Science.gov

Sample records for laws of physics

  1. Notions of Physical Laws in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Pfuhl Rodrigues, Dulce Madalena Autran

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an experiment investigating children's awareness of regularities in physical phenomena and their capacity for expressing these regularities. Hypothesized and confirmed is that children can use statements with the form and purpose of a physical law. Cartoons related to Archimedes' principle (and connected gravitation and fluid…

  2. Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Richard P.; Weinberg, Steven

    1987-11-01

    Developing a theory that seamlessly combines relativity and quantum mechanics, the most important conceptual breakthroughs in twentieth century physics, has proved to be a difficult and ongoing challenge. This book details how two distinguished physicists and Nobel laureates have explored this theme in two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. Given for nonspecialists and undergraduates, the talks transcribed in Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. Professor Weinberg speculates on how Einstein's theory of gravitation might be reconciled with quantum theory in the final law of physics. Highly accessible, deeply thought provoking, this book will appeal to all those interested in the development of modern physics.

  3. Knowing - The Nature of Physical Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munowitz, Michael

    2005-11-01

    We ask question after question of an indifferent universe that would just as soon remain mute; and slowly, patiently, one sentence at a time, we write our own version of the book of nature. It is called science, from the Latin word for knowledge, and it is a book everybody should read. With simplicity and elegance, Knowing interprets the book of nature for curious readers of all sorts--but especially for those hoping to appreciate the beauty of physics without getting lost in the mathematics. Indeed, there is a world of scientific understanding in the pages of this gracefully written and inviting book, where hundreds of little diagrams substitute for the equations that physicists otherwise need to tell their tale. Readers will discover the way things work: how big things (like Earth or Moon) come from small things (like quarks and electrons), how tiny particles push and pull, and how the world hangs in the balance. We learn how an "unbiased" observer and a fixed speed of light, nothing else, conjure up E=mc2 and four-dimensional space-time. We see how Newton's clockwork universe of unwavering determination differs (but not in every respect) from Heisenberg's quantum universe of hazy uncertainty. And we see how a world of chaos throws a wrench into everybody's mechanical ideal. From tiny atoms to vast galaxies, the universe is ours to explore and to know: its particles, its interactions, its laws, its unending surprises. Heavily illustrated with explanatory drawings and diagrams--perhaps no other science book for general readers uses diagrams so extensively--Knowing takes us to the edge of modern science, allowing us to peer in further than we would have dreamed possible.

  4. On Undecidability and the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heusden, Erik F. G.

    2016-03-01

    We argue that insights in fundamental physics could be provided by fields such as mathematical logic, and, as an example, briefly discuss some of the issues that arise from the incompleteness theorems. The advantage of this type of approach would be that it could perhaps give access to information about physics at the most fundamental level, without having to rely on increasingly accurate although always approximate empirical models alone.

  5. Correlates of State Enactment of Elementary School Physical Education Laws

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A.F.; Smith, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe variation in U.S. state elementary school physical education (PE) policies and to assess associations between state PE policy enactment and education funding, academic achievement, sociodemographic disadvantage, and political characteristics. Methods U.S. state laws regarding school PE time, staffing, curriculum, fitness assessment, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 2012 were classified as strong/specific, weak/nonspecific, or none based on codified law ratings within the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.). Laws were merged with state-level data from multiple sources. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between state characteristics and PE laws (N=51). Results Laws with specific PE and MVPA time requirements and evidence-based curriculum standards were more likely in states with low academic performance and in states with sociodemographically disadvantaged populations. School day length was positively associated with enacting a PE curriculum that referenced evidence-based standards. School funding and political characteristics were not associated with PE laws. Conclusions Limited time and high-stakes testing requirements force schools to prioritize academic programs, posing barriers to state passage of specific PE laws. To facilitate PE policy enactment, it may be necessary to provide evidence of how PE policies can be implemented within existing time and staffing structures. PMID:25230368

  6. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  7. Explaining the physical origin of Båth's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žalohar, Jure

    2014-03-01

    Båth's law is one of the three well-known scaling laws for earthquakes. It states that the difference in magnitudes of the mainshock and its largest aftershock is approximately constant, independent of the magnitude of the mainshock. Despite the progress in understanding the nature of Båth's law, the question of whether this law has a physical basis, or is simply a consequence of basic statistical features of aftershock sequences, has remained controversial. In this article we show that Båth's law can be derived within the Cosserat continuum theory from equations describing fault interaction. Our equations can describe both (1) the interacting mainshocks and aftershocks, and (2) the interacting foreshocks and mainshocks. We also derive (1) spatial extension of Båth's law to the normalized distance between the locations of the interacting mainshocks and aftershocks (or foreshocks and mainshocks), and (2) temporal extension of Båth's law to the difference between the time of the interacting mainshocks and aftershocks (or foreshocks and mainshocks).

  8. Information Networks Secured by the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Peper, Ferdinand

    In this paper, we survey the state of the art of the secure key exchange method that is secured by the laws of classical statistical physics, and involves the Kirchhoff's law and the generalized Johnson noise equation, too. We discuss the major characteristics and advantages of these schemes especially in comparison with quantum encryption, and analyze some of the technical challenges of its implementation, too. Finally, we outline some ideas about how to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines to implement unconditionally secure information networks.

  9. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  10. The principle of finiteness - a guideline for physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2013-04-01

    I propose a new principle in physics-the principle of finiteness (FP). It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results including their errors, are always finite, FP postulates that the mathematical formulation of legitimate laws in physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. I propose finiteness as a postulate, as opposed to a statement whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories or principles. Some consequences of FP are discussed, first in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The corrected Lorentz transformations include an additional translation term depending on the minimum length epsilon. The relativistic gamma is replaced by a corrected gamma, that is finite for v=c. To comply with FP, physical laws should include the relevant extremum finite values in their mathematical formulation. An important prediction of FP is that there is a maximum attainable relativistic mass/energy which is the same for all subatomic particles, meaning that there is a maximum theoretical value for cosmic rays energy. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle required by Quantum Gravity is actually a necessary consequence of FP at Planck's scale. Therefore, FP may possibly contribute to the axiomatic foundation of Quantum Gravity.

  11. The status of Galileo's law of free-fall and its implications for physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehavi, Yaron; Galili, Igal

    2009-05-01

    We have examined the understanding of students and physics teachers regarding Galileo's law of free fall. Refining this law for an observer on the ground, which is usually neglected in textbooks, results in the acceleration of free fall being mass dependent. We found that physics students and high school teachers are unaware of the conditions for which Galileo's law is valid, and the law is often identified with the equivalence principle.

  12. The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.

  13. Elementary particles and the laws of physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures

    SciTech Connect

    Feynman, R.P.; Weinberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics contains transcriptions of the two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 by Nobel Laureates Richard P. Feynman and Steven Weinberg to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. The talks focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman discusses how the laws of physics require the existence of antiparticles; Professor Weinberg examines the development of the fundamental laws of elementary particle intersection.

  14. The development of extraterrestrial civilizations and physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskii, V. S.

    Consideration is given to the limiting characteristics of extraterrestrial civilizations as allowed by physical laws, and to the possible pathways and levels of development of such civilizations. The concept of an extraterrestrial civilization is defined in terms of the exchange of information, energy and matter both within a community of intelligent beings and between the community and its environment. The possible characteristics of such a civilization are then examined, including amount of populated space, population and population density, energy requirements and supply, information content, transportation capacity and lifetimes, and it is shown that the space occupiable by an extraterrestrial civilization is limited to the space around its star, due to the finite velocity of transport processes. The development of a type II civilization, making use of energy on the order of that put out by its star, is then examined, and constraints on energy production in such a civilization making impossible the establishment of an omnidirectional radio beacon detectable throughout the Galaxy are pointed out.

  15. Autonomous learning derived from experimental modeling of physical laws.

    PubMed

    Grabec, Igor

    2013-05-01

    This article deals with experimental description of physical laws by probability density function of measured data. The Gaussian mixture model specified by representative data and related probabilities is utilized for this purpose. The information cost function of the model is described in terms of information entropy by the sum of the estimation error and redundancy. A new method is proposed for searching the minimum of the cost function. The number of the resulting prototype data depends on the accuracy of measurement. Their adaptation resembles a self-organized, highly non-linear cooperation between neurons in an artificial NN. A prototype datum corresponds to the memorized content, while the related probability corresponds to the excitability of the neuron. The method does not include any free parameters except objectively determined accuracy of the measurement system and is therefore convenient for autonomous execution. Since representative data are generally less numerous than the measured ones, the method is applicable for a rather general and objective compression of overwhelming experimental data in automatic data-acquisition systems. Such compression is demonstrated on analytically determined random noise and measured traffic flow data. The flow over a day is described by a vector of 24 components. The set of 365 vectors measured over one year is compressed by autonomous learning to just 4 representative vectors and related probabilities. These vectors represent the flow in normal working days and weekends or holidays, while the related probabilities correspond to relative frequencies of these days. This example reveals that autonomous learning yields a new basis for interpretation of representative data and the optimal model structure. PMID:22840918

  16. Teaching the Delightful Laws of Physics in a Survey Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    How physics can be made interesting is a question that needs no answer. That's because physics is interesting! It's a field of study jam-packed with fascination and wonder. The general public has an enormous thirst for physics knowledge, as indicated by the great numbers who purchase science magazines and books and watch "NOVA" and other…

  17. Teaching the Delightful Laws of Physics in a Survey Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2015-10-01

    How physics can be made interesting is a question that needs no answer. That's because physics is interesting! It's a field of study jam-packed with fascination and wonder. The general public has an enormous thirst for physics knowledge, as indicated by the great numbers who purchase science magazines and books and watch NOVA and other science specials. A related question, how to make a physics course interesting, is something that we can answer. All we have to do is present physics at a proper pace in the language of the learner. My adage has always been that if the first course in physics is delightful, the rigor of a follow-up course will be welcomed.

  18. Law for the Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons, 1949 (The Latest Amendment Was in 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    This document presents the text of the 1949 Japanese Law for the Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons and brief extracts of later amendments. Sections in Chapter 1 cover definitions, the Advisory Council on Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons, and service providers. Chapter II covers welfare measures such as the physically disabled person's…

  19. The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics

    PubMed Central

    Loewer, Barry

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from ‘top-down’ emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do ‘the arrows of time’ emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call ‘micro-physical completeness’ (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent ‘top-down’ causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws. PMID:23386956

  20. Game simulates destruction according to the laws of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Video-game enthusiasts who are usually disappointed by unrealistic physical effects should be delighted with a new game that claims to take into account the actual mass and density of buildings for the first time.

  1. Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations. PMID:26202858

  2. Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-07-01

    The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.

  3. Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E; Shaikh, Aasef G; Green, Andrea M; Dickman, J David

    2004-07-29

    A critical step in self-motion perception and spatial awareness is the integration of motion cues from multiple sensory organs that individually do not provide an accurate representation of the physical world. One of the best-studied sensory ambiguities is found in visual processing, and arises because of the inherent uncertainty in detecting the motion direction of an untextured contour moving within a small aperture. A similar sensory ambiguity arises in identifying the actual motion associated with linear accelerations sensed by the otolith organs in the inner ear. These internal linear accelerometers respond identically during translational motion (for example, running forward) and gravitational accelerations experienced as we reorient the head relative to gravity (that is, head tilt). Using new stimulus combinations, we identify here cerebellar and brainstem motion-sensitive neurons that compute a solution to the inertial motion detection problem. We show that the firing rates of these populations of neurons reflect the computations necessary to construct an internal model representation of the physical equations of motion. PMID:15282606

  4. Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time. The progress made with the Constructal law covers the broadest range of science, from heat and fluid flow and geophysics, to animal design, technology evolution, and social organization (economics, government). This review presents the state of this fast growing field, and draws attention to newly opened directions for original research. The Constructal law places the concepts of life, design, and evolution in physics.

  5. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  6. An Analysis Of State Telehealth Laws And Regulations For Occupational Therapy And Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Calouro, Christine; Kwong, Mei Wa; Gutierrez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted a scan of telehealth occupational therapy and physical therapy state laws and regulations. The laws and regulations were analyzed to determine the potential effect they could have on occupational therapists’ and physical therapists’ utilization of telehealth. The results indicate that the majority of occupational therapy and physical therapy boards are silent on telehealth. A handful of physical therapy laws and regulations address “consultation by means of telecommunication,” but do not provide any guidance for practitioners seeking to provide direct telehealth-delivered services to patients. Of the few states that do provide guidance, policy had the potential to provide clarity or inhibit adoption. The findings suggest that as state boards consider crafting telehealth regulations, they should do so in a manner that facilitates, rather than hampers adoption, while upholding their providers to a high standard of care. PMID:25945218

  7. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  8. Pre-conceptions of Newton's Laws of Motion of Students in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macabebe, E. Q. B.; Culaba, I. B.; Maquiling, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) developed by R.K. Thornton and D. R. Sokoloff was utilized to evaluate the conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion. The test was administered to 100 freshman university students enrolled in introductory physics courses. The aim is to find out the conceptual understanding of the students prior to university level instruction. Results show that the Aristotelian notion prevails despite having taken physics in their senior year in high school. This study emphasizes the importance of training high school physics teachers and the significance of a change in the teaching techniques for university level introductory physics.

  9. The Association of State Law to Physical Education Time Allocation in US Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    Oh, April; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Atienza, Audie A.; Nebeling, Linda; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Moser, Richard P.; Dodd, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether public schools in states with specific and stringent physical education (PE) laws, as assessed by the Physical Education–Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS), available on the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) Web site, reported more weekly PE time in the most recent School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS). Methods. Schools (n = 410) were grouped by their state’s PERSPCS time requirement scores (none, nonspecific requirement, or specific requirement). Average weekly school-level PE was calculated using the SHPPS-reported PE minutes. Weighted analyses determined if PE minutes/week differed by PERSPCS group. Results. Schools in states with specific requirement laws averaged over 27 and 60 more PE minutes/week at the elementary and middle school levels, respectively, compared with schools within states with nonspecific laws and over 40 and 60 more PE minutes per week, respectively, compared with elementary and middle schools in states with no laws. High school results were nonsignificant. Conclusions. Public health guidelines recommend at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children, and PE may further this goal. Strong codified law with specific time requirements for PE may be an important tool contributing toward adequate PE time and daily physical activity recommendations. PMID:22594746

  10. Physical laws of medicine and their use in the realization of interaction of living organisms with EHF radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Golant, M.B.

    1994-07-01

    The author examines the physical laws of medicine and biology that determine the maximum possible rate of harmonic regeneration (i.e., a rate that ensures mutually compatible functioning of the various organs and systems) of living organisms and the maximum amount of such regeneration. These laws are specific to medicine and biology and are analogs of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  11. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2013-06-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

  12. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  13. Supergravity and the Unification of the Laws of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Daniel Z.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Peter

    1978-01-01

    In this new theory the gravitational force arises from a symmetry relating particles with vastly different properties. The ultimate result may be a unified theory of all the basic forces in nature. (Author/BB)

  14. Learning, Retention, and Forgetting of Newton's Third Law throughout University Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Dymek, Stephanie; Clark, Jessica; Sun, Yifei

    2012-01-01

    We present data from a between-student study on student response to questions on Newton's third law given in two introductory calculus-based physics classes (Mechanics and Electromagnetism) at a large northeastern university. Construction of a response curve reveals subtle dynamics in student learning not capturable by pretesting and post-testing.…

  15. Psychological and Physical Benefits of Circuit Weight Training in Law Enforcement Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvell, Nancy; Belles, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of circuit weight training on mood, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and physical symptoms among 43 state law enforcement officers. After four months, exercisers showed significant increases in strength on cardiovascular fitness; significant improvements in mood, including decreases in somatization, anxiety, depression, and…

  16. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-11-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an interesting and potentially lucrative career as a patent examiner, a patent agent, or a patent attorney. This information may be of interest to physics students as well as those who recruit or counsel physics students.

  17. Flight Physics for Beginners: Simple Examples of Applying Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spathopoulos, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    Educators are constantly trying to find new ways of motivating their students. In subjects such as mechanics with a strong mathematical component, it is particularly important to devise real-life examples that can increase interest and student excitement. Aircraft flight is a topic that most young people find exciting. It therefore would seem…

  18. From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo

    This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.

  19. From Rational Numbers to Dirac's Bra and Ket: Symbolic Representation of Physical Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Salvo

    2002-05-01

    Beginning at least in the nineteenth century, symbols used by physicists in their equations interacted with their physical concepts. In the 1850s, Wilhelm Eduard Weber introduced a more rational order into symbolization by adopting an absolute system of units, and thus expressing electrodynamic laws in the form of algebraic equations instead of proportionality relationships, the formerly accepted representation of physical laws. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell made a further advance by using dimensional quantities, and more complex symbolic forms such as gradient, convergence, rotor, and the like, in his electromagnetic and kinetic theories. In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced new symbols for complex numbers, operators, and matrices, thus passing from the representation of metrical properties of physical systems to higher-level mathematical objects. This process was enhanced in modern theoretical physics through the introduction of matrices, creation and destruction operators, Paul A. M. Dirac's q and c numbers, and so on. In the 1930s, Dirac radicalized this transformation of symbols, being aware of the profound modification in the method and scope of the mathematical-physical relationship it entailed.

  20. The relevance of Newton's laws and selected principles of physics to dance techniques: Theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Li

    1999-07-01

    In this study the researcher develops and presents a new model, founded on the laws of physics, for analyzing dance technique. Based on a pilot study of four advanced dance techniques, she creates a new model for diagnosing, analyzing and describing basic, intermediate and advanced dance techniques. The name for this model is ``PED,'' which stands for Physics of Expressive Dance. The research design consists of five phases: (1) Conduct a pilot study to analyze several advanced dance techniques chosen from Chinese dance, modem dance, and ballet; (2) Based on learning obtained from the pilot study, create the PED Model for analyzing dance technique; (3) Apply this model to eight categories of dance technique; (4) Select two advanced dance techniques from each category and analyze these sample techniques to demonstrate how the model works; (5) Develop an evaluation framework and use it to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, taking into account both scientific and artistic aspects of dance training. In this study the researcher presents new solutions to three problems highly relevant to dance education: (1) Dancers attempting to learn difficult movements often fail because they are unaware of physics laws; (2) Even those who do master difficult movements can suffer injury due to incorrect training methods; (3) Even the best dancers can waste time learning by trial and error, without scientific instruction. In addition, the researcher discusses how the application of the PED model can benefit dancers, allowing them to avoid inefficient and ineffective movements and freeing them to focus on the artistic expression of dance performance. This study is unique, presenting the first comprehensive system for analyzing dance techniques in terms of physics laws. The results of this study are useful, allowing a new level of awareness about dance techniques that dance professionals can utilize for more effective and efficient teaching and learning. The approach utilized in

  1. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-09-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated. Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern, which shows that: 1. Pedestrians intending to cross the road overestimate the stopping distance of cars travelling at low speed and underestimate the stopping distance of cars travelling at high speed. 2. Car drivers intending to overtake overestimate the distance needed at low speed, but underestimate it at high speed. 3. Car drivers asked to accelerate from standstill to a given speed overshoot the target speed; when asked to slow down to a stated speed, drivers also overshoot the target speed. 4. When asked what speed to choose to save a given amount of time on a trip of given length, drivers overestimate target speed when initial speed is low and underestimate it when initial speed is high. 5. Drivers overestimate the increase in risk associated with a small increase in speed and underestimate the increase in risk associated with a larger increase in speed. 6. Drivers overestimate the risk of apprehension for traffic offences when it is low and underestimate it when it is high. 7. Road users overestimate the risk associated with comparatively safe modes of tr The paper gives examples of all these misperceptions of physical quantities and risk. PMID:26026971

  2. Student understanding of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics in an introductory physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Warren M.

    2005-03-01

    We are investigating students' thinking regarding entropy and the second law of thermodynamics in a calculus-based general physics course. Most students enrolled in the class have had previous exposure to thermodynamics in chemistry courses or in high-school physics, and so many of them have specific ideas about these concepts even before instruction begins. To explore these ideas we administered a series of free-response pretest questions during the first week of class, before any instruction on thermodynamics had taken place. The questions probed student conceptions about entropy and its relationship with other thermodynamic properties. We will present an analysis of these data, as well as follow-up interview data that shed additional light on students' thinking.

  3. The physical origin of torque and of the rotational second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    We derive the rotational form of Newton's second law τ = I α from the translational form F → = m a → by performing a force analysis of a simple body consisting of two discrete masses. Curiously, a truly rigid body model leads to an incorrect statement of the rotational second law. The failure of this model is traced to its violation of the strong form of Newton's third law. This leads us to consider a slightly modified non-rigid model that respects the third law, produces the correct rotational second law, and makes explicit the importance of the product of the tangential force with the radial distance: the torque.

  4. Accurate physical laws can permit new standard units: The two laws F→=ma→ and the proportionality of weight to mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslow, Wayne M.

    2014-04-01

    Three common approaches to F→=ma→ are: (1) as an exactly true definition of force F→ in terms of measured inertial mass m and measured acceleration a→; (2) as an exactly true axiom relating measured values of a→, F→ and m; and (3) as an imperfect but accurately true physical law relating measured a→ to measured F→, with m an experimentally determined, matter-dependent constant, in the spirit of the resistance R in Ohm's law. In the third case, the natural units are those of a→ and F→, where a→ is normally specified using distance and time as standard units, and F→ from a spring scale as a standard unit; thus mass units are derived from force, distance, and time units such as newtons, meters, and seconds. The present work develops the third approach when one includes a second physical law (again, imperfect but accurate)—that balance-scale weight W is proportional to m—and the fact that balance-scale measurements of relative weight are more accurate than those of absolute force. When distance and time also are more accurately measurable than absolute force, this second physical law permits a shift to standards of mass, distance, and time units, such as kilograms, meters, and seconds, with the unit of force—the newton—a derived unit. However, were force and distance more accurately measurable than time (e.g., time measured with an hourglass), this second physical law would permit a shift to standards of force, mass, and distance units such as newtons, kilograms, and meters, with the unit of time—the second—a derived unit. Therefore, the choice of the most accurate standard units depends both on what is most accurately measurable and on the accuracy of physical law.

  5. Learning, retention, and forgetting of Newton's third law throughout university physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Dymek, Stephanie; Clark, Jessica; Sun, Yifei

    2012-06-01

    We present data from a between-student study on student response to questions on Newton’s third law given in two introductory calculus-based physics classes (Mechanics and Electromagnetism) at a large northeastern university. Construction of a response curve reveals subtle dynamics in student learning not capturable by pretesting and post-testing. We find a significant positive effect of instruction that diminishes by the end of the quarter. Two quarters later, a significant dip in correct response occurs when instruction changes from the vector quantities of electric forces and fields to the scalar quantity of electric potential. When instruction returns to vector topics, performance rebounds to initial values.

  6. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-Service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2012-01-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified.…

  7. Construction of a physics minimal formalism using the collision symbols: systematical condensing of the resulting laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, a formalism of physics is built by using only algebric combinations of symbols which represent collisions between bodies. The connection with reality is made by measures of time. The formalism is brought down to that of Dirac's matrices in a constant curvature space (De Sitter space). As a result it becomes possible to condense most of the physical basic laws, that are moreover written in a unified symbolism. The general application of this formalism will be the numerical treatment of physical problems. L'article bâtit un formalisme de la physique ne mettant en œuvre que les combinaisons algébriques de symboles représentatifs des chocs entre objets; le raccord au réel s'effectue par l'intermédiaire des mesures de temps. Le formalisme se ramène à celui d'une algèbre des matrices de DIRAC dans un espace à courbure constante (espace de De Sitter). Il en résulte la possibilité potentielle de condenser la plupart des lois physiques de base, écrites de surcroît dans un symbolisme unifié. L'application générale de ce formalisme est le traitement numérique des problèmes de physique.

  8. The Role of Friends, In-Laws, and Other Kin in Father-Perpetrated Child Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2000-01-01

    This study examined factors in fathers' physical abuse of their children among lower income groups. Physically abusive fathers were found to have received fewer emotional and instrumental supports from their friends, in-laws, and other kin than comparison fathers, and were only weakly linked to members of their social networks who might have…

  9. Different Paths to Some Fundamental Physical Laws: Relativistic Polarization of a Moving Magnetic Dipole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…

  10. The Law of Inertia: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The law of inertia is a problem in teaching due to the impossibility of showing the proposition experimentally. As we cannot do an experiment to verify the law, we cannot know if it is correct. On the other hand, we know that the science based upon it is successful. A study in the history of mechanics has shown that there are different foundations…

  11. A Computational Unification of Scientific Law:. Spelling out a Universal Semantics for Physical Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The principal criteria Cn (n = 1 to 23) and grammatical production rules are set out of a universal computational rewrite language spelling out a semantic description of an emergent, self-organizing architecture for the cosmos. These language productions already predicate: (1) Einstein's conservation law of energy, momentum and mass and, subsequently, (2) with respect to gauge invariant relativistic space time (both Lorentz special & Einstein general); (3) Standard Model elementary particle physics; (4) the periodic table of the elements & chemical valence; and (5) the molecular biological basis of the DNA / RNA genetic code; so enabling the Cybernetic Machine specialist Groups Mission Statement premise;** (6) that natural semantic language thinking at the higher level of the self-organized emergent chemical molecular complexity of the human brain (only surpassed by that of the cosmos itself!) would be realized (7) by this same universal semantic language via (8) an architecture of a conscious human brain/mind and self which, it predicates consists of its neural / glia and microtubule substrates respectively, so as to endow it with; (9) the intelligent semantic capability to be able to specify, symbolize, spell out and understand the cosmos that conceived it; and (10) provide a quantum physical explanation of consciousness and of how (11) the dichotomy between first person subjectivity and third person objectivity or `hard problem' is resolved.

  12. TEACHING PHYSICS: Gauss's law - a forgotten tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, John

    2000-07-01

    Gauss's law is a powerful tool that can be used to resolve symmetrical situations involving various fields, where traditional approaches would involve the use of integral calculus. Born out of the dynamics of fluids, its main teaching use has traditionally been largely in the area of electrostatic problems. However, in the area of gravitation its use is not so well known. This article starts by introducing Gauss's law with electrostatics, and then uses the law in the application of some simple gravitational problems.

  13. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  14. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in…

  15. Physics of psychophysics: Stevens and Weber-Fechner laws are transfer functions of excitable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli, Mauro; Roque, Antônio C.; Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kinouchi, Osame

    2002-06-01

    Sensory arrays made of coupled excitable elements can improve both their input sensitivity and dynamic range due to collective nonlinear wave properties. This mechanism is studied in a neural network of electrically coupled (e.g., via gap junctions) elements subject to a Poisson signal process. The network response interpolates between a Weber-Fechner logarithmic law, and a Stevens power law depending on the relative refractory period of the cell. Therefore, these nonlinear transformations of the input level could be performed in the sensory periphery simply due to a basic property: the transfer function of excitable media.

  16. Check the Lambert-Beer-Bouguer law: a simple trick to boost the confidence of students toward both exponential laws and the discrete approach to experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, R.; Offi, F.; Fontana, F.

    2014-07-01

    Exponential decay is a prototypical functional behaviour for many physical phenomena, and therefore it deserves great attention in physics courses at an academic level. The absorption of the electromagnetic radiation that propagates in a dissipative medium provides an example of the decay of light intensity, as stated by the law of Lambert-Beer-Bourguer. We devised a very simple experiment to check this law. The experimental setup, its realization, and the data analysis of the experiment are definitely simple. Our main goal was to create an experiment that is accessible to all students, including those in their first year of academic courses and those with poorly equipped laboratories. As illustrated in this paper, our proposal allowed us to develop a deep discussion about some general mathematical and numerical features of exponential decay. Furthermore, the special setup of the absorbing medium (sliced in finite thickness slabs) and the experimental outcomes allow students to understand the transition from the discrete to the continuum approach in experimental physics.

  17. Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, Nils-Axel

    2014-05-01

    Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in

  18. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2012-08-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified. This article introduces a way to approach these goals in the form of a graphical tool called the didactical reconstruction of processes (DRP), where knowledge is constructed to the extent that experiments and models have an equally important role in the construction process. In practice, the DRP is a graphical network representation or a `flow chart' with a specific structure, which aims to give an image of the processes of physical concept formation, while at the same time bearing in mind the educational goals. The DRP was tested in an instruction unit for pre-service physics teachers, where students drew flow charts for representing how the law of electromagnetic induction is formed. In addition to flow charts, students also wrote essays clarifying the content of the flow charts. The flow charts and essays were analysed through a qualitative categorisation of structural and knowledge claim patterns. The results show that the DRP helps students in arguing how to form the electromagnetic induction law and that the experiments and models have a distinct role in supporting students' knowledge claims.

  19. The Role of Fisher Information Theory in the Development of Fundamental Laws in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The unifying principle that involves rendering the Fisher information measure an extremum is reviewed. It is shown that with this principle, in conjunction with appropriate constraints, a large number of fundamental laws can be derived from a common source in a unified manner. The resulting economy of thought pertaining to fundamental principles…

  20. Obtaining Laws through Quantifying Experiments: Justifications of Pre-Service Physics Teachers in the Case of Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäntylä, Terhi; Hämäläinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The language of physics is mathematics, and physics ideas, laws and models describing phenomena are usually represented in mathematical form. Therefore, an understanding of how to navigate between phenomena and the models representing them in mathematical form is important for a physics teacher so that the teacher can make physics understandable…

  1. Beyond the Child-Langmuir Law: The Physics of Multi-dimensional Space-Charge-Limited Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John

    2001-10-01

    Space-Charge-Limited (SCL) flows in diodes have been an area of active research since the pioneering work of Child and Langmuir in the early part of this century. Indeed, the scaling of current density with the voltage to the 3/2s power is one of the best-known limits in the fields of non-neutral plasma physics, accelerator physics, sheath physics, vacuum electronics, and high power microwaves (HPM). In the past five years, there has been renewed interest in the physics and characteristics of space-charge-limited emission in physically realizable configurations. This research has focused on characterizing the current and current density enhancement possible from two- and three-dimensional geometries, such as field-emitting arrays. In 1996, computational efforts led to the development of a scaling law that described the increased current drawn due to two-dimensional effects. Recently, this scaling has been analytically derived from first principles. In parallel efforts, computational work has characterized the edge enhancement of the current density, leading to a better understanding of the physics of explosive emission cathodes. In this talk, the analytic and computational extensions to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law will be reviewed, the accuracy of SCL emission algorithms will be assessed, and the experimental implications of multi-dimensional SCL flows will be discussed.

  2. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences…

  3. Newton's First Law: Text, Translations, Interpretations and Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal; Tzeitlin, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Considers the translation from Latin of Newton's First Law (NFL) in an historical perspective. Shows that Newton's original yields two versions of complimentary meanings, one temporal and the other quantitative. Reviews the presentation of NFL in physics textbooks and notes a decline in the status of NFL in the physics curriculum. (Contains 72…

  4. Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.

  5. The First Law of Thermodynamics for Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module and a comparison module are concerned with elementary concepts of thermodynamics as…

  6. On the sense of the physical laws and the frontiers of knowledge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.

    1996-12-01

    The development of modern physics tends to limit the area of irrationalism. The explanation of the structure and dynamics of the phenomena of the world around us is working against superstitions and faith in the activity of supernational forces. However, it remains a question whether ultimate limits of our knowledge do still exist.

  7. Obtaining Laws Through Quantifying Experiments: Justifications of Pre-service Physics Teachers in the Case of Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi; Hämäläinen, Ari

    2015-07-01

    The language of physics is mathematics, and physics ideas, laws and models describing phenomena are usually represented in mathematical form. Therefore, an understanding of how to navigate between phenomena and the models representing them in mathematical form is important for a physics teacher so that the teacher can make physics understandable to students. Here, the focus is on the "experimental mathematization," how laws are established through quantifying experiments. A sequence from qualitative experiments to mathematical formulations through quantifying experiments on electric current, voltage and resistance in pre-service physics teachers' laboratory reports is examined. The way students reason and justify the mathematical formulation of the measurement results and how they combine the treatment and presentation of empirical data to their justifications is analyzed. The results show that pre-service physics teachers understand the basic idea of how quantifying experiments establish the quantities and laws but are not able to argue it in a justified manner.

  8. Physical symmetries of Taylor cone-jets: foundations of scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M.; Montanero, Jose M.; Rebollo-Munoz, Noelia

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we aim to establish the scaling laws for the liquid rate of flow naturally ejected by quasi-steady Taylor cone-jets. To this end, we utilize an ample literature in the field reporting precise measurements of the electric current transported and the resulting droplet size as a function of liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of thousands of experimental conditions onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in steady state. In this limit, a theoretical model here proposed teaches that a remarkable system of symmetries rises at the geometrical transition from the cone to the jet. This system of symmetries determines an inescapable scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is further decreased, those symmetries break down (the system bifurcates: global instability & dripping). Our model predicts the minimum flow rates reached in experiments reported so far in the literature, including all ranges of liquid properties. The existing literature and a set of new experiments performed for this specific purpose confirms our predictions. The Ministry of Science and Education (Spain) supported this work through Grant No. DPI2010-21103-C04.

  9. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  10. The Freezing Point Depression Law in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Hugo F.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a change in physical chemistry courses to use a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law. Lists reasons for the change and presents the treatment of solid-liquid equilibria where solid-solution is allowed. Provides a mathematical treatment. (MVL)

  11. An analysis of how electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law are presented in general physics textbooks, focusing on learning difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Zuza, Kristina; Almudi, José-Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Textbooks are a very important tool in the teaching-learning process and influence important aspects of the process. This paper presents an analysis of the chapter on electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law in 19 textbooks on general physics for first-year university courses for scientists and engineers. This analysis was based on criteria formulated from the theoretical framework of electromagnetic induction in classical physics and students' learning difficulties concerning these concepts. The aim of the work presented here is not to compare a textbook against the ideal book, but rather to try and find a series of explanations, examples, questions, etc that provide evidence on how the topic is presented in relation to the criteria above. It concludes that despite many aspects being covered properly, there are others that deserve greater attention.

  12. Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh

    2008-01-15

    The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

  13. Washing Up with Hot and Cold Running Neutrons: Tests of Fundamental Physical Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoreaux, Steve K.

    2005-05-24

    The properties of the Neutron and its interactions with matter have been long applied to tests of fundamental physical principles. An example of such an application is a test of the stability of the fundamental constants of physics based on possible changes in low energy absorption resonances and the isotopic composition of a prehistoric natural reactor that operated two billion years ago in equatorial Africa. A recent re-analysis of this event indicates that some fundamental constants have changed. The focus of the presentation will be on the uses of cold and ultracold neutrons (UCNs), and in particular, the experimental search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) which would be evidence for time reversal asymmetry in the microscopic interactions within the neutron. Ultracold neutrons are neutrons with kinetic energy sufficiently low that they can be reflected from material surfaces for all angles of incidence, allowing UCNs to be stored in material bottles for times approaching the beta decay lifetime of the neutron. Vagaries associated with the production, transport, and storage of UCNs will be described, and an overview progress on development of a new neutron EDM experiment to be operated at LANSCE will be presented. This new experiment has potential to improve the measurement sensitivity by a factor of 100. Although an EDM has not be observed for any elementary particle, experimental limits have been crucial for testing extensions to the so-called Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Our anticipated sensitivity will be sufficient to address questions regarding the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.

  14. Dynamics of Polymer Molecules with Sacrificial Bond and Hidden Length Systems: Towards a Physically-Based Mesoscopic Constitutive Law

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the entropic force-elongation behavior of a polymer chain in the presence of the sacrificial bond and hidden length (SBHL) system observed experimentally in many biomaterials. We show that in most cases the SBHL system leads to a significant increase in toughness. However, the presence of a large number of bonds or relatively strong bonds in the SBHL system can reduce the net gain in toughness. We also incorporate the polymer model into a network of polymers with random properties (e.g., contour length, number and strength of sacrificial bonds, length of hidden loops). This allows us to derive a physically-based mesoscopic force-displacement law that governs the collective behavior. PMID:23565135

  15. On the Law of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  16. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  17. Connecting the power-law scaling structure of peak-discharges to spatially variable rainfall and catchment physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalew, Tibebu B.; Krajewski, Witold F.; Mantilla, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    We have conducted extensive hydrologic simulation experiments in order to investigate how the flood scaling parameters in the power-law relationship Q(A)=αAθ, between peak-discharges resulting from a single rainfall-runoff event Q(A) and upstream area A, change as a function of rainfall, runoff coefficient (Cr) that we use as a proxy for catchment antecedent moisture state, hillslope overland flow velocity (vh), and channel flow velocity (vc), all of which are variable in space. We use a physically-based distributed numerical framework that is based on an accurate representation of the drainage network and apply it to the Cedar River basin (A=16,861 km), which is located in Eastern Iowa, USA. Our work is motivated by seminal empirical studies that show that the flood scaling parameters α and θ change from event to event. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanism behind the event-to-event variability of α and θ in terms of catchment physical processes and rainfall properties would significantly improve our ability to predict peak-discharge in ungauged basins (PUB). The simulation results demonstrate how both α and θ are systematically controlled by the interplay among rainfall duration T, spatially averaged rainfall intensity E[I], as well as E[Cr], E[vh], and vc. Specifically, we found that the value of θ generally decreases with increasing values of E[I], E[Cr], and E[vh], whereas its value generally increases with increasing T. Moreover, while α is primarily controlled by E[I], it increases with increasing E[Cr] and E[vh]. These results highlight the fact that the flood scaling parameters are able to be estimated from the aforementioned catchment rainfall and physical variables, which can be measured either directly or indirectly.

  18. On the Physical Basis of Rate Law Formulations for River Evolution, and their Applicability to the Simulation of Evolution after Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, C.; Parker, G.; Fu, X.

    2015-12-01

    River morphology evolves in response to trade-offs among a series of environmental forcing factors, and this evolution will be disturbed if such environmental factors change. One example of response to chronic disturbance is the intensive river evolution after earthquakes in southwest China's mountain areas. When simulating river morphological response to environmental disturbance, an exponential rate law with a specified characteristic response time is often regarded as a practical tool for quantification. As conceptual models, empirical rate law formulations can be used to describe broad brush morphological response, but their physically basis is not solid in that they do not consider the details of morphodynamic processes. Meanwhile, river evolution can also be simulated with physically-based morphodynamic models which conserve sediment via the Exner equation. Here we study the links between the rate law formalism and the Exner equation through solving the Exner equation mathematically and numerically. The results show that, when implementing a very simplified form of a relation for bedload transport, the Exner equation can be reduced to the diffusion equation, the solution of which is a Gaussian function. This solution coincides with the solution associated with rate laws, thus providing a physical basis for such formulations. However, when the complexities of a natural river are considered, the solution of the Exner equation will no longer be a simple Gaussian function. Under such circumstances, the rate law becomes invalid, and a full understanding of the response of rivers to earthquakes requires a complete morphodynamic model.

  19. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    PubMed Central

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently “catch up” at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students’ math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement. PMID:23737633

  20. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  1. Nonuniformity of the constitutive law parameters for shear rupture and quasistatic nucleation to dynamic rupture: a physical model of earthquake generation processes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnaka, M

    1996-01-01

    Based on the recent high-resolution laboratory experiments on propagating shear rupture, the constitutive law that governs shear rupture processes is discussed in view of the physical principles and constraints, and a specific constitutive law is proposed for shear rupture. It is demonstrated that nonuniform distributions of the constitutive law parameters on the fault are necessary for creating the nucleation process, which consists of two phases: (i) a stable, quasistatic phase, and (ii) the subsequent accelerating phase. Physical models of the breakdown zone and the nucleation zone are presented for shear rupture in the brittle regime. The constitutive law for shear rupture explicitly includes a scaling parameter Dc that enables one to give a common interpretation to both small scale rupture in the laboratory and large scale rupture as earthquake source in the Earth. Both the breakdown zone size Xc and the nucleation zone size L are prescribed and scaled by Dc, which in turn is prescribed by a characteristic length lambda c representing geometrical irregularities of the fault. The models presented here make it possible to understand the earthquake generation process from nucleation to unstable, dynamic rupture propagation in terms of physics. Since the nucleation process itself is an immediate earthquake precursor, deep understanding of the nucleation process in terms of physics is crucial for the short-term (or immediate) earthquake prediction. PMID:11607667

  2. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary…

  3. The symmetry and simplicity of the laws of physics and the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We describe the theoretical ideas, developed between the 1950s-1970s, which led to the prediction of the Higgs boson, the particle that was discovered in 2012. The forces of nature are based on symmetry principles. We explain the nature of these symmetries through an economic analogy. We also discuss the Higgs mechanism, which is necessary to avoid some of the naive consequences of these symmetries, and to explain various features of elementary particles.

  4. Advancing the state of the art without violating the laws of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent suggestions that ``anomalous nuclear reactions'' be used for space power and propulsion recall the ``pathological science'' syndrome described by Nobel-Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir who identified six symptoms of pathological science caused by a loss of objectivity. Pathological science was described by Langmuir as the ``science'' of things that aren't so. Denis L. Rousseau has condensed Langmuir's six symptoms into two characteristics and added a third. The first characteristic of pathological science is that the effect being studied is often at the limits of detectability or has a very low statistical significance. The second characteristic is a readiness to disregard prevailing ideas and theories. The third identifying trait of pathological science is that the investigator finds it nearly impossible to carry out experiments designed to give a definitive answer.

  5. ARTICLES: Physical laws governing the interaction of pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenov, A. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Drobyazko, S. V.; Pavlovich, Yu V.; Senatorov, Yu M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the efficiency of welding metals with a pulse-periodic CO2 laser beam of low duty ratio, at low velocities, can exceed that of welding with cw lasers and with electron beams. For the first time an investigation was made of the influence of the laser radiation parameters (energy and frequency) and of the welding velocity on the characteristics of the weld and on the shape of the weldpool. The influence of the laser radiation polarization on the efficiency of deep penetration was analyzed.

  6. Hydrodynamical scaling laws to explore the physics of tidal dissipation in star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluid celestial bodies can be strongly affected by tidal perturbations, which drive the evolution of close planetary systems over long timescales. While the tidal response of solid bodies varies smoothly with the tidal frequency, fluid bodies present a highly frequency-resonant tidal dissipation resulting from the complex hydrodynamical response. In these bodies, tides have the form of a combination of inertial waves restored by the Coriolis acceleration and gravity waves in the case of stably stratified layers, which are restored by the Archimedean force. Because of processes such as viscous friction and thermal diffusion, the energy given by the tidal forcing is dissipated. This directly impact the architecture of planetary systems. In this study, we detail a local analytical model which makes us able to characterize the internal dissipation of fluid bodies as functions of identified control parameters such as the inertial, Brunt-Väisälä and tidal frequencies, and the Ekman and Prandtl numbers.

  7. Physical Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of K-Shell Double Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Berset, M.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.; Kheifets, A. K.; Bray, I.; Kavcic, M.

    2009-02-20

    We report on the photon energy dependence of the K-shell double photoionization (DPI) of Mg, Al, and Si. The DPI cross sections were derived from high-resolution measurements of x-ray spectra following the radiative decay of the K-shell double vacancy states. Our data evince the relative importance of the final-state electron-electron interaction to the DPI. By comparing the double-to-single K-shell photoionization cross-section ratios for neutral atoms with convergent close-coupling calculations for He-like ions, the effect of outer shell electrons on the K-shell DPI process is assessed. Universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms is revealed.

  8. Do the Laws of Physics Allow us to Create a New Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2014-03-01

    Essentially all modern particle theories suggest the possible existence of a false vacuum state -- a metastable state with an energy density that cannot be lowered except by means of a very slow phase transition. Inflationary cosmology makes use of such a state to drive the expansion of the big bang, allowing the entire observed universe to evolve from a very small initial mass. A sphere of false vacuum in our present universe, if larger than a certain critical mass, could inflate to form a new universe which would rapidly detach from its parent. A false vacuum bubble of this size, however, cannot be produced classically unless an initial singularity is present from the outset. E. Farhi, J. Guven, and I have therefore explored the possibility that a bubble of subcritical size, which classically would evolve to a maximum size and collapse, might instead tunnel through a barrier to produce a new universe. We estimated the tunneling rate using semiclassical quantum gravity, and discovered some interesting ambiguities in the formalism.

  9. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  10. Effectiveness in Learning Newton's Second Law of Motion in Secondary School Physics Using Three Methods of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Bruce

    Compared were inductive programed, deductive programed, and conventional lecture-question methods of instruction related to Newton's Second Law of Motion on outcome gains including recall of factual information, ability to solve mathematical problems, and retention. Some 266 students in three schools participated and were compared for…

  11. Courtside: Coed Physical Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Linda Jean; Acosta, R. Vivian

    2001-01-01

    Title IX promotes sex fairness in education programs receiving federal funding, including physical education (PE). It states that PE classes may not be segregated by sex except under very specific conditions. This paper presents scenarios that examine what Title IX's PE requirements mean in practice, concluding that educators must understand its…

  12. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  13. The Impact of State Laws and District Policies on Physical Education and Recess Practices in a Nationally-Representative Sample of U.S. Public Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of state and school district-level policies on the prevalence of physical education (PE) and recess in a nationally representative sample of U.S. public elementary schools. Design Analyses from annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of School Administrators in the US. Setting Data were collected through surveys conducted between February and June during the 2006-07, through 2008-09 school years. State laws and district policies were compiled annually by UIC researchers using established legal research techniques. Participants The sample size was 47 states, 690 districts, and 1761 schools. Main Exposures State and District-level PE and recess-related laws Outcome Measures Twenty minutes of daily recess and 150 minutes of PE weekly Results The odds of schools having 150 weekly minutes of PE increased if they were located in states (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7) or school districts (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) having a law or policy, respectively, requiring 150 minutes of PE weekly. Schools located in states with laws encouraging daily recess were significantly more likely to have 20 minutes of recess daily (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8). District policies were not significantly associated with school-level recess practices. Adequate PE time was inversely associated with recess and vice versa suggesting that schools are substituting one form of physical activity for another rather than providing the recommended amount of both recess and PE. Conclusions By mandating PE or recess, policy makers can effectively increase school-based physical activity opportunities for youth. PMID:22147763

  14. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  15. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion..." and "For every action..."), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them…

  16. A Unified Approach to Introductory Physics Based on the Conservation Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bradley; Miller, Charles

    1970-01-01

    Describes a new, unified approach to introductory physics based on the conservation laws. classical and quantum physics are presented together as different levels of a unified and consistent description of the world. This approach has been used for the last 3 years as the first course in general physics for science and engineering students at…

  17. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  18. Fluctuations and Gibbs-Thomson Law - the Simple Physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, A A; De Yoreo, J J; Rashkovich, L N

    2006-09-15

    Crystals of slightly soluble materials should be subject of relatively weak attachment/detachment fluctuations on their faces so that steps on that faces have low kink density. These steps are parallel to the most close packed lattice rows and form polygons on a crystal surface. The process responsible for implementation of the classical Gibbs-Thomson law (GTL) for the polygonal step (in two dimensions, 2D) is kink exchange between the step corners. For the 3D crystallites, this mechanism includes step exchange. If these mechanisms do not operate because of slow fluctuations the GTL is not applicable. Physics of these processes and conditions for the GTL applicability are discussed on a simple qualitative level.

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  1. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  2. Cartan's soldered spaces and conservation laws in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouneiher, Joseph; Barbachoux, Cécile

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will introduce a generalized soldering p-forms geometry, which can be the right framework to describe many new approaches and concepts in modern physics. Here we will treat some aspects of the theory of local cohomology in fields theory or more precisely the theory of soldering-form conservation laws in physics. We provide some illustrative applications, primarily taken from the Einstein equations of general theory of relativity and Yang-Mills theory. This theory can be considered to be a generalization of Noether's theory of conserved current to differential forms of any degree. An essential result of this, is that the conservation of the energy-momentum in general relativity, is linked to the fact that the vacuum field equations are equivalent to the integrability conditions of a first-order system of differential equations. We also apply the idea of the soldered space and the integrability conditions to the case of Yang-Mills theory. The mathematical framework, where these intuitive considerations would fit naturally, can be used to describe also the dynamics of changing manifolds.

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:25770525

  5. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  7. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body. PMID:27093718

  8. Measuring Ultraviolet Radiation Underwater: A Practical Application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Law for High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Peter; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of solar UV under water is not a simple process. In the underwater environment the difficulty of obtaining useable data is greatly amplified due to the optically complicated and at times unpredictable nature of water itself. The following practical exercise designed for use in the Year 11 and Year 12 Physics classroom aims to…

  9. Inevitability of One Type of Universe, One Set of Physical Laws and Where to Observe Failed Inflation Events Within Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Michael

    Starting from the simple premises of one size of fundamental building block, two types of energy and only three dimensions, it is shown that there can be no multiverses outside our universe, that some black holes are observable failed inflation events within our universe and that there can be only one underlying set of the laws of physics. These laws will be the same everywhere and fail nowhere. Composites formed from the building blocks during different inflation events can produce different sizes of fermions, nucleons and atoms, but a type of universe with symmetries similar to ours is the inevitable outcome of a successful inflation event. The building blocks provide the base for matter, anti-matter and dark matter in the same composite forms and show how the existence or otherwise of dark energy can be observed. Also explained are why only positive masses are observed, why some particle configurations and orbits are stable and what the terms `energy' and `inertia' really describe.

  10. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    PubMed

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  11. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  12. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Rule-governed Approaches to Physics--Newton's Third Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an approach to assessing the use of rules in solving problems related to Newton's third law of motion. Discusses the problems used, method of questioning, scoring of problem sets, and a general overview of the use of the technique in aiding the teacher in dealing with student's conceptual levels. (JM)

  14. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  15. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  16. Investigation of students' reasoning regarding heat, work, and the first law of thermodynamics in an introductory calculus-based general physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, David E.

    2004-11-01

    Students in an introductory university physics course were found to share many substantial difficulties related to learning fundamental topics in thermal physics. Responses to written questions by 653 students in three separate courses were consistent with the results of detailed individual interviews with 32 students in a fourth course. Although most students seemed to acquire a reasonable grasp of the state-function concept, it was found that there was a widespread and persistent tendency to improperly over-generalize this concept to apply to both work and heat. A large majority of interviewed students thought that net work done or net heat absorbed by a system undergoing a cyclic process must be zero, and only 20% or fewer were able to make effective use of the first law of thermodynamics even after instruction. Students' difficulties seemed to stem in part from the fact that heat, work, and internal energy share the same units. The results were consistent with those of previously published studies of students in the U.S. and Europe, but portray a pervasiveness of confusion regarding process-dependent quantities that has been previously unreported. Significant enhancements of current standard instruction may be required for students to master basic thermodynamic concepts.

  17. The ICE hypothesis stands: How the dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift can no longer be sustained in the light of data and physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. B.; Clausen, O. R.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Thomsen, E.; Huuse, M.; Gallagher, K.; Balling, N.; Egholm, D.

    2010-08-01

    In this reply, we address the issues raised by the comment of Chalmers et al. (2010) regarding our ICE hypothesis for the evolution of western Scandinavia. We reject their conjectures as based, uncritically and without consideration of physical mechanisms, on the long-standing dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Our hypothesis, in contrast, honours well-documented physical laws and the present wealth of actual data constraints (as opposed to dogma-biased inferences). After careful consideration of the points raised by Chalmers et al. (2010) we maintain our simple explanation for the evolution of Scandinavian topography, as it honours well-documented actual data constraints, such as crustal structure (including its spatio-temporal variability), thermal history in the eastern North Sea, global and regional climatic change (including eustacy) and sedimentation in the adjacent basins. The inevitable conclusion is that, although more data constraints are desirable, the current best fit hypothesis, is that the Scandinavian topography is of Caledonide origin, and has been shaped by fluvial and glacial buzzsaw and periglacial processes, and most recently (last few Myr) been re-invigorated by extensive glacial erosion in the fjords and on the shelf.

  18. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  19. Patterns in Nature: Challenging Secondary Students to Learn about Physical Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching about the nature of science is seen as a priority within science education, and has also been highlighted as a suitable context for challenging the most able ("gifted") learners at secondary school level. This article discusses a practical session designed to introduce the idea of physical (natural) laws. The session asks students to…

  20. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  1. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  2. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  3. Determination Instructions Efficiency of Teaching Methods in Teaching Physics in the Case of Teaching Unit "Viscosity. Newtonian and Stokes Law"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radulovic, Branka; Stojanovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The use of different teaching methods has resulted in different quality and quantity of students' knowledge. For this reason, it is important to constantly review the teaching methods and applied most effectively. One way of determining instruction efficiency is by using cognitive load and student achievement. Cognitive load can be generally…

  4. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  5. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  6. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  7. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  8. First law of black Saturn thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-06-15

    The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

  9. First law of p-brane thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2009-08-15

    We study the physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a charged p-brane. The general setting for our investigations is (n+p+1)-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with (p+2) strength form fields.

  10. Human rights at work: Physical standards for employment and human rights law.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights. PMID:27277568

  11. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  12. Algorithmic randomness, physical entropy, measurements, and the second law

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic information content is equal to the size -- in the number of bits -- of the shortest program for a universal Turing machine which can reproduce a state of a physical system. In contrast to the statistical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy, which measures ignorance, the algorithmic information content is a measure of the available information. It is defined without a recourse to probabilities and can be regarded as a measure of randomness of a definite microstate. I suggest that the physical entropy S -- that is, the quantity which determines the amount of the work {Delta}W which can be extracted in the cyclic isothermal expansion process through the equation {Delta}W = k{sub B}T{Delta}S -- is a sum of two contributions: the mission information measured by the usual statistical entropy and the known randomness measured by the algorithmic information content. The sum of these two contributions is a constant of motion'' in the process of a dissipation less measurement on an equilibrium ensemble. This conservation under a measurement, which can be traced back to the noiseless coding theorem of Shannon, is necessary to rule out existence of a successful Maxwell's demon. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  13. The Law of Attrition

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a “science of attrition”, that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call “law of attrition” here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the appplication. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually “works”, ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a “usage half-life”, and

  14. Physical Considerations on Bernoulli's Law for Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tomohiko; Hashiba, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    The simplified Bernoulli's equation is widely used in cardiology to measure the pressure difference between the left ventricle (LV) and the left atrium (LA). Even though this is a standard method, its derivation has not been well-clarified physically, which may lead to inappropriate usage of the method. In this study, derivation of the simplified Bernoulli's equation is presented with five assumptions: incompressible, irrotational, steady-state, negligible LV-LA height difference, and LA open space. Each assumption is analytically and numerically discussed as quantitatively as possible. We found that three factors, the LA size, the measurement location of regurgitation velocity, and the patient position in measuring regurgitation, need to be considered for appropriate usage of the simplified Bernoulli's equation.

  15. On a generalization of Kepler's third law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujičić, V. A.

    2005-12-01

    In the educational and scientific literature, Kepler’s third law is seen as only approximately correct. Therefore, a so-called ‘generalized Kepler’s third law’ has been introduced as correct. Only when the planet masses are considered is the standard Kepler’s third law obtained. In this paper, we prove that ‘the generalized Kepler’s third law’ is neither physically nor mathematically based on the axioms of mechanics; thus it is in fact not correct.

  16. Unification of the State with the Dynamical Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We address the question of why particular laws were selected for the universe, by proposing a mechanism for laws to evolve. Normally in physical theories, timeless laws act on time-evolving states. We propose that this is an approximation, good on time scales shorter than cosmological scales, beyond which laws and states are merged into a single entity that evolves in time. Furthermore the approximate distinction between laws and states, when it does emerge, is dependent on the initial conditions. These ideas are illustrated in a simple matrix model.

  17. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  18. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Why are Newton's laws laws and why is this question of importance in astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennison, R. C.

    Newton's law of gravitation has been well researched and one may now associate the cause with the geometry of space. Newton's third law is a general law not confined to inertial forces -any physically measurable force appears to require a physically measurable reaction in order that it may exist as a real observable quantity. Newton's first and second laws are in a different category for they are associated with relative motion and the physical reason for this has been an enigma since the publication of Principia Mathematica. Is the phenomenon associated with these two laws caused by the influence of the distance masses of the universe on point-like test masses, as Mach suggested but did not prove, or is it associated with a fundamental internal property of trapped energy within physically finite test masses, befitting to the principle of relativity, as has been proposed in the last decade? The resolution of this problem has profound implications for the identification of hidden matter in the Universe and for the cosmological modelling of the Universe as a whole.

  1. The Constructal Law of ``Designedness'' in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2008-08-01

    The laws of classical thermodynamics refer to systems as black boxes, without configuration. Nature is different: it has "designedness" everywhere and at all scales (pattern, configuration, rhythm). The generation of configuration is a phenomenon of all physics, and it is covered by the constructal law: for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides easier access to its currents. The constructal law is predictive across the board, in inanimate, animate and human flow systems. Examples are the scaling laws of all river basins, the speeds and frequencies of all kinds of animal locomotion, and the zipfian distribution of hierarchical city sizes and numbers on the globe. The constructal law accounts for the numerous and often contradictory ad-hoc statements of self-optimization, e.g. minimization and maximization of entropy generation, minimization and maximization of flow resistance, minimization of time and cost, maximization of utility, and the axiom of uniform stresses in animal bones and botanical trees.

  2. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Adiabatic Processes of an Ideal Gas: Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 46 teacher candidates taking the course of "Thermodynamics" in the Department of Physics Teaching. The purpose of the study was to determine the difficulties that teacher candidates experienced in explaining the heat, work and internal energy relationships in the processes of adiabatic compression…

  3. Laws of valley growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, Hansjoerg; Yi, Robert; Willenbring, Jane; Kirchner, James; Rothman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The question of how the channel heads advance has long been debated [1,2]. By studying a simplified setting - channels incised by re-emerging groundwater flow - we seek insight into the headward growth of channel networks, by combining theoretical modeling with field observations. A concept for how such seepage channel systems form was first proposed by T. Dunne in the early 1980s [2]. A small bulge in the sidewall of a stream focuses ground water flow. This results in a larger flux and therefore a higher erosion rate in this direction. Over time such small perturbations grow into newly formed streams, but how they do so and how erosion depends on the water flux is unclear. The theory of diffusive growth provides a theoretical framework to describe channelization in response to groundwater flow. For this system the underlying physical equations are well-defined, and numerical and analytical predictions can be obtained and tested in the field. If a stream advances at a rate v˜ q^η, where q is the discharge of ground water into the tip, theory predicts that η has to be smaller than a critical value η^star to obtain ramified networks [3]. We test this hypothesis by measuring erosion rates in a field site in the Florida Panhandle, which provides a natural laboratory to study channel incision by re-emerging groundwater flow [4]. Our theoretical network reconstruction yields tip growth rates which we can directly compare to observational rates obtained from cosmogenic 10Be measurements. This comparison of theory and observation allows us to verify the existence of a constitutive discharge-erosion relation, and to better characterize growth and competition of streams at the channel head. [1] Montgommery, D. R. and Dietrich, W. E. Where do channels begin?, Nature, 336, no. 6196 (1988): 232-234 [2] Dunne, T. Formation and controls of channel networks, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 4 (1980): 211-239 [3] Carleson, L. and Makarov, N. Laplacian path models, J. Anal. Math., 87, no. 1

  4. Student conception and perception of Newton's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Soeparmi, A.; Sunarno, Widha

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to reveal the student's conception and perception of Newton's Law. Method of this research is qualitative with the sample is taken using purposive sampling consist of second semester (25 students), fourth semester (26 students), sixth semester VI (25 students), and eight semester (18 students) IKIP PGRI MADIUN, which have taken the first basic physics and mechanics courses The data was collected with essay questions, interview, and FCI test. It can be concluded that Mathematical language (symbol and visual) perception and intuition influence students conception. The results of analysis showed that an incorrect conception arises because students do not understand the language of physics and mathematics correctly.

  5. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should be First

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels.1-3 This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud4 and Weinstock5 proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in many textbooks without resorting to "intuitional or anthropomorphic contrivances."5 In 1990, Arnold Arons6 wrote that "the Law of Inertia and the concept of force have, historically, been two of the most formidable stumbling blocks for students." One might imagine, therefore, that by 2012 remedial strategies would have resolved these difficulties, but there is little evidence that the problem has been satisfactorily addressed. Diagnostic tools such as the Force Concept Inventory7,8 have cast light on areas of difficulty; remedial strategies have included historical approaches, computer simulations, analogical approaches, and many more.9-12 Nevertheless, papers on the subject are still being published.8,9,11-13 Textbook descriptions of the laws have also contributed to the problem: in general the topic is presented with little discussion and the third law in particular is often given cursory treatment. This paper addresses the introduction of the laws in the classroom, especially the order in which they are customarily presented, and discusses particular issues attached to the third law that constitute major impediments to understanding.14-16 We have devised a six-hour workshop, for middle-school teachers and senior students, that has achieved some success in enhancing understanding of Newton's laws by adopting a different order of presentation of the laws from that traditionally given in physics texts. Our approach is deliberately intuitional and experiential, as we believe the ideas need to be felt or owned by students before introducing them to a more rigorous formalism.

  6. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  7. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. PMID:26192018

  8. Empirical Scaling Laws of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Carly M.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2005-01-01

    When launching or landing a space craft on the regolith of a terrestrial surface, special attention needs to be paid to the rocket exhaust cratering effects. If the effects are not controlled, the rocket cratering could damage the spacecraft or other surrounding hardware. The cratering effects of a rocket landing on a planet's surface are not understood well, especially for the lunar case with the plume expanding in vacuum. As a result, the blast effects cannot be estimated sufficiently using analytical theories. It is necessary to develop physics-based simulation tools in order to calculate mission-essential parameters. In this work we test out the scaling laws of the physics in regard to growth rate of the crater depth. This will provide the physical insight necessary to begin the physics-based modeling.

  9. Derivation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics from Boltzmann's Distribution Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how the thermodynamic condition for equilibrium in an isolated system can be derived by the application of Boltzmann's law to a simple physical system. States that this derivation could be included in an introductory course on chemical equilibrium to help prepare students for a statistical mechanical treatment presented in the curriculum.…

  10. The Physics of Juggling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Bengt; Tiemann, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Explores the basic physical laws of the juggling activity. Derives some equations involving height, angle, time, and distance for common juggling objects. Describes the relationships among height, length, mass, number of clubs, number of spins, angular velocity, time, and angle in club juggling. (YP)

  11. Numerical Stability and Convergence of Approximate Methods for Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, V. A.

    We present the new approach to background of approximate methods convergence based on functional solutions theory for conservation laws. The applications to physical kinetics, gas and fluid dynamics are considered.

  12. The physics of ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  13. The Coming of Secret Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1988-01-01

    Traces trends in the federal government's policy toward publication of statutes and publication practices from the time of the colonies to the present administration. The impairment of the publication of federal administrative law is then discussed in the context of the rise of a national security state. (118 notes with references) (CLB)

  14. A generalization of Snell's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Michael L.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main result of this research is the expression found for Snell's Law of Refraction in which the velocity of the light particles in the medium depends upon direction. We also use inverse problems to find the index of refraction needed to move along any desired family of curves. Finally, we derive a general expression that generates a family of curves given any index of refraction. This research has several applications in the area of acoustical and optical wave propagation. In the area of acoustics, the inverse problems enable us to predict the path followed by sound waves for a given medium. This has a military use in the area of prosecuting submarine contacts and in ocean bottom surveys. The inverse problems also have applications to the bending of light rays used in laser technology. Although this paper derives several generalizations of Snell's Law of Refraction there are still areas that require further research.

  15. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  16. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  17. Teaching Freedom of Information Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toran, Janice

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that a course on the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 is shaped largely by one question: how does the rhetoric behind the law match the reality of its operation? Issues such a course can address are identified, and possible course formats and teaching materials are discussed. (MSE)

  18. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  19. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  20. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  1. Mixed-sediment transport modelling in Scheldt estuary with a physics-based bottom friction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qilong; Toorman, Erik A.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the main object is to investigate the performance of a few new physics-based process models by implementation into a numerical model for the simulation of the flow and morphodynamics in the Western Scheldt estuary. In order to deal with the complexity within the research domain, and improve the prediction accuracy, a 2D depth-averaged model has been set up as realistic as possible, i.e. including two-way hydrodynamic-sediment transport coupling, mixed sand-mud sediment transport (bedload transport as well as suspended load in the water column) and a dynamic non-uniform bed composition. A newly developed bottom friction law, based on a generalised mixing-length (GML) theory, is implemented, with which the new bed shear stress closure is constructed as the superposition of the turbulent and the laminar contribution. It allows the simulation of all turbulence conditions (fully developed turbulence, from hydraulic rough to hydraulic smooth, transient and laminar), and the drying and wetting of intertidal flats can now be modelled without specifying an inundation threshold. The benefit is that intertidal morphodynamics can now be modelled with great detail for the first time. Erosion and deposition in these areas can now be estimated with much higher accuracy, as well as their contribution to the overall net fluxes. Furthermore, Krone's deposition law has been adapted to sand-mud mixtures, and the critical stresses for deposition are computed from suspension capacity theory, instead of being tuned. The model has been calibrated and results show considerable differences in sediment fluxes, compared to a traditional approach and the analysis also reveals that the concentration effects play a very important role. The new bottom friction law with concentration effects can considerably alter the total sediment flux in the estuary not only in terms of magnitude but also in terms of erosion and deposition patterns.

  2. Law and Community Service: The Appalachian School of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    At southwest Virginia's new Appalachian School of Law, students volunteer 25 hours each semester on community service projects. Projects fall into two categories: pure service by sharing a skill or interest, and service that draws on legal skills, such as presenting legal seminars to senior citizens' groups or conducting conflict resolution…

  3. The Law of Teacher Evaluation: Case Law Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the law of teacher evaluation using recent cases. The purpose is to assist administrators in separating professional lore from legal requirements. Case analysis, with citations, is provided in several topic areas, including procedural default, remediation plans, statutory discrimination, and grievance arbitrability. (Author)

  4. The laws of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Martin

    2015-03-01

    150 years after the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, virtually all of our modern technological society is underpinned by electromagnetic phenomena - from microwave dinners to the Internet. And yet the essence of Maxwell's theory is captured by just four equations, explained here by Martin Hendry.

  5. Pre-service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-12-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study, we report on the results of an empirical investigation of teachers' understanding of energy. In particular, the focus is placed on pre-service teachers' ability to employ energy as a framework for analyzing the operation of physical systems. We have collected data from 198 pre-service teachers through three open-ended tasks that involved the application of the energy conservation principle to simple physical systems. The results corroborate the claim made in the literature that teachers typically do not possess functional, coherent understanding of this principle. Most importantly, the data serve to identify and document specific difficulties that hamper attempts to use energy for the analysis of the operation of physical systems. The difficulties we were able to document lend support to the idea that it is important to introduce the idea of energy degradation alongside the conservation of energy principle. The findings of this study have implications for the design of preparation programs for teachers, about energy. The findings also provide insights into the limitations of conventional teaching of energy, to which the participants had been exposed as students, in fostering coherent understanding of energy conservation.

  6. Nicole's Law of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2013-11-14

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Letter of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    A recent decision by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in a case from Arkansas centered on a vicious letter written by an 8th-grade boy about his former girlfriend and turned over to school officials. The court ruled for the school district in expelling the student for the year, without allowing him to attend an alternative school. Argues that…

  8. From Universal Laws of Cognition to Specific Cognitive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable successes of the physical sciences have been built on highly general quantitative laws, which serve as the basis for understanding an enormous variety of specific physical systems. How far is it possible to construct universal principles in the cognitive sciences, in terms of which specific aspects of perception, memory, or decision…

  9. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. PMID:25871844

  10. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ)+〈Q〉_{F|m}≥0, where ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρ_{m} and 〈Q〉_{F|m} is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples. PMID:27627241

  11. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M.; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as Δ H (ρm,ρ ) + F |m≥0 , where Δ H (ρm,ρ ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρm and F |m is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples.

  12. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  13. Reviews Book: George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Book: 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Book: Head First Physics Book: Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws Book: Froth! The Science of Beer Equipment: SEP Charge Indicator Book: How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Another science-based kids' adventure from the Hawkings 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Brief, accessible descriptions of some complex physics Head First Physics Mechanics-focused non-traditional textbook Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws An original text aimed at students Froth! The Science of Beer A tongue-in-cheek physics-heavy guide to brewery science SEP Charge Indicator Classroom equipment that is affordable, usable and works How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years An enjoyable read suitable for student or teacher WEB WATCH Simulators can be useful teaching aids, as long as you remain aware of their flaws

  14. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question. PMID:25358903

  15. The Symmetry of Natural Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurie M.

    This document is a monograph intended for advanced undergraduate students, or beginning graduate students, who have some knowledge of modern physics as well as classical physics, including the elementary quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom and angular momentum. The first chapter introduces symmetry and relates it to the mathematical…

  16. Laws of Scattering Applied to Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined Top 40 singles chart data to determine whether the frequency distribution of artist productivity fit either of two laws of scatter (Lotka Law of Scientific Productivity or Bradford Law of Scatter). Possible reasons for the lack of statistical significance found between the theoretical and observed distributions are…

  17. Language and Content: The Case of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Colin J.

    A discussion of the teaching and learning of English for special purposes focuses on the interrelationship of content and language, particularly in the case of education for the legal professions. It is noted that law students must both study a large corpus of case and statute law and legal principles and learn the language of the law, with its…

  18. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Newton's Laws, Energy, and Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates five courseware packages covering the topics of Newton's laws and seven courseware packages for work, energy, momentum, and conservation laws. Discusses the price, sub-topics, program type, interaction, time, calculus required, graphics, and comments of each courseware. Selects some packages based on the criteria. (YP)

  19. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  20. Numerical Simulations of the Geodynamo and Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruba, L.; Dormy, E.

    2013-12-01

    State of the art numerical models of the Geodynamo are still performed in a parameter regime extremely remote from the values relevant to the physics of the Earth core. In order to establish a connection between dynamo modeling and the geophysical motivation, it is necessary to use scaling laws. Such laws establish the dependency of essential quantities (such as the magnetic field strength) on measured or controlled quantities. They allow for a direct confrontation of advanced models with geophysical constraints. We will present a detailed analysis of scaling laws based on a wide database of 185 direct numerical simulations (courtesy of U. Christensen) and test various existing scaling laws. Our main concern is to stress the risks of a direct numerical fit free from physical insight. We show that different a priori hypothesis can yield contradictory dependences, in particular concerning the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation rate as well as on the viscosity.

  1. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  2. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  3. The First Mental Health Law of China

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Jijun; Xie, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The first mental health law of China entered into effect on May 1, 2013. This is the biggest event in the mental health field in China. The present review introduced its legislative process, its main idea, and the principle and essence of formulating this mental health law. Current problems of the law and possible countermeasures are also discussed. PMID:25486869

  4. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  5. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  6. A novel study on Kepler’s law and inverse square law of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingzhan; Zhen, Shengchao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Kang; Deng, Bin; Chen, Ye-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    The Udwadia-Kalaba equation is a simple, aesthetic, and thought-provoking description of the world at a very fundamental level. It is about the way systems move. In this paper, we creatively apply the Udwadia-Kalaba approach to study heavenly bodies’ movements (especially on Kepler’s law and the inverse square law of gravitation). In an alternative way, we show that a heavenly body’s motion orbit can be an ellipse, a circle, a hyperbola, or a parabola and show the conservation of angular momentum. Furthermore, by applying the Udwadia-Kalaba approach, we use the constraint of motion orbit (ellipse, circle, hyperbola, or parabola) and the conservation of angular momentum constraint (or energy conservation constraint) and easily verify that any heavenly body’s motion complies with the inverse square law of gravitation. That is, we study Kepler’s law and Newton’s inverse square law in an analytical way, which makes the dynamicist more clear about the way heavenly bodies move and also makes the celestial mechanician more clear about the analytical mechanics (the Udwadia-Kalaba approach). Furthermore, for the students of dynamics and celestial physics, a different unique perspective is provided for them to study. At the end, we present the detailed process of applying the Udwadia-Kalaba approach to two imaginary cases to show its simplicity and efficiency.

  7. The Mixed Blessings of Sunshine Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; McLenson, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sunshine laws arose from public concern over how public officials make decisions. Every state has sunshine laws, and in every case those laws have been applied to public higher education systems and institutions. Operationally, they serve a variety of goals. These include helping to ensure that public colleges and universities are pursuing…

  8. The Integration of Women into Law Faculties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Elena N.

    The integration of women into law school faculties was studied to determine the interrelationships among cultural, institutional, and individual influences. Currently available data on women's representation in law schools were analyzed, and data were collected from a national law faculty recruitment conference and through on-site visits to 10 law…

  9. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  10. The Law Clerk's Duty of Confidentiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Judges were surveyed for their views on their law clerks' responsibility for confidentiality. Background is outlined, results are presented, and guidelines for law clerk conduct are suggested. The questionnaire is appended. Available from: Executive Editor, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 3400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, $6.50.…

  11. Another paradox involving the second law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a paradox has been posed that appears to challenge the second law of thermodynamics in a plasma blackbody environment [D. P. Sheehan, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 1893 (1995)]. In this paper another, related paradox is posed in an unmagnetized Q plasma. Laboratory experiments simulating some necessary conditions for the paradoxical system corroborate theoretical predictions and fail to resolve the paradox in favor of the second law. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. The power laws of nanoscale forces in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, Matteo; Santos, Sergio; Lai, Chia-Yun

    Power laws are ubiquitous in the physical sciences and indispensable to qualitatively and quantitatively describe physical phenomena. A nanoscale force law that accurately describes the phenomena observed in ambient conditions at several nm or fractions of a nm above a surface however is still lacking. Here we report a power law derived from experimental data and describing the interaction between an atomic force microscope AFM tip modelled as a sphere and a surface in ambient conditions. By employing a graphite surface as a model system the resulting effective power is found to be a function of the tip radius and the distance. The data suggest a nano to mesoscale transition in the power law that results in relative agreement with the distance-dependencies predicted by the Hamaker and Lifshitz theories for van der Waals forces for the larger tip radii only

  13. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  14. Thresholded Power law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2015-11-01

    Power-law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold x0; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background xb; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can be modeled in the simplest terms with a “thresholded power law” distribution function (also called generalized Pareto [type II] or Lomax distribution), N(x){dx}\\propto {(x+{x}0)}-a{dx}, where x0 > 0 is positive for a threshold effect, while x0 < 0 is negative for background contamination. We analytically derive the functional shape of this thresholded power law distribution function from an exponential growth evolution model, which produces avalanches only when a disturbance exceeds a critical threshold x0. We apply the thresholded power law distribution function to terrestrial, solar (HXRBS, BATSE, RHESSI), and stellar flare (Kepler) data sets. We find that the thresholded power law model provides an adequate fit to most of the observed data. Major advantages of this model are the automated choice of the power law fitting range, diagnostics of background contamination, physical instability thresholds, instrumental detection thresholds, and finite system size limits. When testing self-organized criticality models that predict ideal power laws, we suggest including these natural truncation effects.

  15. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-05-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  16. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  18. A Control Model: Interpretation of Fitts' Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical results for several models are given: a first order model where it is assumed that the hand velocity can be directly controlled, and a second order model where it is assumed that the hand acceleration can be directly controlled. Two different types of control-laws are investigated. One is linear function of the hand error and error rate; the other is the time-optimal control law. Results show that the first and second order models with the linear control-law produce a movement time (MT) function with the exact form of the Fitts' Law. The control-law interpretation implies that the effect of target width on MT must be a result of the vertical motion which elevates the hand from the starting point and drops it on the target at the target edge. The time optimal control law did not produce a movement-time formula simular to Fitt's Law.

  19. Between disorder and order: A case study of power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Zhao, Youjie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Xiong, Fei; Sun, Yongke; He, Xin; Wang, Lichao

    2016-08-01

    Power law is an important feature of phenomena in long memory behaviors. Zipf ever found power law in the distribution of the word frequencies. In physics, the terms order and disorder are Thermodynamic or statistical physics concepts originally and a lot of research work has focused on self-organization of the disorder ingredients of simple physical systems. It is interesting what make disorder-order transition. We devise an experiment-based method about random symbolic sequences to research regular pattern between disorder and order. The experiment results reveal power law is indeed an important regularity in transition from disorder to order. About these results the preliminary study and analysis has been done to explain the reasons.

  20. Using IOLab to correct student misunderstandings of Newton's Third Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipsword, Nikki; Martell, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is used at schools across the country as a tool to measure student conceptual understanding of Newtonian physics. One of the weaknesses commonly identified is in applications of Newton's Third Law. In this project, we are utilizing a recently-developed wireless data acquisition system, the IOLab, to attempt to rectify student misunderstandings regarding the Third Law. The subjects for this research came from calculus and algebra-based introductory physics courses. An assessment of the effectiveness of this teaching tool as well as a comparison between the two courses will be included.

  1. Secret laws of the labyrinth.

    PubMed

    David, R; Berthoz, A; Bennequin, D

    2011-01-01

    This abstract presents new results on the structure and function of vestibular part of the inner ear of vertebrates with special emphasis on human behavior. First we summarize a mathematical analysis of motion of the endolymphatic fluid, justifying known approximated formulas for the cupula functioning based on a set of anatomical parameters. Some of these parameters can be estimated from the bony labyrinth, some others cannot be. We present original data issued from synchrotron microtomography (S μ CT) of five tetrapod species, allowing to compare bony and membranous labyrinths. We derive several simple and robust empirical laws connecting membranous parameters and bony parameters. Then, using published results on human labyrinths (Bradshaw et al. 2009), we deduce functional consequences for the human labyrinths. For instance we show that, contrarily to current belief, the kinematic sensitivity for yaw is larger than for pitch and roll. PMID:22254793

  2. Dynamics of coupled maps with a conservation law.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, R. O.; Cross, M. C.

    1997-06-01

    A particularly simple model belonging to a wide class of coupled maps which obey a local conservation law is studied. The phase structure of the system and the types of the phase transitions are determined. It is argued that the structure of the phase diagram is robust with respect to mild violations of the conservation law. Critical exponents possibly determining a new universality class are calculated for a set of independent order parameters. Numerical evidence is produced suggesting that the singularity in the density of Lyapunov exponents at lambda=0 is a reflection of the singularity in the density of Fourier modes (a "Van Hove" singularity) and disappears if the conservation law is broken. Applicability of the Lyapunov dimension to the description of spatiotemporal chaos in a system with a conservation law is discussed. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779659

  3. A Comparison between the Knowledge Organization of University Physics Teachers and the Textbooks They Use for Their Teaching Purposes: Biot-Savart Law and Ampère's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majidi, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is not simply a collection of facts, principles, and formulas; instead, meaningful knowledge is organized around core concepts that guide peoples' thinking about a subject. Therefore, knowledge organization is recognized as an important component of understanding learning and teaching. In this research, knowledge organization of two…

  4. Statistical Physics of Citations

    SciTech Connect

    Redner, Sidney

    2005-09-28

    This talk will begin with basic empirical facts about the network of scientific citations, based on the entire corpus of Physical Review publications from the past 110 years. Intriguingly, the evolution of citations appears to be described by linear preferential attachment. A master equation approach will be developed to characterize this popularity-driven network. One basic attribute is the citation distribution of the network, namely, the probability that a publication has a given number of citations. The conditions that give rise to exponential, power-law, or more singular citation distributions will be elucidated. Comparison between the theory and the citation data of Physical Review will be made. Finally, the Google page-rank algorithm will be used to uncover hidden gems within Physical Review publications.

  5. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  6. Origins of Newton's First Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be…

  7. The Future of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, David

    2005-10-19

    In this talk I will discuss 25 questions that might guide physics, in the broadest sense, over the next 25 years. The 25 questions are: (1) The origin of the Universe; (2) The nature of Dark Matter; (3) The nature of Dark Energy; (4) The formation of structures in the Universe; (5) The validity of General Relativity; (6) The validity of Quantum Mechanics; (7) The problems not solved by the Standard Model of particles; (8) The existence of supersymmetry; (9) The solution of QCD; (10) The nature of string theory; (11) The nature of space and time; (12) Whether the laws of physics are unique; (13) Can kinematics, dynamics and initial conditions be separated; (14) Are there new states of condensed matter; (15) The understanding of complexity in computing; (16) The construction of a quantum computer; (17) The existence of a room-temperature superconductor; (18) The existence of a theory of biology; (19) Deducing physical form from genomics; (20) The physical basis of consciousness; (21) Could a computer become a creative physicist; (22) How to avoid the balkanization of physics; (23) The scope of reductionism; (24) The role of theory; and (25) How to avoid depending on unrealizable big physics projects.

  8. "Law in Sport and Physical Activity," by Annie Clement, and "Law in Sport," by Bernard Patrick Maloy: Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Melissa L.

    1989-01-01

    Two books addressing legal aspects of sports and other physical activities are reviewed. Both books note the high potential for liability in the field of sports; identify possible problem areas; and offer specific guidelines for managing the legal implications of such areas as facility management, injuries, instruction, and others. (DB)

  9. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Historical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnad, J.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the development of thermodynamics in physics, focusing on a strategy which enables students to grasp in a limited time and by means of simple calculus the main implications of the second law essential for everyday life (understanding operation of heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, district heating, and energy degradation). (JN)

  10. [The protection of health in law enforcement].

    PubMed

    Pira, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Herein the question of health protection/safety and well being in the Law Enforcement is introduced and includes examples of some particular risk conditions that may be multiple and polymorphous. Not only the "traditional" sources are involved in these risks, like chemical, physical and biological agents, but other issues emerge in these "new scenarios" connected to risk factors involving organization and/or psychosocial elements. From this, we may deduce that there is a specific need for all the operators involved in prevention/care in this particular sector to be well versed on the highest possible updated specialized knowledge along with having a complete and thorough mastery of the best practices in Occupational Medicine to face this task in the correct manner: PMID:25558739

  11. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  12. The constructal law of design and evolution in nature

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): ‘for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it’. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution ‘movie’ runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of ‘engine and brake’ designs. PMID:20368252

  13. Breakdown of Benford's law for birth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, M.; Herteliu, C.; Ileanu, B.

    2015-02-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  14. Selected aspects of europeization of pharmaceutical law.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka; Wengler, Lubomira; Pawłowski, Leszek

    2010-01-01

    As one of its aspects, the process of European integration has an influence on the legal orders of the Member States, which is often referred to in the literature as the europeization of law. Upon Poland's accession to the structures of the European Union, there have also been radical changes to the Polish legal system. According to the concept of the sources of law in the Polish Constitution and to the judicial decisions of the European Court of Justice, Community law now takes priority over national law, even over acts of parliament. Pharmaceutical law represents one of the areas where the harmonization process has been taking place. It shapes the principles and the manner according to which medicinal products are approved for marketing, the conditions of clinical trials, as well as the conditions of drug manufacture and advertisement. It also determines the rules of trading in medicinal products, the running of pharmaceutical wholesalers and pharmacies, as well as the duties and rights of the Pharmaceutical Inspectorate. This paper provides a summary of research on the impact of Community law on Polish pharmaceutical law, i.e. on the europeization process, and on the consequences of this process for the Polish pharmaceutical market and for research and development. PMID:20369799

  15. Algebraic Proof of the Distributive Law for Vector Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Courses in first year mechanics generally start with an introduction to vector methods which include scalar and vector multiplication1. While the demonstration of the validity of the distributive law for scalar multiplication is straightforward, this is not so for vector multiplication. The latter requires complicated geometrical visualization, so its proof is often skipped1. Neither the commutative nor associative law holds for vector multiplication, so there is no a priori reason that the distributive law should hold. In this paper we present an algebraic approach to the proof that requires no geometric visualization. It is based on two relations: (1) the distributive law for scalar multiplication and (2) a*(bxc) =c*(axb) =b*(cxa). 1. e.g. C. Kittlel, W.D. Knight, M.A. Ruderman, Mechanics, Berkeley Physics Course Vol. 1, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, pp34-39.

  16. Informational laws of genome structures

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined. PMID:27354155

  17. Informational laws of genome structures.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined. PMID:27354155

  18. Informational laws of genome structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  19. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  20. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  1. On the applicability of Benford's Law in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Jackson, A.

    2009-12-01

    Benford's Law is a curious property of numerous datasets whereby the frequency distribution of the first digit (i.e. first non zero number from the left) follows a well defined logarithmic function, namely P_D = log_b(1+1/D), where D is the first digit and b is the base of the data. This was initially observed by Newcomb (1881) and later quantified and expanded by Benford (1938). The latter author first put forward a set of 20 distinct data sets with differing physical dimension and character which collectively obeyed this 1st digit law. The nature of each data is the most startling feature of all in that they range from physical properties of matter such as molecular weight and specific heat capacity through river areas and drainage rates to population numbers in the USA as well as American baseball league averages of 1936. A universal law of digits was proposed by Benford and in recent times has been widely accepted. Investigations into the nature and use of Benford's Law have continued in multiple fields. Mathematicians have more recently proven the correctness of this universal law of digits under general conditions and Nigrini (1992) has made use of it for uncovering anomalous data errors and fraud in accountancy practices. To date Benford's Law appears to have received no attention within the Geosciences. Here we demonstrate its widespread applicability for geophysical data sets as well as models derived from data of varying type and physical dimension. Specifically we verify Benford's Law holds for a geomagnetic Field model of the Earth (gufm1), Seismic models obtained from tomography (including mantle shear wave and regional body wave P and S models for various parts of the globe), and the GRACE gravity model up to degree 160. It would appear that Benford's Law has widespread applicability to geoscience data. Departures from Benford's Law are of interest as they seem to indicate changes in the local character of data, possibly due to fraud, error, or

  2. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino emitters in…

  3. The Official Ideology of American Law Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the seemingly all-powerful Association of American Law Schools (AALS) and the negative effects of its single-minded obsession with "diversity." He suggests ways in which true diversity of viewpoint might be injected into law school education. The key is to raise awareness and apply the same standards to all…

  4. Zipf's Law and Avoidance of Excessive Synonymy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manin, Dmitrii Y.

    2008-01-01

    Zipf's law states that if words of language are ranked in the order of decreasing frequency in texts, the frequency of a word is inversely proportional to its rank. It is very reliably observed in the data, but to date it escaped satisfactory theoretical explanation. This article suggests that Zipf's law may result from a hierarchical organization…

  5. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    The Education Law Association's yearbook of education law provides lawyers, administrators, and professors with a comprehensive review and analysis of the previous year's state and federal court decisions and legislation affecting the operation, management, and governance of public elementary and secondary schools, higher education, and…

  6. Newton and the Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    Deals generally with historical errors in science teaching and specifically with Newton's conception of his second law of motion. With reference to Newton's "Principia", the author concludes that Newton would not understand what we today refer to as "Newton's Second Law." (MLH)

  7. Stability of Conservation Laws with Discontinuous Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Runhild Aae; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    1999-09-01

    We prove L1 contractivity of weak solutions to a conservation law with a flux function that may depend discontinuously on the space variable. Furthermore, we show that the L1 difference between solutions to conservation laws with different flux functions is bounded by the total variation with respect to the space variable, of the difference between the flux functions.

  8. Regularities in Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the assumption that Spearman's law acts unsystematically and approximately uniformly for various subtests of cognitive ability in an IQ test battery when high- and low-ability IQ groups are selected. Data from national standardization samples for Wechsler adult and child IQ tests affirm regularities in Spearman's "Law of Diminishing…

  9. 150 Years of the Mass Action Law

    PubMed Central

    Voit, Eberhard O.; Martens, Harald A.; Omholt, Stig W.

    2015-01-01

    This year we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the law of mass action. This law is often assumed to have been “there” forever, but it has its own history, background, and a definite starting point. The law has had an impact on chemistry, biochemistry, biomathematics, and systems biology that is difficult to overestimate. It is easily recognized that it is the direct basis for computational enzyme kinetics, ecological systems models, and models for the spread of diseases. The article reviews the explicit and implicit role of the law of mass action in systems biology and reveals how the original, more general formulation of the law emerged one hundred years later ab initio as a very general, canonical representation of biological processes. PMID:25569257

  10. The law of the mother.

    PubMed

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities. PMID:12317699

  11. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  12. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  13. The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications.

  14. Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)

  15. The physics of swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, M. R.

    1980-09-01

    Like all physical skills swimming is subject to the laws of mechanics. Until fairly recently, however, the biomechanical study of this cross disciplinary activity has been largely left alone by the two specialists who would be primarily involved, the physicist and the physical educationist. Since the early 1970s, however, a greater cross fertilisation of ideas has taken place and the sports scientist has emerged. It is possible to analyse human performance and thus identify areas where for example greater strength, a slightly different angle or a slightly different degree of twist might produce that all important extra few millimetres in distance or that reduction in time of a few milliseconds. In man's search for excellence this is important. The study of the performance of a sprinting swimmer in biomechanical terms makes it possible to build up a model of the stroke under investigation which may then be improved upon.

  16. Physical Modeling of the Piano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, N.; Jiang, M.

    2004-12-01

    A project aimed at constructing a physical model of the piano is described. Our goal is to calculate the sound produced by the instrument entirely from Newton's laws. The structure of the model is described along with experiments that augment and test the model calculations. The state of the model and what can be learned from it are discussed.

  17. The Strange World of Classical Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    2010-01-01

    We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…

  18. Get a Kick Out of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, David P.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a number of demonstrations for physics that employ techniques of the martial arts to illustrate Newton's second law of motion. Demonstrations focus on the breaking of wooden boards using weights. (DDR)

  19. Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2003-03-01

    Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years

  20. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  1. Law Day Stories: An Anthology of Stories about Lawyers, Lawmakers, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    Dedicated to celebrating the importance of law in U.S. life, the 19 stories collected in this volume are about legislators who enact the law, judges who interpret it, and lawyers who practice it. The stories describe the contributions to the United States through the law of distinguished individuals, emphasizing the devotion of many lawyers to…

  2. The Physics of a Gymnastics Flight Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contakos, Jonas; Carlton, Les G.; Thompson, Bruce; Suddaby, Rick

    2009-01-01

    From its inception, performance in the sport of gymnastics has relied on the laws of physics to create movement patterns and static postures that appear almost impossible. In general, gymnastics is physics in motion and can provide an ideal framework for studying basic human modeling techniques and physical principles. Using low-end technology and…

  3. News and Views: Non-identical twins; Is this the shape of things to come? Test Ban Treaty organization seeks scientists; Rainbow Seed Fund; Physics laws upheld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation is seeking scientists in the fields of seismology, hydroacoustics and data mining, among others, to be part of a major evaluation of the readiness and effectiveness of the systems in place to detect nuclear testing worldwide.

  4. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Obesity levels in England are significantly higher than in much of the rest of Europe. This article examines aspects of the physical and cultural context of food consumption in England, and the evolution of government policy on obesity, as a background to an analysis of how law might play a role in obesity prevention. Research suggests that individual food choices are associated with cultural and socio-economic circumstances and that they can be manipulated by advertising, food packaging and presentation. This suggests that there might be ways of using law to manage the influences on food choices, and of using law in support of strategies to redirect food choices towards healthy food products. Law is a particularly useful tool in the protection of the individual against the economic power of the food industry, and there is much that law can do to change the physical, economic and social environment of food consumption. PMID:18854038

  5. You-Me-And the Three R's of Law. Elementary Law Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trace, Faustina M.

    Fourteen units of increasing difficulty and abstraction for grade levels one through six examine the responsibility to law, rights and privileges of law, reasons for laws, and justice. Each unit presents the objective, suggested activities, and topics for discussion. Grade 1 focusses on responsibility, sharing, taking turns, respect for private…

  6. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  9. 29 CFR 18.302 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability of state law. 18.302 Section 18.302 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Presumptions § 18.302 Applicability of state law... State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. Relevancy and...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  12. Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study,…

  13. Increasing the Drive of Your Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    First-year physics students often have a difficult time grasping Newton's laws of motion and recognizing the forces that these laws depend on. The "Paper Car" project is an experiential activity that is rich in application of force principles. It is also simple enough that students are able to integrate straightforward but non-trivial physics…

  14. NASA and the practice of space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

  15. 37 CFR 11.117 - Sale of law practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of law practice. 11.117... of Professional Conduct Client-Practitioner Relationship § 11.117 Sale of law practice. A practitioner or a law firm may sell or purchase a law practice, or an area of law practice, including good...

  16. Use of risk management concepts in law enforcement settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurmann, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    Most senior police officials are competent when it comes to assessing and managing physical risk during the course of law enforcement activities. Some even have aptitude for managing sociopolitical risks, but they are much rarer and are usually found in larger departments, which can afford to send senior officers to public speaking and media-management courses. There are tools that can be adapted from industrial safety to aid in managing sociopolitical risks in law enforcement activities. One such tool is the HAZards and OPerability Study (HAZOPS)tool1. This tool is basically a systemic method of performing 'what if' studies. This tool, and some others, are described in this paper.

  17. Sources of Legal Liability among Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Alla Joseph; Alayode, Ajibua Michael

    2012-01-01

    Legal issues in Physical Education are very germane to sport and physical activity development. Consequently, Physical Education teachers should be involved in studying laws that relates to P.E in the course of their professional preparation. It is worth noting that today, people are becoming more aware of their rights under the law. This has…

  18. Bruno Rossi and the Racial Laws of Fascist Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Bruno Rossi (1905-1993), one of the giants of 20th-century physics, was a pioneer in cosmic-ray physics and virtually every other aspect of high-energy astrophysics. His scientific career began at the University of Florence in 1928 and continued at the University of Padua until 1938, when the Fascist anti-Semitic racial laws were passed in Italy. He was dismissed from his professorship and was forced to emigrate, as described in unpublished letters and documents that display the international character of physics and physicists. His young bride Nora Lombroso, his love of physics, and the solidarity of the physics community gave him the courage to begin a new life in Copenhagen, Manchester, and in the New World at the University of Chicago, Cornell University, Los Alamos, and after the Second World War at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he became the center of a worldwide research network.

  19. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chabris, Christopher F.; Lee, James J.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Laibson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics” based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: “A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability.” This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research. PMID:26556960

  20. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  1. 31 CFR 212.9 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preemption of State law. 212.9 Section... PAYMENTS § 212.9 Preemption of State law. (a) Inconsistent law preempted. Any State or local government law... inconsistency. A State law or regulation is inconsistent with this part if it requires a financial...

  2. A Procedure to Construct Conservation Laws of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşar, Emrullah; San, Sait

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we established abundant local conservation laws to some nonlinear evolution equations by a new combined approach, which is a union of multiplier and Ibragimov's new conservation theorem method. One can conclude that the solutions of the adjoint equations corresponding to the new conservation theorem can be obtained via multiplier functions. Many new families of conservation laws of the Pochammer-Chree (PC) equation and the Kaup-Boussinesq type of coupled KdV system are successfully obtained. The combined method presents a wider applicability for handling the conservation laws of nonlinear wave equations. The conserved vectors obtained here can be important for the explanation of some practical physical problems, reductions, and solutions of the underlying equations.

  3. Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, F.

    1998-07-01

    A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

  4. Space flights and questions of law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepen, E.

    1974-01-01

    Juridical aspects of space flights and international law are elaborated. Considered are manned orbital space stations, as well as lunar or planetary bases and the international exploration of extraterrestrial resources.

  5. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth. PMID:17692872

  6. The law of perceptual stability: abastract foundations.

    PubMed

    Shiman, L G

    1978-04-01

    Confronted with an object of perception, an individual will spontaneously try to identify unambiguously and consistently all its parts; except in rare instances of "illusory phenomena," he will immediately succeed. This elementary fact is formalized in a law of visual perception. It is used to define sets of stable states for a sensory mode of a biological system. As characterized, stable states are to perception as quantum states are to atomic structure: they represent natural states of physical systems. They are shown to be observable and to have an exact mathematical representation.A class of bounded open subsets of a two-dimensional Euclidean space, whose boundaries are piecewise compact analytic arcs, is used to construct a nontrivial mathematical model for stable states. The finitely many components of this mathematical model of a stable state (image) are mapped onto an object of perception (icon) by perceptual judgments. These judgments, which include the judgment of stability, have an exact interpretation in this model. They unify and make precise such traditional notions of psychology as "Gestalt," "figureground," and "(visual) boundary."Postulates for a general theory of perception are given. They are used to establish a formal relationship between biological and subjective studies of sensory phenomena and so provide a framework in which subjective studies can be used to analyze (their associated) biological processes. In applying these methods to cases, all icons are divided into two classes (the static and dynamic cases). The static case is treated. PMID:273930

  7. Introducing the Notion of Bare and Effective Mass via Newton's Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Marcus Benghi

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The…

  8. The gravitational law of social interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Moshe; Goldenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the topology of social networks, there is much less agreement about the geographical structure of these networks. The fundamental question in this context is: how does the probability of a social link between two individuals depend on the physical distance between them? While it is clear that the probability decreases with the distance, various studies have found different functional forms for this dependence. The exact form of the distance dependence has crucial implications for network searchability and dynamics: Kleinberg (2000) [15] shows that the small-world property holds if the probability of a social link is a power-law function of the distance with power -2, but not with any other power. We investigate the distance dependence of link probability empirically by analyzing four very different sets of data: Facebook links, data from the electronic version of the Small-World experiment, email messages, and data from detailed personal interviews. All four datasets reveal the same empirical regularity: the probability of a social link is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance between the two individuals, analogously to the distance dependence of the gravitational force. Thus, it seems that social networks spontaneously converge to the exact unique distance dependence that ensures the Small-World property.

  9. Threshold Laws for Two-Electron Ejection Processes: A Still Controversial Problem in Atomic Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    This talk deals with collision processes of the following kind: (a) an ionizing collision of an electron with a neutral atom, (b) a photon incident of a negative ion resulting in two-electron ejection. In both cases the final state is a positive ion and two outgoing electrons, and in principle both processes should be governed by the same form of threshold law. It is generally conceded that this is one of the most difficult basic problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The standard treatment (due to Wannier) will be briefly reviewed in terms of the derivation of his well- known threshold law for the yield (Q) of positive ions vs. the excess energy (E): Q(sub w) varies as E(exp 1.127...). The derivation is a brilliant analysis based on Newton's equations, leading to the dominance of events in which the two electrons emerge on opposite sides of the residual ion with similar energies. In contrast, I will argue on the basis of quantum mechanical ideas that in the threshold limit the more likely outcome are events in which the electrons emerge with decidedly different energies, leading to a formally different (Coulomb-dipole) threshold law Q(sub CD) varies as E(1 + C sin(alpha ln(E)+mu)]/[ln(E)](exp 2). Additional aspects of that approach will be discussed . Some: experimental results will be presented, and more incisive predictions involving polarized projectiles and targets will be given.

  10. The neuroeconomic path of the law.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2004-01-01

    Advances in evolutionary biology, experimental economics and neuroscience are shedding new light on age-old questions about right and wrong, justice, freedom, the rule of law and the relationship between the individual and the state. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that humans evolved certain fundamental behavioural predispositions grounded in our intense social natures, that those predispositions are encoded in our brains as a distribution of probable behaviours, and therefore that there may be a core of universal human law. PMID:15590608

  11. Subsidence: an emerging area of the law

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.

    1981-01-01

    This Note surveys various legal theories courts could employ to compensate property owners injured by subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. Many courts have clouded the subsidence issue by applying water law to determine liability. Dissatisfied with the results of applying water law to subsidence, the Texas Supreme Court held, in the landmark Friendswood decision, that negligence would be a cause of action to redress future subsidence. The best theory of liability for subsidence damage, however, is loss of subjacent support. The prevailing rule under the law of support is that the defendant is strictly liable for damage resulting from withdrawal of support. The Restatement and several cases have finally recognized that there is no valid distinction between withdrawal of solid and fluid substances for purposes of imposing strict liability under subjacent support principles. Since subsidence may result from groundwater pumping even in the absence of negligence, strict liability is superior to a negligence theory. Unlike any water law theory, the law of support recognizes that the injury is to rights in land rather than to water rights. Until legislatures respond to the problem, adherence to the law of subjacent support is the best approach to internalizing the costs of subsidence.

  12. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  13. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Mathematical Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2006-04-01

    The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of thermodynamics is proposed. Within the framework of the work [1], the following statement is proved: Gibbs's quantum canonical distribution fn =f0 exp (-{En } / {{En } {T)}}} {T)} (whereEn , n=0,;1,;... , fn , T are the energy of the subsystem, probability, and temperature, respectively) defines the correct relation of the thermal energy Q of the subsystem to the entropy S of the subsystem and the temperature T. This relation has the form: S=Q / {Q T}} } T and {lim }limits {T-> 0 } S=0 (where Q≡ ∑ limits n=0∞ {En } fn , S≡ ∑ limits n=0∞ {Sn fn } , Sn ≡ {En } / {{En } {T=-ln ({fn } / {{fn } {f0 )}}} {f0 )}}}} {T=-ln ({fn } {{fn } {f0 )}}} {f0 )}}). Consequence: the second law (i.e. dS={dQ} / {{dQ} T}}. (T) of thermodynamics represents mathematical error. Ref.: [1] T.Z. Kalanov, ``On the main errors underlying statistical physics.'' Bulletin of the APS, Vol. 47, No. 2 (2005), p. 164.

  14. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  15. Point of View: Ethics in the Classroom--Morality and the Laws of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Alvin M.

    1982-01-01

    The first/second laws of thermodynamics are usually presented as straight physics. Local problems (such as heat engines) may be assigned but seldom is any effort made to examine universal human problems. Considering moral implications of these laws makes them relevant to students, gaining their attention and easing instruction. (Author/JN)

  16. China aims to improve health of newborn by law.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, R

    1994-11-19

    Effective June 1, 1995, China will have a new law covering aspects of maternal and infant health care. The controversial law provides for improvements in perinatal health care, but it also mandates a premarital physical examination for couples to determine if either person has a genetic or infectious disease or a mental disorder which would have an adverse effect on marriage and childbearing. Marriage must be postponed if any of the defined infectious diseases (including AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, and leprosy) or a mental disorder is detected. In cases of genetic diseases, the couple must agree to adopt longterm contraceptive measures or to become sterilized. When a serious genetic defect is uncovered during a pregnancy, physicians are to advise abortion. Whereas the law stipulates that consent must be obtained before an abortion or sterilization is performed, there is concern that the law will lead to forced sterilization. Also, medical experts are still trying to devise a list of "serious genetic disorders" in a social climate which has little tolerance for any type of disability. The new law forbids the use of prenatal testing to determine the sex of a fetus unless there are medical indications for such a determination. In some areas of China, selective abortion of female fetuses has resulted in a birth ratio of 131 boys to 100 girls. PMID:7661929

  17. Teaching Kepler's Laws as More than Empirical Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis D.

    2002-01-01

    At the pre-college and first-year college level of physics instruction, Kepler's laws are generally taught as empirical laws of nature. Introductory physics textbooks only derive Kepler's Second law of areas. It is possible to derive all of Kepler's laws mathematically from the conservation laws, employing only high-school algebra and geometry.…

  18. Vavilov's Paradox: On Paper, It's a Violation of the Energy Conservation Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrikant, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the energy flux-density of two beams of light of equal energy that are intersected at a given angle. Examines an apparent contradiction to the physics law of conservation of energy known as Vavilov's paradox. (MDH)

  19. The Due-Able Process Could Happen to You! Physical Educators, Handicapped Students, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Susan O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article presents basic information for regular and special physical educators to help them better understand the procedural rights of parents as well as the schools, and to help them make appropriate judgments for the physical education placement and programing of students with handicaps. (IAH)

  20. Power law models of stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Man Kit

    Viewing the stock market as a self-organized system, Sornette and Johansen introduced physics-based models to study the dynamics of stock market crashes from the perspective of complex systems. This involved modeling stock market Indices using a mathematical power law exhibiting log-periodicity as the system approaches a market crash, which acts like a critical point in a thermodynamic system. In this dissertation, I aim to investigate stock indices to determine whether or not they exhibit log-periodic oscillations, according to the models proposed by Sornette, as they approach a crash. In addition to analyzing stock market crashes in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, I perform a detailed analysis of the stock market crash models through parameter estimation and model testing. I find that the probability landscapes have a complex topography and that there is very little evidence that these phase transition-based models accurately describe stock market crashes.

  1. CYBERWAR-2012/13: Siegel 2011 Predicted Cyberwar Via ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS BEQS BEC ZERO-DIGIT BEC of/in ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS Log-Law Algebraic-Inversion to ONLY BEQS BEC Digit-Physics U Barabasi Network/Graph-Physics BEQS BEC JAMMING Denial-of-Access(DOA) Attacks 2012-Instantiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffmann, Master; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Newcomb-Benford(NeWBe)-Siegel log-law BEC Digit-Physics Network/Graph-Physics Barabasi et.al. evolving-``complex''-networks/graphs BEC JAMMING DOA attacks: Amazon(weekends: Microsoft I.E.-7/8(vs. Firefox): Memorial-day, Labor-day,...), MANY U.S.-Banks:WF,BoA,UB,UBS,...instantiations AGAIN militate for MANDATORY CONVERSION to PARALLEL ANALOG FAULT-TOLERANT but slow(er) SECURITY-ASSURANCE networks/graphs in parallel with faster ``sexy'' DIGITAL-Networks/graphs:``Cloud'', telecomm: n-G,..., because of common ACHILLES-HEEL VULNERABILITY: DIGITS!!! ``In fast-hare versus slow-tortoise race, Slow-But-Steady ALWAYS WINS!!!'' (Zeno). {Euler [#s(1732)] ∑- ∏()-Riemann[Monats. Akad. Berlin (1859)] ∑- ∏()- Kummer-Bernoulli (#s)}-Newcomb [Am.J.Math.4(1),39 (81) discovery of the QUANTUM!!!]-{Planck (01)]}-{Einstein (05)]-Poincar e [Calcul Probabilités,313(12)]-Weyl[Goett. Nach.(14); Math.Ann.77,313(16)]-(Bose (24)-Einstein(25)]-VS. -Fermi (27)-Dirac(27))-Menger [Dimensiontheorie(29)]-Benford [J.Am. Phil.Soc.78,115(38)]-Kac[Maths Stats.-Reason. (55)]- Raimi [Sci.Am.221,109(69)]-Jech-Hill [Proc.AMS,123,3,887(95)] log-function

  2. The Physics of Information Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenfeld, Neil

    2000-10-01

    The Physics of Information Technology explores the familiar devices that we use to collect, transform, transmit, and interact with electronic information. Many such devices operate surprisingly close to very many fundamental physical limits. Understanding how such devices work, and how they can (and cannot) be improved, requires deep insight into the character of physical law as well as engineering practice. The book starts with an introduction to units, forces, and the probabilistic foundations of noise and signaling, then progresses through the electromagnetics of wired and wireless communications, and the quantum mechanics of electronic, optical, and magnetic materials, to discussions of mechanisms for computation, storage, sensing, and display. This self-contained volume will help both physical scientists and computer scientists see beyond the conventional division between hardware and software to understand the implications of physical theory for information manipulation.

  3. On the Applicability of Fick's Law to Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Bons, P. D.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul

    2005-09-01

    Two alternative expressions exist for the diffusive flux in inhomogeneous systems: Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law. Here we re-examine the origin of these expressions and perform numerical and physical experiments to shed light on this duality. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck expression should be conceded preference, in spite of the fact that Fick's law seems to be more popular.

  4. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  5. Inference of Statistical Patterns in Complex Geosystems: Fitting Power-law Distributions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, Anna; Corral, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Power-law distributions contain precious information about a large variety of physical processes. Although there are sound theoretical grounds for these distributions, the empirical evidence giving support to power laws has been traditionally weak. Recently, Clauset et al. have proposed a systematic method to find over which range (if any) a certain distribution behaves as a power law. However, their method fails to recognize true (simulated) power-law tails in some instances, rejecting the power-law hypothesis. Moreover, the method does not perform well when it is extended to power-law distributions with an upper truncation. We present an alternative procedure, valid for truncated as well as for non-truncated power-law distributions, based in maximum likelihood estimation, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test, and Monte Carlo simulations. We will test the performance of our method on several empirical data which were previously analyzed with less systematic approaches.

  6. Comparative study of flare control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a digital, three dimensional, automatic control law designed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between glide slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition is presented. The digital control law is a time invariant, state estimate feedback law, and the design is capable of using the microwave landing system. Major emphasis is placed on the reduction of aircraft noise in communities surroundings airports, the reduction of fuel consumption, the reduction of the effects of adverse weather conditions on aircraft operations, and the efficient use of airspace in congested terminal areas. Attention is also given to the development of the capability to perform automatic flares from steep glide slopes to precise touchdown locations.

  7. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  8. Law of corresponding states for open collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardi, Marco; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the relation between number of contributors and product size in Wikipedia and GitHub. In contrast to traditional production, this is strongly probabilistic, but is characterized by two quantitative nonlinear laws: a power-law bound to product size for increasing number of contributors, and the universal collapse of rescaled distributions. A variant of the random-energy model shows that both laws are due to the heterogeneity of contributors, and displays an intriguing finite-size scaling property with no equivalent in standard systems. The analysis uncovers the right intensive densities, enabling the comparison of projects with different numbers of contributors on equal grounds. We use this property to expose the detrimental effects of conflicting interactions in Wikipedia.

  9. Leibniz on teleology and the laws of optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Jeffrey Keegan

    This essay explores Leibniz's defense of teleology and teleological explanations in the domain of physics in general, and the roles that teleology plays in his studies of optics in particular. I argue first that Leibniz draws upon Plato's defense of final causes to introduce a novel research program intended to steer a middle course, on the one hand, between Aristotelian-Scholasticism and the new mechanical philosophy, and, on the other hand, between Cartesian rationalism and Gassendist empiricism. The implementation of this program leads Leibniz to significant conceptual innovations, as he attempts to reconcile teleological and efficient explanatory frameworks, and important discoveries, as he tries to show how final causes can be used to achieve results in the study of the natural world. Having situated Leibniz's defense of final causes in the broader context of his general philosophy of physics, I turn to a more detailed investigation of the roles that teleology plays in his work in geometrical optics. Interest in final causes leads Leibniz to introduce his "Most Determined Path Principle" from which both of the central laws of geometrical optics may be derived. I argue that Leibniz uses the discovery of such principles to introduce a thin notion of final causation within the order of nature based on teleological laws that link prior events to subsequent events via the likely or expected outcomes of those events, and defend this view against objections made both by Leibniz's contemporaries and our own. I also argue that Leibniz uses the discovery of principles like Most Determined Path Principle to provide a novel connection within his system between considerations of divine perfection and the laws of nature. I defend the internal consistency of this connection, and explore its relations to Leibniz's mature physics, and to his view that the world is governed by two sets of equipotent laws, one teleological and one mechanical.

  10. Universality behind Basquin's Law of Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, F.; Carmona, H. A.; Andrade, J. S. Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-03-07

    Basquin's law of fatigue states that the lifetime of the system has a power-law dependence on the external load amplitude, t{sub f}{approx}{sigma}{sub 0}{sup -{alpha}}, where the exponent {alpha} has a strong material dependence. We show that in spite of the broad scatter of the exponent {alpha}, the fatigue fracture of heterogeneous materials exhibits universal features. We propose a generic scaling form for the macroscopic deformation and show that at the fatigue limit the system undergoes a continuous phase transition. On the microlevel, the fatigue fracture proceeds in bursts characterized by universal power-law distributions. We demonstrate that the system dependent details are contained in Basquin's exponent for time to failure, and once this is taken into account, remaining features of failure are universal.

  11. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59... Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of the parties to the grant (or cooperative agreement) shall be ascertainable by recourse to the laws of...

  12. 10 CFR 1048.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 1048.7 Section 1048.7 Energy... PROPERTY § 1048.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State law or of any other Federal law....

  13. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59... Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of the parties to the grant (or cooperative agreement) shall be ascertainable by recourse to the laws of...

  15. 37 CFR 11.505 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law... Rules of Professional Conduct Law Firms and Associations § 11.505 Unauthorized practice of law. A practitioner shall not practice law in a jurisdiction in violation of the regulation of the legal profession...

  16. 10 CFR 1048.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 1048.7 Section 1048.7 Energy... PROPERTY § 1048.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State law or of any other Federal law....

  17. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  18. Bringing the History of American Family Law into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossberg, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses three means for incorporating the study of U.S. family law within secondary and college classrooms: (1) studying the periods of family law; (2) exploring the themes of family law, such as judicial dominance; and (3) learning about particular episodes of family law, such as judicial construction of a particular doctrine. (CMK)

  19. The Physics of NASCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-10-01

    A group of racecars piloted by the best drivers in NASCAR are turning a corner. Without warning, one of the cars suddenly hits the outside wall. There were no engine failures, no flat tires, and none of the cars touched so what happened? Understanding and being able to apply physics is a necessary (but far from sufficient) condition for winning races.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Every competitive race team has a technical staff involved in everything from applied engineering to basic research and development. Aerodynamicists, chemical engineers, statisticians and physicists have become important participants in the high-stakes world of motorsports. Although some drivers have engineering degrees, even those without them have developed a highly intuitive understanding of physics -- you don't keep your job long without a working knowledge of Newton's Laws of Motion. The inherent science in NASCAR is of interest at many levels, from the fan who wants to understand changes made to the car at pit stops to nanomaterials researchers looking for new ways to make racing simultaneously faster and safer. This presentation will introduce some of the fascinating physics of NASCAR and give teachers some ideas to use in the classroom. I'll touch on a range of topics from: how computational fluid dynamics is used to address the aerodynamic changes that challenge the driver by making his car behave differently around every corner; how advanced materials such as energy-absorbing foams have made racing significantly safer; and how nanoparticles may be able to keep engines from overheating despite running at 9500 rpm for three or four hours. Finally, I'll explore NASCAR, its teams and its sponsors are helping address the challenge of getting people interest math and science.

  20. Physics of Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2005-10-01

    This talk describes an overview of zonal flow physics, covering the theory, simulation and experiment. The zonal flows are excited nonlinearly by drift wave fluctuations, and suppress the turbulence and transport, so as to realize a self-regulating state for turbulence and mesoscale structure. This recognition is the central of recent paradigm shift in plasma physics, i.e., the preceding linear, local and deterministic pictures of instability and transport have been taken over by the new nonlinear, nonlocal (in real and wavenumber spaces) and statistical pictures of them. The zonal flow phenomenon, i.e., the global axial vector fields are generated by the release of global free energy in scalar fields through exciting turbulence, is a typical example of the fundamental issues in modern physics. In this review, the progresses made by theory and simulations, such as the linear damping rate, nonlinear mechanisms for growth and saturation, law of energy partition between turbulence and flow, life time of zonal flow, and so on, are explained. The transport by drift wave fluctuations, which are dressed by zonal flows, is discussed. Then experimental observations and verifications, which have been piled up rapidly in basic plasma experiments and confinement research, are explained, highlighting the integration with theory and simulation. Generalization to include magnetic field (zonal field) is addressed, in the light of the study of dynamo. Zonal flows in both laboratory and planetary-solar circumstances are discussed as well. This presentation illustrates the fast evolution of the physics of turbulence and structure formation of plasmas in the nature and laboratory. In collaboration with S.-I. Itoh, P. H. Diamond, T. S. Hahm, A. Fujisawa, G. R. Tynan and M. Yagi.

  1. Developing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Applications of Calculus to Work, Area, and Distance Problems. [and] Atmospheric Pressure in Relation to Height and Temperature. Applications of Calculus to Atmospheric Pressure. [and] The Gradient and Some of Its Applications. Applications of Multivariate Calculus to Physics. [and] Kepler's Laws and the Inverse Square Law. Applications of Calculus to Physics. UMAP Units 323, 426, 431, 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter A.; And Others

    This document consists of four units. The first of these views calculus applications to work, area, and distance problems. It is designed to help students gain experience in: 1) computing limits of Riemann sums; 2) computing definite integrals; and 3) solving elementary area, distance, and work problems by integration. The second module views…

  2. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 2.27 Section 2.27... Heads § 2.27 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The following designations are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Office of Administrative Law Judges: (1) Administrative law judges...

  3. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 2.27 Section 2.27... Heads § 2.27 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The following designations are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Office of Administrative Law Judges: (1) Administrative law judges...

  4. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 2.27 Section 2.27... Heads § 2.27 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The following designations are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Office of Administrative Law Judges: (1) Administrative law judges...

  5. 12 CFR 160.2 - Applicability of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of law. 160.2 Section 160.2 Banks... Applicability of law. State law applies to the lending activities of Federal savings associations and their subsidiaries to the same extent and in the same manner that those laws apply to national banks and...

  6. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  7. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  8. Electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Prakash; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids through a narrow confinement in the form of a deformable tube is investigated. The fluid is considered to be divided into two regions - a non-Newtonian core region (described by the power-law behavior) which is surrounded by a thin wall-adhering layer of Newtonian fluid. This division mimics the occurrence of a wall-adjacent cell-free skimming layer in blood samples typically handled in microfluidic transport. The pumping characteristics and the trapping of the fluid bolus are studied by considering the effect of fluid viscosities, power-law index and electroosmosis. It is found that the zero-flow pressure rise is strongly dependent on the relative viscosity ratio of the near-wall depleted fluid and the core fluid as well as on the power-law index. The effect of electroosmosis on the pressure rise is strongly manifested at lower occlusion values, thereby indicating its importance in transport modulation for weakly peristaltic flow. It is also established that the phenomenon of trapping may be controlled on-the-fly by tuning the magnitude of the electric field: the trapping vanishes as the magnitude of the electric field is increased. Similarly, the phenomenon of reflux is shown to disappear due to the action of the applied electric field. These findings may be applied for the modulation of pumping in bio-physical environments by means of external electric fields. PMID:26524260

  9. 29 CFR 2704.307 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of administrative law judge. 2704.307 Section 2704... Applications § 2704.307 Decision of administrative law judge. The administrative law judge shall issue an... all decisions on applications, the administrative law judge shall include written findings...

  10. The Right of Inmates to a Law Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Resource Center on Correctional Law and Legal Services, Washington, DC.

    The availability of law libraries to inmates is a logical extension of a prisoner's right to "access to the courts." This report discusses the need for prison law libraries for indigent prisoners and refers to sources for determining what law books should be included in these libraries. Recommended collections for prison law libraries is attached…

  11. The Trials of Culture--Law, Conflict, and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Pam, Ed.; Kaplan, Howard, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, and law and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This volume focuses on culture, law, conflict, and change. The first article, "Trying Beliefs: The Law of Cultural Orthodoxy and Dissent" (J. H. Landman), demonstrates how U.S.…

  12. Factor Analysis of Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Robert F.

    Grades of 116 law school students were obtained from transcripts, along with LSAT, Writing Ability and Background scores. The grades were factored, and an analysis of the goodness of fit of one- through four-factor systems indicated that the system of grades was essentially one factor in nature. A plot of factor loadings for the various courses…

  13. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  14. A Simple Demonstration of Charles's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepanski, Nadine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a quick, inexpensive laboratory demonstration of Charles's Law. The opening of a large, round balloon is placed snugly over the mouth of a narrow-mouthed 750-mL Erlenmeyer flask, which is then heated in a strong flame. At end of the full procedure, students easily arrive at the conclusion that the volume of a gas is proportional to…

  15. 14 CFR § 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Choice of law. § 1260.59 Section § 1260... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and... laws of the United States of America. However, it is understood that the laws of the...

  16. Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies. Possible alternatives to standard concepts and laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii) to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.

  17. On the power law of passive scalars in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    It has long been considered that the moments of the scalar increment with separation distance r obey power law with scaling exponents in the inertial convective range and the exponents are insensitive to variation of pumping of scalar fluctuations at large scales, thus the scaling exponents are universal. We examine the scaling behavior of the moments of increments of passive scalars 1 and 2 by using DNS up to the grid points of 40963. They are simultaneously convected by the same isotropic steady turbulence atRλ = 805 , but excited by two different methods. Scalar 1 is excited by the random scalar injection which is isotropic, Gaussian and white in time at law wavenumber band, while Scalar 2 is excited by the uniform mean scalar gradient. It is found that the local scaling exponents of the scalar 1 has a logarithmic correction, meaning that the moments of the scalar 1 do not obey simple power law. On the other hand, the moments of the scalar 2 is found to obey the well developed power law with exponents consistent with those in the literature. Physical reasons for the difference are explored. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 15H02218 and 26420106, NIFS14KNSS050, HPCI project hp150088 and hp140024, JHPCN project jh150012.

  18. Education and the Law of Defamation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyra, Joseph F.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Canadian law pertaining to defamation and looks at educational cases in this area. The definition of defamation is explored generally, then defamation, libel, slander, the importance of publication, and the role of malice are examined. Various defenses available to a defendant in a suit of defamation are studied. (Author/BRR)

  19. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws. PMID:10721965

  20. The Yearbook of Higher Education Law, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker, Ed.

    A comprehensive summary and analysis of all state and federal court cases involving higher education reported during the year of 1980 is provided in this fifth annual volume. The document constitutes an annual reference to higher education law for those interested in both public and private institutions of higher education. Each chapter has been…

  1. The Enlightenment and Due Process of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    The purpose of this module for college students is to describe the economic, social, intellectual, and political changes which took place during the Enlightenment period and to show the interrelationship between these changes and concepts behind due process of law. This resource contains an introduction to the module; a list of objectives for the…

  2. To Promote the General Welfare: The Purpose of Law. Law in Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall

    This student booklet is part of a curriculum designed for infusion into secondary U.S. history courses to help students explore the purposes of American law. The booklet contains student readings and discussion questions and suggests learning activities. There are five units. Unit 1, "Law in a New World," examines processes used to make legal…

  3. Restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, L.; Moya, X.; Prabhakaran, D.; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Boothroyd, A.T.; Mathur, N.D.; Aeppli, G.; Bramwell, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents – magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples. PMID:24619137

  4. Restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films.

    PubMed

    Bovo, L; Moya, X; Prabhakaran, D; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Boothroyd, A T; Mathur, N D; Aeppli, G; Bramwell, S T

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents - magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples. PMID:24619137

  5. Summary of State Labor Laws for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Today all 50 states and Puerto Rico have laws relating to the employment of women; however, the standards established vary widely. This report examines employment legislation in regard to: (1) minimum wage, (2) overtime compensation, (3) hours of work, (4) equal pay, (5) fair employment practices, (6) industrial homework, (7) employment before and…

  6. Second law of thermodynamics under control restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilming, H.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2016-04-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, formulated as an ultimate bound on the maximum extractable work, has been rigorously derived in multiple scenarios. However, the unavoidable limitations that emerge due to the lack of control on small systems are often disregarded when deriving such bounds, which is specifically important in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Here we study the maximum extractable work with limited control over the working system and its interaction with the heat bath. We derive a general second law when the set of accessible Hamiltonians of the working system is arbitrarily restricted. We then apply our bound to particular scenarios that are important in realistic implementations: limitations on the maximum energy gap and local control over many-body systems. We hence demonstrate in what precise way the lack of control affects the second law. In particular, contrary to the unrestricted case, we show that the optimal work extraction is not achieved by simple thermal contacts. Our results not only generalize the second law to scenarios of practical relevance, but also take first steps in the direction of local thermodynamics.

  7. The Yearbook of Education Law, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    This yearbook describes current issues affecting education law. Its 12 chapters, each written by a specialist, cover a large variety of educational legislation. Chapter 1 focuses on employees, discrimination, constitutional rights, due process, dismissal, demotion, discipline, reduction-in-force and involuntary leaves of absence, contract…

  8. Physics of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Mendel

    ch. 1. Physics of the universe. Introduction. Is Newton's theory an explanation of gravity? The expanding universe. The oscillating universe cosmology. The theory of general relativity. The role of space and time. Geometry and matter. Generalization of Einstein's field equations. A unified field theory -- ch. 2. A language of cosmology: the mathematical basis of general relativity. Introduction. Einstein's tensor formulation. The Riemann curvature tensor. The geodesic equation. The vacuum equation. The crucial tests of general relativity. The logic of the spacetime language -- ch. 3. A unified field theory in general relativity: extension from the tensor to the quaternion language. Introduction. Factorization of Einstein's tensor field equations. The Riemann curvature tensor in quaternion form. The quaternion metrical field equations. A symmetric tensor-antisymmetric tensor representation of general relativity - gravity and electromagnetism. The Einstein field equations from the symmetric tensor part. The Maxwell field equations from the antisymmetric tensor part. Conclusions -- ch. 4. An oscillating, spiral universe cosmology. introduction. Dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the universe. Dynamics of the oscillating universe cosmology. Derivation of the Hubble law as an approximation. The spiral structure of the universe. Concluding remarks -- ch. 5. Dark matter. Introduction. The field equations and the ground state solution for the bound particle-antiparticle pair. Olber's paradox -- ch. 6. Concluding remarks. Black holes. Pulsars. On the human race and cosmology -- ch. 7. Philosophical considerations. On truth. Positivism versus realism, subjectivity versus objectivity. On Mach's influence in physics and cosmology. References and notes -- Postscript. Physics in the 21st century. Holism. The universe. The Mach principle and the origin of inertia from general relativity.

  9. Law and the sources of morality.

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality. PMID:15590610

  10. Law and the sources of morality.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Robert A

    2004-11-29

    This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality. PMID:15590610

  11. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram. PMID:27250630

  12. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Nikulin, Vadim V; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram. PMID:27250630

  13. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    This yearbook presents legal precedents for a broad spectrum of education-related issues. Drawing on 25 experts' research in education and law, the book opens with legalities concerning school employees. It examines discrimination, constitutional rights, due process, dismissal, nonrenewal, demotion, and discipline; duty; involuntary leaves;…

  14. The Yearbook of Higher Education Law, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker, Ed.

    In this second annual volume is a comprehensive summary and analysis of all state and federal court cases involving higher education reported during 1977. The chapters have been authored by individuals who are experts in higher education law and specialists in their topics. Chapter topics include governance and finance, property, liability,…

  15. Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2012-09-19

    09/19/2012 Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3486, which became Public Law 112-211 on 12/18/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. [Law Enforcement Standards of Decency and Fairness].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, William B.

    Effective policemen need to have as much knowledge as possible about society; they need to be fair, like the criminal justice system they represent. Society cannot be protected unless there is full accordance with the law. Questions of concern are whether the poor man or the black man are receiving the same treatment as the rich or influential…

  17. Campbell's Law and the Ethics of Immensurability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines "Campbell's Law": "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor." The examination of measurability leads to explaining the…

  18. The Yearbook of Higher Education Law 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker, Ed.

    Seven experts in the law as it applies to postsecondary education have contributed six articles to this book-length discussion of relevant court cases decided in 1979. Topics addressed include governance and finance, property owned by educational institutions, tort liability cases affecting schools, litigation required in clarifying relations…

  19. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  20. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs. PMID:26407082

  1. On estimating the exponent of power-law frequency distributions.

    PubMed

    White, Ethan P; Enquist, Brian J; Green, Jessica L

    2008-04-01

    Power-law frequency distributions characterize a wide array of natural phenomena. In ecology, biology, and many physical and social sciences, the exponents of these power laws are estimated to draw inference about the processes underlying the phenomenon, to test theoretical models, and to scale up from local observations to global patterns. Therefore, it is essential that these exponents be estimated accurately. Unfortunately, the binning-based methods traditionally used in ecology and other disciplines perform quite poorly. Here we discuss more sophisticated methods for fitting these exponents based on cumulative distribution functions and maximum likelihood estimation. We illustrate their superior performance at estimating known exponents and provide details on how and when ecologists should use them. Our results confirm that maximum likelihood estimation outperforms other methods in both accuracy and precision. Because of the use of biased statistical methods for estimating the exponent, the conclusions of several recently published papers should be revisited. PMID:18481513

  2. Breaking the Laws of Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commoner, Barry

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the need for productive reforms to return the ecosphere to its proper balance. The author claims such reforms should deal with eliminating socially wasteful types of production and at the same time improving the quality of life. (AS)

  3. The First Law of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heterick, Robert C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the National Information Infrastructure and changes in telecommunications highlights the roles of the Clinton administration and the Department of Commerce; congressional activity, including regulatory committees; state regulations concerning local exchange carriers and cable television companies; the private sector; and the role of…

  4. The Laws of Resonant Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelowitz, Seymour B.

    2009-01-01

    The complex nature of a school district demands a unique relationship between the superintendent and the board president. Forging a positive relationship requires a special kind of navigational skill. The author draws lessons for doing so from David Hargreaves' classic 1975 book "Interpersonal Relations and Education". The author outlines some…

  5. Avonte's Law Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2014-07-25

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Aaron's Law Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-19

    2013-06-20

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Pascal's law and the death of Cromwell.

    PubMed

    Felts, J H

    1991-01-01

    Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the British Isles, probably died of the complications of recurrent urinary tract infection and obstruction, not of a 'bastard tertian ague' as claimed soon after his death. Blaise Pascal, a pioneer in hydraulics and a contemporary of Cromwell, shortly thereafter accurately reported course and historical consequence of his death, an event which seems at least partly attributable to the effects of Pascal's law on the Protector's kidneys. PMID:1799193

  8. Rehabilitating the regulative use of reason: Kant on empirical and chemical laws.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Michael Bennett

    2015-12-01

    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature "carry with them an expression of necessity" (A159/B198). There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry-a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding-could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the possibility of non-physical laws. In this paper, I develop an alternative, 'ideational' account of natural laws, according to which ideas of reason necessitate the laws of some non-physical sciences. Chemical laws, for instance, are grounded on ideas of the elements, and the chemist aims to reduce her phenomena to these elements via experimentation. Although such ideas are beyond the possibility of experience, their postulation is necessary for the achievement of reason's theoretical ends: the unification and explanation of the cognitions of science. PMID:26568081

  9. A Compilation of Laws Pertaining to Indians. State of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Indian Affairs, Augusta.

    The document is a compilation of laws pertaining to the American Indians in the state of Maine. These laws are compiled from: (1) the Maine Revised Statutes of 1964 and amendments through 1972; (2) the Constitution of Maine; and (3) the current resolves and private and special laws. Major topics are: education, elections, fish and game, forestry,…

  10. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  11. Analyzing Collisions in Terms of Newton's Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, John L.

    2003-02-01

    Although the principle of momentum conservation is a consequence of Newton's second and third laws of motion, as recognized by Newton himself, this principle is typically applied in analyzing collisions as if it is a separate concept of its own. This year I sought to integrate my treatment of collisions with my coverage of Newton's laws by asking students to calculate the effect on the motion of two particles due to the forces they exerted for a specified time interval on each other. For example, "A 50-kg crate slides across the ice at 3 m/s and collides with a 25-kg crate at rest. During the collision process the 50-kg crate exerts a 500 N time-averaged force on the 25 kg for 0.1 s. What are the accelerations of the crates during the collision, and what are their velocities after the collision? What are the momenta of the crates before and after collision?"

  12. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Gabor

    1974-01-01

    Bioenergetic processes are viewed as processes of free energy transduction. The free energies of both local equilibrium and fluctuation states are being considered. It is shown that the exchange of thermal energy with the surrounding medium, acting as a reservoir, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics within broad limits. There is sufficient latitude for proteins to carry out their function of transduction utilizing thermal energy in the process. PMID:16592167

  13. A Quantitative Analysis of Arkansas Principals' Knowledge of School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christy Lack

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the legal knowledge of Arkansas public school principals in seven areas: Arkansas law, constitutional issues, discipline, employee relations, federal law, special education/504, and tort liability and determine if significant relationships existed between legal knowledge recency of school law training,…

  14. Mining law and regulations of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The mining law and regulations of Mexico have been of considerable interest to mining lawyers in the united States. Recent wide-ranging changes in Mexican mining regulations have come at a time when the mining industry hopes to broaden its scope to contend with worldwide competition. Article 27 of the Federal Constitution of Mexico governs the mining of metallic, nonmetallic, and coal materials. New regulation implementing this law became effective on December 10, 1990. These regulations, generally regarded as providing far greater flexibility in the acquisition and maintenance of mineral rights, also provide substantial additional flexibility in the ability of non-Mexican companies to own concessions. The Laws section of this book includes: General Provision, ministry of National Patrimony, mining concession, beneficiating plant concessions, execution and proof of exploitation work oppositions, national mineral reserves, special concessions on National Mineral Reserves, Public/Registry of mining, mining promotion and of the assistance to small miners, Industrial Mining Reserves and violations and penalties. The regulations section includes: general dispositions, mineral reserves, mining assignments and concessions, right of mining concession holders, obligations of the holders of mining concessions, mining companies, mining public registry, mining experts, inspections, sanctions and remedies.

  15. [The Transplantation Law of October 8, 2004].

    PubMed

    Monnier, M; Weber, Th

    2005-07-01

    The Transplantation Law was approved by Parliament on 8 October 2004. Its key features are a ban on trade in human organs, tissue and cells; the non-entitlement of donors of their next of kin to payment for organs; the definition of when death is considered to have occurred; the need for consent before removal takes place; the criteria for donations by living persons; the criteria and procedure for assigning donated organs to recipients; xenotransplantation; and the transplantation of human embryonic and fetal tissue and cells. As things stand at present, the law is expected to take effect at the beginning of 2007. The current fragmented legislation on transplant medicine will therefore be replaced in two years' time by a modern, consistent and comprehensive legal framework. PMID:16075947

  16. Stokes' Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses limitations and corrections to be made in physics experiments involving the investigations of drag and terminal velocity on spheres falling through a liquid in accordance with Stokes' law. (SL)

  17. "Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamic concepts of First and Second Laws with respect to the entropy function are described using atoms and molecules and probability as manifested in statistical mechanics. The First Law is conceptually understood as [Delta]U = Q + W and the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the entropy function have provided the probability and…

  18. Metric space formulation of quantum mechanical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, P. M.; D'Amico, I.

    2014-03-01

    We show that conservation laws in quantum mechanics naturally lead to metric spaces for the set of related physical quantities. All such metric spaces have an "onion-shell" geometry. We demonstrate the power of this approach by considering many-body systems immersed in a magnetic field, with a finite ground state current. In the associated metric spaces we find regions of allowed and forbidden distances, a "band structure" in metric space directly arising from the conservation of the z component of the angular momentum.

  19. Uncertainty quantification for systems of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Poette, Gael Despres, Bruno Lucor, Didier

    2009-04-20

    Uncertainty quantification through stochastic spectral methods has been recently applied to several kinds of non-linear stochastic PDEs. In this paper, we introduce a formalism based on kinetic theory to tackle uncertain hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods. The idea is to introduce a new variable, the entropic variable, in bijection with our vector of unknowns, which we develop on the polynomial basis: by performing a Galerkin projection, we obtain a deterministic system of conservation laws. We state several properties of this deterministic system in the case of a general uncertain system of conservation laws. We then apply the method to the case of the inviscid Burgers' equation with random initial conditions and we present some preliminary results for the Euler system. We systematically compare results from our new approach to results from the stochastic Galerkin method. In the vicinity of discontinuities, the new method bounds the oscillations due to Gibbs phenomenon to a certain range through the entropy of the system without the use of any adaptative random space discretizations. It is found to be more precise than the stochastic Galerkin method for smooth cases but above all for discontinuous cases.

  20. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... jurisdiction; or (2) Assist a person who is not a member of the bar in the performance of activity that constitutes the unauthorized practice of law. (b) Limiting the practice of law to members of the bar...

  1. A Quantum Violation of the Second Law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2006-01-01

    An apparent violation of the second law of thermodynamics occurs when an atom coupled to a zero-temperature bath, being necessarily in an excited state, is used to extract work from the bath. Here the fallacy is that it takes work to couple the atom to the bath and this work must exceed that obtained from the atom. For the example of an oscillator coupled to a bath described by the single relaxation time model, the mean oscillator energy and the minimum work required to couple the oscillator to the bath are both calculated explicitly and in closed form. It is shown that the minimum work always exceeds the mean oscillator energy, so there is no violation of the second law.

  2. The future of public health law.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1986-01-01

    Developments in medicine and constitutional law dictate modification of public health legislation in the United States. Traditionally overlooked by legislators, present public health laws provide inadequate decision-making criteria and inappropriate procedures for dealing with issues. Revised legislation should provide health care officials and agencies with the tools to balance individual rights against public health necessities. This Article makes four recommendations for legislative reform: (1) remove artificial legislative distinction between venereal and other communicable diseases; (2) provide criteria defining "public health necessity" to limit discretionary exercise of police power by health officials; (3) provide strong confidentiality protections in the collection and storage of public health information; (4) empower public health officials to select from a graded series of less restrictive alternatives in dealing with public health problems. PMID:3451680

  3. Second law performance of thermoacoustic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Insu; Braun, James E.; Mongeau, Luc

    2005-09-01

    Thermoacoustic cooler prototypes developed so far can be divided into three categories based on their cold-side operating temperatures: cryogenic, refrigeration, and the third is the air-conditioning. For most prototypes developed so far, the coefficient of performance (COP), defined as the cooling power divided by the acoustic power, was well above unity. The thermodynamic second law efficiency, defined as the COP to the reversible COP, however, varied between 0.03 and 0.22 for different prototypes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the best application area for thermoacoustic cooling from the point of view of the thermodynamic second law efficiency. Model predictions in conjunction with empirical heat transfer correlation models for thermoacoustic environments were used. The results suggest that refrigeration applications are better suited for thermoacoustic cooling than cryogenics or air-conditioning.

  4. Laws of granular solids: geometry and topology.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, Eric; McElwaine, Jim

    2011-10-01

    In a granular solid, mechanical equilibrium requires a delicate balance of forces at the disordered grain scale. To understand how macroscopic rigidity can emerge in this amorphous solid, it is crucial that we understand how Newton's laws pass from the disordered grain scale to the laboratory scale. In this work, we introduce an exact discrete calculus, in which Newton's laws appear as differential relations at the scale of a single grain. Using this calculus, we introduce gauge variables that describe identically force- and torque-balanced configurations. In a first, intrinsic formulation, we use the topology of the contact network, but not its geometry. In a second, extrinsic formulation, we introduce geometry with the Delaunay triangulation. These formulations show, with exact methods, how topology and geometry in a disordered medium are related by constraints. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a divergence-free, symmetric stress tensor in two and three dimensions. PMID:22181138

  5. How I Teach the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincanon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An alternative method of presenting the second law of thermodynamics in introductory courses is presented. The emphasis is on statistical approaches as developed by Atkins. This has the benefit of stressing the statistical nature of the law.

  6. People's Republic of China passes "eugenics" law.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    On October 27, 1994, China passed the "Maternal and Infant Health Care Law." This law regulates support for maternal and child health and also requires physicians to recommend a postponement of marriage if either member of a couple has an infectious, contagious disease or an active mental disorder. If one member of a couple has a serious hereditary disease, the couple may only marry if they agree to use longterm contraception or to undergo sterilization. If prenatal tests reveal that a fetus has a serious hereditary disease or serious deformity, the physician must advise the pregnant woman to have an abortion, and the law states that the pregnant woman "should" follow this recommendation. This statute also bans determining the sex of a fetus through the use of technology unless such tests are medically necessary. This ban is the reaction to the combination of China's one-child policy and the technological ability to predict the sex of a fetus which has led to a change in China's sex ratio from 103.8 boys/100 girls in 1953 to 118 boys/100 girls in 1992. PMID:12288092

  7. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  8. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  9. An exact thermodynamical model of power-law temperature time scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingales, Massimiliano

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a physical model for the anomalous temperature time evolution (decay) observed in complex thermodynamical system in presence of uniform heat source is provided. Measures involving temperatures T with power-law variation in time as T(t) ∝tβ with β ∈ R shows a different evolution of the temperature time rate T ˙ (t) with respect to the temperature time-dependence T(t) . Indeed the temperature evolution is a power-law increasing function whereas the temperature time rate is a power-law decreasing function of time. Such a behavior may be captured by a physical model that allows for a fast thermal energy diffusion close to the insulated location but must offer more resistance to the thermal energy flux as soon as the distance increases. In this paper this idea has been exploited showing that such thermodynamical system is represented by an heterogeneous one-dimensional distributed mass one with power-law spatial scaling of its physical properties. The model yields, exactly a power-law evolution (decay) of the temperature field in terms of a real exponent as T ∝tβ (or T ∝t-β) that is related to the power-law spatial scaling of the thermodynamical property of the system. The obtained relation yields a physical ground to the formulation of fractional-order generalization of the Fourier diffusion equation.

  10. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  11. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat

  12. Tropisms of Avena coleoptiles: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Galland, Paul

    2002-09-01

    The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for light-grown coleoptiles of Avena sativa (L.). With respect to gravitropism the coleoptiles obeyed the sine law. To study the interaction between light and gravity, coleoptiles were inclined at variable angles and irradiated for 7 h with unilateral blue light (466 nm) impinging at right angles relative to the axis of the coleoptile. The phototropic stimulus was applied from the side opposite to the direction of gravitropic bending. The fluence rate that was required to counteract the negative gravitropism increased exponentially with the sine of the inclination angle. To achieve balance, a linear increase in the gravitropic stimulus required compensation by an exponential increase in the counteracting phototropic stimulus. The establishment of photogravitropic equilibrium during continuous unilateral irradiation is thus determined by two different laws: the well-known sine law for gravitropism and a novel exponential law for phototropism described in this work. PMID:12244443

  13. Impact crater scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

  14. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  15. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  16. 10 CFR 861.7 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 861.7 Section 861.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.7 Applicability of other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State laws or of...

  17. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... export any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, in violation of any applicable law... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation...

  18. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... export any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, in violation of any applicable law... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation...

  19. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... export any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, in violation of any applicable law... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation...

  20. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... export any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, in violation of any applicable law... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation...

  1. 50 CFR 20.72 - Violation of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... export any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, in violation of any applicable law... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Federal, State, and Foreign Law § 20.72 Violation...

  2. The Conservation Principles and Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Lloyd

    1975-01-01

    Derives Kepler's three laws of planetary motion algebraically from conservation principles without introducing Newton's law of force explicitly. This procedure can be presented to students who have had no more than high school algebra. (Author)

  3. Stable viscosities and shock profiles for systems of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pego, R. L.

    1983-04-01

    Many equations of mathematical physics take the form of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. With small dissipative effects neglected, typically smooth solutions must develop discontinuities (shocks) in finite time. Re-incorporating dissipation helps select those discontinuities which are physically relevant. For this purpose, many different sorts of dissipation will do; in particular, the physical viscosity is typically degenerate and not convenient. In this paper the author provides an understanding of what high order viscosity terms smooth the physical discontinuities. A natural class of admissible viscosity terms is determined based on a simple linearized stability criterion. In addition, they determine a class of degenerate second order viscosity terms of physical type which are admissible. These results are applied to the equations of compressible fluid dynamics, to determine what conditions ensure the existence of the shock layer with viscosity and heat conduction. This should be of interest to others interested in general equations of state for compressible fluids, such as those investigating phase transitions.

  4. Sex Segregation and the Ambivalent Directions of Sex Discrimination Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kathryn L.

    1979-01-01

    Recognition that the goal of equal social participation of women and men is the underlying purpose of sex discrimination law provides means for extending that law to the discriminatory bases of legal policies that support occupational segregation and inequitable treatment of women. Available from Wisconsin Law Review, University of Wisconsin Law…

  5. Educational Reform in Brazil. The Law of 1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William A.

    On December 21, 1961 the Brazilian Congress passed the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education, implementing the educational provisions of the Constitution of 1946. This Law of 1961 was Brazil's first general education law and was widely publicized as decentralizing the administration of and the responsibility for Brazilian education,…

  6. Physical restraint for psychiatric patients and its associations with clinical characteristics and the National Mental Health Law in China.

    PubMed

    An, Feng-Rong; Sha, Sha; Zhang, Qing-E; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Jian-Song; Tang, Yi-Lang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-07-30

    Physical restraint (PR) for patients is an ongoing controversial topic in psychiatry. This study examined the percentage of PR and its associations with clinical characteristics and the implementation of the National Mental Health Law (NMHL) in China. The study consecutively assessed a sample of 1364 psychiatric inpatients. Socio-demographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. Psychopathology and insight were measured using standardized instruments. The percentage of PR was 27.2% in the whole sample with 30.7% and 22.4% occurring respectively before and after the NMHL implementation (p=0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis PR was positively associated with unemployment, lower income, aggression in the past month, being admitted before the NMHL implementation and poorer insight. The percentage of PR in Chinese psychiatric patients is associated with various clinical factors and appeared to decrease after the implementation of the NMHL. Focused and individualized care for patients who are unemployed, have low income, recent aggression and poor insight would be necessary at early stages of admission. PMID:27179180

  7. Didactical formulation of the Ampère law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The Ampère law is useful to calculate the magnetostatic field in the cases of distributions of current with high degree of symmetry. Nevertheless the magnetic field produced by a thin straight wire carrying a current I requires the Biot-Savart law and the use of the Ampère law leads to a mistake. A didactical formulation of the Ampère law is proposed to prevent misinterpretations.

  8. 31 CFR 8.68 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dismissal of the complaint. The Administrative Law Judge shall file the decision with the Director of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. As soon as practicable after the conclusion of a hearing and the receipt of...

  9. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  10. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  11. First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional Chern-Simons gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-01-15

    The physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with Chern-Simons term were derived. This theory constitutes the simplest generalization of the five-dimensional one admitting a stationary black ring solution. The equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring mechanics was achieved by choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface.

  12. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  13. Employment Patterns of Law School Graduates. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.

    This study investigated employment patterns of law school graduates using cross-sectional data from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates for 3,207 individuals meeting the definition of law school graduates. The results indicate that, overall, law school graduates have high rates of labor force participation, are employed in legal…

  14. 12 CFR 560.2 - Applicability of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Applicability of law. 560.2 Section 560.2 Banks... Applicability of law. (a) Occupation of field. Pursuant to sections 4(a) and 5(a) of the HOLA, 12 U.S.C. 1463(a), 1464(a), OTS is authorized to promulgate regulations that preempt state laws affecting the...

  15. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  16. 43 CFR 2361.0-7 - Effect of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of law. 2361.0-7 Section 2361.0-7... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-7 Effect of law. (a) Subject to... withdrawn from all forms of entry and disposition under the public land laws, including the mining...

  17. 10 CFR 860.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 860.8 Section 860.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.8 Applicability of other laws... Federal laws....

  18. 10 CFR 860.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 860.8 Section 860.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.8 Applicability of other laws... Federal laws....

  19. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  20. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law, including any rule or regulation thereunder, may...

  1. 48 CFR 252.233-7001 - Choice of law (overseas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Choice of law (overseas... of Provisions And Clauses 252.233-7001 Choice of law (overseas). As prescribed in 233.215-70, use the following clause: Choice of Law (Overseas) (JUN 1997) This contract shall be construed and interpreted...

  2. 43 CFR 2361.0-7 - Effect of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of law. 2361.0-7 Section 2361.0-7... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-7 Effect of law. (a) Subject to... withdrawn from all forms of entry and disposition under the public land laws, including the mining...

  3. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  4. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  5. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  6. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  7. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  8. [CIRCUMCISION AND EXCISION: TOWARDS A NON-LAW OF BIOETHICS?].

    PubMed

    Delage, Pierre-Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    This article defines the practices of circumcision and excision, and studies their foundations. Then, it considers some of the conflicts (of rights, laws and cultures) inherent to these practices. Finally, it suggests that the solution to these conflicts may not lie in the law, but in a non-law of bioethics. PMID:27356346

  9. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.59 - Choice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Choice of law. 1260.59 Section 1260.59 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59 Choice of law. Choice of Law October 2000 The rights and obligations of the parties to the grant (or...

  11. 37 CFR 10.47 - Aiding unauthorized practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of law. 10.47 Section 10.47 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.47 Aiding unauthorized practice of law. (a) A practitioner shall not aid a non-practitioner in the unauthorized practice of law before the Office. (b)...

  12. 37 CFR 354.1 - Material questions of copyright law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright law. 354.1 Section 354.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... Material questions of copyright law. (a) Discretionary referrals. The Copyright Royalty Judges may seek... of Copyrights in resolving material questions of substantive law is binding upon the...

  13. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  14. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  15. 16 CFR 0.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 0.14 Section 0.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. Administrative law judges are officials to whom...

  16. 31 CFR 501.740 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.740 Decision of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare a decision that constitutes his or her final disposition of...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that...

  18. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that...

  19. Beyond Rio? The Evolution of International Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnee, Jutta

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the expansion and innovation in the use of international environmental law mechanisms to address the problems of global environmental protection. Presents initiatives involving customary international law, forms of international agreements, nonbinding "soft law," and an example involving Canada's biodiversity commitments. (MDH)

  20. 10 CFR 160.8 - Applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of other laws. 160.8 Section 160.8 Energy... other laws. Nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the applicability of the provisions of State or other Federal laws....

  1. 32 CFR 644.440 - Application of antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Application of antitrust laws. 644.440 Section... Application of antitrust laws. Section 207 of the Federal Property Act provides that real property and related... the antitrust laws. Prior to obligating the Government on any such disposal, the District...

  2. 31 CFR 10.32 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law. 10.32 Section 10.32... of law. Nothing in the regulations in this part may be construed as authorizing persons not members of the bar to practice law....

  3. 48 CFR 352.233-70 - Choice of law (overseas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Choice of law (overseas... Choice of law (overseas). As prescribed in 333.215-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Choice of Law (Overseas) (January 2010) This contract shall be construed in...

  4. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  5. 46 CFR 69.153 - Application of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of other laws. 69.153 Section 69.153... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.153 Application of other laws. (a) If a vessel is assigned... inspection, manning, and load line laws and regulations to the vessel. (b) Tonnage marks are not to...

  6. 16 CFR 0.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 0.14 Section 0.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. Administrative law judges are officials to whom...

  7. Toward a Social History of Law and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyack, David

    This exploratory essay suggests the contours of a social history of law and public education. The essay departs from two traditional approaches to educational law: the study of landmark cases, and textbooks that delimit legally approved practice. Instead the changing dialectic between statutory and court-decided law is analyzed, stressing how…

  8. Physical limits of inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2008-07-01

    We show that physical devices that perform observation, prediction, or recollection share an underlying mathematical structure. We call devices with that structure “inference devices”. We present a set of existence and impossibility results concerning inference devices. These results hold independent of the precise physical laws governing our universe. In a limited sense, the impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, these impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical “uncertainty principle”. The mathematics of inference devices has close connections to the mathematics of Turing Machines (TMs). In particular, the impossibility results for inference devices are similar to the Halting theorem for TMs. Furthermore, one can define an analog of Universal TMs (UTMs) for inference devices. We call those analogs “strong inference devices”. We use strong inference devices to define the “inference complexity” of an inference task, which is the analog of the Kolmogorov complexity of computing a string. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the inference complexity of an inference task can differ for two different inference devices. This is analogous to the “encoding” bound governing how much the Kolmogorov complexity of a string can differ between two UTMs used to compute that string. However no universe can contain more than one strong inference device. So whereas the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is arbitrary up to specification of the UTM, there is no such arbitrariness in the inference complexity of an inference task. We informally discuss the philosophical implications of these results, e.g., for whether the universe “is” a computer. We also derive some graph-theoretic properties governing any set of multiple inference devices. We also present an

  9. 31 CFR 8.42 - Practice of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law. 8.42 Section 8.42... ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.42 Practice of law. Nothing... practice law....

  10. Black Residential Segregation: Impact of State Licensing Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the level of Black residential segregation among two groups of States: those whose real estate licensing laws contain explicit fair housing or anti-discrimination provisions, and those whose licensing laws contain no such provisions. Found that State licensing laws have no significant impact on Black residential discrimination. (GC)

  11. 7 CFR 2.27 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deciding officer in adjudication and rate proceedings subject to 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557. Administrative Law... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 2.27 Section 2.27... Heads § 2.27 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The following designations are made by...

  12. Sound Velocities and Validity of Birch's Law for Ultra-High Pressure Metals and Ionic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, L.; Boness, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of super-Earths has expanded interest in ultra-high pressure, temperature minerals and elements to help constrain the composition and physical properties of the interiors of these large planets. To understand Earth's interior, Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics has long been important. Recent published DAC experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent DAC data.

  13. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-01-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests. PMID:3435817

  14. Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikuradse, J

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.

  15. Evolution and the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Emory F.

    2009-10-01

    Skeptics of biological evolution often claim that evolution requires a decrease in entropy, giving rise to a conflict with the second law of thermodynamics. This argument is fallacious because it neglects the large increase in entropy provided by sunlight striking the Earth. A recent article provided a quantitative assessment of the entropies involved and showed explicitly that there is no conflict. That article rests on an unjustified assumption about the amount of entropy reduction involved in evolution. I present a refinement of the argument that does not rely on this assumption.

  16. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  17. Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

  18. EXTENDED SCHMIDT LAW: ROLE OF EXISTING STARS IN CURRENT STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yong; Helou, George; Yan Lin; Armus, Lee; Wu Yanling; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Papovich, Casey

    2011-06-01

    We propose an 'extended Schmidt law' with explicit dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE = SFR/M{sub gas}) on the stellar mass surface density ({Sigma}{sub star}). This relation has a power-law index of 0.48 {+-} 0.04 and a 1{sigma} observed scatter on the SFE of 0.4 dex, which holds over five orders of magnitude in the stellar density for individual global galaxies, including various types and especially the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies that deviate significantly from the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law. When applying it to regions of a sample of 12 spiral galaxies at sub-kiloparsec resolution, the extended Schmidt law not only holds for LSB regions but also shows significantly smaller scatters both within and across galaxies compared with the KS law. We argue that this new relation points to the role of existing stars in regulating the SFE, thus better encoding the star formation physics. Comparison with physical models of star formation recipes shows that the extended Schmidt law can be reproduced by some models including gas free fall in a stellar-gravitational potential and pressure-supported star formation. By implementing this new law into the analytic model of gas accretion in {Lambda}CDM, we show that it can reproduce the observed main sequence of star-forming galaxies (a relation between the SFR and stellar mass) from z = 0 up to z = 2.

  19. Extended Schmidt Law: Role of Existing Stars in Current Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Yan, L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an ``extended Schmidt law'' with explicit dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE=SFR/Mgas) on the stellar mass surface density. This relation has a power-law index of 0.48+-0.04 and an 1-sigma observed scatter on the SFE of 0.4 dex, which holds over 5 orders of magnitude in the stellar density for individual global galaxies including various types especially the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies that deviate significantly from the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. When applying it to regions at sub-kpc resolution of a sample of 12 spiral galaxies, the extended Schmidt law not only holds for LSB regions but also shows significantly smaller scatters both within and across galaxies compared to the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. We argue that this new relation points to the role of existing stars in regulating the SFE, thus encoding better the star formation physics. Comparison with physical models of star formation recipes shows that the extended Schmidt law can be reproduced by some models including gas free-fall in a stellar-gravitational potential and pressure-supported star formation. By implementing this new law into the analytic model of gas accretion in Lambda CDM, we show that it can re-produce the observed main sequence of star-forming galaxies (a relation between the SFR and stellar mass) from z=0 up to z=2.

  20. Extended Schmidt Law: Role of Existing Stars in Current Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Wu, Yanling; Papovich, Casey; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2011-06-01

    We propose an "extended Schmidt law" with explicit dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE = SFR/M gas) on the stellar mass surface density (Σstar). This relation has a power-law index of 0.48 ± 0.04 and a 1σ observed scatter on the SFE of 0.4 dex, which holds over five orders of magnitude in the stellar density for individual global galaxies, including various types and especially the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies that deviate significantly from the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law. When applying it to regions of a sample of 12 spiral galaxies at sub-kiloparsec resolution, the extended Schmidt law not only holds for LSB regions but also shows significantly smaller scatters both within and across galaxies compared with the KS law. We argue that this new relation points to the role of existing stars in regulating the SFE, thus better encoding the star formation physics. Comparison with physical models of star formation recipes shows that the extended Schmidt law can be reproduced by some models including gas free fall in a stellar-gravitational potential and pressure-supported star formation. By implementing this new law into the analytic model of gas accretion in ΛCDM, we show that it can reproduce the observed main sequence of star-forming galaxies (a relation between the SFR and stellar mass) from z = 0 up to z = 2.

  1. Physical Models of Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor ; a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  2. Physical models of cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  3. The Watchdog in Nineteenth Century Libel Law: A Common Law Concept of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Timothy W.

    In press law, the individual right of freedom of the press frequently is linked to a public interest or "watchdog" concept of freedom of the press. This concept suggests that the basis for the constitutional protection of press freedom is the role of the press as an institution serving a collective good, as opposed to the traditional view of…

  4. Compilation of Henry's law constants, version 3.99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, R.

    2014-11-01

    Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law constants of trace gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry have been collected and converted into a uniform format. The compilation contains 14775 values of Henry's law constants for 3214 species, collected from 639 references. It is also available on the internet at law.org">http://www.henrys-law.org.

  5. The Situation of ICT Usage in Nagoya University Law School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daisuke; Sugawara, Ikuo

    Since the introduction of a new legal education system in 2004, some of Japanese legal educational institutions have changed into professional schools which names are Law School. These law schools are required not only theoretical studies but also professional skills training. Law students, however, have limited time to complete this agenda, so law professors have to teach courses effectively. In this paper, the authors present the situation of ICT usage in Nagoya University Law School as a case study to describe and to critique systems to support theoretical studies and professional skills training.

  6. Kinetics of wealth and the Pareto law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.

    2014-04-01

    An important class of economic models involve agents whose wealth changes due to transactions with other agents. Several authors have pointed out an analogy with kinetic theory, which describes molecules whose momentum and energy change due to interactions with other molecules. We pursue this analogy and derive a Boltzmann equation for the time evolution of the wealth distribution of a population of agents for the so-called Yard-Sale Model of wealth exchange. We examine the solutions to this equation by a combination of analytical and numerical methods and investigate its long-time limit. We study an important limit of this equation for small transaction sizes and derive a partial integrodifferential equation governing the evolution of the wealth distribution in a closed economy. We then describe how this model can be extended to include features such as inflation, production, and taxation. In particular, we show that the model with taxation exhibits the basic features of the Pareto law, namely, a lower cutoff to the wealth density at small values of wealth, and approximate power-law behavior at large values of wealth.

  7. The physics of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigen, Manfred

    1988-12-01

    The Darwinian concept of evolution through natural selection has been revised and put on a solid physical basis, in a form which applies to self-replicable macromolecules. Two new concepts are introduced: sequence space and quasi-species. Evolutionary change in the DNA- or RNA-sequence of a gene can be mapped as a trajectory in a sequence space of dimension ν, where ν corresponds to the number of changeable positions in the genomic sequence. Emphasis, however, is shifted from the single surviving wildtype, a single point in the sequence space, to the complex structure of the mutant distribution that constitutes the quasi-species. Selection is equivalent to an establishment of the quasi-species in a localized region of sequence space, subject to threshold conditions for the error rate and sequence length. Arrival of a new mutant may violate the local threshold condition and thereby lead to a displacement of the quasi-species into a different region of sequence space. This transformation is similar to a phase transition; the dynamical equations that describe the quase-species have been shown to be analogous to those of the two-dimensional Ising model of ferromagnetism. The occurrence of a selectively advantageous mutant is biased by the particulars of the quasi-species distribution, whose mutants are populated according to their fitness relative to that of the wild-type. Inasmuch as fitness regions are connected (like mountain ridges) the evolutionary trajectory is guided to regions of optimal fitness. Evolution experiments in test tubes confirm this modification of the simple chance and law nature of the Darwinian concept. The results of the theory can also be applied to the construction of a machine that provides optimal conditions for a rapid evolution of functionally active macromolecules. An introduction to the physics of molecular evolution by the author has appeared recently.1 Detailed studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of replication of RNA, the most

  8. Swept Away: Exploring the Physics of Curling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Studying the Olympic sport of curling is a fun and engaging way to learn about the concepts of friction, forces, momentum, and Newton's laws. Each winter, the author takes her eighth-grade physical science class on a field trip to experience curling firsthand. This field trip has become a favorite of the eighth graders at Capitol Hill Day School…

  9. Law addresses question of space artifact ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. astronauts who participated in many of NASA's early space missions will receive full ownership rights to artifacts from those missions through legislation that President Barack Obama signed into law on 25 September. The legislation, which received broad bipartisan support, provides artifact ownership rights to any of NASA's Mercury, Gemini, or Apollo space programs through the completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, whose flight occurred in July 1975. The law defines artifacts as expendable, disposable, or personal use items—including personal logs and flight hardware salvaged from jettisoned lunar modules—used by astronauts that were not required to be returned to NASA; lunar rocks and other lunar material are not defined as artifacts. Bill cosponsor Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex.), chair of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, said on 19 September, “A majority of these items have been in the personal possession of the astronauts for 40 years or more. Over the last decade, NASA has begun to challenge the astronauts' ownership of these mementos. This issue was first brought to my attention late last year. I was surprised to learn that NASA had, on an irregular basis, intervened several times to claim ownership.”

  10. The Physics of Physical Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are several topics on medical imaging including x-rays and Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging, fiber optics endoscopy, nuclear medicine and bone scans, positron-emission tomography, and ultrasound. The concepts of radiation dosage, electrocardiograms, and laser therapy are included. (YP)

  11. Effects of bicycle helmet laws on children's injuries.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sara; Chatterji, Pinka

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states and localities in the USA have enacted bicycle helmet laws. We estimate the effects of these laws on injuries requiring emergency department treatment. Using hospital-level panel data and triple difference models, we find helmet laws are associated with reductions in bicycle-related head injuries among children. However, laws also are associated with decreases in non-head cycling injuries, as well as increases in head injuries from other wheeled sports. Thus, the observed reduction in bicycle-related head injuries may be due to reductions in bicycle riding induced by the laws. PMID:24115375

  12. The Economic Implications of Moore's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, G. D.

    One hundred nanometers is a fundamental technology landmark. It is the demarcation point between microtechnology and nanotechnology. The semiconductor industry crossed it just after the second millennium had finished. In less than 50 years, it had come from transistors made in mils (one-thousandth of an inch or 25.4 microns); to integrated circuits which were popularized as microchips; and then as the third millennium dawned, nanochips. At this writing, nanochips are the largest single sector of nanotechnology. This, in spite of many a nanotechnology expert's prediction that semiconductors would be dispatched to the dustbin of science - where tubes and core memory lie long dead. Classical nanotechnologists should not feel any disgrace, as pundits making bad predictions about the end of technology progression go back to the 1960s. Indeed, even Gordon Moore wondered as he wrote his classic paper in 1965 if his observation would hold into the 1970s. Semiconductors owe their amazing resilience to Moore's law. To truly understand their greater impact, one must understand Moore's law.

  13. The Physics of a Walking Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a "toy model" applied to it. Besides using Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the…

  14. Project Physics Tests 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 1 are presented in this booklet, consisting of 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of motion are examined with respect to velocities, acceleration, forces, vectors, Newton's laws, and circular motion. Suggestions are made for time consumption in answering some items. Besides…

  15. Physics and the Art of Dance - Understanding Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swope, Kenneth Laws

    2005-03-01

    Written by a physicist with professional dance training, Physics and the Art of Dance explains how dancers can achieve better, safer performances through an understanding of physics in motion. Using simple, non-technical terms, Kenneth Laws combines his knowledge of both physics and dance to describe how the laws of gravity, momentum, and energy affect dancing bodies. The book explores the natural laws that govern the subtleties of balance, the techniques of leaps and pirouettes, and the impressive lifts and turns executed by ballet partners. Finally, Laws offers insight into two current discussions in the dance world--the effect of body size on ballet technique, and the relationship between science and the art of dance. Beautiful, original stop-action photographs by Martha Swope, along with clear diagrams, illustrate the concepts described in the text. Plus, an intriguing "puzzler" at the beginning of each chapter provides an engaging entree into the topics presented. For those who want a more advanced understanding of the physics, extensive appendices are provided. This new book combines the best features of Laws's widely acclaimed The Physics of Dance and Physics, Dance, and the Pas de Deux by Laws and Cynthia Harvey. Its expert application of the basic principles of physics to the art of dance will be an invaluable resource for dancers and dance instructors and will open a new level of appreciation for lovers of the form. It will also appeal to physicists who seek to include the arts in their scientific pursuits.

  16. Future Faces of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    In keeping with its commitment to help students transform themselves into contributing members of the professional physics community, the Society of Physics Students National Council began efforts aimed at addressing issued of diversity in physics several years ago. One of the projects stemming from these discussions is the adoption of a 2008 theme ``The Future Faces of Physics.'' With this theme, the council aims to raise visibility and focus on issues of student diversity in physics. The initiative included the distribution of ``Future Faces of Physics Kits'' to any chapter hosting zone meetings. A highlight of the kit is the Future Faces of Physics Jeopardy set, which consists of buzzers, a score board, instructions, and a game board. The Future Faces of Physics game is a vehicle for generating discussion and raising awareness. The diversity session is hosted by the SPS Zone 13 and Zone 16 leadership.

  17. The Present State of the Business Law Education of Accounting Students: The Business Law Professor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakulah, Mehmet C.; Austill, A. David; Long, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to provide Certified Public Accountant (CPA) candidates, accounting faculty, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), and the state boards of accountancy with an insight into the business law professor's perspective concerning the legal education of accountants. This article first describes various factors,…

  18. Numerical tools for obtaining power-law representations of heavy-tailed datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    Many empirical datasets have highly skewed, non-Gaussian, heavy-tailed distributions, dominated by a relatively small number of data points at the high end of the distribution. Consistent with their role as stable distributions, power laws have frequently been proposed to model such datasets. However there are physical situations that require distributions with finite means. Such situations may call for power laws with high-end cutoffs. Here, I present a maximum-likelihood technique for determining an optimal cut-off power law to represent a given dataset. I also develop a new statistical test of the quality of fit. Results are demonstrated for a number of benchmark datasets. Non-power-law datasets can frequently be represented by power laws, but this is a trivial result unless the dataset spans a broad domain. Nevertheless, I demonstrate that there are non-power-law distributions, including broad log-normal distributions, whose tails can be fit to power laws over many orders of magnitude. Therefore, caution is called for whenever power laws are invoked to represent empirical data. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2015-60452-3

  19. Automatism: comparison of common law and civil law approaches--a search for the optimal.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2002-08-01

    This article reviews common and civil law approaches to automatism with discussion of legal definitions and the conditions in which automatism occurs. The common law approach to sane (exogenous) and insane (endogenous) automatism is examined. Despite a change in the law, which obviates mandatory incarceration for all persons found not guilty on the basis of insane automatism, the stigma of insanity remains. A number of Continental jurisdictions, though, have adopted an approach divorced from judgmental labels, whereby acts, which result from automatism, are classified under the rubric of unconsciousness. The article draws upon this approach, analyses alternatives to insane automatism and proposes instead an analysis by reference to "cognitive dysfunction", thereby removing all reference to the concept of insanity. PMID:12242885

  20. The interface of the civil and criminal law of suicide at common law (1194-1845).

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta; Freckelton, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, suicide is considered essentially a private act, although what constitutes suicide for epidemiological and even clinical purposes in not wholly resolved. Historically, however, at common law, the act of self-killing was a felony with significant religious and legal consequences that impacted upon the deceased person as well as upon his or her whole family. This article identifies the influence of Christian theology, legal theory, and social and medical developments upon attitudes to the felony of self-murder and its definition. It focuses upon the start of more psychologically informed attitudes manifested in landmark court judgments involving exclusion clauses in English mid-nineteenth century insurance contracts. The article illustrates that the law in respect of socially controversial matters does not necessarily develops in a linear progression, nor does it accurately reflect public sentiments. More specifically, the article describes an ongoing definitional conundrum with suicide--whether it should be designated as committed by persons of significantly impaired mental state. The authors observe that in spite of reform to the criminal law of suicide, the civil law relating to suicide has continued to be characterised by ambivalence, ambiguity and significant vestiges of counter-therapeutic moralising. PMID:23845165

  1. Of Codes and Crowns: The Development of Law. Instructor's Manual. Law-in-Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall

    Instructions are provided for using an accompanying student text. The materials are designed to supplement secondary world history textbooks. Content focuses on the development of law from the prehistoric period to the Renaissance in Italy. The teacher's guide begins by providing a general overview of the student booklet. For each unit, the guide…

  2. Students' Conceptions of Basic Ideas of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Kesidou, Sofia

    The focus of this study was to portray the ideas that students with four years experience in learning physics developed in regard to the second law of thermodynamics. Data were obtained through 34 clinical interviews with grade 10 students. An analysis of student arguments revealed deeply rooted difficulties in using concepts that were learned in…

  3. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  4. New State Forest Practice Laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Forest practice regulations can be established by being specified in state law or by being promulgated by some other official body delegated the authority to do so. At the state level, public regulation of private forest practices resulted in many cases, in the enactment of state forest practice laws regulating both private, and in some cases, public landowner activities. These laws aim not only to protect natural environments, but also to encourage continuous productivity of forest lands, to maintain or enhance aesthetic values, and to serve as an implementing mechanism to control water pollution. Profiles of regulations in California, Idaho, Maine, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Washington are examined and assessed. Voluntary guidelines in use in 18 states are summarized.

  5. A Revisit of Hale's and Joy's Laws of Active Regions Using SOHO MDI Obsevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang, J.

    2011-05-01

    Hale's law of polarity defines the rule of opposite direction of two polarities of solar bipolar Active Regions in the two hemispheres. Another law, Joy's law, governs the tilt of ARs with respect to their heliographic latitudes. Both laws are essential for constraining solar dynamo models. In this study we attempt to examine these laws in great detail using a large sample of ARs. With the help of an automatic AR detection algorithm (based on morphological analysis, Zhang et. al, 2010), we have processed high resolution SOHO/MDI synoptic magnetograms over the entire solar cycle 23, we identified all active regions in a uniform and objective way and determined their physical properties, including locations, fluxes of positive and negative polarities ,as well as the direction angles of these regions. Among 1084 bipolar ARs detected, the majority of them (87%) follow Hale's polarity law, while the other 13% of ARs do not. We attribute this deviation to the complexity of AR emergence from the turbulent convection zone. Regarding the Joy's law, we find that there is only a weak positive trend between AR tilt angles and latitudes. On the other hand, the tilt angle has a broad Gaussian-like distribution, with the peak centered around zero degree, and a width of about 20 degree at half maximum. Implications of these results on solar dynamo theory will be discussed.

  6. Arms control and the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  7. Legal Literacy: The ABC's of American Law and Justice. American Bar Association 1988 Planning Guide: Law Day USA May 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    The purpose of Law Day is to call the citizenry's attention to the principles and practices of U.S. law and justice. Activities held by community groups and schools to celebrate Law Day include mock trials, debates, essay and poster contests, and films. This guide was developed to assist community groups or classes to participate in the observance…

  8. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  9. Of Codes and Crowns: The Development of Law. [Student's Book] Law-in-Social Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Coral; Croddy, Marshall

    Intended to supplement secondary level world history courses, this booklet will help students understand the history of and need for rules and laws. There are five units. In the first unit, students examine evidence from anthropology and archaeology which show how rules developed in prehistoric cultures. The second unit deals with the Code of…

  10. The spread of state any willing provider laws.

    PubMed Central

    Ohsfeldt, R L; Morrisey, M A; Nelson, L; Johnson, V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the growth of any willing provider (AWP) and freedom of choice (FOC) laws applicable to managed care firms and to explore empirically the determinants of their enactment. STUDY SETTING: A 1996 compendium of state laws and state-level data from the 1991-1994 period. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled cross-section time-series logistic regression of the decision to enact various types of AWP and FOC laws. Analysis uses a public choice framework to examine enactment. Key variables include proxy measures of proponent and opponent strength and the political environment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model works well for laws affecting hospitals, but performs poorly for physician and pharmacy laws. More providers are associated with the enactment of AWP and FOC laws. More large employers are associated with a reduced likelihood of enactment of some forms of the laws but not others. Conservative states are more likely to enact laws limiting selective contracting with hospitals and physicians. States with greater interparty competition are also more likely to adopt some types of legislation. CONCLUSIONS: The empirical results generally are consistent with the view that AWP and FOC laws are often enacted as a defensive strategy on the part of providers, but additional research is needed to provide a more definitive assessment of the determinants of these laws. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:9865232

  11. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  12. Project Physics Tests 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 3 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of mechanics are examined on energy, momentum, kinetic theory of gases, pulse analyses, "heat death," water waves, power, conservation laws, normal distribution, thermodynamic laws, and wave…

  13. The Phenomenal World of Physics. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to learn about physics principles and the scientists who discovered them through genius or luck. The simplicity of these physical laws and how the discovery of these laws has improved the daily lives of humans is discussed. The computer program explores the physics behind the earth's rotation, Archimedes' Principles,…

  14. Transport diffusion in one dimensional molecular systems: Power law and validity of Fick's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Hu, Bambi; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2015-10-01

    The transport diffusion in one-dimensional molecular systems is investigated through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the power law relationship of the transport diffusion coefficient with the temperature, the mass and the transport length, D* ∝ T*m*-1L*β, where β equals to 0.8 for small systems and zero for large systems. It is found that Fick's law is valid in long transport length but invalid in short transport length. Our results can provide a new perspective for understanding the microscopic mechanism of the molecular transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems.

  15. The Art of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spevak, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    The algebraic concepts and major ideas that govern Newton's laws of motion can often be a challenge for the majority of ninth-grade students. Therefore, to make learning these concepts less task-oriented and more enjoyable, the author developed lessons that allow students to construct and express their understanding of these ideas through…

  16. Exponential Decay of Correlations Implies Area Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    We prove that a finite correlation length, i.e., exponential decay of correlations, implies an area law for the entanglement entropy of quantum states defined on a line. The entropy bound is exponential in the correlation length of the state, thus reproducing as a particular case Hastings's proof of an area law for groundstates of 1D gapped Hamiltonians. As a consequence, we show that 1D quantum states with exponential decay of correlations have an efficient classical approximate description as a matrix product state of polynomial bond dimension, thus giving an equivalence between injective matrix product states and states with a finite correlation length. The result can be seen as a rigorous justification, in one dimension, of the intuition that states with exponential decay of correlations, usually associated with non-critical phases of matter, are simple to describe. It also has implications for quantum computing: it shows that unless a pure state quantum computation involves states with long-range correlations, decaying at most algebraically with the distance, it can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof relies on several previous tools from quantum information theory—including entanglement distillation protocols achieving the hashing bound, properties of single-shot smooth entropies, and the quantum substate theorem—and also on some newly developed ones. In particular we derive a new bound on correlations established by local random measurements, and we give a generalization to the max-entropy of a result of Hastings concerning the saturation of mutual information in multiparticle systems. The proof can also be interpreted as providing a limitation on the phenomenon of data hiding in quantum states.

  17. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  18. Fundamentals of Physical Mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of physical mapping in plants and its use for map-based gene cloning. A brief overview of cytogenetics-based physical mapping strategies, and physical mapping approaches currently used and the lessons learnt from the success stories were furnished. The statisti...

  19. Experimental Testing of Glacier Sliding Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoet, L.; Iverson, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier sliding laws exist in various forms and are applied in modeling of glacier dynamics. Sliding laws have been, in most cases, theoretically derived but not experimentally tested. Under certain conditions ice sliding over a rigid bed will generate cavities in the lees of bedrock bumps. These cavities will redistribute shear stress to regions of the bed that are in contact with ice. Sliding laws that incorporate cavity formation relate drag to the maximum adverse slope of the region of ice-bed contact. Sinusoidal and stepped-bed geometries are, therefore, predicted to affect basal drag differently. A sinusoidal bed is predicted to have a double-valued drag response as a function of sliding velocity, whereas the steady-state drag on a stepped bed with linear adverse slopes is expected to be independent of sliding velocity. We have conducted an experimental study of sliding laws using a ring shear apparatus that slides ice over a rigid bed. The device rotates a ring of ice that is 20 cm wide, 20 cm tall, with outer diameter of 90 cm. The sliding speed at the ice ring's centerline was incrementally stepped between 7.25--324 m/yr, and a vertical stress of 500 kPa was applied to the ice ring. The ice consisted initially of randomly oriented crystals that with sliding quickly developed a fabric like those observed in ice near glacier beds. The temperature of the ice is held at the pressure melting point and is regulated to ~0.01oC by a bath of circulating fluid that surrounds the sample chamber. Experiments have been conducted on a stepped bed with a constant slope of 8.3 and a sinusoidal bed with a wavelength of 183.3 mm and an amplitude of 15.3 mm. Water was allowed to drain from cavities, so effective stress at the bed was equal to the total vertical stress. Our experimental results differ from theoretical predictions. For the stepped bed, a decrease in shear stress of ~50% over a 12-fold increase in velocity is observed, in contrast to theoretical predictions of

  20. Objective basis of the common law of population.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of

  1. The issue of surrogacy in Czech law.

    PubMed

    Lojková, Jana

    2012-03-01

    Surrogacy is thought to be one of the most controversial methods of assisted reproduction. It involves cases where a commissioning couple asks a surrogate mother to give birth to a child that will be conceived from their egg and sperm because the woman from the commissioning couple is not able to bear the child to full term herself. They conclude an agreement where the surrogate mother binds herself to terminate all her parental rights to the child immediately after the child's birth and to delegate them together with the child to the commissioning couple. Ethical dilemmas concerning the issue of surrogacy together with all the possibilities of today's globalised world that enable infertile couples to find surrogate mothers abroad in case the legal regulations of their country put a ban on it create a space for a legislator to try to find a solution that will avoid all the risks and highlight a number of positives on the other hand. A Czech legislator is currently trying to find this solution and even though there are few children demonstrably born to surrogate mothers in the Czech Republic, the whole process of surrogacy still proceeds in a legal vacuum at the moment. We can only find the legal definition of a mother of a child as a woman that gives him or her birth and a provision of law that makes all the legal acts that evade the law void. Some practical consequences of this situation will be described in the text together with possibilities and the inspiration that comes from foreign legal regulations and cases. PMID:22908742

  2. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale “physiome” projects such as the EU’s Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH’s Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Results Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the “rules” by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm’s law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke’s law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. Conclusions We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning—the biophysical semantics—of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes. PMID:24295137

  3. Ten proofs of the generalized second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2009-06-01

    Ten attempts to prove the Generalized Second Law of Thermodyanmics (GSL) are described and critiqued. Each proof provides valuable insights which should be useful for constructing future, more complete proofs. Rather than merely summarizing previous research, this review offers new perspectives, and strategies for overcoming limitations of the existing proofs. A long introductory section addresses some choices that must be made in any formulation the GSL: Should one use the Gibbs or the Boltzmann entropy? Should one use the global or the apparent horizon? Is it necessary to assume any entropy bounds? If the area has quantum fluctuations, should the GSL apply to the average area? The definition and implications of the classical, hydrodynamic, semiclassical and full quantum gravity regimes are also discussed. A lack of agreement regarding how to define the ``quasi-stationary'' regime is addressed by distinguishing it from the ``quasi-steady'' regime.

  4. A SIMPLE LAW OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: haugboel@nbi.dk

    2012-11-10

    We show that supersonic MHD turbulence yields a star formation rate (SFR) as low as observed in molecular clouds, for characteristic values of the free-fall time divided by the dynamical time, t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, the Alfvenic Mach number, M{sub a}, and the sonic Mach number, M{sub s}. Using a very large set of deep adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations, we quantify the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, {epsilon}{sub ff}, on the above parameters. Our main results are (1) that {epsilon}{sub ff} decreases exponentially with increasing t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, but is insensitive to changes in M{sub s}, for constant values of t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn} and M{sub a}. (2) Decreasing values of M{sub a} (stronger magnetic fields) reduce {epsilon}{sub ff}, but only to a point, beyond which {epsilon}{sub ff} increases with a further decrease of M{sub a}. (3) For values of M{sub a} characteristic of star-forming regions, {epsilon}{sub ff} varies with M{sub a} by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum {epsilon}{sub ff}, and depending only on t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}: {epsilon}{sub ff} Almost-Equal-To {epsilon}{sub wind}exp (- 1.6 t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law is straightforward to implement in simulations and analytical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals. PMID:25300503

  6. Crimes Of War And The Force Of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, John; Levi, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The origin and enforcement of criminal law are central to the sociological study of crime, yet we know relatively little about how the coercive apparatus of criminalization is actualized through prosecutorial and court practices. We use Bourdieu's extension of Weber's analysis of law to develop a perspective on fields of practice, the juridical…

  7. Galilean Moons, Kepler's Third Law, and the Mass of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Simulations of physical systems are widely available online, with no cost, and are ready to be used in our classrooms. ,2 Such simulations offer an accessible tool that can be used for a range of interactive learning activities. The Jovian Moons Applet2 allows the user to track the position of Jupiter's four Galilean moons with a variety of viewing options. For this activity, data are obtained from the orbital period and orbital radii charts. Earlier experiments have used telescopes to capture the orbital motion of the Galilean moons,3 although observation of astronomical events and the measurement of quantities may be difficult to achieve due to a combination of cost, training, and observing conditions. The applet allows a suitable set of data to be generated and data analysis that verifies Kepler's third law of planetary motion, which leads to a calculated value for the mass of Jupiter.

  8. Continuing the search for a fundamental law of mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    for 170 years, scientists have attempted to explain why consistent temporal patterns of death are observed among individuals within populations. Historical efforts to identify a `law of mortality` from these patterns ended in 1935 when it was declared that such a law did not exist. These empirical tests for a law of mortality were constructed using mortality curves based on all causes of death. We predicted patterns of mortality consistent with the historical concept of a law would be revealed if mortality curves for species were constructed using only senescent causes of death. Using data on senescent mortality for laboratory animals and humans, we demonstrate patterns of mortality overlap when compared on a biologically comparable time scale. The results are consistent with the existence of a law of mortality following sexual maturity. The societal, medical, and research implications of such a law are discussed.

  9. Continuing the search for a fundamental law of mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1997-08-01

    For 170 years, scientists have attempted to explain why consistent temporal patterns of death are observed among individuals within populations. Historical efforts to identify a {open_quotes}law of mortality{close_quotes} from these patterns ended in 1935 when it was declared that such a law did not exist. These empirical tests for a law of mortality were constructed using mortality curves based on all causes of death. We predicted that patterns of mortality consistent with the historical concept of a law would be revealed if mortality curves for species were constructed using only senescent causes of death. Using data on senescent mortality for laboratory animals and humans, we demonstrate that patterns of mortality overlap when compared on a biologically comparable time scale. These results are consistent with the existence of a law of mortality following sexual maturity as asserted by Benjamin Gompertz and Raymond Pearl. The societal, medical, and research implications of such a law are discussed.

  10. Conservation laws of an electro-active polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2014-07-01

    Ionic electro-active polymer is an active material consisting in a polyelectrolyte (for example Nafion). Such material is usually used as thin film sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The polymer undergoes large bending motions when an electric field is applied across the thickness. Conversely, a voltage can be detected between both electrodes when the polymer is suddenly bent. The solvent-saturated polymer is fully dissociated, releasing cations of small size. We used a continuous medium approach. The material is modelled by the coexistence of two phases; it can be considered as a porous medium where the deformable solid phase is the polymer backbone with fixed anions; the electrolyte phase is made of a solvent (usually water) with free cations. The microscale conservation laws of mass, linear momentum and energy and the Maxwell's equations are first written for each phase. The physical quantities linked to the interfaces are deduced. The use of an average technique applied to the two-phase medium finally leads to an Eulerian formulation of the conservation laws of the complete material. Macroscale equations relative to each phase provide exchanges through the interfaces. An analysis of the balance equations of kinetic, potential and internal energy highlights the phenomena responsible of the conversion of one kind of energy into another, especially the dissipative ones : viscous frictions and Joule effect.

  11. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  12. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products. PMID:22530322

  13. Development of the Law of Computer Software Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimtz, Robert O.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of the law dealing with the protection of computer software. The available forms of protection are the patent, copyright, and trade secret laws. Available from Business Manager, P. O. Box 2600, Arlington, Virginia 22202; sc $1.25. (Author/IRT)

  14. Conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartle, J.B. ||; Laflamme, R. |; Marolf, D.

    1995-06-15

    We investigate conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems and begin by reviewing an argument that exact decoherence implies the exact conservation of quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian. However, we also show that decoherence limits the alternatives that can be included in sets of histories that assess the conservation of these quantities. In the case of charge and energy, these limitations would be severe were these quantities not coupled to a gauge field. However, for the realistic cases of electric charge coupled to the electromagnetic field and mass coupled to spacetime curvature, we show that when alternative values of charge and mass decohere they always decohere exactly and are exactly conserved. Further, while decohering histories that describe possible changes in time of the total charge and mass are also subject to the limitations mentioned above, we show that these do not, in fact, restrict {ital physical} alternatives and are therefore not really limitations at all.

  15. Simple solutions for relativistic generalizations of the Child-Langmuir law and the Langmuir-Blodgett law

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yongpeng; Liu Guozhi; Yang Zhanfeng; Shao Hao; Xiao Renzhen; Xing Qingzi; Zhong Huaqiang; Lin Yuzheng

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, the Child-Langmuir law and Langmuir-Blodgett law are generalized to the relativistic regime by a simple method. Two classical laws suitable for the nonrelativistic regime are modified to simple approximate expressions applicable for calculating the space-charge-limited currents of one-dimensional steady-state planar diodes and coaxial diodes under the relativistic regime. The simple approximate expressions, extending the Child-Langmuir law and Langmuir-Blodgett law to fit the full range of voltage, have small relative errors less than 1% for one-dimensional planar diodes and less than 5% for coaxial diodes.

  16. [Common law, civil law: thinking about the tools of the judge in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Civilian and common law judges differ substantially in their approach to the resolution of issues concerning bioethics and health sciences. Whereas the civilian judge will first take into account the legislative source, his common law counterpart will most probably first look at judicial precedents for guidance. In both systems, however, the legislative drafting technique differs substantially and has a direct impact on judicial interpretation of the law. Both systems also differ in the way that judicial decisions are drafted and rendered. In the common law tradition, judges draft their own opinion, leaving the possibility of dissent which, in turn, helps to better illustrate contentious issues and may have an influence on social awareness of difficult problems. Finally, in bioethics, legislation should be preferred if only for a question of social legitimacy, since decisions are then taken by elected representatives. However, this type of legislation should be subject to periodical review to better adapt its rules to the evolution of science and society. PMID:17902324

  17. The Intuitiveness of the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two studies are reported in which two contrasting claims concerning the intuitiveness of the law of large numbers are investigated. While Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer ("J Behav Decis Mak" 10:33-51, 1997) claim that people have an intuition that conforms to the law of large numbers, but that they can only employ this intuition…

  18. 12 CFR 1004.3 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preemption of State law. 1004.3 Section 1004.3... (REGULATION D) § 1004.3 Preemption of State law. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803, a State-chartered or -licensed... § 1004.4(a) through (c) of this part (as applicable), notwithstanding any provision of State law...

  19. 12 CFR 1004.3 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preemption of State law. 1004.3 Section 1004.3... (REGULATION D) § 1004.3 Preemption of State law. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803, a State-chartered or -licensed... § 1004.4(a) through (c) of this part (as applicable), notwithstanding any provision of State law...

  20. 12 CFR 1004.3 - Preemption of State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preemption of State law. 1004.3 Section 1004.3... (REGULATION D) § 1004.3 Preemption of State law. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803, a State-chartered or -licensed... § 1004.4(a) through (c) of this part (as applicable), notwithstanding any provision of State law...