, D

    2011-01-01

    This abstract presents new results on the structure and function of vestibular part of the inner ear of vertebrates with special emphasis on human behavior. First we summarize a mathematical analysis of motion of the endolymphatic fluid, justifying known approximated formulas for the cupula functioning based on a set of anatomical parameters. Some of these parameters can be estimated from the bony labyrinth, some others cannot be. We present original data issued from synchrotron microtomography (S μ CT) of five tetrapod species, allowing to compare bony and membranous labyrinths. We derive several simple and robust empirical laws connecting membranous parameters and bony parameters. Then, using published results on human labyrinths (Bradshaw et al. 2009), we deduce functional consequences for the human labyrinths. For instance we show that, contrarily to current belief, the kinematic sensitivity for yaw is larger than for pitch and roll. PMID:22254793

  11. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  12. Hyperbolic conservation laws and numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical structure of hyperbolic systems and the scalar equation case of conservation laws are discussed. Linear, nonlinear systems and the Riemann problem for the Euler equations are also studied. The numerical methods for conservation laws are presented in a nonstandard manner which leads to large time steps generalizations and computations on irregular grids. The solution of conservation laws with stiff source terms is examined.

  13. TEACHING PHYSICS: Gauss's law - a forgotten tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, John

    2000-07-01

    Gauss's law is a powerful tool that can be used to resolve symmetrical situations involving various fields, where traditional approaches would involve the use of integral calculus. Born out of the dynamics of fluids, its main teaching use has traditionally been largely in the area of electrostatic problems. However, in the area of gravitation its use is not so well known. This article starts by introducing Gauss's law with electrostatics, and then uses the law in the application of some simple gravitational problems.

  14. Letter: State clings to archaic contraceptive law.

    PubMed

    Ris, H W

    1974-10-01

    The state of Wisconsin is still clinging to an archaic contraceptive law that prohibits birth control for unmarrieds.¿The mos t tragic victims of this law are unmarried teen-agers because studies indicate that sexual intercourse is very frequent among teen-agers, yet access to contraception is hard to come by.¿It is hoped that the Legislature will see fit to repeal this outdated contraceptive law. PMID:4456832

  15. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  16. Benford's law and complex atomic spectra.

    PubMed

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    We found that in transition arrays of complex atomic spectra, the strengths of electric-dipolar lines obey Benford's law, which means that their significant digits follow a logarithmic distribution favoring the smallest values. This indicates that atomic processes result from the superposition of uncorrelated probability laws and that the occurrence of digits reflects the constraints induced by the selection rules. Furthermore, Benford' law can be a useful test of theoretical spectroscopic models. Its applicability to the statistics of electric-dipolar lines can be understood in the framework of random matrix theory and is consistent with the Porter-Thomas law. PMID:18351894

  17. First-digit law in nonextensive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2010-10-01

    Nonextensive statistics, characterized by a nonextensive parameter q, is a promising and practically useful generalization of the Boltzmann statistics to describe power-law behaviors from physical and social observations. We here explore the unevenness of the first-digit distribution of nonextensive statistics analytically and numerically. We find that the first-digit distribution follows Benford's law and fluctuates slightly in a periodical manner with respect to the logarithm of the temperature. The fluctuation decreases when q increases, and the result converges to Benford's law exactly as q approaches 2. The relevant regularities between nonextensive statistics and Benford's law are also presented and discussed. PMID:21230241

  18. Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, D.; Petheram, J.

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the NASA's Laser Atmospheric Sounder (LAWS) are discussed, and results of the performance analysis of the LAWS system are presented together with the instrument configuration used for these performance analyses. The results of analyses show that the science requirements for the wind-velocity accuracies of m/sec in the lower troposphere and 5 m/sec in the upper troposphere will be met by the present design of the LAWS system. The paper presents the performance estimates of the LAWS in terms of the global coverage, spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, line-of-sight velocity error, and horizontal inversion accuracy.

  19. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  20. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  1. Breakdown of Benford's law for birth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, M.; Herteliu, C.; Ileanu, B.

    2015-02-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  2. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. PMID:20880589

  3. 43 CFR 2650.3 - Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims. 2650.3 Section 2650.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining claims....

  4. Integrating International Business Law Concepts into a High School Business Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Cathleen J.; McDonald, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines international business content for a high school business law curriculum: history of international business law, World Trade Organization, international disputes, contracts and sales, financing/banking, currency, taxation, intellectual property, transportation, and multinational corporations. Considers whether to teach international…

  5. Investigating a New Way To Teach Law: A Computer-based Commercial Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the successful use of an interactive, computer-based format supplemented by online chats to provide a two-credit-hour commercial law course at the University of Tennessee College of Law. (EV)

  6. Law and Pop Culture: Teaching and Learning about Law Using Images from Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    Believes that using popular culture images of law, lawyers, and the legal system is an effective way for teaching about real law. Offers examples of incorporating popular culture images when teaching about law. Includes suggestions for teaching activities, a mock trial based on Dr. Seuss's book "Yertle the Turtle," and additional resources. (CMK)

  7. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  8. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  9. Law Day Stories: An Anthology of Stories about Lawyers, Lawmakers, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    Dedicated to celebrating the importance of law in U.S. life, the 19 stories collected in this volume are about legislators who enact the law, judges who interpret it, and lawyers who practice it. The stories describe the contributions to the United States through the law of distinguished individuals, emphasizing the devotion of many lawyers to…

  10. You-Me-And the Three R's of Law. Elementary Law Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trace, Faustina M.

    Fourteen units of increasing difficulty and abstraction for grade levels one through six examine the responsibility to law, rights and privileges of law, reasons for laws, and justice. Each unit presents the objective, suggested activities, and topics for discussion. Grade 1 focusses on responsibility, sharing, taking turns, respect for private…

  11. Youth and the Law. First Edition 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Council of America, Cleveland, OH. Social Science Program.

    This student book for the nine week, junior high course "Youth and the Law" addresses juvenile delinquency. The content is organized by chapters dealing with growing up, juvenile crime, causes of delinquency laws, vandalism and shoplifting, and four case studies in delinquency. The students are asked to consider what adolescence is and how it…

  12. Newton and the Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    Deals generally with historical errors in science teaching and specifically with Newton's conception of his second law of motion. With reference to Newton's "Principia", the author concludes that Newton would not understand what we today refer to as "Newton's Second Law." (MLH)

  13. The Official Ideology of American Law Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the seemingly all-powerful Association of American Law Schools (AALS) and the negative effects of its single-minded obsession with "diversity." He suggests ways in which true diversity of viewpoint might be injected into law school education. The key is to raise awareness and apply the same standards to all…

  14. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a) Section 4 of the Act of October 1, 1949 (63...

  15. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a) Section 4 of the Act of October 1, 1949 (63...

  16. Illinois School Law Survey. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Brian A.

    This survey provides answers to general questions regarding statutes and case law with respect to schools in force as of January 1, 2002, and administrative rules in effect as of March 30, 2001. It generally excludes, however, laws that are unique to Chicago Public School District 299. The book contains 27 chapters covering the following broad…

  17. A General Approach to Kirchhoff's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintela, F. R.; Redondo, R. C.; Melchor, N. R.; Redondo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Kirchhoff's laws are usually considered as electrical current and voltage properties. Nevertheless, they are sometimes applied to nonelectrical systems. One way to increase their efficacy and range of applicability would be to show Kirchhoff's laws, and the properties deriving from them, as being independent of any physical system as far as…

  18. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  19. Interstitial Jurisprudence Illustrated in Teaching Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, David A.

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of criminal law theory into the first-year criminal law course is discussed as an example of adding the jurisprudence of specific subject matters to standard courses. Jurisprudential issues appropriate for study are suggested along with guidelines for teaching techniques, selection of materials, and use of class time. (JT)

  20. School Law. Cases and Concepts. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.

    Public school educators are aware that courts, over the last several decades, have played a significant role in establishing educational policy. This text attempts to address important issues in school law with an emphasis on those having an impact at the school-building level. Chapter 1 offers an overview of the sources of law and the court…

  1. Law and Society. CEM Probe, May 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Peter; Bunker, John

    The pamphlet is one issue of the PROBE series which gives British secondary school youth an overview of social issues and suggests questions for discussion. Information and issues about law and justice in England and Wales are discussed in this issue. Section one explains the differences between criminal law, which is enforced by the police, and…

  2. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  3. WESTERN WATER LAWS AND IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of water law allocation and use of waters within the Western United States is currently recognized as one of the major constraints to adaptation by irrigated agriculture of more efficient operation practices. This project provides a background of the law and evaluation...

  4. Civil Law Terms You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a word and number puzzle designed to familiarize students with law terms and their definitions. The puzzle consists of definitions followed by a sequence of numbers. The law term fitting the definition can be revealed by applying a number-letter key that is provided. Suitable for copying as a handout. (MJP)

  5. Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia

    2007-01-01

    Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…

  6. Grade Inflation and Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…

  7. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  8. Legal Currency in Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A review of some basic concepts in special education law will help principals better understand the complex laws and regulations implicated in common situations. This article cites a case scenario that illustrates various potential issues under IDEA 2004 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Chris is in the 10th grade, and his parents have…

  9. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  10. Reanalyzing the Ampere-Maxwell Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, S. Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a recent "TPT" article, I addressed a common miscommunication about Faraday's law, namely, that introductory texts often say the law expresses a causal relationship between the magnetic fields time variation and the electric fields circulation. In that article, I demonstrated that these field behaviors share a common cause in a time-varying…

  11. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a) Section 4 of the Act of October 1, 1949 (63...

  12. Copyright law in the digital age

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    Few areas have been shaken up by the information revolution than copyright law. The riddle of how existing law must be adapted in the electronic age brings clashing answers from various media professionals. Various issues associated with copyright protection, including the present political administration`s views, are discussed in this paper.

  13. Studying Law in a Goldfish Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, James

    1977-01-01

    A law firm, Equal Rights Advocates, Inc., specializing in sex discrimination cases, has become a magnet for law students in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is involved in a cooperative program with area universities in which a new model for clinical teaching is offered. Fifteen students each semester spend at least two days a week with the firm.…

  14. "Should Teacher Tenure Laws Be Repealed?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    This speech outlines factors that preclude the reform of teacher tenure laws, describes improvement for these laws, and sets forth conditions under which they should be abolished. Some of the suggested improvements include (1) provisions for genuine probationary periods for teachers, (2) implementation of adequate teacher evaluation programs, (3)…

  15. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino emitters in…

  16. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE U.S. OR OCEAN WATERS § 335.5 Applicable laws. (a)...

  17. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  18. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE U.S. OR OCEAN WATERS § 335.5 Applicable laws. (a)...

  19. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  20. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  1. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  2. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  3. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE U.S. OR OCEAN WATERS § 335.5 Applicable laws. (a)...

  4. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy. Unfortunately, many of the environmental laws now in place were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding in the 1960s and 1970s the natural world existed within an envelope of predic...

  5. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  6. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  7. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  9. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  12. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  13. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  14. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  16. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  17. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE U.S. OR OCEAN WATERS § 335.5 Applicable laws. (a)...

  18. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....

  19. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....

  20. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  1. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  2. Schools and the Law: A Patron's Introspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland, where education at both primary and second level is overwhelmingly denominational in character, patronage is exercised, in the main, by religious patrons. This article is an introspective analysis of current legal issues as they face one patron and schools under his patronage; it looks at the intersection of civil law with Church law;…

  3. Law Enforcement Careers. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.S.

    Intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of nine terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course designed to provide high school students with basic introductory law enforcement skills and knowledge. Titles of the nine terminal objectives are Orientation, Law Enforcement Ethics,…

  4. Stability of Conservation Laws with Discontinuous Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Runhild Aae; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    1999-09-01

    We prove L1 contractivity of weak solutions to a conservation law with a flux function that may depend discontinuously on the space variable. Furthermore, we show that the L1 difference between solutions to conservation laws with different flux functions is bounded by the total variation with respect to the space variable, of the difference between the flux functions.

  5. Emerging Electronic Technology and American Copyright Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Douglas Reid

    American copyright law provides a means of stimulating intellectual development and protecting the ownership interests of the authors of copyrighted works. Over the years, U.S. copyright law has evolved in order to respond to societal and technological changes. Under the copyright statute certain uses of a copyrighted work are permitted under the…

  6. Zipf's Law and Avoidance of Excessive Synonymy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manin, Dmitrii Y.

    2008-01-01

    Zipf's law states that if words of language are ranked in the order of decreasing frequency in texts, the frequency of a word is inversely proportional to its rank. It is very reliably observed in the data, but to date it escaped satisfactory theoretical explanation. This article suggests that Zipf's law may result from a hierarchical organization…

  7. Discipline Based Instruction in Business Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…

  8. Raoult's Law: A General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1983-01-01

    To make material on Raoult's law more meaningful, students complete exercises on paper, in the laboratory, and with molecular models. Paper exercises give practice using the law; laboratory work illustrates behavior of real solutions; and models show relationships between properties of individual molecules and of matter in bulk. (JN)

  9. The Law on Gifted Education: Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive, concise, and current overview of the law-- specifically, legislation, regulations, and published court/administrative decisions--relating to gifted education for K-12 students. For students whose legal rights are based solely on their gifted status, the law largely boils down to (a) varying state statutes…

  10. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  11. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  12. Family Law and Family Studies: Professor's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Mary W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of family studies faculty concerning the inclusion of family law topics in family studies courses are discussed. The professor's needs for training and resources in the area of family and the law are identified and recommendations for meeting these needs are suggested. (Author)

  13. Update on Law-Related Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) that offers background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three issues include: (1) "Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly, Petition"; (2) "Law in the New Information Age"; and (3) "Human Rights."…

  14. Public Interest Law: Five Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Sanford

    This report provides an account of public-interest law firm activities supported by the Ford Foundation. Public interest law is a phrase that describes efforts aimed at providing legal representation for underrepresented interests in the legal process. The report is arranged into four major sections. The first section, on the evolution of the…

  15. The Principal: The Law and Student Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve; And Others

    Intended to serve as a practical guide for principals, this book analyzes the implications of recent court interpretations of constitutional and statutory law as it applies to the disciplinary policies and practices of schools. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the law on the actions of school administrators in Illinois, and several sections of…

  16. It's the Law: Student's Rights and Responsibilities!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Bar Association, Oklahoma City.

    Secondary-level learning activities dealing with youth and the law are included in this resource guide. Although the guide was written specifically for use in Oklahoma schools, it can, with modifications, serve as a model for other states. There are seven sections dealing with youth and: employment law, business rights and responsibilities,…

  17. Public Sector Labor Law in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielke, Laurence J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Kentucky's statutory and decisional law concerning public sector labor relations, as well as the practice and future of public sector relations as perceived by city and county officials. Available from Salmon P. Chase College of Law, 1401 Dixie Highway, Covington, Kentucky 41011; 1.50 per reprint. (Author/IRT)

  18. Technology and the Law: Who Rules?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2007-01-01

    What is the likelihood of controlling technology by means of the law? In traditional societies, the law was deeply embedded in, and dependent on, culture (the totality of human creations for making sense of and living in the world). Industrialization required a complete restructuring of both technology and society, thus engulfing all traditions in…

  19. Space law information system design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morenoff, J.; Roth, D. L.; Singleton, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Design alternatives were defined for the implementation of a Space Law Information System for the Office of the General Counsel, NASA. A thesaurus of space law terms was developed and a selected document sample indexed on the basis of that thesaurus. Abstracts were also prepared for the sample document set.

  20. Regularities in Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the assumption that Spearman's law acts unsystematically and approximately uniformly for various subtests of cognitive ability in an IQ test battery when high- and low-ability IQ groups are selected. Data from national standardization samples for Wechsler adult and child IQ tests affirm regularities in Spearman's "Law of Diminishing…