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Mesotocin and maternal care of chicks in native Thai hens (Gallus domesticus).  


Oxytocin (OT) is known to induce and regulate maternal behaviors in mammals via the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), whereas the function of mesotocin (MT; the avian homolog of OT) is poorly understood in birds. To elucidate the association of MT and the regulation of maternal behaviors in birds, we studied changes in the number of MT-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in native Thai chickens using immunohistochemistry. We observed that MT-ir neurons and fibers appeared in discrete regions located close to the third ventricle from the level of the preoptic area through the anterior hypothalamus with an abundance observed in the nucleus supraopticus, pars ventralis (SOv), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), and PVN. The number of MT-ir neurons was low in the SOv, POM, and PVN of non-laying hens, but it increased gradually when the hens entered the laying stage, and peaked in incubating and rearing hens. We compared the number of MT-ir neurons in the SOv, POM, and PVN of native Thai hens rearing chicks (R) with that of non-rearing chicks (NR). The number of MT-ir neurons was high in the R hens, but low in the NR hens in these nuclei. For the first time, these results indicate that the association between the MT neurons and the presence of chicks might, in part, play a role in the neuroendocrine reorganization to establish and maintain maternal behaviors in native Thai chickens. MTergic activity is likely related to the contribution of rearing behavior in this equatorial precocial species. PMID:23648774

Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Prakobsaeng, Nattiya; Sartsoongnoen, Natagarn; Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; El Halawani, Mohamed; Chaiseha, Yupaporn



The effect of feeding high concentrations of cholecalciferol, phytase or the combination on broiler chicks and laying hens fed various concentrations of nonphytate phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two broiler chick and one laying hen experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D 3 ), phytase (PHY) or the combination on the respective bird group (broiler chick or laying hen) fed various concentrations of nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) on performance, tibia ash and total tract phosphorus retention. The first broiler experiment utilized a

Jj Green



New insights on Infectious Bronchitis Virus pathogenesis: characterization of Italy 02 serotype in chicks and adult hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide disease affecting chickens of all ages and causing important economic losses in poultry industry. Despite being one of the predominant IB virus (IBV) serotype in several European countries, slightly is known about pathogenesis and pathogenicity of Italy 02 serotype. In this study chicks and old hens were infected by oculo-nasal route with Italy 02

Roser Dolz; Júlia Vergara-Alert; Mónica Pérez; Joan Pujols; Natàlia Majó


Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.  


Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal mechanisms remain to be unraveled. PMID:23472027

Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R



Pathologic study of specific-pathogen-free chicks and hens inoculated with adenovirus isolated from hydropericardium syndrome.  


The mortality and pathology caused by serotype 4 adenovirus, isolated from chickens with hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) in Japan, was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. One-day-old to 15-mo-old SPF chickens were inoculated intramuscularly, orally, and intranasally with liver homogenates from HPS chickens or isolated serotype 4 adenovirus. There were no clinical signs before death. The mortality rate in all groups of 1-day-old chicks was 100%, irrespective of the inoculum or inoculation route. Four-week-old chickens inoculated with liver homogenate also had a 100% mortality rate. Five-week-old chickens inoculated with cell culture of HPS adenovirus had a 40% mortality rate. The mortality rates of 7-mo-old hens inoculated with liver homogenates intramuscularly and orally were 75% and 25%, respectively. In 15-mo-old hens inoculated with liver homogenates intramuscularly, the mortality rate was 70%. Gross lesions were hydropericardium and swelling and congestion of the liver with occasional petechial hemorrhages. Histologically, the liver had diffuse or multifocal hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusion bodies noted within hepatocytes. In the spleen, macrophages containing erythrocytes and yellow pigment were prominent in the red pulp. In the lung, a moderate diffuse macrophage infiltration was noted throughout the lung parenchyma, and these macrophages contained yellow pigment. In the pancreas of the chicks inoculated at 1 day old, there was multifocal necrosis of glands with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen also in the gizzard, proventriculus, duodenum, cecum, kidney, and lung of the chicks inoculated at 1 day old. Immunohistochemically, the intranuclear inclusion bodies of various organs showed positive reactions against group I avian adenovirus. Adenovirus was recovered from the liver of chickens with HPS. This study indicates that HPS adenovirus is able to reproduce HPS lesions and mortality in SPF chicks and even adult chickens and that it is a highly pathogenic strain. PMID:10494409

Nakamura, K; Mase, M; Yamaguchi, S; Shibahara, T; Yuasa, N


Changes in Substrate Access Did Not Affect Early Feather-Pecking Behavior in Two Strains of Laying Hen Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather pecking, commonly found in flocks of laying hens (Gallus gallus), is detrimental to bird welfare. Thought to cause this problem is the normal housing of layers without a floor substrate. Some evidence suggests that early substrate access decreases later feather pecking. However, there has been little research on the immediate effects of a change in substrate availability on bird

Laura M. Dixon; Ian J. H. Duncan



Comparison of the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities.  


A comparison on the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities was investigated. Out of 280 laying hens sampled from three commercial layer farms with high rodent densities, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) was isolated from 20 (7.14%) hens and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (Salmonella Infantis) from three (1.07%) hens. In contrast, layer hens sampled from four commercial layer farms with low rodent densities were negative for any salmonellae. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the isolation rates of Salmonella from various organs of infected layer hens were also noted. For Salmonella Enteritidis, liver (55.0%) and the oviduct (55.0%) had the highest isolation rates while all Salmonella Infantis isolates were from the oviduct. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of BlnI-digested chromosomal DNA of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from layer hens and rodents showed similar patterns. PFGE analysis of Salmonella Infantis isolated from layer hens, rodents, eggs, and the environment yielded identical patterns. In this study, the significantly higher prevalence rate (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis in layer hens from high rodent density farms could be attributed to the high rodent population density. The persistent Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis infection inside layer houses may have been amplified by the increasing numbers in the rodent population over the years, which increased the opportunity for environment-rodent-chicken interaction and the transmission of salmonellae to chickens. Monitoring of salmonellae from rodents inside poultry premises is recommended to be an effective additional tool in the assessment of the Salmonella status of layer flocks. PMID:22545525

Lapuz, Randy Rhon Simoun P; Umali, Dennis V; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu



Bioeconomic Performance of Pullets and Layer Hens Fed Soybean Grains-Based Diets in Hot and Humid Climate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of toasted soybean grains on bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens in hot and humid environment. A total of 972 three-week-old Harco chicks were divided into 12 groups. At starter, pullet and laying phases, birds were fed four diets containing 0% (R0), 5% (R5), 10% (R10), and 15% (R15) of soybean grains. Results showed similar feed intake, body weight gain, laying rate, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate between dietary treatments at each phase. The egg weight increased significantly in diet R15 (P < 0.05). The use of soybean grains reduced the feed prices. Feeding cost decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during growth and laying phases in soybean grains added diets. Feeds efficiency increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase of dietary soybean grains rate. Properly toasted soybean grains can be therefore included up to 15% in heavy line layer hens' diet in tropical conditions.

Houndonougbo, M. F.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Daga Dadjo, F.; Adjaho, S. L.



Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks.2.?White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000?mg\\/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added;

E. Gurbuz; T. Balevi; V. Kurtoglu; Y. Oznurlu



Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens  

SciTech Connect

Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

Patterson, P.H.



Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.  


Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters. PMID:23300307

Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L



Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks.  


Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growing birds. Therefore, the present study was designed to quantify differences in artificially inoculated cecal Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks (n = 60 in each of two replications) fed 0%, 25%, and 50% of their diet (w/w) replaced with alfalfa meal from day (d) 7 to d14 after hatch. Alfalfa supplementation reduced cecal populations of Salmonella by 0.95 and 1.25 log10 colony-forming unit per gram in the 25% and 50% alfalfa groups compared to controls. Alfalfa feeding reduced (p < 0.05) the number of cecal- and crop-positive birds compared to controls. Increasing levels of alfalfa increased (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the proportion of acetate in the cecum. Surprisingly, alfalfa inclusion did not negatively impact average daily gain (ADG) in birds over the 7-d feeding period. Alfalfa inclusion at 50% of the diet increased (p < 0.05) the number of bacterial genera detected in the cecum compared to controls, and also altered proportions of the microbial population by reducing Ruminococcus and increasing Clostridia populations. Results support the idea that providing a fermentable substrate can increase gastrointestinal VFA production and bacterial diversity which in turn can reduce colonization by Salmonella via natural competitive barriers. However, further studies are obviously needed to more fully understand the impact of changes made in diet or management procedures on poultry production. PMID:22953742

Escarcha, Jacquelyn F; Callaway, Todd R; Byrd, J Allen; Miller, Dan N; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J



Viral aetiology of haemangiosarcoma outbreaks among layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of neoplastic disease defined as haemangiosarcoma occurred among layer flocks of chickens in Israel. The disease caused bleeding tumours in the skin and internal organs of young layers, followed by anaemia, cessation of egg production and high mortality up to 20%.Avian leukosis virus was isolated from tumour cells which contain several viral DNA copies integrated in the cell genome.

Haim Burstein; Moshe Gilead; Uri Bendheim; Moshe Kotler



Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903) mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787) of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n = 973), respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5%) throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.011) with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n = 2,829), it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Kabilika, Swithine Hameenda; Chibomba, Oliver; Munyeme, Musso; Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe




Microsoft Academic Search

Penned hen .pheasants were administered 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg atrazine orally each week for 15 weeks. No effects were de­ tected in weight gain by hens number of eggs laid, eggshell thick­ ness, behavior of chicks on the visual cliff, and survival and weight of chicks to 6 weeks of age. Differences were found in fertility, hatchability, and

Thomas O. Melius


Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.  


This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000?mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500?mg/kg YE?+?500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60?d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW?+?YE groups during the 60?d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60?d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE?+?YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60?d growing period. PMID:22029790

Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y



Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.  


1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250?000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16?h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9?Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls that represented potential to increase ventilation energy efficiency, and reduce carbon footprints and operational costs. PMID:22404801

Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L



Effects of food intake regulation on the energy metabolism of hens and cockerels of a layer strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Indirect calorimetry was used to study the effects on the energy metabolism of cockerels and hens after peak lay of a hybrid layer strain of regulating food or energy intake to 80% of ad libitum for an extended period of time.2. Regulation of food intake decreased fasting and fed heat productions per bird and per unit metabolic body weight

M. G. MacLeod; S. G. Tullett; T. R. Jewitt



The ethics and politics of the caged layer hen debate in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in attitudes toward animal welfare, with a greater emphasis on the importance of allowing animals to express normal patterns of behavior has led to an examination of the practice of keeping hens in battery cages. There is widespread scientific consensus that the conditions of confinement and the barren nature of battery cages severely restrict hens’ behavioral repertoire, and are

Michael C. Morris



Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.  


Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won



Characteristics of ammonia and carbon dioxide releases from layer hen manure.  


1. Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important gaseous pollutant generated from manure in commercial poultry farms and has been an environmental, ecological, and health concern. Poultry manure also releases carbon dioxide (CO(2)), which is a greenhouse gas and is often used as a tracer gas to calculate building ventilation. 2. A 38-d laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of NH(3) and CO(2) releases from layer hen manure using 4 manure reactors (122 cm tall, 38 cm internal diameter), which were initially filled with 66 cm deep manure followed by weekly additions of 5 cm to simulate manure accumulation in commercial layer houses. 3. The average daily mean (ADM) NH(3) and CO(2) release fluxes for the 4 reactors during the entire study were 1615 +/- 211 microg/s.m(2) (ADM +/- 95% confidence interval) and 100 +/- 03 mg/s.m(2), respectively. The daily mean NH(3) and CO(2) releases in individual reactors varied from 352 to 6791 microg/s.m(2) and from 66 to 205 mg/s.m(2), respectively. 4. The ADM NH(3) release flux was within the range of those obtained in 4 high-rise layer houses by Liang et al. (2005, Transactions of the ASAE, 48). However, the CO(2) release flux in this study was about 10 to 13 times as high as the data reported by Liang et al. (2005). Fresh manure had greater NH(3) release potential than the manure in the reactors under continuous ventilation. Manure with higher contents of moisture, total nitrogen, and ammonium in the 4th weekly addition induced 11 times higher NH(3) and 75% higher CO(2) releases immediately after manure addition compared with pre-addition releases. PMID:20680867

Ni, J-Q; Heber, A J; Hanni, S M; Lim, T T; Diehl, C A



Ultradian activity rhythms in large groups of newly hatched chicks ( Gallus gallus domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clutch of young chicks housed with a mother hen exhibit ultradian (within day) rhythms of activity corresponding to the brooding cycle of the hen. In the present study clear evidence was found of ultradian activity rhythms in newly hatched domestic chicks housed in groups larger than natural clutch size without a mother hen or any other obvious external time-keeper.

B. L. Nielsen; H. W. Erhard; N. C. Friggens; J. E. McLeod



The effects of utilization of hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their products on performance and fatty acid composition of yolk in layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has been performed to determine the effects of hazelnut crude oil, sunflower crude oil and its refinery by-products\\u000a over the laying hens performance and the fatty acid composition of the egg’s yolk. Four hundreds 36-week-old Nick Brown layer\\u000a hens were allocated into five groups. Treatment groups were supplemented with 1.5% of sunflower crude oil, hazelnut crude\\u000a oil, acidulated

I. S. Cet?ngul; F. Inal



Spermine Inhibits [ 3 H]Glycine Binding at the NMDA Receptors from Plexiform Layers of Chick Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturable specific binding of glycine to synaptosomal membranes from plexiform layers of the retina has been described, which seems to correspond to the modulatory site on NMDA-receptors (26). Spermine inhibited specific [3H]glycine binding to membranes from synaptosomal fractions from the outer (P1) and the inner (P2) plexiform layers of 1–3 day-old chick retinas in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50

Froylan Calderón; Ana María López-Colomé



Virulence of Salmonella enteritidis phagetypes 4, 8 and 13 and other Salmonella spp. for day-old chicks, hens and mice.  

PubMed Central

Virulence of three Canadian poultry strains of Salmonella enteritidis, namely phagetypes (PT) 4, 8 and 13, and one Salmonella heidelberg strain was assessed in orally and intraperitoneally inoculated one-day old chickens and compared to the virulence of a human S. enteritidis PT 4 strain from the United Kingdom (UK). The two PT 4 strains were also compared in orally inoculated adult laying hens. In addition, orally inoculated Balb/c mice were used to evaluate virulence of the above strains and two strains of Salmonella typhimurium containing different plasmids. In orally inoculated one-day old chickens, the UK S. enteritidis PT 4 strain was more virulent than the Canadian PT 4 strain. The UK PT 4 strain was also more virulent and invasive in adult laying hens than the Canadian PT 4 strain. The S. enteritidis PT 8 strain and one S. typhimurium strain isolated from a chicken hatchery were the most virulent for orally inoculated Balb/c mice. This strain of S. typhimurium contained the 60 megadalton plasmid associated with virulence for Balb/c mice which was not present in the S. typhimurium strain isolated from a pig with septicemic disease.

Poppe, C; Demczuk, W; McFadden, K; Johnson, R P



Brown hen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A female chicken is called a hen. A hen is capable of laying eggs. She has feathers to let her fly, a tail for balance, and the comb and wattle both help cool the hen off by circulating blood through them.

Timophey Tkachik (None;)



Involvement of CRF on the anorexic effect of GLP-1 in layer chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is recognized as an anorexic peptide in the brain of chicks. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibition of feeding has not been well studied. It is reported that GLP-1 activates neurons containing corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain of mammals. Since CRF is also an anorexic peptide, it is possible that the anorexic effect of GLP-1 is

Tetsuya Tachibana; Momoka Sato; Daichi Oikawa; Mitsuhiro Furuse



Epidemiology, pathology, and immunohistochemistry of layer hens naturally affected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan.  


Epidemiology, pathology, and immunohistochemistry were investigated in layer hens affected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza, which occurred for the first time in 79 years in Japan. The farm, which had a total of 34,640 chickens, experienced up to 43.3% mortality before the chickens were depopulated. Clinically, the affected chickens exhibited mortality without apparent clinical signs. Histologically, hepatocytic necrosis; necrosis of ellipsoids and follicles with fibrin in the spleen; necrosis with glial nodules in the brain stem, cerebrum, and cerebellum; necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas; and necrosis of lymphoid tissues in intestinal lamina propria were seen. Occasionally, mild bronchiolitis, degeneration of smooth muscle fibers in the cecum, and mild tubulonephrosis were noted. Immunohistochemically, influenza virus antigens were detected often in the liver and spleen, heart, intestine, gizzard, proventriculus, and oviduct. In addition, antigens were seen also in the brain, kidney, pancreas, and ovary, but seldom in the lung and trachea. Virus antigen was mainly detected in the capillary endothelium and parenchymal cells. This suggests that virus excretion from the respiratory tract was not as prevalent as that from the digestive tract in the present cases. PMID:16252503

Nakatani, Hidetsugu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yasunori



Curlew Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Curlew Chicks hatch in late June and are almost immediately ready to leave the nest. The coloring and pattern of the downy chicks provides camouflage to protect them from avian and mammalian predators. Chicks follow their parents on long hikes to feeding areas. Curlews also migrate long distances ea...



Utilizing Different Ratios of Alfalfa and Layer Ration for Molt Induction and Performance in Commercial Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molting is a common practice used by the commercial egg industry to rejuvenate flocks for a second or third laying cycle. During this time the hens rest from production, and the reproductive organs are rejuvenated to increase production and quality during the next laying cycle.Althoughfeedwithdrawal(FW)isthemostpopular andeffective methodof moltinduction, ithascome under scrutiny due to food safety issues and animal welfare issues.

L. M. Donalson; W. K. Kim; C. L. Woodward; P. Herrera; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke


Novel sequences of subgroup J avian leukosis viruses associated with hemangioma in Chinese layer hens  

PubMed Central

Background Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) preferentially induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in meat-type birds. Since 2008, many clinical cases of hemangioma rather than ML have frequently been reported in association with ALV-J infection in Chinese layer flocks. Results Three ALV-J strains associated with hemangioma were isolated and their proviral genomic sequences were determined. The three isolates, JL093-1, SD09DP03 and HLJ09MDJ-1, were 7,670, 7,670, and 7,633 nt in length. Their gag and pol genes were well conserved, with identities of 94.5-98.6% and 97.1-99.5%, respectively, with other ALV-J strains at the amino acid level (aa), while the env genes of the three isolates shared a higher aa identity with the env genes of other hemangioma strains than with those of ML strains. Interestingly, two novel 19-bp insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and 5' UTR, most likely derived from other retroviruses, were found in all the three isolates, thereby separately introducing one E2BP binding site in the U3 region in the LTR and RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIB and core promoter motif ten elements in the 5' UTR. Meanwhile, two binding sites in the U3 LTRs of the three isolates for NFAP-1 and AIB REP1 were lost, and a 1-base deletion in the E element of the 3' UTR of JL093-1 and SD09DP03 introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. In addition to the changes listed above, the rTM of the 3' UTR was deleted in each of the three isolates. Conclusion Our study is the first to discovery the coexistence of two novel insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and the 5' UTR of ALV-J associated with hemangioma symptoms, and the transcriptional regulatory elements introduced should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of hemangioma.



Effect of the Level of Cholecalciferol Supplementation of Broiler Breeder Hen Diets on the Performance and Bone Abnormalities of the Progeny Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Calcium or 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted using Ross × Ross chicks hatched from broiler breeder hens fed various levels of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; 0 to 4,000 IU\\/kg of diet) to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the progeny. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by the hens at different ages were used in experiments 1

A. Atencio; H. M. Edwards; G. M. Pesti


The effects of utilization of hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their products on performance and fatty acid composition of yolk in layer hens.  


This research has been performed to determine the effects of hazelnut crude oil, sunflower crude oil and its refinery by-products over the laying hens performance and the fatty acid composition of the egg's yolk. Four hundreds 36-week-old Nick Brown layer hens were allocated into five groups. Treatment groups were supplemented with 1.5% of sunflower crude oil, hazelnut crude oil, acidulated sunflower soapstock, acidulated hazelnut soapstock and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. The daily feed consumption for groups that were fed with crude oils were numerically improved as compared for those nourished with acidulated soapstocks. Although the percentages of cracked and broken eggs in acidulated hazelnut soapstock group was significantly higher than the other groups, daily feed consumption and egg production values were not different. The usage of acidulated hazelnut soapstock reduced the percentage of intact egg ratio. Egg's specific gravity and yolk color index were the highest level throughout the experiment from start to end in hazelnut crude oil group (p < 0.05). In group that was nourished by hazelnut oil, Omega 3/Omega-6 fatty acid ratios in egg yolk were higher than the groups that were fed with sunflower oil. The oleic acid content of the egg yolk was increased in the groups which were supplemented with hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. Consequently, hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil improved the egg shell quality, yolk color index and yolk oleic acid value which would increase egg's shelf life. On the other hand acidulated hazelnut soapstock supplementation adversely affects the quality of egg shell. PMID:19142742

Cet?ngul, I S; Inal, F



Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 ?g m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 ?g m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chick quality can impact the incidence of morbidity and mortality of broilers during the first wk of production. Assessments of chick quality are made primarily by subjective observations with few quantitative measurements. Given a better understanding of how broiler breeder hen age and nutrient i...


Effects of ipriflavone on caged layer bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.  


The effects of ipriflavone on caged layer bone metabolism were examined in vitro and in vivo. Ipriflavone at 10(-8) M stimulated the activity of osteoblasts cultured from embryonic chick calvariae, and 10(-9) to 10(-7) M inhibited osteoclasts from chick tibias and humeri. Ipriflavone concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M inhibited osteoblast activity. These results suggest that ipriflavone influences bone metabolism by regulating the functional balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Based on these in vitro experiments, in vivo studies were conducted to further clarify the effects of ipriflavone. Five hundred 58-wk-old ISA caged layers were divided into 5 groups that were fed diets containing 0, 15, 25, 50, and 100 ppm of ipriflavone. The experiment lasted 70 d. Egg production increased in hens fed 25 ppm and decreased in hens fed 50 and 100 ppm when compared with the controls and hens fed 15 ppm (P < 0.05). Egg weight, shell quality, BW, and serum P, Ca, estrogen, and bone mineral content were not affected by inclusion of ipriflavone in the diet. Hens consuming 25 ppm of ipriflavone had greater serum alkaline phosphatase and bone gla-protein levels than controls. Adding 25 ppm of ipriflavone to the feed appears to be close to an ideal level for clinical treatment of osteoporosis because of improved egg production while maintaining bone mineral content. PMID:17297162

Yao, J; Zhang, J; Hou, J-F



Rapid modulation of the n-3 docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain and retina of the newly hatched chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly hatched chick obtains its fatty acids almost completely from the lipids of the egg yolk as these are transferred to the developing embryo during its 21-day period of incubation. Since the diet of the laying hen greatly influences the fatty acid composition of the egg lipids, and presumably also the fatty acid composition of the resulting chick, we

Gregory J. Anderson; William E. Connor; Julie D. Corliss; Don S. Lin


Influence of 2-hydroxy-4-(Methylthio)butanoic Acid on Early Egg and Chick Weights of Broiler Breeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This trial was conducted to determine if early egg and chick weights of broiler breeders are increased by dietary 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB) supplementation. Hens of two strains were provided feed with HMB levels equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kg methionine\\/tonne from 21 to 35 wk. Chick yield (chick weight\\/egg weight) increased significantly as dietary HMB level was increased



Variations of clinical biochemical parameters of laying hens and broiler chickens fed aflatoxin?containing feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23?day?old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts\\/10 of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts\\/10). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4

A. Fernandez; Maria Teresa Verde; M. Gascon; J. Ramos; J. Gomez; D. F. Luco; G. Chavez




PubMed Central

Fixation of embryonic chick cells (heart, neural retina, and limb bud) in the presence of lanthanum ions shows the presence of an electron-opaque layer, about 50 A thick, external to the cell membrane. This layer, designated LSM (for lanthanum-staining material), is not removable by trypsin, pronase, EDTA, DNase, ?-amylase, neuraminidase, or N-acetyl-L-cysteine. However, phospholipase C, in concentrations as low as 0.001 mg/ml, succeeds in stripping the LSM from the cell surface. Heating the enzyme preparation does not inhibit this activity, but removal of divalent cations does; both of these results are consistent with the known properties of phospholipase C. The LSM is present at the cell surface in the control tissues and on cells dissociated from the tissues by proteolytic enzymes and EDTA. These results are interpreted to mean that the LSM is probably an integral part of the cell and not an extraneous coat. How this phenomenon bears on the problem of cellular adhesion is discussed, as is the possible chemical composition of the LSM.

Lesseps, Roland J.



No effect of short-term exposure to high-fibre diets on the gastrointestinal morphology of layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): body reserves are used to manage energy deficits in favour of phenotypic plasticity.  


Summary Using layer hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, we compared the digestive capabilities of birds on a low-fibre diet (LF, 8.49% neutral detergent fibre; NDF), with those fed a high-fibre diet balanced for energy and protein to match the LF diet (high fibre balanced, HFB; NDF?=?15.61%) and those fed a high fibre unbalanced (HFU) diet (NDF?=?16.68%). The HFU diet had the lowest apparent dry matter (DM) metabolisability at 58.14?±?6.46%, followed by HFB, 65.87?±?3.50 and the LF diet, 70.49?±?7.07%. Despite significant differences between apparent DM metabolisabilities of LF and HFU diets, no morphometric changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of layer hens were observed (including crop, gizzard, proventriculus, liver, large intestine, paired caeca and small intestine). Conversely, body mass losses were recorded for animals on HFU diet, while those on the LF and HFB diets actually gained body mass over the 14-day trials. We suggest that the body mass losses seen in the animals fed HFU diets were attributed to losses in adipose tissue, but this was not quantified. Assuming body mass losses were mainly in adipose tissue, we propose that adipose may act to buffer environmental challenges like shortfalls in nutrient acquisition when dietary energy requirements are not met. Compared with smaller birds (e.g. quail), the larger body size of the layer hens may offer them a greater safety margin in terms of body energy reserves before changes in the GIT might be needed to redress energy deficits associated with hard-to-digest, high-fibre diets. PMID:22882770

Courtney Jones, S K; Cowieson, A J; Williamson, S A; Munn, A J



Dietary menhaden oil contributes to hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.  


Clinical and epidemiological investigations have indicated that there may be substantial human cardiovascular benefits associated with increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. Recent studies have indicated that egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content is significantly increased when hens are fed diets enriched with selected fish oils such as menhaden oil (MO). In the present study, reproductively active females but not males exhibited increased hepatic lipidosis following 6 mo of feeding 3% MO. Hens fed 3% animal-vegetable oil (AV) did not exhibit hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P < or = .05) in hens fed MO. Subsequently, yolk and total egg weights of hens fed MO were decreased as compared with those of hens fed AV. A significant interaction of dietary MO and exogenous 17 beta-estradiol was noted among chick liver and gallbladder weights. These data suggest that dietary MO and estradiol may interact in a manner that enhances the lipogenic activity of the liver, thereby inducing hepatic lipidosis in laying hens. PMID:8047508

Van Elswyk, M E; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Hargis, P S



Characterization of energetic efficiency in adult broiler breeder hens.  


This trial characterized residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance requirement (RME(m)) as measures of energetic efficiency in broiler breeder hens. The RFI was defined as the difference between observed and expected ME intake and RME(m) as the difference between observed and expected maintenance requirements. A total of 600 Ross 708 1-d-old pullets were placed in floor pens. At 16 wk, 144 hens were caged and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feed allocation treatments (72 birds each). The control treatment had feed allocated on a group basis (GRP) following the standard BW target. A second treatment had feed allocated on an individual-bird basis (IND) and followed the same BW target as GRP. Sexual maturity age, egg and chick production, and several feed conversion ratios were correlated to standardized efficiency indices of RFI (SRFI) and RME(m) (SRME(m)) in each treatment. Greater SRFI and SRME(m) values described a greater energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was more variable in IND than GRP hens (P < 0.001). The variability of RME(m) did not differ between treatments (P = 0.14). The SRFI was positively correlated to egg production in the GRP hens (r = 0.31), but negatively correlated in IND hens (r = -0.40) and was correlated to feed conversion per chick only in the GRP-based feed allocation (r = -0.44). The SRME(m) correlated strongly to egg production (r = 0.64), chick production (r = 0.64), and feed conversion per chick (r = -0.59) in both feed allocation treatments. Feed intake confounded the RFI calculation, which limits the value of RFI as a selection criterion in meat-producing animals. The independence of RME(m) from feed intake is desirable for energetic efficiency assessment in selection programs because consistent values can be obtained across different management schemes. Hens with lower maintenance requirements (greater RME(m) efficiency) partitioned more energy toward reproduction than did high-maintenance hens. The RME(m) methodology provided an unbiased estimate of energetic efficiency by adjusting the maintenance requirement for the effect of dietary thermogenesis. PMID:19096078

Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E



Gonadotropin releasing hormone and brooding behavior in the native Thai hen.  


Changes in the number of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) neurons within the Nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were associated with the reproductive cycle of native Thai chickens. In order to further understand the association of GnRH-I in the regulation of brooding behavior in this bird, the native Thai chickens were divided into two groups; chick-rearing (R) and non-chick-rearing (NR) hens. Numbers of visible of GnRH-I-immunoreactive (GnRH-I-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus of R and NR hens were compared utilizing immunohistochemistry. Numbers of visible GnRH-I-ir neurons within the Nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, Nucleus suprachaiasmaticus, pars medialis, Nucleus septalis lateralis, Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis, and Regio lateralis hypothalami areas were observed in both groups, but no differences were seen between R and NR hens. The number of visible GnRH-I neurons in the nCPa was higher (P<0.05) in the NR than in R hens, and increased in NR hens by day 14 after chick removal. These findings suggest, for the first time, an association of the GnRH system with brooding behavior in continuously breeding birds. Furthermore, the expression of brooding behavior of native Thai chickens might be regulated, in part, by GnRH-I neurons in the nCPa. PMID:23466257

Chaiyachet, Orn-anong; Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Prakobsaeng, Nattiya; Sartsoongnoen, Natagarn; Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; Chaiseha, Yupaporn



Evaluation of carryover effects of dietary lysine intake by Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens.  


Two experiments were conducted to examine the progeny performance of broiler breeder (BB) hens fed diets differing in digestible lysine (dLys). A total of 240 Cobb 500 BB pullets and 40 cockerels, 20 wk of age, were used for each of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, treatment diets were fed from 35 to 45 wk of age. Treatment 1 and 2 diets were formulated with common feed ingredients and BB had dLys daily intakes of 1,200 (IDL-1,200) and 1,010 mg/hen per d (ID-1,010), respectively. Treatments 3 and 4 were composed of semipurified diets formulated to dLys intakes of 1,010 (SPL-1,010) and 600 mg/hen per d (SP-600), respectively. In experiment 1, chick weight at hatch was lower (P < 0.05) for those that came from the SP-600 and SPL-1,010-fed hens, but 42 and 56 d BW was similar for all treatments. Improvements (P < 0.10) in feed conversion ratio were seen at 42 and 56 d for chicks from ID-1,010-fed hens compared with IDL-1,200 hens. For experiment 2, diets were fed to BB hens from 24 to 42 wk of age. Treatment 1 was composed of corn-soybean meal and formulated to a dLys intake of 1,000 mg/hen per d (CS-1,000). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 had inclusion of 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with dLys intake levels of 1,000 (DDGS-1,000), 800 (DDGS-800), and 600 (DDGS-600) mg/hen per d, respectively. Progeny performance was evaluated from eggs collected at wk 26, 31, and 36. Chick hatch weight was similar for all 3 hatches. Chicks from 26-wk-old BB hens and fed DDGS-600 diets resulted in lower (P < 0.05) BW, carcass weight, and breast weight, and higher (P < 0.05) back half (drumsticks and thighs) yield, at 42 d of age. Growout studies performed on eggs laid during wk 31 and 36 revealed no effect on growth or carcass parameters. In conclusion, the results from experiments 1 and 2 may not be comparable, and therefore, the impact on progeny performance needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23436521

Mejia, L; McDaniel, C D; Kidd, M T; Lopez, K; Corzo, A



Recovery of Campylobacter from segments of the reproductive tract of broiler breeder hens.  


Three groups of >60-wk-old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of the reproductive tract. In the first group, after stunned, the hens were bled, scalded, and defeathered, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from 18 hens, six from each of three adjacent floor pens that were feces positivefor Campylobacter. The reproductive tract segments (infundibulum, magnum-isthmus, shell gland, vagina, and cloaca) were pooled by pen. In the second group, 10 individual hens were sampled from the pens; the reproductive tract was divided into the following segments: magnum, isthmus, shell gland, vagina, and cloaca. For the third group, hens were obtained from two commercial farms that had been determined to be feces positive for Campylobacter, and the reproductive tract was divided into five segments, as described for the second group. Segments of the reproductive tract were placed into sterile plastic bags and suspended 1:3 (w/v) in Bolton enrichment broth, and serial dilutions were plated (0.1 ml) onto Campy-Cefex agar. The agar places were incubated at 42 C for 24 hr in a microaerobic atmosphere. In group 1, the pooled reproductive tract segments for hens from pen A were Campylobacter positive for the shell gland, vagina, and cloaca; hens from pen B were positive for the cloaca only; and hens from pen C were positive for the magnum-isthmus and doaca. In the second group, 9 of 10 cloaca samples were Campylobacter positive. Commercial hens in group 3 had campylobacter-positive cloaca samples (12/12), vagina (10/12), shell gland (7/12), isthmus (2/12), and magnum (4/12). Campylobacter colonization of the reproductive tract of the hen could enable vertical transmission of Campylobacter from the hen to the chick. PMID:12495053

Buhr, R J; Cox, N A; Stern, N J; Musgrove, M T; Wilson, J L; Hiett, K L



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This trial was conducted to determine if early egg and chick weights of broiler breeders are increased by dietary 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB) supplementation. Hens of two strains were provided feed with HMB levels equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kg methionine/tonne from 21 to 35 wk....


Effect of egg composition on hatchability and on growth and slaughter characteristics of meat-type chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Using the so-called TOBEC (Total Body Electrical Conductivity) method, which allows the determination of egg composition in vivo, correlations between egg composition, hatchability and hatched chicks’ development were studied.2.?A total of 1500 hen eggs (Ross-308) were measured by TOBEC, and eggs with extremely high (10%, n = 150), extremely low (10%, n = 150) and average (10%, n = 150)

G. Milisits; E. Kovács; O. P?cze; J. Ujvári; Zs. Taraszenkó; G. Jekkel; L. Locsmándi; Gy. Bázár; A. Szabó; R. Romvári; Z. Süt?



Ultraviolet and Optical Observations of HEN 1213, HEN 1341, and HEN 1761  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present UV observations of the symbiotic stars Hen 1213, Hen 1341, and Hen 1761, made almost simultaneously with optical observations during 1995; previous optical observations were made during 1987 and 1991. The UV spectrum of Hen 1213 was badly affected by background radiation, and only a rough description of the spectrum could be given here; for this reason, only the observations of Hen 1341 and Hen 1761 are discussed. They have the typical spectra of symbiotic stars, with a late giant component, with many emission lines superimposed. It is found that for both objects the reddening determined from He II lambda 1640/ He II lambda 4686 is smaller than that obtained from the Balmer decrement, including optical depth effects. Hen 1341 does not show important variations for the three observing periods. Hen 1761 shows P Cygni profiles for He II lambda 4686 and He I lambda 4471, with expansion velocities of the order of 900 and 600 km s-1, respectively. The 1991 observations give the lower temperature of the hot component with the larger size of the nebula and the lowest He contents. Rough estimates indicate that the hot component of Hen 1761 is smaller and less luminous than that of Hen 1341.

Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Costa, E.; Feibelman, W. A.



Effects of Broiler Rearing Environment on Transmission of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Layer Hens to Broiler Chickens: Role of AcidBase Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin in F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculated layers and FMG contact- infected broilers. At the termination of the study, FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O and the lowest partial pressure of CO as compared with the other treatment groups. Blood pH values

H. A. Olanrewaju; J. L. Purswell; S. D. Collier; S. L. Branton



[Measurement of floor space allowance of Lohmann Silver hens using biometric data].  


Space allowance for laying hens is one of the most disputed criteria of modern laying hen husbandry. Fast and cheap methods to achieve reliable data about the space occupied by laying hens are missing. This studie is based on a method, that can be used to measure the space ocupied by laying hens using digital images from above. 100 hens were photographed digitally when walking or scratching freely on a blue coloured wooden plate that had been placed in a sheltered outdoor scratching area. The birds were 65 weeks old and in the 47th laying week. The body width and the floor area covered by the hens were measured from the photographs by the KobaPlan color contrast planimetric method using a personal computer. Another 50 hens were randomly caught and weighed in order to get an estimate of the average bird weight of the herd. The mean floor space covered by the hens was 545.4 cm2 (SD: +/- 51.9) and their mean width was 173.9 mm (SD: +/- 8.9). The mean weight of the 50 hens was 2085.8 g (SD: +/- 234.0 g). Compared to the space allowance in the German "Kleingruppenhaltung" (small colony cage holdings) Lohman Silver laying hens occupy more than half (68.2% resp. 60.6%) of the minimum floor space of 800 cm2 per hen resp. 900 cm2 for hens heavier than 2 kg (Nutztierhaltungsverordnung 2006). Subsequently less than half of the floor space (32.6% resp. 39.8%) can be used for movement or other normal behaviours including social behaviour. Compared to the floor space of 750 cm2 per hen as laid down in the European Council Directive 1999/74/EC, 72.5% of the floor space in furnished cages is covered by the birds. Further data on the floor space covered by the body size of layers in different situations and from different genetic strains can be gained using the KoBaPlan method in order to estimate reasonable space allowances for laying hens in modern husbandry systems which in particular should enable the hens to perform normal behaviour. This is evenly important for hens which start laying with less than 2 kg but exceed 2 kg while in production as given in the German regulation. PMID:19681396

Briese, Andreas; Hartung, Jörg


Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...


Comparison of bones of 4 strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.  


The maintenance of bone strength has been an important issue in the debate over cage use for laying hens. Bone strength depends on adequate mechanical load and cages restrict movement. Four laying crosses (Lohmann White, Lohmann Brown, H&N White, and Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock cross hens) were housed in conventional cages or in floor pens equipped with perches and nest boxes to measure the effect of the housing system on bone strength. Approximately 15 hens of each genotype from each housing system were killed at 50 wk of age and the radius and tibia of each were removed for analysis. There were no differences between the Lohmann White and H&N White (White Leghorn) hens, likely because of their similar genetic background. The Lohmann Brown and the cross hens (brown-egg layers) were larger and they had heavier bones, but the bone density was not different from that of the other lines. The radius was heavier for hens kept in floor pens than for those kept in cages, but the tibia was not. When hens were kept in floor pens, both bones had greater cortical bone density and cross-sectional area, but the difference between housing systems in cortical bone cross-sectional area was much greater for the radius than it was for the tibia. Although the movement of hens in cages is limited, they spend a great deal of time standing, which puts a mechanical load on the tibia. Hens in floor pens are able to stretch their wings or fly, in contrast to hens kept in cages, which likely explains why the difference between housing systems in cortical bone was greater for the radius than for the tibia. PMID:22184423

Silversides, F G; Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Korver, D R



Tissue-specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in egg and tissues of newly hatched chicks from wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), free-range guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), hen (Gallus domesticus) and domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and intensively housed hens. Carotenoid concentrations in the egg yolk of free-range guinea fowl, pheasant and wild mallard were similar (61.3-79.2 microg/g). Egg yolks from ducks and intensively housed hens were characterised by the lowest carotenoid concentration comprising 11.2-14.8 microg/g. However, carotenoid concentration in eggs from free-range ducks and hens was less than half of that in free-range guinea fowl or pheasant. Depending on carotenoid concentration in the livers of species studied could be placed in the following descending order: free living pheasant>free-range guinea fowl>free-range hen>intensively housed hen>wild mallard>housed duck>free-range duck. The carotenoid concentrations in other tissues of free-range guinea fowl and pheasant were substantially higher than in the other species studied. Egg yolk of housed hens was characterised by the highest alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. In accordance with the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk, the birds can be placed in the following descending order: intensively housed hen>wild mallard>free-living pheasant>free-range duck>free-range hen=free-range guinea fowl>housed duck. The main finding of this work is species- and tissue-specific differences in carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in the various avian species studied. PMID:15936711

Karadas, Filiz; Wood, Nicholas A R; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nicholas H C



Incubation and Chick Rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Welfare considerations during incubation and for the first 3 months post-hatching are described for ratite chicks. Welfare\\u000a of embryos is discussed in the context of the animal being sentient and able to elicit a change in its environment. It is\\u000a suggested that during development, typical definitions of what constitutes welfare cannot be easily applied to embryos and\\u000a indeed they may

D. C. Deeming


Chick tooth induction revisited.  


Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung



Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?  


The plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (Microtinae spp.) and grouse (Tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast depression hypothesis; MDH). The predation facilitation hypothesis (PFH) in turn states that increased searching activity of vole-eating predators during or after the decline year of voles disturbs incubating and brooding grouse females. The behaviours used by grouse to avoid these terrestrial predators make them more vulnerable to predation by goshawks. We tested the main predictions of the MDH and PFH by collecting long-term (21-year) data from black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens and cocks killed by breeding goshawks supplemented with indices of bilberry crop, vole abundance and small carnivores in the vicinity of Oulu, northern Finland. We did not find obvious support for the prediction of the MDH that there is a negative correlation of bilberry crop in year t with vole abundance and with predation index of black grouse hens in year t + 1. We did find obvious support for the prediction of the PFH that there is a positive correlation between predator abundance and predation index of grouse hens, because the stoat Mustela erminea abundance index was positively related to the predation index of black grouse hens. We suggest that changes in vulnerability of grouse hens may mainly be caused by the guild of vole-eating predators, who shift to alternative prey in the decline phase of the vole cycle, and thus chase grouse hens and chicks to the talons of goshawks and other avian predators. PMID:21181416

Tornberg, Risto; Helle, Pekka; Korpimäki, Erkki



Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial hens: a serological study based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  


Serum samples collected from 23 flocks of commercial hens from three different companies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus, and data were analyzed statistically. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were compared from hens that were unvaccinated, once-vaccinated, or twice-vaccinated, from single-age farms or multiple-age farms, from molted or unmolted flocks, and from different companies. There were significant differences among the groups compared by vaccination, between the single-age and multiple-age groups, and between the molted and unmolted groups. The GMT of unvaccinated flocks and the GMT of molted flocks that had been vaccinated once as pullets with a chick-tissue-culture-origin (CTCO) live vaccine could not be differentiated. The ELISA is useful to detect and quantitate ILT vaccine-induced antibody, but it does not reliably identify older flocks that were vaccinated at a young age with CTCO vaccine. PMID:7980280

Leong, V Y; Glisson, J R; Resurreccion, R S; Cheng, I H


Mycoplasma iowae infection in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five groups of light hybrid SPF chicks were inoculated at 1 day of age with different strains of Mycoplasma iowae via the right thoracic air sac and right foot pad. Control birds were inoculated with sterile mycoplasma broth at the same sites.The chicks were observed daily for clinical signs and at 3 and 6 weeks approximately half the birds in

Janet M. Bradbury; Janet D. McCarthy



Maternal antibody transfer from dams to their egg yolks, egg whites, and chicks in meat lines of chickens.  


Maternal antibodies are transferred from hens to the chicks via the egg. To gain insight into maternal antibody transfer and endogenous production of antibodies in broiler chicks, total IgY, IgA, IgM, as well as anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-infectious bronchitis (IBV) antibody levels were examined in the dams' plasma, egg yolks, egg whites, and chicks' plasma on d 3, 7, 14, and 21. Blood was collected from 39-wk-old breeder hens (line 1, n = 17; line 2, n = 21). Fertile eggs were used for antibody extraction from the egg yolks and egg whites (4 to 5 eggs/dam) and for hatching. Unvaccinated chicks (4 to 5 chicks/dam) were reared in a HEPA-filtered room and were bled on d 3, 7, 14 and 21. Based on ELISA methods, plasma levels of IgY and IgM were higher (P < 0.0001), and those of IgA were similar (P = 0.31), in line 2 compared with line 1. Egg yolk IgY and IgA, as well as egg white IgY, IgA, and IgM levels were higher in line 2 compared with line 1 (P < 0.0001). Independent of line of chicken, the percentage dam-to-chick (3 d) plasma transfer of IgY was estimated to be approximately 30%, with that for IgM and IgA less than 1%. Chicks synthesized IgM first, followed by IgA and IgY. Anti-NDV and anti-IBV antibodies were detected in the dams' plasma, egg yolks, and in the chicks' plasma on d 3 and 7, with line 2 having higher anti-IBV and lower anti-NDV levels than line 1 in all samples (P < 0.0001). In summary, IgY levels, total or antigen-specific, in the dams' plasma or eggs were found to be a direct indicator of maternal antibody transfer to the chicks' circulation, with an expected percentage transfer of approximately 30%. This knowledge, together with the observed time course of endogenous antibody production in broiler chicks, may find direct application in formulating strategies for protecting chicks, especially during the first few weeks of age when their immune system is not yet fully functional. PMID:16903465

Hamal, K R; Burgess, S C; Pevzner, I Y; Erf, G F



Increased 131I uptake by the thyroid glands of obese strain (OS) chickens derived from non-Protamone-supplemented hens  

PubMed Central

The Obese strain (OS) of chickens spontaneously develops autoimmune thyroiditis several weeks after hatching, characterized by severe lymphoid infiltration and circulating thyroglobulin antibody. Sundick & Wick (1974) found that the thyroid glands of OS embryos and newly hatched chicks actually incorporated more 131I than normal controls when the parents of both groups were fed a Protamone-supplemented diet. Since this material—an iodinated casein containing thyro-active substances—drastically reduced thyroidal uptake of 131I, several experiments were designed to compare OS and normal chicks free from these effects. In the first experiment the dietary supplementation of OS and normal hens were changed from Protamone to pure thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Their eggs were collected daily and incubated. The hatched chicks were tested for 20-hr 131I uptake and it was determined that 11–18 days after the food switch, the inhibition of uptake by Protamone was reversed, and the newly hatched OS chicks still had a significantly increased 20-hr 131I uptake when compared to the normal controls. Comparison of the offspring of a special flock of OS hens that lays without hormonal supplementation, with the parental Cornell C strain from which the OS is derived, similarly revealed a higher 20-hr 131I uptake by the OS (P<0·005). The increased thyroidal uptake of OS was apparent as early as 4 hr after 131I administration and seemed to be independent of slight variations in the amount of 127I available to the chicks, and also seemed to be independent of maternally derived thyroglobulin antibody vertically transferred into OS chicks. These results suggest that an abnormality of the OS thyroid gland might be a prerequisite for the spontaneously occurring autoimmune thyroiditis in this strain.

Sundick, R. S.; Wick, G.



Peripheral or central administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor affects feeding behavior in chicks.  


We investigated the effect of peripheral or central administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on food intake in layer and broiler chicks (Gallus gallus). The intraperitoneal administration of L-NAME significantly decreased food intake in both broiler and layer chicks while the administration of D-NAME, an inactive form of L-NAME, had no effect. The intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-NAME did not affect food intake in broiler chicks. However, ICV injection of L-NAME increased food intake in layer chicks while the injection of D-NAME had no effect. In addition to this, L-NAME-induced feeding was negated with the co-injection of L-arginine, suggesting that NO acts as a feeding-inhibitor signal in the brain of layer chicks. The present study revealed that administration of NO synthase inhibitor affected food intake in chicks, but the effect might be changed by chick strain and position of the injection. PMID:17618151

Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Hasebe, Yuko; Masuda, Naoto; Ueda, Hiroshi




Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens eggs have been examined experimentally under contact loading conditions. Eggs of known provenance were tested in compression between stiff platens, and the deformation modelled computationally as a Hertzian contact problem between a thin walled shell and a rigid plate. The associated contact damage was determined by scanning electron microscopy and by optical

N. MacLeod?; M. M. Bain; S. E. Solomon; J. W. Hancock?


A Histochemical Study of the Organic Matrix of Hen-Egg-Shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study of the organic material of the hen egg-shell has been made by the use of recognized histochemical techniques. It has been found that, in the so-called spongy layer of the shell, the organic matrix consists of a protein \\/ acid mucopolysaccharide complex. The organic material of the mammillary layer appears to be more concentrated in a central



Molt performance and bone density of cortical, medullary, and cancellous bone in laying hens during feed restriction or alfalfa-based feed molt.  


A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of alfalfa-based molt diets on molting performance and bone qualities. A total of 36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were used for the study. There were 6 treatments: pretrial control (PC), fully fed (FF), feed withdrawal (FW), 90% alfalfa:10% layer ration (A90), 80% alfalfa:20% layer ration (A80), and 70% alfalfa:30% layer ration (A70). For the PC treatment, hens were euthanized by CO(2) gas, and bones were collected before molt was initiated. At the end of the 9-d molt period, hens were euthanized, and femurs and tibias were collected to evaluate bone qualities by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, mechanical testing, and conventional ash weights. The hens fed alfalfa-based molt diets and FW stopped laying eggs within 5 d after molt started, and all hens in these groups had reduced ovary weights compared with those of the FF hens. In the FW and A90 groups, total femur volumetric bone mineral densities (vBMD) at the midshaft were significantly lower, but those of the A80 and A70 groups were not significantly different from the values for the PC and FF hens. In cortical bone density, the midshaft tibial vBMD were significantly higher for FF and A70 hens than for PC hens. The medullary bone densities at the midshaft femur or tibia of the FW, A90, A80, and A70 hens were reduced compared with those of the PC hens. Femur cancellous densities at the distal femur for the FW and A90 hens were significantly reduced compared with those of the PC and FF hens. The FW, A80, and A70 hens yielded significantly higher elastic moduli, and the A80 hens had higher ultimate stress compared with the PC hens, suggesting that the mechanical integrity of the midshaft bone was maintained even though the medullary vBMD was reduced. These results suggest that alfalfa-based molt diets exhibit molt performance similar to FW, that medullary and cancellous bones are labile bone compartments during molting, and that alfalfa-based molt diets may be beneficial to maintain the mechanical properties of bones during molt. PMID:17704367

Kim, W K; Donalson, L M; Bloomfield, S A; Hogan, H A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C



Monocular sleep following passive avoidance learning in chicks.  


Monocular sleep following passive avoidance learning was investigated in young chicks. One group of animals (Experimental Group) was presented with a bead coated with an aversive substance; a second group (Control Group 1) underwent bead presentations as in the Experimental Group but with the bead coated with water rather than with the aversive substance, and a third group (Control Group 2) did not undergo to any bead presentation. Binocular and monocular sleep was recorded during the 8h subsequent the learning (or the control) event. The main results were that (1) the percentage of time spent in binocular sleep and the percentage of episodes of binocular sleep were lower in the Experimental Group that in the Control Groups; (2) the times spent in monocular sleep was higher in the Experimental Group and progressively lower in Control Group 1 and Control Group 2; (3) chicks slept predominantly with their left eye closed, but there was no evidence of specific changes in the opening of their right or left eyes associated with the learning event. The results seem to be compatible with the hypothesis that monocular sleep serves to provide the animal with the possibility to monitor periodically the environment to look for important events (e.g. predators, presence of the mother hen and siblings) and any arousal-producing event that would occur before a sleep episode tends to increase the likelihood of monocular sleeping. PMID:17287034

Bobbo, Daniela; Mascetti, Gian Gastone; Fonda, Francesca; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Effects of high-tannin sorghum and bentonite on the performance of laying hens.  


The effects of feeding high-tannin sorghum (HTS) (5% catechin equivalents (CE)) on the performance of laying hens were examined in two experiments. In experiment 1, the effects of including varying levels of HTS in layer diets were investigated. Sixty-three Isabrown hens were randomly assigned to each of the seven diets over a period of 56 days. In experiment 2, the effects of bentonite on the utilization of HTS (3.74% CE) by laying hens were investigated. Forty-five Isabrown hens were randomly assigned to each of five diets over a period of 42 days. In both experiments, weekly measurements were made for feed intake (FI), percent hen-house production (% HHP), egg weight and egg specific gravity (ESG). The results of experiment 1 showed that the different sorghum inclusion levels had no effect (p > 0.05) on HHP, egg weight and ESG, while those of experiment 2 showed that maize and LTS diets gave similar weight gain. FI and FE (p > 0.05). However, HHP was higher (p < 0.05) for the LTS diet than for the other diets. The addition of bentonite of 0.25% or 0.5% to the HTS diet did not improve (p > 0.05) layer performance. When all the results were considered together, it was concluded that HTS can be used in layer diets without adverse effects on performance. The use of bentonite to deactivate sorghum tannins is not considered necessary. PMID:12797417

Ambula, M K; Oduho, G W; Tuitoek, J K



Ultrastructural study of infectious bronchitis virus infection in infundibulum and magnum of commercial laying hens.  


The infundibulum and magnum of the oviduct were examined in hens in full lay which were infected with two Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The ultramicroscopic changes in the infundibulum and magnum were compared with control hens which had eggs at different positions in the oviduct. The ciliated and granular cells of the surface epithelia and secretory epithelial cells of the tubular glands were the target cells of IBV. No pathological changes were recorded during 2-8 days post-infection (p.i.). Patchy loss of cilia occurred at 10-14 days p.i. Between 16 and 24 days p.i., there was no cilia loss and lymphoid nodules were observed in the muscularis layer of the infundibulum and magnum of some hens from both infected groups. Virus particles were detected mostly in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi complex between 10 and 12 days p.i. Cytopathology was noticed in various cell organelles between the 10th and 14th days p.i. There was an increase in RER deposits in infected cells, irrespective of egg position in the oviduct. The magnum was more affected than the infundibulum. Cellular changes were more severe in the infundibulum and magnum of T-infected hens as compared to N1/88-infected hens. Eggs with watery whites which were laid by infected hens could be attributed to cytopathological changes in the granular epithelial cells and tubular gland epithelial cells of the magnum resulting in reduced synthesis of albumen proteins. IBV can cause pathology in parts of the fully functional oviduct which may persist up to the 30th day p.i. However, both the challenge strains of IBV can cause a small number of hens to cease production. Loss of cilia in both the infundibulum and magnum pose a potential threat of secondary bacterial infection and also may affect fertility in breeder hens. PMID:17321700

Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R



Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-C. jejuni metabolites.  

PubMed Central

Cecum-colonizing bacteria were isolated from Campylobacter jejuni-free White Leghorn (Gallus domesticus) laying hens and screened for the ability to produce anti-C. jejuni metabolites. Nine isolates were obtained that possessed this characteristic. The peroral administration of the nine isolates as a mixture (ca. 10(9) per chick) to 1-day-old chicks was followed 1 week later by peroral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni (ca. 10(9) per chick) to determine if the cecal isolates could protect chicks from colonization by campylobacters. The nine-strain mixture of cecal bacteria provided from 41 to 85% protection from C. jejuni colonization. The protective bacteria were reduced to a mixture of three strains on the basis of their ability to utilize mucin as a sole substrate for growth. These strains included Klebsiella pneumoniae 23, Citrobacter diversus 22, and Escherichia coli (O13:H-) 25. Four feeding trials with this three-strain mixture provided from 43 to 100% (average, 78%) protection from C. jejuni colonization. The dominant cecal bacterium of chicks treated with the three-strain mixture was consistently E. coli O13:H-. Similarly, three trials with only E. coli 25 used as the protective bacterium resulted in 49 to 72% (average, 59%) protection from C. jejuni colonization, with E. coli O13:H- being the dominant cecal bacterium in all cases. Although not completely effective, E. coli 25 substantially reduced the incidence of C. jejuni colonization of chicks. For all trials, fewer C. jejuni were present in the ceca of colonized chicks receiving the protective bacteria before exposure to C. jejuni than in chicks receiving only C. jejuni.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images

Schoeni, J L; Doyle, M P



Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.  


1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters. PMID:19373721

Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One hundred growing-finishing Hereford steers were used to determine the feasibility as well as the disease transmitting potential of recycling acetic-propionic acid treated hen excreta through cattle. Cage layer excreta collected twice weekly was treated with .5% (w\\/w) acid mixture, stockpiled and incorpor- ated daily into corn silage just prior to feeding. Hen excreta was compared with soybean meal

O. B. Smith; G. K. Macleod; D. N. Mowat; E. T. Moran


Chick heart invasion assay.  


Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M




Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of maternally derived antibody to Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine and its influence on vaccination programme in chicks of vaccinated and nonvaccinated origin were determined during the period from July 2005 to May 2006. The study suggested an effective vaccination schedule of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine in chicks of vaccinated and nonvaccinated origin. The optimum age for vaccination

K. Begum; M. S. R. Khan; M. B. Rahman; M. A. Kafi; S. A. A. Mamun



Interaction of vanadium and phosphorus in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to determine the effect of dietary vanadium on chicks fed phosphorus deficient and control diets.\\u000a Vanadium at 50 mg\\/kg of diet decreased growth of both control and deficient chicks. The high mortality among the phosphorus\\u000a deficient chicks was significantly alleviated by the presence of vanadium. The increased relative ventricular weights found\\u000a among the deficient chicks was

C. H. Hill



Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks

Kristell Aury; Sophie Le Bouquin; Marie-Thérèse Toquin; Adeline Huneau-Salaün; Yolène Le Nôtre; Virginie Allain; Isabelle Petetin; Philippe Fravalo; Marianne Chemaly



Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.  


Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing. PMID:21313844

Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun



Relationships among prehatch and posthatch physiological parameters in early nutrient restricted broilers hatched from eggs laid by young breeder hens.  


The objective of this study was to establish relationships among various physiological parameters in early (through 72 h posthatch) nutrient restricted broiler chicks from young breeder hens. Despite a 19% decrease in mean BW between 0 and 72 h posthatch, there were no chick mortalities. Liver glycogen peaked at 24 h, and peaks in rectal temperature, plasma glucose, and plasma refractive index occurred at 48 h. By 24 h, negative correlations were noted between BW and relative liver weight and between liver glycogen and both refractive index and rectal temperature. By 24 h, positive correlations were noted between relative liver weight and liver glycogen, BW and plasma glucose, rectal temperature and plasma glucose, and rectal temperature and body fat loss score. Mean daily relative egg weight loss between 0 and 19 d of incubation (RIEWL) was positively correlated with rectal temperature at 0 h but was negatively correlated with rectal temperature at 24 h and liver glycogen at 24 and 48 h. Furthermore, mean relative hatching chick weight (RHCW) had significantly positive correlations with plasma glucose at 6 h and rectal temperature at 48 and 72 h. Broilers having a greater RHCW after hatching from eggs with a lower RIEWL may maintain higher metabolic rates between 24 and 72 h posthatch despite nutrient deprivation. However, broiler chicks from eggs exhibiting a higher than optimal RIEWL may have greater dependence on gluconeogenesis, thus requiring stricter management during initial brooding. PMID:15782914

Peebles, E D; Keirs, R W; Bennett, L W; Cummings, T S; Whitmarsh, S K; Gerard, P D



Toxicity in chick embryos of three commercial mixtures of chlorinated paraffins and of toxaphene injected into eggs.  


Three commercial mixtures of chlorinated paraffins (Cereclor 42 (C22-26, 42% Cl w/w), Cereclor 50 LV (C10-13, 49% Cl w/w), and Cereclor 70 L (C10-13, 70% Cl w/w) did not affect the hatchability of hens' eggs when injected into the yolks in doses of up to 200 mg/kg egg. The hatching rate of eggs treated with 200 mg/kg of the insecticide Toxaphene was significantly lower than that of the control eggs. Toxaphene also affected the growth of the chicks and had neurotoxic effects. PMID:6686759

Brunström, B



Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.  


The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang



Digestion and absorption of lipids in chicks fed triglycerides or free fatty acids: synthesis of monoglycerides in the intestine.  


Digestion and absorption of lipids were determined in 3-week-old chicks fed diets containing triglycerides, free fatty acids, or free fatty acids with added glycerol. The 91YCl3 was present as a non-absorbed reference substance. Overall absorption of total fatty acids was highest in triglyceride-fed chicks and lowest in chicks receiving fatty acids. Net secretion of endogenous fatty acids from biliary phospholipids was observed in the duodenum of triglyceride fed chicks, whereas in the other treatments net absorption was observed at this site. Fractionation of the intestinal lipids by thin layer chromatography showed that triglycerides were almost completely hydrolyzed in the duodenum. Monoglycerides were present at high levels in the duodenum of triglyceride fed chicks and at lower levels in chicks receiving free fatty acids and glycerol and at trace levels in free fatty acid-fed chicks. Total micellar fatty acids were lowest in the duodenum of free fatty acid-fed chicks. In vitro incubation of pancreatic homogenate with oleic acid, glycerol, phosphatidyl choline, and taurocholate revealed synthesis of monoglycerides. The poorer fat absorption observed on feeding acidulated soapstock instead of triglycerides is partially explained by less efficient micellarization when free fatty acids are fed. PMID:493217

Sklan, D



Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the propagation of a cohesive crack through a reinforcement layer and gives a solution that can be used for any specimen and loading condition. Here it faces the case of a reinforced prismatic beam loaded at three points. Reinforcement is represented by means of a free-slip bar bridging the cracked section, anchored at both sides of the

Gonzalo Ruiz


Natural Humoral Immune Competence and Survival in Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between survival and levels of humoral components of innate (and specific) immune competence of laying hens was investigated in a population of 1,063 laying hens from 12 purebred layer lines. Natural immune competence of the chickens was studied by measuring levels of natural antibodies (NAb) binding to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, and hemolytic (classical

L. Star; K. Frankena; B. Kemp; M. G. B. Nieuwland; H. K. Parmentier



Influence of Vaccination of Hens with Attenuated Oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima on the Protection of Offspring against Eimeria Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitandu A., R. Juranová, I. BedáÀová:Influence of Vaccination of Hens with Attenuated Oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima on the Protection of Offspring against Eimeria Infection. Acta Vet. Brno 2005,74: 585-593. The feasibility of protection of offspring against Eimeria infection via maternal or passive derived immunity from hens (layers) vaccinated with attenuated oocysts of Eimeria



The effect of a hypocrellin A enriched diet on egg yolk quality and hypocrellin A distributions in the meat of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocrellins, including hypocrellin A and hypocrellin B, are natural red pigments isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine.\\u000a The present work was designed to investigate the influence of dietary HA supplementations on the colour and emulsifying properties\\u000a of egg yolk and HA distributions in tissues of laying hens. A Chinese hen breed (black-bone silky fowl) was used. Ninety-six\\u000a layers were assigned

Yujie Su; Shaohong Si; Liwen Qiao; Yujie Cai; Zhimin Xu; Yanjun Yang



The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...


LNA probe-based real-time RT-PCR for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus from the oviduct of unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens.  


In the present study, LNA-probe based real-time PCR was designed for the detection and absolute quantification of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from the oviduct of unvaccinated and vaccinated hens after IBV challenge. Using a recombinant plasmid standard, the detection limit of the reaction was found to be 10 copies and independent assay runs showed reproducible Ct values. Amongst the unvaccinated hens, the virus could be detected between 6 and 20 days post-infection (p.i.), with a peak of viral load between 10 and 14 days p.i. The virus was also detectable in the oviduct of vaccinated, challenged hens although the viral load was much lower compared to the viral load in the oviduct of unvaccinated, challenged hens. This indicates that rearing phase vaccination can offer significant protection of the fully functional oviduct against a pathogenic strain of IBV. The present test will be useful for the rapid identification of IBV directly from clinical samples. Most vaccination trials investigating the efficacy of vaccines for layer and breeder hens have been conducted based on the respiratory tract response. Evaluation of viral load from the oviduct of vaccinated and unvaccinated hens is an efficient method for assessing oviduct protection in commercial laying hens. PMID:18955085

Chousalkar, K K; Cheetham, B F; Roberts, J R



The predation of Tern chicks by sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1973 and 1980, sheep ate parts of at least 680 live Arctic Tern chicks and at least 10 Arctic Skua chicks on Foula. This predation was almost completely confined to the dry heath habitat in the southeast corner of Foula. Characteristically, the sheep bit off one or both legs or wings, or more rarely the head. Three different sheep

R. W. Furness



Activin disrupts somitogenesis in cultured chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical and cell biological aspects of somite formation in the chick embryo have been rather well studied. Molecular regulation of somitogenesis in vertebrates is just beginning to be understood. We have studied the effects of human recombinant activin on somitogenesis in gastrulating chick embryos cultured in vitro with a view to assessing the possible role of activin-related molecules in

Vidya Patwardhan; Surendra Ghaskadbi




Microsoft Academic Search

Titis paper reports the change in weight of Adlie Penguin (Pygo- scelis adeliae) chicks whose parents were of known age from the creche stage until fledging. Our aim was to assess the abilities of parents of different ages to provide their young with food by comparing the sizes of their broods and the growth patterns of their chicks. We dis-



Ovarian morphology and internal vis-à-vis non internal laying in relation to triacylglycerol, hormones and their receptors concentration around the age of sexual maturity in broiler breeder hens.  


1. Ovarian morphology, serum hormone concentrations of 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were investigated at 23 and 26 weeks of age in broiler breeder hens provided with ad libitum access to feed. Progesterone, oestrogen-?, thyroid-? and -? receptor mRNAs were also quantified in the infundibulum at the same ages. 2. A large variation in the ovarian morphology was observed at 23 weeks of age including hens with undeveloped ovaries, non-laying hens with post ovulatory follicles (POF) and a predominance of non-laying hens without a POF. 3. Serum concentrations of triglyceride, 17-?-estradiol and progesterone at 23 weeks of age were lower in hens with an undeveloped ovary compared with other groups of hens, whereas testosterone, triiodothyronine and thyroxin were higher. 4. At 26 weeks of age, the average number of hierarchical yellow follicles in normal layers was 7.64?±?0·41 whereas in internal layers, the follicular numbers were significantly greater at 8.66?±?0·53. The higher follicular numbers in internal layers were associated with higher serum triglyceride and progesterone concentrations. 5. Oestrogen receptor-? and thyroid receptor-? mRNA was up regulated in the infundibulum of internal layers compared with normal laying hens at 26 weeks of age. PMID:23444865

Singh, R P; Moudgal, R P; Agarwal, R; Sirajuddin, M; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Tyagi, J S



Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks  

SciTech Connect

Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

Hill, C.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))



Spatiotemporal expression profile of a putative ? propeller WDR72 in laying hens.  


The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression profile of a novel gene WDR72 in laying hens. Sixty-week old Hy-line Brown layers with similar laying sequence, egg weight, and shell strength, were selected and divided into 5 groups. The oviduct segments, such as magnum, white isthmus, and uterus, were sampled from each group of hens which were killed at 3 h post-oviposition (3 h P.O.), 4.15-4.5 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., 12 h P.O. and 18 h P.O., respectively. To the 8.5-9 h P.O. hens, additional organs were also sampled besides oviduct tissues. Moreover, another group of hens with weak shell strength were selected and their oviduct segments were sampled at 12 h P.O. Then the expression profile of WDR72 was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed as follows. (1) WDR72 transcripts specifically distributed in parts of organs investigated. At 8.5-9 h P.O., WDR72 appeared to be much more abundantly expressed in hens' oviduct sections, then followed in turn by brain, kidney, lung, glandular stomach and spleen. However, there were almost no WDR72 transcripts expressed in pectoral muscle, liver, heart and jejunum. (2) During the process of an "egg" passing through an oviduct, the expression of WDR72 in the magnum was greatly superior to that in the other two oviduct segments at 3 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., and 12 h P.O.; while it was white isthmus in which WDR72 transcript levels were the highest at 4.15-4.5 h P.O. and 18 h P.O. (3) To any oviduct segment, not only uterus but also magnum and white isthmus, the expression of WDR72 in which was significantly up-regulated at the stages of active calcification. (4) WDR72 transcript levels in any oviduct segments of strong-shell hens were significantly higher than that of weak-shell layers (P < 0.01), which arose the possibility that WDR72 was positively associated with chicken eggshell strength. In conclusion, the expression profile of WDR72 gene in laying hens has been characterized, which would facilitate to further probe into its functions. PMID:23666062

Liu, Zhangguo; Li, Bingyi



Production of rabies neutralizing antibody in hen's eggs using a part of the G protein expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to produce anti-rabies immunoglobulin affordable for people living in developing countries, we have immunized layer chickens with a part of the G protein of rabies virus expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoglobulin (IgY) was purified from the yolks of eggs layed by immunized hens. It was revealed in vitro that the antibody specifically bound to virions as well

Yurie Motoi; Kozue Sato; Hajime Hatta; Kinjiro Morimoto; Satoshi Inoue; Akio Yamada



Effect of Canola Oil on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg-yolk of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a dietary Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids (CSFA) and canola oil on cholesterol and omega-3 fatty acids content of the egg. A total of 120 Hy-line white layer (24-week old) were randomly divided into four experimental treatments with six replicates (5 hens per cage) and arranged in a completely



Evaluation of Cellulolytic Enzyme Supplementation on Production Indices and Nutrient Utilization of Laying Hens Fed Soybean Hull Based Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate cellulolytic enzyme supplementation on production indices and nutrient utilization of laying hens fed soybean hull based diets. Seven experimental layers diets were formulated incorporating soybean hull meal at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% (without enzyme supplementation) and 10, 20 and 30% (with 2.0% enzyme supplementation) dietary levels respectively. One hundred and forty seven



Effects of Dietary Yucca schidigera Powder on Performance and Egg Cholesterol Content of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kutlu, H.R., Görgülü, M. and Ünsal, I. 2001 Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera powder on performance and egg cholesterol content of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 49–56.The present study was carried out to determine whether dietary Yucca schidigera powder would affect egg yolk cholesterol content and laying performance of chickens. Sixty, 28-week-old White Hyline layers were divided into

Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Murat Görgülü; Ilknur Ünsal




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The commercial turkey industry relies exclusively on artificial insemination (AI) for fertile egg production. Artificial insemination involves semen collection from toms and its transfer into the hen's vagina. It is labor intensive as the birds must be handled at least once per week for semen collec...


Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.  


This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the probiotic on excreta Lactobacillus counts and serum HDL cholesterol concentration were observed at wk 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.01% probiotic improved egg production and egg quality and decreased excreta ammonia emission. The use of a probiotic in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets may be more favorable than the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets in laying hens. PMID:23893973

Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H



Cleavage in the chick embryo.  


Chick embryos ranging from the stage of first cleavage to that of about 700 cells were removed from the oviduct and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Beneath the cell membrane is yolk-free cortical region containing microfilaments. Beneath this lies cytoplasm which contains yolk spheres which are graded in size, the dorsal ones being smaller than the ventral ones. The subgerminal periblast possesses a greater proportion of yolk to cytoplasm than do the cells proper, but it merges with the cytoplasm at the incomplete borders of the 'open' cells. Specialized accumulations of membranes lie in the marginal periblast, and it is suggested that they play a role in cell membrane formation. PMID:564938

Bellairs, R; Lorenz, F W; Dunlap, T



Defined Medium for Maintaining Chick Fibroblast Monolayers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A defined maintenance medium that supports monolayers of chick fibroblast (CF) cells in a viable state and permits the formation of plaques by Venezuelan (VEE) and eastern (EEE) equine encephalitis viruses is described. The requirements for the individual...

E. Zebovitz



Summation of Large Numerousness by Newborn Chicks  

PubMed Central

Newly hatched domestic chicks, reared with identical objects, when presented with sets of 3 vs. 2 objects disappearing one-by-one behind separate screens, spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set; even when the continuous variables (area or perimeter) were controlled for (Rugani et al., 2009). Here, using a similar paradigm, we investigated the ability of chicks to perform addition on larger sets of objects. Chicks imprinted on five identical objects, were presented at test with 6 vs. 9 objects which disappeared one-by-one (Exp. 1). In Exp. 2, the same overall number of objects (15) was used, but employing an increased ratio, i.e., 5 vs. 10. In both experiments, when continuous variables were not made equal, chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set. However, when the size of the objects was adjusted so as to make the total surface area or perimeter equal for the two sets, chicks did not exhibit any preference. Lack of choice in the control conditions could be due to a combination of preferences; to rejoin the larger numerousness as well as the bigger objects (Rugani et al., 2010a). In Exp. 3, chicks were familiarized, during imprinting, with objects of various dimensions, in an attempt to reduce or suppress their tendency to approach objects larger than the familiar ones. Again chicks failed to choose at test between 5 vs. 10 objects when continuous variables were made equal. Results showed that chicks, after a one-by-one presentation of a large number of objects, rejoined the larger set. In order to choose the larger set, chicks estimated the objects in the two sets and then compared the outcomes. However, differently to what has been described for small numerousness, chicks succeeded only if non-numerical cues as well as numerical cues were available. This study suggests that continuous variables are computed by chicks for sets of objects that are not present at the same time and that are no longer visible at the time of choice.

Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



How selfish is a cuckoo chick?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the begging display of nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, reared by reed warbler,Acrocephalus scirpaceus , hosts, to test various hypotheses for the cuckoo's unusually rapid begging call. The hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but focus on different parts of the chain: chick need–begging signals–provisioning by hosts. We reject two hypotheses. (1) Cuckoo chicks do not use their exaggerated begging




Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.  


The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks. Q2 chicks showed lower post-hatch growth compared to Q1 chicks but effects on flock performance at slaughter weight were limited because early mortality in Q2 chicks was high (62.50% at 7 days). We concluded that chick qualitative scores and the incidence of Q2 chicks may be informative for the quality of incubation, but are not predictive for post-hatch flock performance. Culling Q2 chicks after hatch is well-founded in terms of both animal welfare and profitability. PMID:22717141

van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H



The hen as a model of ovarian cancer.  


The domestic laying hen is the only non-human animal that spontaneously develops ovarian cancer with a high prevalence. Hens ovulate prolifically, and this has made the hen intuitively appealing as a model of this disease in light of epidemiological evidence that ovulation rate is highly correlated with the risk of human ovarian cancer. As in women, ovarian cancer in the hen is age-related and it is also grossly and histologically similar to that in humans. In both women and hens, the cancer metastasizes to similar tissues with an accumulation of ascites fluid. Some aggressive ovarian cancers in women arise from cells in the oviduct; this is intriguing because ovarian cancers in the hen express an oviductal protein that is normally absent in the ovary. PMID:23676850

Johnson, Patricia A; Giles, James R



The melanocortin circuit in obese and lean strains of chicks  

PubMed Central

Agonists of membranal melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3/4Rs) are known to take part in the complex control mechanism of energy balance. In this study, we compared the physiological response to an exogenous MC3/4R agonist and the hypothalamic expression of proopic melanocortin (POMC) gene, encoding few MC3/4R ligands, between broiler and layer chicken strains. These strains, representing the two most prominent commercial strains of chickens grown for meat (broilers) and egg production (layers), differ in their food intake, fat accumulation, and reproductive performance and, therefore, form a good model of obese and lean phenotypes, respectively. A single i.v. injection of the synthetic peptide melanotan-II (MT-II; 1 mg/kg body weight) into the wing vein of feed-restricted birds led to attenuation of food intake upon exposure to feeding ad libitum in both broiler and layer chickens. A study of the POMC mRNA encoding the two prominent natural MC3/4R agonists, ?-MSH and ACTH, also revealed a general similarity between the strains. Under feeding conditions ad libitum, POMC mRNA levels were highly similar in chicks of both strains and this level was significantly reduced upon feed restriction. However, POMC mRNA down-regulation upon feed restriction was more pronounced in layers than in broilers. These results suggest: (i) a role for MC3/4R agonists in the control of appetite; (ii) that the physiological differences between broilers and layers are not related to unresponsiveness of broiler chickens to the satiety signal of MC3/4R ligands. Therefore, these findings suggest that artificial activation of this circuit in broiler chicks could help to accommodate with their agricultural shortcomings of overeating, fattening, and impaired reproduction.

Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sara; Simchaev, Victoria; Shinder, Dmitry; Hruby, Victor J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam



Immunolocalization of MHC-II+ cells in the ovary of immature, young laying and old laying hens Gallus domesticus.  


The aim of this study was to localize major histocompatibility complex class II positive (MHC-II+) cells in the hen ovary, and to determine the effects of ageing and sex steroids on their frequency. Cryostat sections of ovarian tissues of immature, young laying and old laying hens and those of immature hens treated with or without diethylstilboestrol or progesterone were prepared. Sections were immunostained for MHC class II antigens using mouse anti-chicken MHC class II monoclonal antibody and observed under a light microscope. Positive cells were counted using a computer-assisted image analyser. MHC-II+ cells were localized in the ovarian stroma and theca layer of primary follicles in all birds examined. The frequency of MHC-II+ cells in the stroma and theca of primary follicles (approximately 400-600 microns in diameter) was significantly greater in young laying hens than it was in immature and old laying hens (P < 0.01). In the stroma and the theca of primary follicles of diethylstilboestrol-treated birds, the frequency of MHC-II+ cells was significantly greater than it was in the stroma and theca of control and progesterone-treated birds (P < 0.01). Progesterone had no significant effect when compared with controls. These results indicate that both the ovarian stroma and theca of follicles in the hen ovary contain MHC-II+ cells, the frequency of MHC-II+ cells increases in association with sexual maturation and decreases thereafter during ageing, and oestrogen may be one of the factors enhancing the induction of MHC-II+ cells in the ovary. PMID:10615265

Barua, A; Yoshimura, Y



Claw Abrasives in Layer Cages - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was undertaken to obtain information on the range of claw abrasives which could be used in layer cages to keep claws of hens blunt. In Europe a council directive has been issued which requires that all layer cages be fitted with suitable claw shortening devices. Research in Europe on claw abrasives suggest that abrasives reduce claw length of

P. C. Glatz



Corticosteroids and other indicators of hens' well-being in four laying-house environments.  


Four presumed criteria of well-being were compared using data from hens of four genetic stocks kept in each of four laying-house environments. Differences between strains selected for increased egg mass and unselected control stocks were not detected, and interactions of selection method with housing environment and periods after housing were not found. Plasma corticosteroid concentrations present during the first 2 weeks after housing were higher than those obtained later. Hens kept in 12-hen, low-density floor pens and 6-hen, high-density cages at 2900 and 310 cm2/hen, respectively, did not differ from each other in corticosteroid levels. However, hens in the floor pens and high-density cages had higher levels than did hens in single-hen, low-density cages and those in 4-hen, moderate-density cages (the latter with floor spaces of 929 and 464 cm2/hen, respectively). Mortality was higher and egg mass per hen housed was less in the 6-hen cages than in floor pens, single-hen cages, and 4-hen cages during the 40-week period following housing. Feather damage and loss increased stepwise and significantly with number of hens per cage. Plasma corticosteroid concentrations did not yield results consistent with other criteria of hens' well-being. There is a need to look beyond the results of corticosteroid assays in establishing hens' well-being in widely different environments. PMID:3725724

Craig, J V; Craig, J A; Vargas Vargas, J



Overtraining, Reversal, and Extinction in Rats and Chicks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overtraining facilitated reversal of a brightness discrimination in rats, but retarded reversal in chicks. 1 explanation for this difference is that the relevant brightness cue was a more dominant one for chicks, so that overtraining could not strengthen ...

N. J. Mackintosh



The Swiss control programme for Salmonella enteritidis in laying hens: experiences and problems.  


The Swiss control programme for Salmonella Enteritidis began at the end of 1993. All efforts are focused on the elimination of infected parent and layer flocks and on the production of S. Enteritidis-free eggs. The new Zoonosis Order and more stringent import regulations help to identify S. Enteritidis-positive parent layer and layer flocks. Other measures, such as additional voluntary monitoring of parent layer flocks, hatcheries and layer flocks, increased hygiene on poultry farms and the use of heat-treated feed, serve to prevent the spread of S. Enteritidis. An important point of concern is the elimination of S. Enteritidis from contaminated poultry farms, particularly from free-range farms. In the last two years, the number of reported infections of S. Enteritidis in humans has almost fallen to the level of 1988 (the year before the onset of S. Enteritidis infection in laying hens in Switzerland). PMID:9567314

Hoop, R K



Feather Pecking in Laying Hens: Environmental and Endogenous Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedlaãková M., Bilãík B., Ko‰Èál, ª.: Feather Pecking in Laying Hens: Environmental and Endogenous Factors. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 521-531. Feather pecking, pecking directed to and damaging the feathers of other birds, is a behavioural disorder occurring in laying hens and other poultry species and breeds. Feather pecking is both a welfare and economic problem. Pulling out feathers causes





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were fed 0 to 25 mg L-carnitine/kg of diet (eight replications each) from 21 wk of age and onward. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males and subsequent progeny growth performance and carcass traits, obtained from hatches on 30, 35, and 37 wk ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inducing hens to molt increases egg quality, egg production and extends the productive life of hens. Molting is normally accomplished by feed withdrawal, which has received criticism, and alternatives described thus far have resulted in poor post-molt performance. The process of molting leads to ces...


Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...


Experimentally Constrained Virulence is Costly for Common Cuckoo Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks of some avian brood parasites show high virulence by eliminat- ing all host progeny in the nest whereas others develop in the presence of host nestmates. Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) chicks are typically highly virulent parasites as they attempt to evict all host eggs and chicks soon after hatching. However, several features of nest design, including steep walls and

Tomas ÿ Grim; Jarkko Rutila; Phillip Cassey; Mark E. Hauber



The case for chick lit in academic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to prove that chick lit is a legitimate and important area of collection for academic libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article presents a definition of chick lit with an overview of the origin and significance of the term itself, discusses chick lit's impact on publishing, and its relationship to academia and women's writing.

Stephanie Davis-Kahl




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...


The presence of Arcobacter species in breeding hens and eggs from these hens.  


The presence of Arcobacter spp. in 2 breeding hen flocks was determined by examination of the intestinal tract, oviduct magnum mucosa, and ovarian follicles of slaughtered chicken. The bacteria were detected by PCR and cultural isolation in 34 out of 40 intestinal tracts from one flock (A) and 6 out of 30 from the other (B). The strains were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. From flock A, arcobacters were recovered from 6 out of 40 oviduct magnum mucosa samples. The majority of isolated strains were A. butzleri. Arcobacter spp. could not be detected, by either PCR or isolation, from 20 eggs collected on the farm of flock A and from 20 eggs still remaining in the vagina of hens in flock B. Furthermore, none of the ovarian follicles from each flock were positive. The results indicate that breeding hens can be infected with Arcobacter spp. in the intestinal tract and oviduct. No evidence was obtained for transmission of Arcobacter spp. from hens to eggs. PMID:18931194

Lipman, L; Ho, H; Gaastra, W



End-of-Cycle Bone Quality in White and Brown-Egg Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broken and weak bones of laying hens are major welfare concerns in the table egg industry. Bone qualityattheendoflayofbrown-(Shaver579)andwhite- (Shaver 2000) egg strains were compared. Prior to the start of the experiment, the hens had been housed in laying hen cages (2\\/cage). At 423 d of age (60 wk + 3 d), 24 hens of each strain were selected and individually

C. M. Riczu; J. L. Saunders-Blades; K. Yngvesson; F. E. Robinson; D. R. Korver


Research Notes Topical Application of Garlic Reduces Northern Fowl Mite Infestation in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern fowl mites (NFM) are external parasites that can lower egg production and cause anemia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was con- ducted with New Hampshire Red and Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens. Hens were individually caged and provided a complete laying diet and water ad libitum. Hens were assigned to groups in a way that

G. P. Birrenkott; G. E. Brockenfelt; J. A. Greer; M. D. Owens


Potential for horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage free laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine hens were inoculated orally and intravaginally with a marker strain of Salmonella and Campylobacter at 56 wk-of-age and housed in individual cages in isolation. Challenged hens were comingled with non-challenged hens 2 wk post-inoculation, at a ratio of 1 challenged hen per 4 non-challenged he...


Comparison of the prelaying behavior of nest layers and litter layers.  


The Swiss Animal Welfare Act decrees that the housing conditions of farm animals must guarantee animal welfare. In the process of developing a method to test nest boxes for their suitability for laying hens, we conducted an investigation using preference testing. It was aimed at verifying the occurrence of different types of layers within the same laying strain and to investigate the choice of a nest site. At the onset of lay, 24 individually housed hens were given the choice of 2 nest sites: a nest box or a litter tray. The chosen nest site and the behavior of the hen, 1 h prior to oviposition, were recorded at 3 stages during the period in which the first 20 eggs were laid. The majority (17) of the hens laid consistently in the nest box, and 7 hens laid consistently in the litter tray. Litter layers spent more time exploring during the hour prior to oviposition than did nest layers, and their final nest visit (when an egg was laid) was shorter. There was no significant difference in the number of entries into the chosen nest site between layers of the 2 types. As expected, the level of restlessness of hens decreased with laying experience. In the hour prior to oviposition, the frequency of foraging and resting increased, whereas the frequency of exploring and nest seeking decreased, and the number of nest-site visits declined. We conclude that there may be at least 2 different types of laying hens that show different nest-site preferences, with concomitantly different prelaying behavior. PMID:18281565

Zupan, M; Kruschwitz, A; Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B; Stuhec, I



Evaluation of the Efficacy of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine and Bangla Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine in Fayoumi Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken for testing the comparative efficacy of two live vaccines produced in Bangladesh to control Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. One of these vaccines named 'baby chicks Ranikhet disease vaccine (BCRDV), a government vaccine produced by the Livestock Research Institute, Mohakhali, Dhaka, and the other named 'Bangla-BCRDV ® ', a commercial vaccine produced recently by a pharmaceutical

Zafar Ahmed Bhuiyan; Paritosh Kumar Biswas; M Nural Anwar; Abdul Ahad; Nitish Chandra Debnath



Internal and external factors modulate food-calling in domestic hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of experiments investigated factors affecting utterance of food calls in the domestic hen, Gallus domesticus. The first series of experiments tested the effect of food preference and the hen’s internal state on the utterance of food\\u000a calls. Different food types were presented first singly and then in a choice test to 20 hens, first when hens were laying,

A. M. Wauters; M. A. Richard-Yris; J. P. Richard; M. Foraste



The interrelationships between sodium ion, calcium transport and oxygen utilization in the isolated chick chorioallantoic membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The interrelationships between sodium ion, calcium transport and oxygen utilization have been investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. The oxygen uptakes of the two surface layers of the tissue, the ectoderm and the endoderm, were separated into their basal, Na+ dependent and Ca++ dependent components. The endoderm has a basal rate of respiration of 3.6 µliters O2\\/cm2\\/hr and a

James C. Garrison; A. Raymond Terepka



Effect of Different Dietary Energy Sources on Induction of Fatty Liver-Hemorrhagic Syndrome in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary energy sources on hepatic lipid content and induction of Fatty Liver-Hemorrhagic Syndrome in laying hens. One hundred and fifty Lohmann commercial layers were divided into three groups of fifty birds each. According to a single factorial arrangement, birds were given one of three experimental diets with control(group 1, 2.65Mcal\\/kg),or

Jinwei Zhang; Daiwen Chen; Bing Yu



Identification of GABA receptors in chick cornea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cornea has an important role in vision, is highly innervated and many neurotransmitter receptors are present, e.g., muscarine, melatonin, and dopamine receptors. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the retina and central nervous system, but it is unknown whether GABA receptors are present in cornea. The aim of this study was to determine if GABA receptors are located in chick cornea. Methods Corneal tissues were collected from 25, 12-day-old chicks. Real time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine whether alpha1 GABAA, GABAB, and rho1 GABAC receptors were expressed and located in chick cornea. Results Corneal tissue was positive for alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptor mRNA (PCR) and protein (western blot) expression but was negative for GABAB receptor mRNA and protein. Alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptor protein labeling was observed in the corneal epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Conclusions These investigations clearly show that chick cornea possesses alpha1 GABAA, and rho1 GABAC receptors, but not GABAB receptors. The purpose of the alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptors in cornea is a fascinating unexplored question.

Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Chebib, Mary



How selfish is a cuckoo chick?  


We studied the begging display of nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, reared by reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, hosts, to test various hypotheses for the cuckoo's unusually rapid begging call. The hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but focus on different parts of the chain: chick need-begging signals-provisioning by hosts. We reject two hypotheses. (1) Cuckoo chicks do not use their exaggerated begging to counteract host rejection: begging displays varied with hunger and functioned entirely to solicit food. (2) Cuckoos also do not exaggerate their begging calls simply because they need more food than a host brood. Single cuckoos grew at a similar rate to a brood of four reed warblers, and more slowly than a blackbird, Turdus merula, chick (a nonparasitic chick of similar size). Our data support two other hypotheses. (3) To elicit sufficient care in reed warbler nests, the cuckoo must exaggerate the vocal component of its display to compensate for its deficient visual signal (a single gape) compared with a host brood. Thus rapid calling reflects the way the cuckoo exploits the provisioning rules that hosts use to feed their own young. (4) In theory, cuckoos should be more selfish than host young because their greed is unconstrained by kinship. Our data are equivocal; compared with host broods, cuckoos solicited a higher provisioning rate in relation to one measure of need but not for another. We discuss whether cuckoos are likely to have gens-specific begging displays. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10512653

Kilner; Davies



The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.  


In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi



A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens  

PubMed Central

Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.



Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens.

Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan



Effects of chlorinated paraffins on liver weight, cytochrome P-450 concentration and microsomal enzyme activities in chick embryos.  


Sublethal doses of three technical preparations of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) (Cereclor 42 (C22-26, 42% Cl w/w), Cereclor 50LV (C10-13, 49% Cl w/w) and Cereclor 70L (C10-13, 70% Cl w/w)) were injected into the yolks of hens' eggs after 4 days of incubation. The liver weight, the cytochrome P-450 concentration in the liver and the liver microsomal activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) were determined in chick embryos incubated for 20 days. The degree of chlorination and probably also the carbon chain length of the CPs were of importance for their effects. Cereclor 70L was the most potent in causing increases in liver weight, cytochrome P-450 concentration and APND activity. Cereclor 42 was the least potent in these respects, even causing reduced APND activity. A decrease in AHH activity occurred in chick embryos treated with Cereclor 50LV, and a reduction in ECOD activity was noted as a result of treatment with Cereclor 42 and Cereclor 50LV. PMID:3874616

Brunström, B



Regulation of GABA content by glucose in the chick retina.  


Some visual information is processed in the retina by ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling. Once retinal degeneration and visual impairment caused by diabetic retinopathy (DR) are affecting an increasing number of people worldwide, and the disease is characterized by hyper- and hypoglycemic events, the authors aimed to investigate how retinal GABA cell content is affected by variations in glucose availability. Using the ex vivo chick retinas exposed to different glucose concentrations, we observed that amacrine cells from both inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) as well as their processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) released GABA through GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) after 30 min of glucose deprivation. Extending this insult to 60 min triggered a permanent loss of GABA-positive amacrine cells, caused swelling of IPL and cell death. High glucose (35 mM) for 30 min induced an increment in GABA immunolabeling in both outer and inner retina. Further, glucose deprivation effects could not be reverted by basal glucose levels and high glucose did not prevent GABA loss upon a glucose deprivation insult. Therefore, GABA cell content is differently affected by short-term variations in glucose availability. While high glucose modulates outer and inner GABAergic circuits, glucose deprivation affects mainly the inner retina. Also, consecutive alteration in glucose supply was not able to rescue basal GABA content. Therefore, glucose oscillations interfering with GABAergic retinal functioning during early stages of retinopathies should be further investigated. PMID:23920155

Miya-Coreixas, Vivian Sayuri; Maggesissi Santos, Raquel; Carpi Santos, Raul; Gardino, Patrícia Franca; Calaza, Karin



Histological changes during development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo exposed to a static magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Few studies have been performed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes that exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) can cause to the processes of cell migration and differentiation in the cerebellum during development. Thus, the authors have studied the development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo (n = 144) under a uniform SMF (20 mT). All of their observations were done on folium VIc of Larsell`s classification. The cerebella of chick embryos, which were exposed solely on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 13 of incubation [short exposure (S)1; n = 24], showed an external granular layer (EGL) that was less dense than the EGL in the control group (n = 24). The molecular layer (ML) exhibited a low number of migratory neuroblastic elements. Moreover, the internal granular layer (IGL) was immature, with the cellular elements less abundant and more dispersed than in controls. In chick embryos exposed on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 17 (S2; n = 24), the outstanding feature was the regeneration of the different layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex of chick embryos exposed continuously to an identical field from the beginning of the incubation up to day 13 [long exposure (L)1; n = 24] or day 17 (L2; n = 24) of incubation showed a higher number of alterations than that of group S1. Electron microscopy confirmed the findings from light microscopy and, at the same time, showed clear signs of cell degeneration and delay in the process of neuronal differentiation. This was more apparent in groups L1 (100%) and L2 (100%) than in groups S1 (95.4%) and S2 (65.2%). In conclusion, the present study showed that SMF can induce irreversible development effects on the processes of cell migration and differentiation of the chick cerebellar cortex.

Espinar, A.; Carmona, A.; Guerrero, J.M. [Univ. of Seville School of Medicine (Spain)]|[Virgen Macarena Hospital, Seville (Spain); Piera, V. [Univ. of Rovirai Virgili School of Medicine, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences



Breeder hen dietary L-carnitine affects progeny carcase traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were given diets containing 0 or 25?mg L-carnitine\\/kg from 21 weeks of age.2. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males and subsequent growth performance and carcase traits, of progeny obtained from hatches at 30, 35 and 37 weeks of age, were evaluated.3. Progeny were hatched in a common facility and separated

M. T. Kidd; C. D. Mcdaniel; E. D. Peebles; S. J. Barber; A. Corzo; S. L. Branton; J. C. Woodworth



Coumaphos: Delayed neurotoxic effect following dermal administration in hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the differential neurotoxic effects of coumaphos [O,O?diethyl O?(3?chloro?4?methyl?7?coumarinyl) phosphorothioate] when applied orally or dermally in the adult hen. Dermal administration of single (50–500 mg\\/kg) or daily (100 mg\\/kg) doses resulted in delayed neurotoxicity in hens, similar to that caused by other delayed neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds. Coumaphos caused loss of weight and produced ataxia, which progressed to paralysis

Doyle G. Graham



Identification and localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the ocular tissues of the chick.  


The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the ocular tissues of hatched chicks. In the chick, different isoforms of these receptors have been detected in the brain, heart, and retina, and mAChRs in ocular tissues have been implicated in the pathogenesis of form-deprivation myopia. However, the precise anatomical distribution of mAChRs within the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, choroid, ciliary body, and ciliary ganglion remains unknown. We used affinity-purified, type-specific antibodies directed to three different chick mAChR subtypes (cm2, cm3, and cm4) to detect receptor immunoreactivity in sections and extracts of these ocular tissues. We found cm2, cm3, and cm4 in the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, choroid, and ciliary body. Within the retina, cm2 was expressed in numerous amacrine and ganglion cells; cm3 was expressed in many bipolar cells and small subsets of amacrine cells; and cm4 was found in most, if not all, amacrine and ganglion cells. Each mAChR was localized to distinct strata within the inner plexiform layer that cumulatively form three broad bands that closely match previously described localizations of subtype-nonspecific muscarinic ligand binding. Only cm3 was detected in the outer plexiform layer, and only cm4 was detected in the ciliary ganglion. We propose that each mAChR subtype has unique functions in each ocular tissue. PMID:9511918

Fischer, A J; McKinnon, L A; Nathanson, N M; Stell, W K



Germ cell restricted expression of chick Nanog.  


Nanog is a pluripotency-associated factor expressed in embryonic stem cells and in the epiblast and primordial germ cells of the mouse embryo. We have identified the chick orthologue of Nanog and found that its expression is limited to primordial germ cells in the early embryo and is not found throughout the epiblast. Genomic analysis has shown that Nanog is an amniote-specific gene and is absent from anamniotes and invertebrates. Furthermore, other pluripotency associated genes that are located in close proximity to Nanog in human and mouse are absent from the chick genome. Such observations lead to a scenario of sequential addition of novel genes to a genomic region associated to pluripotency. These results have profound implications for the study of the evolution of pluripotent lineages in the embryo and of vertebrate stem cells. PMID:16921504

Cañón, Susana; Herranz, Cristina; Manzanares, Miguel



Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.



Proteome profiling of embryo chick retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the molecular pathways that underlie the process of retinal development. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins which may be involved in development of retina. We used a proteomics-based approach to identify proteins that are up- or down-regulated during the development of the embryo chick retina. RESULTS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed with

Mina Mizukami; Takashi Kanamoto; Nazariy Souchelnytskyi; Yoshiaki Kiuchi



Stomach stones in king penguin chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals that possess a gizzard swallow stones or sandy grit, supposedly to aid in the mechanical breakdown of food. While\\u000a this has been well documented in the literature, our study is the first to report the presence of stones in the gizzard of\\u000a king penguin chicks. We found stones, so called ‘gastroliths’, in the pyloric region of the gizzard,

David Beaune; Céline Le Bohec; Fabrice Lucas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc; Yvon Le Maho



Prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in Canada.  

PubMed Central

In Canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. The mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. An increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. This paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. These are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. Methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Samson, J




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...


Heart rate changes reveal that little blue penguin chicks ( Eudyptula minor ) can use vocal signatures to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers investigating social recognition typically measure only behavioural responses during discrimination tests - physiological changes have been largely ignored. We examined whether little blue penguin chicks (Eudyptula minor) could distinguish siblings from other chicks using auditory cues, by measuring behavioural and heart rate changes during playback experiments. Chicks were exposed to five treatments: the begging calls of siblings, neighbouring chicks

Shinichi Nakagawa; Joseph R. Waas; Masamine Miyazaki



Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

Kenow, K. P.; Meyer, M. W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W. H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.



Genotype analyses of Campylobacter isolated from distinct segments of the reproductive tracts of broiler breeder hens.  


Campylobacter isolated from feces and from the oviduct of six broiler breeder hens were genotyped by using flaA SVR DNA sequence analyses. A diversity of genotypes was observed among fecal and oviduct isolates. Comparison of isolates from the oviducts of individual hens revealed variable results. In three cases (hen 2, hen 3, and hen 6), analyses indicated that isolates from all regions of the individual hen's reproductive tract were closely related; isolates from hen 1 and hen 4 were diverse. Comparison of the Campylobacter isolates between hens revealed that in two cases, hens 1 and 3 and hens 4 and 6, certain isolates possessed identical flaA SVR sequence types. Comparisons of Campylobacter isolates recovered from a distinct region of the oviduct were found to have increased diversity as sampling progressed down the oviduct. This study further demonstrates that Campylobacter is present within the reproductive tract of breeder hens and that this presence may enable vertical transmission of Campylobacter from the breeder hen to the broiler offspring. PMID:12402079

Hiett, Kelli L; Cox, Nelson A; Buhr, R Jeff; Stern, Norman J



Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).  


Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ? 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ? 0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ? 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O



Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of eggs from hens fed flax seed and 2 different antioxidants.  


The sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of eggs from flax seed-fed hens were evaluated by trained and untrained panelists. Hens were fed diets containing 0% flax seed (control), 10% flax seed (flax), 10% flax seed+100 IU/kg of vitamin E (flax+?-tocopherol), or 10% flax seed+100 mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (flax+BHT). Fresh eggs collected within 24 h were hard-boiled, coded, and were offered to trained panelists in 4 testing sessions. Sensory traits evaluated were aroma, flavor, off-flavor, and overall difference. The trained panelists rated flax, flax+?-tocopherol, and flax+BHT eggs to be different from control eggs (P<0.001). In a second study, sensory attributes were tested by untrained panelists. The majority (75 to 80%) of the panelists could not distinguish flax seed-fed versus control eggs for aroma and flavor. A consumer preference test was also conducted to gauge end-user response to flax seed-fed eggs. Consumer acceptance testing did not find any significant difference (P>0.05) between control and flax seed-fed eggs. These results suggest that flax seed when incorporated at 10% in the layer diet can produce eggs that are acceptable to untrained panelists and consumers. However, trained panelists are able to detect differences in flavor, aroma, and off-flavor and overall difference in eggs from hens fed flax seed. Antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E, BHT) did not enhance the acceptability of flax seed-fed eggs by trained panelists. PMID:20852121

Hayat, Z; Cherian, G; Pasha, T N; Khattak, F M; Jabbar, M A



The Ramifications and Terminals of Optic Fibres in Layers 2 and 3 of the Avian Optic Tectum: A Golgi and Light and Electron Microscopic Anterograde Tracer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ramification patterns and terminals of optic fibres in layers 2 and 3 of the optic tectum were studied in Golgi-stained and immunolabelled preparations made from the brains of chicks and pigeons. The different neuronal structures of layers 2 and 3 were also examined. In Golgi preparations, two types of optic fibre were found both in chick and pigeon tectum

T. Tömböl; M. Eyre; N. Zayats; A. Németh



Conjoint preferences of chicks for heat and light intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Small flocks of 400 chicks were kept in rooms with spatial gradients of light intensity and black bulb temperature. Their conjoint preferences for heat and light intensity were observed from 1 to 14 d of age.2. High light intensities and temperatures were more attractive in combination than separately.3. For chicks kept in an heterogeneous environment at an air temperature

Huda Alsam; C. M. Wathes



Growth hormone in neural tissues of the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth hormone (GH) gene expression predominantly occurs in the pituitary gland, although it also occurs in many extrapituitary sites, including the brain. The cellular location and ontogeny of neural GH production is, however, largely unknown. This has therefore been determined during chick embryogenesis. In chicks, the brain develops from the neural tube at embryonic day (ED) 3. At this age,

S Harvey; CDM Johnson; E J Sanders



Sensory tract abnormality in the chick model of spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida aperta (SBA) is an open neural tube defect that occurs during the embryonic period. We created SBA chicks by incising the roof plate of the neural tube in the embryo. The area of the dorsal funiculus was smaller in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. Additionally, the SBA group had fewer nerve fibres in the dorsal

Ryusuke Tsujimura; Katsumi Mominoki; Masae Kinutani; Tetsuya Shimokawa; Takuya Doihara; Hiroaki Nabeka; Hiroyuki Wakisaka; Naoto Kobayashi; Seiji Matsuda


Protein digestion and absorption in young chicks and turkeys.  


The site of digestion and absorption of protein was examined in chicks fed soybean meal and casein and in turkeys fed soybean meal, using 91YCl3 as a non-absorbed reference substance. In soy-fed chicks, peptides with molecular weight (MW) between 8,000 to 15,000 accumulated in the proximal small intestine, and low MW peptides accumulated distally. A similar pattern was observed in soy-fed turkeys, although with events occurring proximally to those in the chick. In casein-fed chicks, a gradual reduction in the peptide MW was observed with increasing distance from the pylorus. The rates of formation and absorption of peptides with MW below 500 were similar throughout the small intestine in soy-fed chicks; whereas, the rate of their formation exceeded absorption rate in casein-fed chicks. Net secretion of nitrogen into the duodenum was observed in soybean-fed chicks, no net secretion in casein-fed chicks and 50% absorption in soybean-fed turkeys with net secretion in the gizzard. From the sequence of digestive and absorptive events, apparently solubilization and breakdown of intermediate peptides are rate-limiting in protein absorption from soybean meal diets. But when casein is fed, the rate of uptake of low MW peptides appears to be limiting. PMID:7188776

Sklan, D; Hurwitz, S



Rachitogenic Activity of Isolated Soy Protein for Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of isolated soybean protein on bone calcification in chicks and the modifying effect of certain dietary substitutions were investigated. Chicks fed a diet containing 40% isolated soybean protein and levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 higher than National Research Council recommendations had reduced bone ash. Supplementation with soybean meal, autoclaving the isolated soybean pro tein or reducing the



Strength of preference for dustbathing and foraging substrates in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigated the substrate preferences of laying hens, with particular respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to guide decisions concerning which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems to best enable the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of preference. Individually-tested hens had to push a

Ingrid C. de Jong; Maaike Wolthuis-Fillerup; Cornelis G. van Reenen


Strength of preference for dustbathing and foraging substrates in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigated the substrate preferences of laying hens, with particular respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to guide decisions concerning which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems to best enable the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of preference. Individually-tested hens had to push a

Ingrid C. de Jong; Maaike Wolthuis-Fillerup; Cornelis G. van Reenen



Genetic variations alter physiological responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  


Heat stress (HS) is a major problem experienced by the poultry industry during high-temperature conditions. The ability to manage the detrimental effects of HS can be attributed to multiple factors, including genetic background of flocks. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variation in HS effects on laying hens' physiological homeostasis. Ninety 28-wk-old White Leghorn hens of 2 strains were used: a commercial line of individually selected hens for high egg production, DeKalb XL (DXL), and a line of group-selected hens for high productivity and survivability, named kind gentle bird (KGB). Hens were randomly paired by strain and assigned to hot or control treatment for 14 d. Physical and physiological parameters were analyzed at d 8 and 14 posttreatment. Compared with controls, HS increased hen's core body temperature (P < 0.05) and decreased BW (P < 0.05) at d 8 and 14. Heat shock protein 70 concentrations in the liver were greater in hens exposed to HS (P < 0.05). Compared with DXL hens, KGB hens had higher heat shock protein 70 concentrations (P < 0.05). The hens' liver weight decreased following HS, with less of a response in the KGB line (P < 0.05). The data indicate HS has detrimental effects on the physiology of laying hens due to genetic variations. These data provide evidence that is valuable for determining genetic interventions for laying hens under HS. PMID:22700497

Felver-Gant, J N; Mack, L A; Dennis, R L; Eicher, S D; Cheng, H W



Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...


Changes induces by haloperidol (antidepressant drug) on the developing retina of the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

Morphological and histological studies were done on the retina of chick embryos of 6th, 10th and 16th days of incubation by a single dose of haloperidol (0.25 mg/egg), injected on day zero and 5 of incubation. To get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development retina. Sign of malformation in the chick embryo after administration of haloperidol were seen as absent of the ear vesicles, eyes or decreased size of them. Retardation of growth of the retina at 6th, 10th and 16th days treated chick embryo were observed as evidenced of reduction of the size of the retina, associated with sign of degeneration of the retina cells. Conclusion The injection of haloperidol drug give rise to several side effects as retardation of growth and degeneration of the cells. The decrease of the thickness of the layers and less density of the cells was related to direct effect of the drug on the cells of this organ. Also on the DNA formation and on the retardation of cellular mitotic activates, therefore the retina appeared decrease in thickness and less cell density with degeneration its cells.

Abd-Elmagid, Badria Fathy; Al-Ghamdi, Fawzyah Abdullah



Parental preference for red mouth of chicks in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Parental preferences during feeding and care-giving may select for ornamental traits in young, such as bright coloration. For chicks of coots, there is experimental evidence for this idea. We examined the hypothesis that bright yellow, orange and red mouths of chicks of songbirds have been favoured by feeding preferences in parents. In a field experiment, the orange–yellow mouths of great tit nestlings were dyed brightly red, and the feeding response of parents recorded. In nest boxes with extra daylight through a window, experimental chicks were on average given twice as much food (biomass) as control chicks (sham dyed). In normal nest boxes, the tendency was similar, but not significant. Thus, at least in good light, great tit parents prefer to feed young with red mouths, a preference for colourfulness that helps explain the evolution of bright gapes in chicks of songbirds (passerine birds).

Gotmark, F.; Ahlstrom, M.



Effect of amount and source of manganese and/or phytase supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and some physiological traits of dual purpose cross-bred hens in the tropics.  


1. The effect of different amounts of added manganese (Mn) (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) in inorganic and organic form and phytase (0 and 300 U) was investigated on productive, reproductive and haematological traits on 480 hens and 60 cocks (Inchas breeds) divided into 12 groups: 10 and 20 Mn x 0 and 300 phytase x 2 Mn sources (8 groups), two negative controls (0 Mn x 2 levels of phytase) and two positive controls (40 Mn x 2 Mn sources). 2. Phytase supplementation increased laying rate by 1.1% and egg weight by 0.4 g. 3. Manganese supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources improved hatchability, at 20 mg/kg decreased death embryos and abnormality as those of hens supplemented with 40 mg/kg Mn. Inorganic Mn at 10 mg/kg significantly increased egg mass compared to the organic form. Inorganic Mn was more efficient in decreasing abnormal chicks than organic Mn. Phytase supplementation significantly increased hatchability of fertile eggs and decreased the number of abnormal chicks of groups fed on diets unsupplemented with Mn and those supplemented with 10 mg/kg Mn. 4. Mn supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources significantly improved sperm mass motility and decreased abnormal sperm. Phytase significantly decreased lymphocyte cells and plasma AST. 5. Mn supplementation of the control diet (containing only 16 mg/kg from raw materials) with 20 mg/kg of Mn from either organic or inorganic source is adequate to support egg production traits, egg quality, reproductive traits and economic efficiency of dual purpose cross-bred hens; however, phytase supplementation may reduce the required Mn supplementation to 10 mg/kg. PMID:20461585

Attia, Y A; Qota, E M; Bovera, F; Tag El-Din, A E; Mansour, S A



Primordial germ cells in the primitive streak stages chick embryo as studied by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Chick embryo primordial germ cells (PGCs) at stages 4-8 were localised in the late hypoblast layer. PAS staining confirmed their distribution in a large arc at the anterior border of the area pellucida/area opaca. By scanning electron microscopy the PGCs were seen as spherical cells within the late hypoblast layer. Individual cells separated from this layer and collected in groups of 2-10 in shallow pockets in the hypoblast layer prior to their migration. The pockets containing PGCs were clearly visible by light and scanning electron microscopy and demarcated the germinal ridge at stages 4-8. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

England, M A; Matsumura, G



A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.  


Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Higher caloric intake (twice the recommended 145 g/day/hen; T or free access to feed; F, n=15 for each) for 10 days in broiler hens (Cobb 500 Fast Feathering, age=35 wks) caused 500 grams body weight (BW) gain when compared with hens consuming recommended feed intakes (R, n=15) or with hens necropsi...


Performance and welfare of laying hens in conventional and enriched cages.  


Concerns regarding the welfare of laying hens raised in battery cages have led to the development of enriched cages that allow hens to perform natural behaviors including nesting, roosting, and scratching. This study was conducted to compare indices of production and welfare in birds housed in 2 different caging systems. Shaver White hens were housed from 21 to 61 wk in either conventional battery cages (n = 500; 10 cages; 5 hens/cage; floor space = 561.9 cm(2)/hen) or enriched cages (n = 480; 2 cages; 24 hens/cage; floor space = 642.6 cm(2)/hen) and were replicated 10 times. Enriched cages provided hens with a curtained nesting area, scratch pad, and perches. Production parameters and egg quality measures were recorded throughout the experiment. Plumage condition was evaluated at 37 and 61 wk. Bone quality traits and immunological response parameters were measured at 61 wk, and 59 and 61 wk, respectively. Hen-day egg production, feed consumption, egg weight, and percentage of cumulative mortality of laying hens were not affected by the cage designs. Specific gravity and the percentage of cracked and soft-shelled eggs were also similar between the 2 housing systems. The incidence of dirty eggs was, however, significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in enriched cages than in conventional cages. Feather scores were similar between birds except for the wing region, which was higher (P < 0.05) for hens housed in conventional cages. Bone quality measures tended to be higher for hens housed in enriched cages compared with hens in conventional cages. However, the increase was significant only for bone mineral density. Immunological response parameters did not reveal statistically significant differences. Overall, laying performance, exterior egg quality measures, plumage condition, and immunological response parameters appear to be similar for hens housed in the 2 cage systems tested. Enrichment of laying hen cages resulted in better bone quality, which could have resulted from increased activity. PMID:19276411

Tactacan, G B; Guenter, W; Lewis, N J; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; House, J D



The effect of soybean soapstock on the quality parameters and fatty acid composition of the hen egg yolk.  


The effects of increasing proportions of soybean soapstock (SSS) in laying hen diets on egg quality parameters and on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the yolk were studied. One hundred sixty Babcock B-300 x laying hens, 20 wk of age, were allotted to 5 dietary treatments comprising a control diet (D5) with soybean oil at 100% or SSS in proportions of 25% (D1), 50% (D2), 75% (D3), and 100% (D4) replacing the oil source in commercial-type diets throughout the 15-wk laying period. Egg quality parameters were recorded weekly. Four pooled yolks for each treatment were collected at 0, 9, and 15 wk, and their FA profiles were determined. Egg weight, shell thickness, shape index, and Haugh unit were not influenced by dietary treatment. The concentrations of saturated FA (SFA) in yolks were generally kept at a constant level, regardless of the percentage of SSS in the hen diets. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content did not vary over the course of the experiment, except for C14:1. After 15 wk of feeding, the total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) n-3 increased in yolks of all diets. Among the long-chain PUFA, the percentage of C20:4 (arachidonic acid) was less affected. Inclusion of 100% SSS allowed production of eggs with similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios when compared with eggs from hens fed D5. As SSS represents one-third of the oil cost, its inclusion in layer diets could represent an important economic benefit. PMID:15685955

Pardío, V T; Landín, L A; Waliszewski, K N; Pérez-Gil, F; Díaz, L; Hernández, B



Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.  


1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X



Migration of rat RNA polymerase I into chick erythrocyte nuclei undergoing reactivation in chick-rat heterokaryons  

PubMed Central

Transcriptionally inactive chick erythrocyte nuclei were reactivated by Sendai virus-induced fusion of erythrocytes with rat L6J1 myoblasts. We used antibodies to trace the appearance of a specific protein engaged in transcription of a defined class of genes, those coding for rRNA, during reactivation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found increasing amounts of rat RNA polymerase I to appear, during a certain period of time after fusion, in the reforming nucleoli of the chick nuclei. Amounts of rat RNA polymerase I sufficient to be detected by immunofluorescence microscopy had accumulated in the newly developed chick nucleoli 72-190 h after fusion was initiated. This time interval coincides with the time when chick rRNA synthesis can first be detected. The results raise the possibility that during these stages of the reactivation process chick rRNA genes are transcribed by heterologous RNA polymerase I molecules of rat origin.



Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E2 in laying hen ovaries.  


Prevention of ovarian cancer is the best approach for reducing the impact of this deadly disease. The laying hen is a robust model of spontaneous ovarian cancer that recapitulates the human disease. Dietary intervention with flaxseed, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) and phytoestrogen lignans, demonstrate the potential for effective prevention and amelioration of ovarian cancer by targeting inflammatory prostaglandin pathways. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to investigate the effect of flaxseed supplementation for one year on ovarian cancer and correlate its effects to expression of COX enzymes and concentrations of prostaglandins. White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for one year. The severity of ovarian cancer was determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 localization and protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGE3 concentrations in ovaries were measured by IHC, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors in the flaxseed-fed hens compared with the control diet-fed hens. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity, concentrations of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. PGE3 concentrations were below the level of detection. The results demonstrated that in normal ovaries, COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer surrounding the follicles and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) whereas COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle. Extensive COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression was found throughout the ovarian carcinoma. Our findings suggest that the flaxseed-mediated reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer in hens is correlated to the reduction in PGE2 in the ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials of dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23978451

Eilati, Erfan; Hales, Karen; Zhuge, Yan; Ansenberger Fricano, Kristine; Yu, Rui; van Breemen, Richard B; Hales, Dale Buchanan



Lithium Affects Histogenesis of Embryonic Chick Retina  

PubMed Central

Background: Lithium, a drug used extensively for treatment of bipolar disorders, has also been shown to be neuroprotective in vivo and in vitro. While gross teratogenic effects of lithium at higher doses have been reported, in view of its potential wider use, it is necessary to investigate its effects on tissue formation at relatively low doses of lithium where no apparent teratogenic effects on morphology are observed. Materials and Methods: We have used retina of chick embryo to investigate its effects during neural histogenesis. Three major cellular events involved in retinal histogenesis have been monitored: Proliferation as measured by expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); initiation of differentiation as observed by expression of p27/Kip1 expression; apoptosis as monitored by TdT-mediated dUTPX-nick end labeling. Result: We demonstrate that lithium at a dose of 60 mM has no effect on gross eye morphology; it disrupts histogenesis of chick retina by blocking proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and generating post mitotic cells prematurely.

Ramchandran, H.; Rajadhyaksha, Medha S.



Evaluating the impact of excess dietary tryptophan on laying performance and immune function of laying hens reared under hot and humid summer conditions.  


1. Tryptophan (Trp), besides its role as an essential amino acid in protein synthesis, may also have other important effects on laying hens under summer conditions. 2. Babcock Brown layers (n?=?768), 40 weeks of age, were allocated to 4 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet, formulated with maize and soybean meal, for 8 weeks. Hens were fed on the basal diet with 0·0, 0·2, 0·4, and 0·8?g/kg L-Trp to achieve dietary concentrations of 1·7, 1·9?g/kg, 2·1?g/kg or 2·5?g/kg of Trp, respectively. 3. Supplementing L-Trp had no affect on laying performance. Adding 0·2 or 0·4?g/kg L-Trp improved egg shell strength compared with those fed on the control diet. Serum albumin concentration increased at 0·4?g/kg compared with those receiving 0·0 or 0·8?g/kg Trp. The addition of Trp at 0·4?g/kg increased serum IgM concentration quadratically. Serum superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) increased linearly and quadratically at 0·4?g/kg. 4. In conclusion, we suggest that 0·2 to 0·4?g/kg Trp may have beneficial effects on laying hens under conditions of high temperature and humidity. PMID:23130584

Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Rao, W; Yu, D Y; Zou, X T



Localization of Axonally Transported 12 l-Wheat Germ Agglutinin beneath of Chick Retinal Ganglion Cells the Plasma Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of 12Sl-wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) transported by axons of chick retinal ganglion cells to layer d of the optic tectum was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography. We found that 52% of the radioactivity was located in axons and axon terminals in the contralateral optic tectum 22 h after intravitreal injection of affinity-purified t2sl-WGA. Axons comprised 43% of the




Effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A total of 240 Hy-line brown laying hens (36-week-old), were used in this 8 week experiment to evaluate the effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract (CY) on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora.2. Layers were divided into 5 dietary treatment groups which consisted of: (1) NC, basal diet; (2) PC, basal diet?+?110?mg\\/kg of tylosin;

J. P. Wang; I. H. Kim



Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2–1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition

R. M. Engberg; M. Hammershøj; N. F. Johansen; M. S. Abousekken; S. Steenfeldt; B. B. Jensen



Bone strength and keel bone status of two layer strains kept in small group housing systems with different perch configurations and group sizes.  


The objective of the present study was to investigate whether an arrangement of perches at two different heights within individual compartments of small group systems (back perch elevated (BE), front perch elevated (FE) or both perches heightened (FBE)) combined with an enlarged group size would increase humerus and tibia bone breaking strength and impact keel bone status. Bone strength and keel bone status of two layer strains (LSL, LB) kept in small group systems (SG 40-60 (40, 60 hens), SG 20-30 (20, 30 hens) with different perch configurations) and furnished cages (FC, 10, 20 hens, perches in standard position) were compared in two trials. Investigations were carried out in the laying months 6 and 12, comprising a total of 576 hens. When all compartments of SG 40-60 had been incorporated with perches at two different heights, humerus and tibia bone strength in LSL layers significantly increased compared to FC, whereas keel bone status was negatively impacted. Within SG 40-60, BE and FE perches significantly increased humerus strength in LSL layers compared to FBE perches. LB layers had significantly higher bone strength in groups of 20 compared to 30 hens in SG 20-30, whereas no effect of group size was detected for LSL hens. Keeping hens in SG 40-60 with modified perch positions was associated with increased bone strength but brought about the problem of inferior keel bone status. PMID:19681397

Scholz, Britta; Rönchen, Swaantje; Hamann, Henning; Dist, Ottmar


Effects of acute manganese neurotoxicity in young chicks.  


Manganese (Mn) is an industrial neurotoxicant in humans and animal models limited to rodent species. The present study analyses the potential neurotoxicity of acute Mn administration in young chicks. The acute (24 h) LD50 values of Mn following intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous and oral administrations of MnCl2 in seven-day-old chicks were 21.3 mg kg-1, 28.1 mg kg-1, 28.1 mg kg-1 and 469.5 mg kg-1 body weight of Mn, respectively. Signs of Mn poisoning appeared in the chicks within 2 min and 13 min after parenteral administration and within 20 min and 32 min after oral administration. The signs demonstrated the depressant action of Mn in the chicks. The behavioural effects of Mn given at 5 mg kg-1, 10 mg kg-1 and 20 mg kg-1 intramuscularly were examined in 7 to 12 day old chicks using the three-minute open-field and tonic immobility tests. Manganese decreased the overall locomotor activity of the chicks in the open-field arena as manifested by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square and decreases in line crossing, frequency of defecation and vocalization score when compared to control values. It also increased the duration of the chicks' tonic immobility response. Pharmacological challenges of Mn-treated chicks with general anaesthetics xylazine-ketamine and thiopental caused the loss of right reflex at a faster rate in comparison with control values. Thiopental increased the duration of loss of righting reflex in Mn-treated chicks when compared with that of the control group. Chlorpromazine challenge of Mn-treated chicks significantly increased the depressant action of Mn in the open-field arena and increased the duration of tonic immobility response produced by the metal. The injections of Mn at 10 mg kg-1, 20 mg kg-1, 50 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1 intramuscularly significantly increased the Mn levels in the plasma, liver, kidneys and entire brain of the chicks. The data suggests acute neurotoxicity of Mn chloride in the young chicks as a form of depressant action that could be determined by open-field and tonic immobility tests with further support from pharmacological challenges. PMID:23585198

Al-Zubaidy, Muna H I; Mohammad, Fouad K



Interaction of human and chick DNA repair functions in UV-irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum-chick erythrocyte heterokaryons  

SciTech Connect

Fusion of chick erythrocytes with human primary fibroblasts results in the formation of heterokaryons in which the inactive chick nuclei become reactivated. The expression of chick DNA repair functions was investigated by the analysis of the DNA repair capacity after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of such heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick erythrocytes with normal human or xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells of complementation groups A, B, C and D. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in normal human nuclei in these heterokaryons is suppressed during the first 2-4 days after fusion. The extent and duration of this suppression is positively correlated with the number of chick nuclei in the heterokaryons. Suppression is absent in heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chicken embryonic fibroblasts with XP cells (complementation group A and C). Restoration of DNA repair synthesis is found after fusion in XP nuclei of all complementation groups studied. It occurs rapidly in XP group A nuclei, starting one day after fusion and reaching near normal human levels after 5-8 days. In nuceli of the B, C and D group increased levels of UDS are found 5 days after fusion. At 8 days after fusion the UDS level is about 50% of that found in normal human nuclei. The pattern of UDS observed in the chick nuclei parallels that of the human counterpart in the fusion. In heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick fibroblasts with XP group C cells UDS remains at the level of chick cells. These suggest that reactivation of chick erythrocyte nuclei results in expression of repair functions which are able to complement the defects in the XP complementation groups A, B, C and D.

Bootsma, D. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam, Netherlands); Keijzer, W.; Vander Veer, E.; Rainald, G.; De Weerd-Kastelein, E.A.



[Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].  


The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C



Medullary bone of laying hens during calcium depletion and repletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone cell activity and the composition of the femur of laying hens were studied during 7 days of calcium depletion on a 0.13% calcium diet and 7 days of calcium repletion on a 3.2% calcium diet. Histologically, only cortical bone showed clear signs of bone resorption and osteoclastic activity during the depletion period. The number of osteoclasts in medullary bone

Alberta Zambonin Zallone; Werner J. Mueller



Voluntary food and calcium intake by the laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, each of 40 d duration, are described in which a diet rich in calcium (3.5% Ca) or one deficient in calcium (1% Ca), but with oyster shell offered separately, were fed ad libitum to four laying hens. The voluntary consumption of food and oyster shell was automatically recorded every 2 h. The hourly consumption of the high Ga

P. Mongin; B. Sauveur



Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha



Linoleic Acid Requirement of the Hen for Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to determine the linoleic acid (18:2) require ment of the hen for reproduction. Two hundred Leghorn pullets were reared and fed an essential fatty acid-deficient diet from 2 weeks of age through 22 weeks of age. At week 22, the depleted pullets were divided into 14 groups comprising duplicate pens of 7 different treatments, randomly arranged




Influence of Dietary Oils on Reproduction in the Hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effect of safflower or men haden oil on the reproductive performance of essential fatty acid-deficient hens. Single Comb White Leghorn pullets were reared from hatching with an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deflcient diet. At 32 weeks of age the pullets were distributed into 6 groups of 15 birds each. Groups 1 through 4 received




The performance of farmed ostrich hens in eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective observational epidemiological study was undertaken in the south-eastern region of Queensland in eastern Australia to collect accurate information on the performance of farmed ostriches, and to identify the most important constraints facing on-farm production. This paper (the first in a series of three) focuses upon aspects of the general study design and the productivity of ostrich hens on

Simon J. More



Using Different Methods to Tenderize Spent Hens Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is tenderizing spent hens meat by using cheap local materials such as bitter orange juice, vinegar, salt and sugar for 1,2, 3 and 4h, distill water is used (T ) in curing to make it a s 1 standard. Bitter orange juice (acidity of 1.5) (T ), vinegar (acidity of 7) (T ), table salt

N. A. Nadia Al-Hajo



Effects of Gushukang, a Chinese herbal medicine, on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in laying hens.  


In this study, we evaluated the effects of the herb medicine formula Gushukang (GSK) on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in end-of-lay hens. One thousand 55-wk-old ISA caged layers were allotted randomly to 2 groups. The control group was given the basal diet, and the GSK group was given the basal diet supplemented with additional GSK (1 g/kg) for 10 wk. Egg production, shell quality, bone radiographic density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were determined. The results showed that GSK significantly increased the egg laying rate and decreased the percentage of cracked eggs (P < 0.05).The serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the GSK-treated group compared with the control group, whereas bone characteristics were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The results suggested that GSK can improve egg production and prevent bone loss by inhibiting bone turnover. PMID:19834084

Zhou, Z-L; Deng, Y-F; Tao, Q-S; Hu, Y-F; Hou, J-F



The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Background In the EU conventional cages for laying hens are forbidden beginning in January 2012, however concerns about a higher transmission rate of Salmonella in alternative cages systems have been raised. The extent to which cage systems may affect the intestinal microbiota of laying hens is not known, and different microbiota may demonstrate different resistance towards colonization with Salmonella. To investigate this, ileal and caecal samples from two experimental studies where laying hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and housed in different systems (conventional cage, furnished cage or aviary), were compared using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). The distribution of genera in the microbiota in caecum was furthermore described by next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. Results Hens in the same cage type developed similar T-RFLP fingerprints of the ileal and caecal microbiota, and these could be separated from layers in the other cages types. No significant difference in the fingerprint profiles could be observed between Salmonella positive and negative samples from same cage. By deep sequencing of 16S rDNA libraries from caecum, 197 different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified, and 195 and 196 OTU respectively, were found in hens in aviary and furnished cages, but only 178 OTU of these were recovered from conventional cages. The ratio between the dominating phyla or families and genera in the microbiota remained fairly constant throughout the study. Faecalibacterium and Butyricimonas were the most prevalent genera found in the caecal microbiota of layers irrespective of the cage type. Conclusions Hens confined in the same cage group tend to develop similar microbiota in their ileum and caecum possibly due to isolation, while differences in the microbiota between cages may be caused by environmental or individual bird factors. Although the cages type had influence on composition of the microbiota in the layers by promoting higher diversity in furnished and aviary systems, we did not observe differences in colonization and excretion pattern of Salmonella from these groups. We suggest, that differences in group size and exposure to a more faecally contaminated environment in the alternative systems may explain the observed differences in diversity of the caecal microbiota.



Using neurogenin to Reprogram Chick RPE to Produce Photoreceptor-like Neurons  

PubMed Central

Purpose. One potential therapy for vision loss from photoreceptor degeneration is cell replacement, but this approach presents a need for photoreceptor cells. This study explores whether the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could be a convenient source of developing photoreceptors. Methods. The RPE of chick embryos was subjected to reprogramming by proneural genes neurogenin (ngn)1 and ngn3. The genes were introduced into the RPE through retrovirus RCAS-mediated transduction, with the virus microinjected into the eye or added to retinal pigment epithelial explant culture. The retinal pigment epithelia were then analyzed for photoreceptor traits. Results. In chick embryos infected with retrovirus RCAS-expressing ngn3 (RCAS-ngn3), the photoreceptor gene visinin (the equivalent of mammalian recoverin) was expressed in cells of the retinal pigment epithelial layer. When isolated and cultured as explants, retinal pigment epithelial tissues from embryos infected with RCAS-ngn3 or RCAS-ngn1 gave rise to layers of visinin-positive cells. These reprogrammed cells expressed genes of phototransduction and synapses, such as red opsin, the ?-subunit of cone transducin, SNAP-25, and PSD-95. Reprogramming occurred with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from virally infected embryos and with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from normal embryos, with the recombinant viruses added at the onset of the explant culture. In addition, reprogramming took place in retinal pigment epithelial explants from both young and old embryos, from embryonic day (E)6 to E18, when the visual system becomes functional in the chick. Conclusions. The results support the prospect of exploring the RPE as a convenient source of developing photoreceptors for in situ cell replacement.

Li, Xiumei; Ma, Wenxin; Zhuo, Yehong; Yan, Run-Tao



Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens.

A. G. Kese; A. Donkoh; M. F. Baafi



Synthesis of Chick Brain GABA Receptors by Frog Oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(A)-mRNA, extracted from the optic lobe of chick embryos, directs the synthesis of gamma -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The receptors are inserted into the oocyte membrane, where they form receptor--channel complexes. When activated by GABA, and related agonists, the chick brain receptors open membrane channels that are permeable to chloride ions. Thus, Xenopus oocytes provide a

R. Miledi; I. Parker; K. Sumikawa



Purification and Characterization of Chick Interferon Induced by Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Chick interferon (IFN), produced in primary chick embryo (CE) cells stimulated by u.v.-irradiated Newcastle disease virus, was partially purified by two-step chromato- graphy using both controlled pore glass and Blue Sepharose. The specific activity of the IFN increased about 500-fold by this method and the final recovery from starting material was more than 95%. The partially purified IFN was




Development of cranial placodes: insights from studies in chick.  


This review focuses on how research, using chick as a model system, has contributed to our knowledge regarding the development of cranial placodes. This review highlights when and how molecular signaling events regulate early specification of placodal progenitor cells, as well as the development of individual placodes including morphological movements. In addition, we briefly describe various techniques used in chick that are important for studies in cell and developmental biology. PMID:23278869

Jidigam, Vijay K; Gunhaga, Lena



Sensory tract abnormality in the chick model of spina bifida.  


Spina bifida aperta (SBA) is an open neural tube defect that occurs during the embryonic period. We created SBA chicks by incising the roof plate of the neural tube in the embryo. The area of the dorsal funiculus was smaller in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. Additionally, the SBA group had fewer nerve fibres in the dorsal funiculus than the normal controls. The pathway of the ascending sensory nerves was revealed by tracing the degenerated nerve fibres using osmification. We cut the sciatic nerve (L5) of the control and SBA chicks at the central end of the dorsal root ganglion 1 day after hatching and fixed the tissue 3 days later. Degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus in the control chicks. In contrast, degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi of the spinal cord in the SBA chicks. Consequently, fewer sensory nerve fibres ascended to the thoracic dorsal funiculus in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. This is the first report of abnormal changes in the ascending sensory nerve fibres in SBA. PMID:21658418

Tsujimura, Ryusuke; Mominoki, Katsumi; Kinutani, Masae; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji



Study of some enzyme activities in cultured chick embryo brain nerve cells treated by chick embryo brain extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain extracts from 8-day-old chick embryos have been shown to influence morphological development of dissociated brain cells from 7-day-old chick embryos in culture. Stimulatory, effects on size of the neuronal somas and on growth of long processes were observed by adding the cytosol of the brain extract or the dialysate of the cytosol. These morphological changes parallel modifications of various

Y. Cam; M. Ledig; A. Ebel; M. Sensenbrenner; P. Mandel



ENVIRONMENT, WELL-BEING, AND BEHAVIOR Comparison of the Prelaying Behavior of Nest Layers and Litter Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swiss Animal Welfare Act decrees that the housing conditions of farm animals must guarantee animal welfare. In the process of developing a method to test nest boxes for their suitability for laying hens, we conducted an investigation using preference testing. It was aimed at verifying the occurrence of different types of layers within the same laying strain and to

M. Zupan; A. Kruschwitz; T. Buchwalder; B. Huber-Eicher; I. Stuhec


Dietary influence of digestible lysine concentration on Cobb 500 hen broiler breeder reproductive performance.  


A study was conducted to examine the reproductive parameters of Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens fed 2 different types of diets varying in digestible lysine concentration. In total, 240 Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual cages and given experimental diets from 35 to 45 wk of age. Treatments 1 and 2 were diets formulated using only commercially available feed ingredients and consisted of digestible lysine intakes of 1,200 (IDL) and 1,010 mg/hen per day (ID). Treatments 3 and 4 consisted of semipurified diets with the inclusion of l-glutamic acid to maintain isonitrogenous conditions with digestible lysine intakes of 1,010 (SPL) and 600 mg/hen per day (SP). Hens fed the SPL and SP diets had lower hen-day egg production than hens fed the ID diet, with hens receiving the IDL diet yielding intermediate values. Hens fed the SP diet had the lowest (P < 0.05) egg weight, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments for egg specific gravity. Fertility and hatchability of eggs set were lowest (P < 0.05) for hens fed the SPL dietary treatment. No differences were observed for early and middle embryonic mortality, contaminated, or pipped eggs. Late embryonic mortality was observed to be higher (P < 0.05) in hens fed the SP diet. A decrease in the daily intake of digestible lysine appeared to improve broiler breeder reproductive performance when hens were fed a semipurified diet. In contrast, the same effect was not observed when hens were fed a standard industry-type diet that contained less lysine. PMID:22252356

Mejia, L; McDaniel, C D; Corzo, A



Research Notes Spatial Distribution of Cannibalism Mortalities in Commercial Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of cannibalism cases in a flock of 19,776 Babcock White Leghorns was monitored from 21 to 54 wk of age. The hens were kept in a single- floor house consisting of four banks of two-deck stair- step cages. Each of the 4,944 cages held four hens at a density of 152 cm2 (60 inches2) per hen. Each cage

N. L. Tablante; J.-P. Vaillancourt; S. W. Martin; M. Shoukri; I. Estevez


The Effect of Beak Length and Condition on Food Intake and Feeding Behaviour of Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hens (70 weeks-of-age) with short (10-11 mm), long (13-15 mm) and divided upper beaks (1-3 mm difference in beak length between the left and right sides of the upper beak) were selected from a flock of hens beak trimmed at hatching and re-trimmed at 14 weeks. Hens were switched from a mash diet to various whole grain diets at weekly



Use of Enzymes to Supplement Diets Containing Date Waste Meal for Lohmann White Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The current research objective was to determine the effect of enriched layers diets containing date waste meal (DWM) with a commercially prepared enzymes mixture on White Lohmann laying hens performance. Lohmann LSL-Classic White layers of (24-weeks old; n = 192) were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 24 birds each. Four formulated diets of 18% crude protein which

A. A. El-Deek; M. Al-Harthi; H. M. Yakout



Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  


Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P < 0.001] than their respective controls. Among H-DXL hens, egg weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions. PMID:23300291

Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W



Histopathology of two serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus in laying hens vaccinated in the rearing phase.  


The comparative histopathology of 2 different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (T and N1/ 88) in vaccinated hens was studied at 110 wk of age. The Harderian gland showed similar histopathology in T- and N1/88-infected hens. The trachea and kidney of challenged vaccinated hens were protected to a moderate extent, but the oviduct was protected to only a small extent. The severity and persistence of lesions were greater in tubular shell gland, shell gland pouch, and kidney of the T-infected hens, whereas, for the magnum, N1/88 had a greater effect. PMID:17179416

Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Reece, R



Requirement of NeuroD for Photoreceptor Formation in the Chick Retina  

PubMed Central

Purpose The genetic control of photoreceptor cell fate in the vertebrate retina is poorly understood. Published studies suggest that the genetic program underlying photoreceptor production involves neuroD, a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. The present study investigates whether neuroD is necessary for photoreceptor cell development, by using loss-of-function analyses. Method Engrailed-mediated active repression, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to attenuate neuroD expression and function in embryonic chick retina. The development of the retina was subsequently analyzed to determine whether these experimental manipulations would yield photoreceptor deficits in otherwise normal retina. Results Chick embryos infected with retroviruses expressing an active repression construct, En-NeuroD?C, exhibited severe photoreceptor deficits. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina was no longer a contiguous structure, but became fragmented with regions that contained fewer or no photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor deficiency was evident even before the retina became laminated, suggesting that active repression of NeuroD may have affected photoreceptor genesis. No deficiency was observed in other types of retinal cells. Culturing retinal cells in the presence of siRNA against neuroD resulted in a more than 50% reduction in the number of photoreceptor cells and an increase in the number of chx10+ cells. Subjecting the developing retina to antisense oligonucleotides against neuroD yielded fewer photoreceptor cells both in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with these observations, anti-NeuroD antibody specifically labeled the nuclei of the ONL. Conclusions The data suggest a specific and an essential role of neuroD in photoreceptor formation in the chick retina.

Yan, Run-Tao; Wang, Shu-Zhen



The Solar HEP Process Confronts the Terrestrial HEN Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we succeeded to make a reliable effective field theory (EFT) prediction in a totally parameter-free manner for the S-factor of the solar hep process, 3He+p ? 4He + e+ + ?e, Shep(0) = (8.6 ± 1.3) × 10-20 keV-b. The strategy used in there is to embed a highly sophisticated and realistic nuclear potentials into an EFT framework. By applying the same method to the hen process, 3He + n ? 4He + ?, which has many features in common with the hep, we have also demonstrated the validity of the theory prediction; Our result, ?hen = (60 ± 3 ± 1) ?b, is in good agreement with the experimental values, (54 ± 6) ?b and (55 ± 3) ?b.

Park, Tae-Sun



Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.  


During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David



An auditory psychometric function from newborn chicks.  


This study shows how the hearing of newborn chicks can be quantified with receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). A detailed auditory psychometric function was constructed from areas under ROCs, derived from delays in ongoing vocalizations elicited by pulsing pure tones. Over 20,000 delays were analyzed from 160 birds tested at four frequencies (0.25-2 kHz), eight intensities (-3 to 18 dB above estimated threshold), and two ages (0 and 4 days posthatch). Areas under these ROCs increase in an S-shaped function over intensity, as expected. Maximum responsiveness at approximately 75% correct shows that these neonates never achieve the near-perfect performance of mature listeners. Thresholds appear best estimated by the level required for 65% correct. Results replicate previous findings, showing that thresholds mature at low frequencies before high. Although there is no simple way to alleviate decreasing responsiveness caused by habituation over trials, improved performance results from presenting different frequencies, but only in the younger birds, and primarily with louder stimuli. PMID:1564197

Gray, L



Uptake behavior of embryonic chick liver cells.  


The capacity of selective uptake by liver cells, focusing particularly on the parenchymal and perisinusoidal stellate cells during chick liver development (8-18 days of incubation), was ultrastructurally examined after injection of 240-nm-diameter lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) -coated or noncoated beads into the extraembryonic circulation. Cytoplasmic projections of both cells as well as extrasinusoidal macrophages reached into the sinusoid-like vascular spaces. The primitive perisinusoidal stellate cells were identified by immunocytochemistry as being rich in desmin-positive cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. The cells demonstrated selective uptake of noncoated beads by means of their cytoplasmic projections. These findings were significant in the early period of incubation, indicating that the phagocytic activity is a characteristic and transient phenomenon of developmental differentiation. Large numbers of coated and a few noncoated beads penetrated into the perivascular spaces. The parenchymal cells incorporated only the coated beads that passed through the endothelial lining, suggesting that these cells express selective but limited phagocytic capacity against large "foreign" substances even long before their maturation. The cell projections were not engaged in uptake function. Extrasinusoidal macrophages, Kupffer cells, and intraluminal primitive macrophages all took up both beads; however, lecithin coating of the beads clearly suppressed their uptake function. These data suggest that the uptake function of large "foreign" substances appears to be intrinsic to liver cells and lecithin coating would be useful for delivering large substances to parenchymal cells. PMID:17541985

Kanai, Miharu; Murata, Yoshio; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi



Success rates of intrauterine inoculations of layers via the vagina.  


Intrauterine inoculation of layer hens has been documented previously in the literature; however, its efficiency has only been assessed on a very small scale. Attempts were therefore made to inoculate 14 experimental groups each consisting of 10 commercial table egg-producing hens intrauterinely with methylene blue. The effect of four variables-oviposition (natural, hormonally induced or not), position of the hen at inoculation (vertical/horizontal), technique to access the uterus (three methods) and inoculation device (four types)-on the success rate of intrauterine inoculation of layers of different breed and age was studied. Immediately after inoculation, hens were euthanized and the presence of methylene blue and perforations in the oviduct were examined. Successful inoculation rates ranged from 0/10 to 10/10. The 100% success rate was obtained in birds without an egg in the uterus, which were restrained in a horizontal position and inoculated with a hard catheter after exposure of the uterovaginal junction. The second best score was obtained in hens inoculated shortly after natural oviposition, maintained in a vertical position and using a corkscrew-shaped saliva ejector after exposure of the vaginal orifice (7/10). In all other groups the success rate was 5/10 or less. Vaginal perforation occurred in none to eight birds per group. It is concluded that intrauterine inoculation of laying hens is only reliable in birds without an egg in the uterus after exposure of the uterovaginal junction. All other methods proved unreliable and often caused vaginal perforations. However, intravaginal inoculation can be performed with 100% accuracy providing the vaginal orifice is exposed. PMID:23391182

Landman, W J M; Matthijs, M G R; van Eck, J H H



The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens’ eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens’ eggs have been examined experimentally under contact loading conditions relevant\\u000a to industrial conditions by testing eggs of known provenance in compression between stiff platens. Deformation was modelled\\u000a computationally as a Hertzian contact problem between a thin walled elastic shell and a rigid plate. Contact damage was determined\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy and

Niall Macleod; Maureen M. Bain; John W. Hancock



Different soil media for free-range laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit.2.?The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on

E. N. Sossidou; S. P. Rose; S. S. P. Silva; N. W. Hall; A. Tserveni-Goussi; V. Christodoulou



Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.  


Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. PMID:21040507

Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G



Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.  


Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y



Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level.



Plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross chicks on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, in 1994 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laysan Albatross chicks from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean, were assessed in 1994 and 1995 for impacts of plastic ingestion. Masses and incidence of plastic in chicks were compared between birds found dead of \\



Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.  


The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation. PMID:2801995

Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y



Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.  


The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods could induce the non-culturable state. PMID:23540207

Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg




Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 140 diseased or dead broiler chicks obtained from three different sources in Sulaimani city were necropsied; yolk sac samples from these chicks were cultured and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to 8 systemic antimicrobial agents. Unabsorbed yolk sac was observed in 112 chicks associated with signs of septicemia in many cases. These unabsorbed yolk



Xenin reduces feed intake by activating the ventromedial hypothalamus and influences gastrointestinal transit rate in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of xenin on appetite related processes in chicks. Chicks were centrally and peripherally administered xenin, and feed and water intake were quantified. Chicks responded with a linear dose-dependent decrease in feed intake to central xenin and had a quadratic type response to peripheral administration. Water intake was not affected by treatment. To

Mark A. Cline; Wint Nandar; J. Orion Rogers



Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to

A. S. Kitaysky; E. V. Kitaiskaia; J. F. Piatt; J. C. Wingfielda



Preferential allocation of food by magpies Pica pica to great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult magpies Pica pica provide parasitic great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius nestlings with a diet very similar to that fed to their own chicks. In both naturally and experimentally parasitized nests, great spotted cuckoo chicks were fed at a higher rate than magpie chicks in the same nest. This preferential allocation of food by magpie parents to great spotted cuckoo

Manuel Soler; Juan Gabriel Martinez; Juan Jose Soler; Anders Pape Møller



The relationship between oxygen consumption, body temperature and surface area in the hatching and young chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increase in the effective surface area of the chick at hatching and this is accompanied by an increase in the oxygen consumption so that there is little change in the oxygen uptake per square centimetre. This results in the body temperature of the chick being maintained at its prehatching level.The body temperature of the chick rises for

B. M. Freeman



Effect of dietary vanadium on fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and turnover in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Day-old, male, broiler type chicks were used to study the effect of 100 ppm dietary vanadium on fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and turnover in vivo. After feeding the experimental diets for 4 weeks body weight and liver weight of chicks fed 100 ppm vanadium were significantly less than those of the control chicks and liver total lipid and cholesterol

Y. Hafez; F. H. Kratzer



Androgens and Imprinting: Differential Effects of Testosterone on Filial Preference in the Domestic Chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between testosterone and imprinting was investigated in domestic chicks. After hatching, chicks received either testosterone enanthate in oil or oil alone (controls). The chicks were then trained by exposing them to a rotating imprinting stimulus, either a red box or a stuffed jungle fowl. A preference score was then determined, providing a measure of the strength of imprinting.

J. J. Bolhuis; B. J. McCabe; G. Horn



Food allocation in crimson rosella broods: parents differ in their responses to chick hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allocation in many asynchronously hatching bird species favours large, competitively superior chicks. In contrast, food is usually distributed equally within broods of crimson rosellas, Platycercus elegans, implying that parents do not simply feed the most competitive chick. We used two temporary removal experiments to manipulate hunger of: (1) individual first- or last-hatched chicks, or (2) the whole brood. When

Elizabeth A. Krebs; Robert D. Magrath



Citric Acid Improves Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Crossbred and Commercial Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research in our laboratory has shown that citric acid (CA) improves phytate P utilization in New Hampshire × Columbian (NHC) crossbred chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if CA is also effective in commercial broiler chicks (Ross × Ross). In 3 experi- ments, 4 replicate groups of 5 male NHC chicks

K. A. Rafacz-Livingston; C. Martinez-Amezcua; C. M. Parsons; D. H. Baker; J. Snow


Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

Sileo, L.; Sievert, P. R.; Samuel, M. D.



An estimation of Citrullus colocynthis toxicity for chicks.  


Citrullus colocynthis seed was fed at 2% and 10% of the basal diet to 7-d-old Bovans-type chicks for 6 w. Average body weights and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly depressed in the chicks on 10% Citrullus feed, and the serum activities of LDH, AST and CK and concentrations of total lipid and zinc were significantly increased. The concentration of serum total iron binding capacity was particularly reduced in chicks on 2% Citrullus feed. The concentrations of other serum and blood constituents and of hepatic copper, manganese and zinc were not significantly changes. Lesions seen in the intestines, livers, kidneys and other tissues were fully reversed 4 w after removal from the experimental diet. PMID:8540228

Bakhiet, A O; Adam, S E




PubMed Central

Duodena from 20-day-old chick embryos can be maintained in large scale organ culture on specially designed stainless-steel grids in contact with serum-free medium for 48 h with excellent preservation of mucosal structure at both the light and electron microscope levels. Although mitotic rate was subnormal, several other factors attest to the essential viability of the cultured intestine: L-leucine incorporation into protein, as well as the synthesis of a specific vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP), increased over a 48-h culture period, and the electropotential gradient across the intestine was maintained throughout the culture period as was a concentration gradient for calcium. The tissue responded to vitamin D3 in the medium by synthesizing the calcium-binding protein within 6 h and by exhibiting enhanced 45Ca uptake within 12–24 h. Concentrations of vitamin D3, or its 25-hydroxylated derivative, higher than necessary for CaBP induction, also increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The 1,25-dihydroxylated derivative of vitamin D3, at a level extremely potent in CaBP induction, did not stimulate alkaline phosphatase. Mucosal to serosal transport of 45Ca could also be measured in everted duodenal sacs, subsequent to culture under similar conditions, and was also increased by vitamin D3 in the medium. Other embryonic organs, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, lung, skin, and muscle, did not produce CaBP in response to vitamin D3 in the culture medium. However, CaBP-synthesizing capacity was present in the entire intestinal tract, exclusive of the rectum. 59Fe and 32P uptake by cultured duodenum were also stimulated by vitamin D3. The system has proven quite useful in the study of the vitamin D-mediated calcium absorptive mechanism but should be applicable to the study of the absorption of other nutrients, drugs, hormones, etc., as well as other studies of intestinal function.

Corradino, R. A.



Influence of Feeding Cottonseed Oil to Laying Hens on the Low Density Lipoproteins of Their Eggs 'â  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low density lipoproteins, isolated from yolks of eggs produced by hens fed a normal diet and from those of hens fed 2.5% cottonseed oil in the diet, were studied to determine the effect of crude cottonseed oil on properties of the yolk lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins isolated from eggs produced by hens fed crude cottonseed oil contained more saturated fatty



Influence of cottonseed meal on vanadium toxicity and ⁴⁸vanadium distribution in body tissues of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hens of two commercial White Leghorn strains were fed diets representing a complete factorial arrangement of 0, 3, or 6 ppm vanadium (V) from dicalcium phosphate and 0 or 5% cottonseed meal (CSM). Test diets were fed for 4 consecutive weeks beginning when hens were 25, 40, 62, or 76 weeks old. After each 4-week treatment period, all hens were

J. L. Sell; C. Y. Davis; S. E. Scheideler



Use of chick embryo in screening for teratogenicity.  


A teratology screening system would detect agents hazardous to the conceptus before they can perturb embryonic development in humans. The back log of untested chemicals and the rate at which new substances enter the market exceed the developmental effects testing by standard in vivo method. Thus, cheaper, quicker in vitro systems afford a unique opportunity for investigating the direct interaction of substances with developing morphogenetic system (MGSs), since maternal influences are excluded. As a carrier of a complete set of MGSs, the chick embryo in ovo manifests an advantage over those in vitro systems that employ isolated embryos or embryonic tissues that have only limited survival. Under controlled experimental conditions including standardization of subjects, administration technique and mode of evaluation, according to the basic principles of teratology, the chick embryo test is demonstrated to be reliable and to afford quantifiable end points for evaluation. Individual compounds, mixtures of compounds and against and antagonist can easily be administered and tested. The chick embryo possesses its own basic enzyme-catalyzed drug-transformation capacity and moreover, it can be used for screening specific human metabolites. Different newer techniques e.g. chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST), Chick embryo blastoderm model etc are described in detail. Chick embryo fulfills all the criteria which a test should have at a lower level of tier system in teratological studies i.e. modest laboratory equipment, moderate skill, minimal expenditure of time and money, ease of accessibility of embryo, known embryological development, possibility of experimenting on a large scale for statistically valid results and whole animals are also not required. PMID:10225046

Kotwani, A



Magnesium toxicity: effect on phosporus utilization by broiler chicks.  


Excessive dietary magnesium (Mg) (.3, .5, and .9% additions to a corn-soy basal diet) fed to broiler chicks was found to be cathartic and significantly decreased 28-day body weight, significantly increased mortality, and induced leg abnormalities. Increasing dietary phosphorus (P) significantly ameliorated the detrimental effects of Mg toxicity except at the highest Mg level (.9% addition). Increasing dietary chloride (Cl) significantly increased body weights of Mg intoxicated chicks and significantly reduced the hypermagnesemia induced by excessive dietary magnesium. Excessive dietary magnesium increases the need for dietary P. Failure to monitor Mg content of diets may contribute to the ambiguity of ascertaining the P requirement of domestic fowl. PMID:7433357

Lee, S; Britton, W M




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eggs that were collected from hens that differed by age and/or infection status with Salmonella enteritidis were evaluated for their ability to resist cracking following application of compressive force from an Instron® materials testing machine. Orally infected immature hens produced eggs with sig...


Economic values of species management options in human–wildlife conflicts: Hen Harriers in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use the choice experiment method to investigate public preferences over alternative management regimes for a top-level predator in UK moorlands, the Hen Harrier. These birds are at the centre of a conflict between moorland managers and conservation organisations. Illegal killing of Hen Harriers on moorland managed for Red Grouse is considered to be one of the

Nick Hanley; Mikolaj Czajkowski; Rose Hanley-Nickolls; Steve Redpath




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molting is a process by which a hen's reproductive tract is rejuvenated prior to the beginning of a laying cycle. This process is often artificially induced in commercial settings in order to extend the productive life of a flock of hens. The most common method for the induction of molt is feed de...


Allergy to eggs from duck and goose without sensitization to hen egg proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eggs are among the foods most frequently causing allergy. Hen eggs are the most important. Those of other birds are of lesser significance. Objective: We report an unusual case of food allergy after consumption of eggs from duck and goose in an adult patient without hen egg allergy. Methods: Skin prick tests were performed with fresh white and yolk

Belén Añíbarro; F. Javier Seoane; Concepción Vila; Manuel Lombardero



Providing laying hens with perches: fulfilling behavioural needs but causing injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The EU laying hen directive, which bans standard battery cages from 2012, has implications for animal welfare, particularly since housing laying hens in extensive systems, while increasing natural behaviour and improving bone strength, is associated with a greater level of bone fractures, predominantly of the keel bone, compared to birds housed in cages.2.?The aetiology and welfare consequences of keel and

V. Sandilands; C. Moinard; N. H. C. Sparks



Effects of amylin on bone development and egg production in hens.  


Amylin is a member of the calcitonin family of hormones cosecreted with insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells that can act as an osteoblast mitogen and as an inhibitor of bone resorption in mice and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of amylin on bone formation and some egg parameters in hens. The study was performed in 60 hens aged 10 wk. Thirty hens constituting the treatment group were s.c. injected with amylin at a 75 microg/kg dose every other day. The remaining hens were used as the control group. Five birds from the treatment and control groups were slaughtered at 14, 16, 18, and 20 wk of age and serum and bone parameters were compared between the treatment and control groups. The remaining 20 hens were fed without any amylin injection until 35 wk. All hens at the end of the 35th week were slaughtered and then serum, bone, and egg parameters were assessed. In the treatment group, bone calcium levels increased, whereas serum calcium levels decreased. This dose of amylin also increased the cortical width of tibiotarsuses in hens. Eggshell thickness was found thicker in the treatment group than in the control group. Overall, the results of this study suggest that amylin may stimulate the bone and eggshell quality by increasing calcium uptake from the bloodstream and may influence the sustainability of yield in hens. PMID:19590088

Guzel, S; Gunes, N; Yildiz, H; Yilmaz, B



Salmonella contamination of laying-hen flocks in two regions of Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary epidemiological study of Salmonella contamination in laying-hen flocks was carried out in the regions of Annaba and Eltarf, Algeria, from March to October 2008 and March to November 2009. Our objectives were (i) to estimate the prevalence of infection by Salmonella spp. in seven pooled samples during the hens' laying period (ii) to identify the serotypes and antimicrobial

Nardjess Bouzidi; Leila Aoun; Mourad Zeghdoudi; Mourad Bensouilah; Rachid Elgroud; Ibtissem Oucief; Sophie A. Granier; Anne Brisabois; Loïc Desquilbet; Yves Millemann


Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in two strains of laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress is a problem for both egg production and hen well-being. Given a stressor, genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens’ responses and their adaptation. This study examined heat stress responses of two strains of White Leghorns: Dekalb XL (DXL), a commercial strain individually ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three groups of 60+ week old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of their reproductive tracts. In the first group, after processing through defeathering, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from eighteen hens, six from each of three adjac...


The Use of Dried Tomato Pulp in Diets of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment with 288 laying hens from a commercial strain (Hy-line W36), the effect of partial and total replacement of soybean meal, corn grain, wheat grain and wheat bran with dried tomato pulp (DTP) on performance and egg quality was determined. In the 12 week experiment, hens (27 to 38 weeks of age) were allocated to four dietary treatments



Relationships between fear of humans, productivity and cage position of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The productivity and behavioural responses of laying hens to humans were examined in relation to the effects of tier, row and position of the cage along the row over three consecutive 4?week periods.2. Birds from the top tier had lower hen?day production, lower egg mass output and poorer efficiency of food utilisation than birds from the bottom tier in

P. H. Hemsworth; J. L. Barnett



Effects of stress in hens on the behaviour of their offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment aimed at testing the hypothesis that exposing hens to stress increases their corticosterone secretion and leads to elevated corticosterone concentrations in their eggs. Furthermore, exposure to stress and the associated changes in egg hormone content was predicted to alter offspring behaviour. Parental hens were 40 White Lohmann Selected Leghorns, half of which were exposed to an unpredictable feed

Andrew M. Janczak; Peter Torjesen; Rupert Palme; Morten Bakken




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two studies were conducted to determine if Campylobacter jejuni could reside in the internal organs of adult broiler breeder hens. In study 1, university housed broiler breeders at 22 weeks of age were obtained and placed in individual cages. Each hen was vaginally inoculated weekly from 23 to 32 ...


Hen egg and fish egg phosvitins: composition and iron binding properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosvitin, a hen egg yolk phosphorylated protein, also exists in fish eggs. While their iron binding capacities were studied for the hen, few studies were undertook with fish phosvitin, except for common species like salmon and trout. Consequently, to evaluate better the potential of iron binding of fish phosvitins, it was necessary to have more detailed informations on the composition

Catherine Guérin-Dubiard; Marc Anton; Alexandre Dhene-Garcia; Virginie Martinet; Gérard Brulé



A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare], uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen,

R. M. De Mol; W. G. P. Schouten; E. Evers; H. Drost; H. W. J. Houwers; A. C. Smits



Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...


[Mycoplasma synoviae-associated egg-pole shell defects in laying hens].  


Hens laying eggs with egg-pole shell defects (EPS) were examined in a clinical prospective study. 86 hens with EPS and 72 hens without EPS from three flocks were selected for this study. It could be proven serologically that hens with EPS had significant (p < 0.05) higher titers against Mycoplasma (M.) synoviae then hens without EPS. PCR tested cloacal swabs for M. synoviae were more frequently positive from hens with EPS (87%; n=72) then from hens without EPS (18%; n=13). Furthermore, M. synoviae could be cultivated from the oviduct of five hens with EPS. Additionally, M. synoviae-DNA was detectable in the albumen of nearly all eggs with EPS (n=48; 98%), contrary to the eggs without EPS (n=11; 26%). Ultrastructural investigation revealed that eggs with EPS showed considerable differences of the egg shell structure as well as the cross section dimension according to eggs without EPS. Due to the significantly more frequent detection of M. synoviae-DNA from the cloaca of chickens with EPS, is an involvement of M. synoviae in laying of EPS in the surveyed herds likely. Further infection experiments with the isolated M. synoviae were not perfomed, therefore about the causal pathogenic role of M. synoviae in the development of eggs with EPS in the surveyed herds can only be speculated. PMID:20329643

Ranck, Martin Frederick; Schmidt, Volker; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Voss, Matthias; Kacza, Johannes; Richter, Andreas; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth


Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on intestinal goblet cells and villous morphology in broiler chicks.  


Live broiler chickens are important in the transmission of Salmonella to humans. Reducing Salmonella levels in the intestine of broiler chickens, in part, requires understanding of the interactions between Salmonella and the intestinal barriers that represent the first line of defense. Such barriers include the mucus layer (composed of mucins secreted by goblet cells) and the underlying epithelium. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on intestinal goblet cell dynamics (density and size) and villous morphology in broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, broiler chicks were either challenged with sterile media (control treatment) or orally given 7.4 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) at 3 days of age (termed the CST treatment). Treatments were similar in Experiment 2, except that chicks in the CST treatment were challenged with 7.8 x 10(6) CFU at 4 days of age. Duration of each experiment was 14 days. At 7 days postchallenge (PC) in Experiment 1, jejunal tissue sections were collected, formalin-fixed, and routinely processed for histologic measurement of villous morphometric indices. In Experiment 2, at 10 days PC, jejunal tissue sections were collected and processed for histologic determination of goblet cell numbers and size, in addition to villous measurements. Results showed that Salmonella Typhimurium infection increased goblet cell density, reduced villous surface area, increased the incidence of epithelial exfoliation, and increased the incidence of heterophil influx into the lamina propria (P < 0.05). It was concluded that Salmonella Typhimurium infection impacts goblet cell biology and exerts morphopathologic changes in the jejunum of broiler chicks. PMID:20608528

Fasina, Y O; Hoerr, F J; McKee, S R; Conner, D E



Calcium and phosphorus dynamics in commercial laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cage systems.  


Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in Shaver White hens (19-63 wk of age) were compared between enriched (EC) and conventional cage (CC) systems. Calcium and P intake and their levels in egg components and excreta were considered. Using commercial levels of production (4,836 hens), 10 test cages/system (24 hens/test cage) were used as replicate units. Enriched cages provided a nesting area, scratch pad, perches, and more floor space (643 cm(2)/hen ) than CC (468 cm(2)/hen). All birds were offered similar phase-fed diets based on wheat-soybean formulation and housed under semicontrolled environmental conditions for 11 periods (28 d each). Egg weight, production, and shell quality indices (egg specific gravity, shell weight, thickness, and percentage shell) were also measured. Data were analyzed as a repeated measures design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Egg production, weight, and shell quality measurements were not significantly different between the 2 systems. On a DM basis, EC hens exhibited lower feed disappearance than CC hens (92.5 vs. 95.0 ± 0.61 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01), and lower Ca and P excretions in manure compared with CC hens (Ca: 2.11 vs. 2.29 ± 0.04 g/hen per day, respectively; P: 0.619 vs. 0.643 ± 0.005 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01). Even though eggs from EC compared with CC had lower Ca deposition (2.07 vs. 2.13 ± 0.01 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.0001) and output (38.3 vs. 38.8 ± 0.15 mg/g of egg, respectively; P < 0.05), both EC and CC systems exhibited similar Ca outputs in eggs when expressed as a proportion of Ca intake (56.5 vs. 56.6 ± 0.51% Ca intake, respectively). The overall mean P retention between EC and CC hens was not significantly different (-7.22 vs. -7.45 ± 0.71% P intake, respectively), but Ca retention was higher in EC than CC hens (-1.37 vs. -4.76 ± 0.89% Ca intake, respectively; P < 0.05). In addition to providing environmental enrichment, EC systems may help to reduce Ca and P excretions when compared with CC systems, thereby improving the utilization of these nutrients. PMID:21934024

Neijat, M; House, J D; Guenter, W; Kebreab, E



Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...


Rate of Inner Perivitelline Layer Penetration and Fertilizing Capacity of Turkey Semen Subject to Duration of Sperm Storage in the Oviduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kozlowski, K. and Liwska, K. 2010. Rate of inner perivitelline layer penetration and fertilizing capacity of turkey semen subject to duration of sperm storage in the oviduct. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 213–216.Nineteen hens each of Hybrid Super Medium and BUT-9 breeds female turkeys and eight BUT-9 male turkeys were taken. Hens were inseminated with a semen dose of 200×10

Krzysztof Kozlowski; Karolina Liwaska



Localization of putative dopamine D2-like receptors in the chick retina, using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.  


The actions of dopamine are mediated by 5 or more receptor subtypes, any of which may be coupled by G-proteins to adenylate cyclase (D1-family: stimulatory, D2-family: inhibitory or no action). Postnatal ocular growth in the chick is a vision-dependent mechanism which involves D2-type receptors in either the retina or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Although the dopaminergic amacrine cells are well described in the chick retina, only D2-receptors, but not D3- and D4-receptors have been clearly localized, and the cells that express them have not been identified. In this study we showed that immunoreactive D2/3-receptor protein is localized to the photoreceptor inner segments, outer and inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer, as described previously (Wagner et al., J. Comp. Neurol., 330 (1993) 1-13). D2-receptor mRNA was localized to cell bodies in all nuclear layers of the retina, whereas D4-receptor mRNA was restricted to the inner half of the retina. Immunoreactive D2-type receptors and their mRNA were observed also in the basal region of the RPE. Because of the widespread distribution of both D2- and D4-receptor mRNA in the chick retina and RPE and the lack of D3- and D4-receptor-specific antibodies, we were unable to identify which of the D2/3/4-receptor-bearing cells are involved in controlling ocular growth. PMID:8556320

Rohrer, B; Stell, W K



Influence of dietary ingredients on calcium utilization in the laying hen.  


Experiments were conducted to evaluate the benefit of calcium supplementation with or without other dietary ingredients on egg shell quality. A total of 250 Hyline hens, 44 weeks of age, were randomly divided among five treatments (Experiment 1). The dietary treatments were as follows: Treatment 1, controls (C) were fed a 3.5% calcium diet ad libitum; Treatment 2, hens were fed a .08% calcium diet (LC); Treatment 3, hens were intubated with limestone following 24-hr consumption of .08% calcium diet (LCI); Treatment 4, feed removed for 24 hr (NF); Treatment 5, feed removed for 24 hr and hens then intubated with limestone (NFI). All diets were restored to the control calcium level after 48 hr. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except Dekalb XL hens, 50 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected daily for 5 days for egg specific gravity, egg weight, and shell weight determinations. Forty hens were sacrificed in Experiment 2 at 48 hr into the experiment to measure calcium distribution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces. Results indicated that hens fed the LCI treatment produced eggs with significantly higher specific gravity and heavier shells than hens given limestone with an empty GI tract. The calcium analysis of the GI tract revealed that much of the calcium supplement did not move beyond the gizzard in hens fed the NFI treatment. It was concluded that hens not only needed other nutrients for maximum utilization of dietary and skeletal calcium, but other nutrients or dry matter may also be needed to facilitate the passage of calcium from the gizzard. PMID:3703780

Farmer, M; Roland, D A



Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.  


We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (?OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ?OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ?OCs. Plasma ?OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ?OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ?OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ?OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer. PMID:23672486

Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borgå, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove



Effects of eggshell calcium on productive performance, plasma calcium, bone mineralization, and gonadal characteristics in laying hens.  


A study was conducted with Rhode Island Red females to determine the effects of replacing limestone in the diet with ground, sterilized eggshell. Productive performance, egg quality, plasma Ca, bone characteristics, and the morphology of the ovary and oviduct were evaluated. One hundred forty-four 25-wk-old hens were housed in floor pens, located in a conventional open-sided layer shed. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups, with each group represented by 4 replicates consisting of 12 birds each. Group 1 (control) was provided with a layer ration that contained all the CaCO(3) as fine limestone, whereas groups 2 and 3 were placed on diets in which 50 and 100% of the limestone, respectively, were substituted with ground eggshell. The birds were given free access to food and water and exposed to a 16L:8D photoperiod daily. Throughout the entire 10 wk of the study, BW, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, and egg quality of the 3 bird groups were not significantly (P > 0.05) different. Percentage of eggshell, eggshell thickness, and egg specific gravity were not affected by the treatment diets. At the end of the trial, number of ovarian follicles, ovary weight, and oviduct weight and length did not differ among hens fed the different Ca sources. The hematocrit values and concentrations of plasma Ca and P were similar in all treatment groups. Results showed that tibia-breaking strength and ash content of the birds were comparable whatever the Ca source. In addition, weight and length of the humerus, tarsometatarsus, and keel did not differ among treatments. The results indicate that eggshells can be fully used as a Ca source in layer diets without detrimental effects on productive traits, egg and eggshell quality, plasma Ca balance, bone mineralization, and gonadal performance. PMID:21248354

Gongruttananun, N



Cultivation of Chicken Pox Virus in Developing Chick Embryos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The virus of chicken pox adapts readily and multiplies in the chorio-allantoic membranes of a chick embryo. A virus which has undergone several passages on chorioallantoic membrane causes macroscopic changes in it. The chicken pox virus possesses a hemagg...

M. A. Neizmaylova




Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for micro- biological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning,

Louis Sileo; Paul R. Sievert; Michael D. Samuel



Ionic Interconversion of Pacemaker and Nonpacemaker Cultured Chick Heart Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin-dispersed cells from hearts (ventricles) of 7 to 8 day chick embryos were cultured 3 to 21 days. The cells became attached to the culture dish and assembled into monolayer communities. By means of a bridge circuit, one microelectrode was used for simultaneously passing current and recording membrane potentials (Vm). The input resistance, calculated by the measured AV,~ for a




Haematological and morphological responses of broiler chicks to hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome

M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell



Morphometric study of collagen maturation in chick compact bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrastructural-morphometric study was carried out on the process of osteoid maturation in growing surfaces of parallel-fibered chick bone. The aim was to investigate the distribution, size and amount of collagen fibrils (CFs), as well as the proteoglycan (PG) content, throughout the osteoid seam and in the adjacent bone. The results show that the organic components secreted by osteoblasts undergo

Carla Palumbo; Marzia Ferretti; Silvana Palazzini; Davide Zaffe



Development of nucleolar apparatus in the chick primitive erythroid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primitive erythroid line cells of chick embryos were studied during embryonic days 2–14 by means of a cytochemical method to investigate the appearance and frequency of the main nucleolar types. The populations of erythroblasts and erythrocytes were classified according to the presence of functionally dominant nucleoli in their nuclei. In the course of primitive erythroid cell differentiation and maturation,

Z. Likovský; M. Peterka; R. Peterková



The Erythroid Cells and Haemoglobins of the Chick Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the types of erythroid cells produced during embryogenesis of the chick have been correlated with the changes in the types of haemoglobins found in the embryo. Primitive erythroid cells constitute the only red blood cells of 2- to 5-day embryos. The first recognizable immature definitive erythroid cells appear in the embryonic circulation at 5 to 6 days

Gail A. P. Bruns; V. M. Ingram



Chick clique: persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a preventative health cell phone application that helps motivate teenage girls to exercise by exploiting their social desire to stay connected with their peers. We targeted girls because they are more likely to become less active throughout adolescence and are more likely to use dangerous techniques for losing weight. The intent of Chick Clique is to provide

Tammy Toscos; Anne M. Faber; An Shunying; Mona Praful Gandhi



Ultrastructural changes of monensin?oleandomycin myopathy in broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopical and ultrastructural changes of skeletal muscles were described in chicks treated with monensin and oleandomycin in the food and water for 3 to 6 days. Simultaneously, or slightly subsequent to necrosis of some myofibres on days 3 and 4 of treatment, many myofibres exhibited reversible alterations initiated by focal myofibrillar lysis and degeneration of mitochondria. Reparative changes appearing

T. Umemura; H. Nakamura; M. Goryo; C. Itakura



Protein quality of linseed for growing broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein quality of linseed was assessed and compared to that of soybean meal (SBM) in two experiments using growing broiler chicks. In the first experiment, the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) were calculated for diets (90g crude protein kg?1) containing the following sources of protein: SBM and SBM diet modified to contain 10, 30 and

J Treviño; M. L Rodr??guez; L. T Ortiz; A Rebolé; C Alzueta



Acute 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid intoxication in broiler chicks.  


The acute toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a herbicide, was studied in chicks dosed with 100, 300, 500, or 600 mg 2,4-D/kg BW, by the oral route. Clinical, laboratory, and histopathological methods were used as indicators of toxicity. After acute exposure, the herbicide decreased motor activity and induced muscular weakness and motor incoordination; decreased weight gain; increased serum creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and serum uric acid (UA), creatinine (CR), and total proteins (TP) levels; and did not change serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. These changes were time- and dose-dependent and reversible. The LD50 (lethal dose 50%) calculated for oral 2,4-D in chicks was 420 mg/kg BW (385 to 483). Chromatographic analysis of the serum of the intoxicated chicks showed the presence of the herbicide; the amount found was dose- and time-dependent, increasing from 2 to 8 h after exposure and decreasing afterwards. Histopathological post-mortem studies conducted on intoxicated chicks showed hepatic (vacuolar degeneration of the hepatocytes), renal (tubular nephrosis), and intestinal (hemorrhagic) lesions. Taken together, the observed alterations mainly reflected kidney and muscle tissue damage, although hepatic toxicity may also have occurred after acute 2,4-D intoxication. PMID:9565231

Morgulis, M S; Oliveira, G H; Dagli, M L; Palermo-Neto, J



Inhibition of transmethylation disturbs neurulation in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periconceptional folic acid supplementation can reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects. A low folate status will result in reduced remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine and, subsequently, in a rise of Hcy levels. Indeed, elevated Hcy concentrations have been reported in mothers of children with neural tube defects. In our previous study, we showed that treatment of chick embryos

Lydia A. Afman; Henk J. Blom; Marie-Jose Drittij; Madeleine R. Brouns; Henny W. M. van Straaten



Memory Stages and Brain Asymmetry in Chick Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stages of formation of memory and the roles of different forebrain structures in memory formation were investigated by injecting various agents into the brains of chicks close to the time of peck-avoidance training. With L-glutamate injected bilaterally into the hyperstriatum 5 min pretraining, retention was good 1 min posttraining but significantly impaired at 5 min and each subsequent time point

Teresa A. Patterson; Maria C. Alvarado; Irene T. Warner; Edward L. Bennett; Mark R. Rosenzweig



Effect of Antifungal Compounds on Aspergillosis in Hatching Chick Embryos  

PubMed Central

Aspergillosis was induced experimentally in hatching chick embryos by dipping them in water containing spores of Aspergillus fumigatus or A. flavus. The addition to the dip water of antifungal compounds prevented the development of this syndrome. Of the compounds studied, amphotericin B was most effective, followed by pimaricin and nystatin. Sorbic acid was without effect.

Huhtanen, C. N.; Pensack, J. M.



Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.



Vertebrate limb development — the early stages in chick and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

More news this year about FGFs and their roles in vertebrate limb initiation; Wnt signalling is shown for the first time to be another component of the signalling cascade involved in early limb formation. Ectodermal compartments that control apical ridge formation were previously described in chick embryos and are now shown to exist in mouse embryos; Engrailed1 is expressed in

Cheryll Tickle; Andrea Münsterberg



Elevated brain GABA correlates with systemic dysfunctions in paroxysmal chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered brain GABA, phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate have been documented in paroxysmal (px) chicks in earlier studies, suggesting perturbations in energy metabolism as a causative factor in this syndrome that is characterized by spontaneous neural degeneration of several central sensory systems, grand mal seizures, and progressive anorexia. In this study, brain sections from 5-, 7-, and 10-day-oldpx and normal White

Polly A. Lewis; Mary M. Beck; Jihad H. Douglas



Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

Rossman, Gabriel



Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis. Through analyzing

Gabriel Rossman



The nucleosome repeat length increases during erythropoiesis in the chick.  

PubMed Central

During erythropoiesis in the chick, the nucleosome repeat length increases from 190 base pairs to 212 base pairs. This increase is correlated with a dramatic increase in the concentration of the red cell specific histone H5 (from 0.2 molecules per nucleosome to 1 molecule per nucleosome) and with no change in the concentration of H1 (1 molecule per nucleosome). Images

Weintraub, H



Tetracycline derivatives inhibit cartilage degradation in cultured embryonic chick tibiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetracyclines have been used extensively as antibiotics and growth promoters in the poultry industry. However, they can inhibit angiogenesis and matrix degradation, both of which are essential for normal growth plate cartilage development. The purpose of this research was to test the ability of several tetracyclines to inhibit cartilage degradation in cultured embryonic chick tibiae. Based on gross observations and

K. A Chlebek; A. A Cole; T. M Schmid



Studies on the adaptation of mumps virus to chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15 serial passages of wild type mumps virus (Sasazaki strain) in the amnion sac of chick embryo (CE) yielded a CE-adapted strain which was poorly replicative and did not form plaques in Vero cells where the wild strain grew well. In the course of this limited replication of the CE-adapted strain in Vero cells, we have analysed the viral

H. Naruse; T. Morishima; S. Isomura; M. Hamaguchi; T. Toyoda; T. Yoshida; Y. Nagai



Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.



Analysis of TBX18 expression in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

T-box genes encode transcription factors that control the development of diverse tissues and organs in vertebrate embryos. Here, we report the expression of the TBX18 gene during chick development. TBX18 expression is found in anterior halves of prospective and definitive somites as well as in the unsegmented cranial region of the paraxial mesoderm. Expression levels are high in the presomitic

Bénédicte Haenig; Andreas Kispert



Viscoelastic material properties of the myocardium and cardiac jelly in the looping chick heart.  


Accurate material properties of developing embryonic tissues are a crucial factor in studies of the mechanics of morphogenesis. In the present work, we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of the looping heart tube in the chick embryo through nonlinear finite element modeling and microindentation experiments. Both hysteresis and ramp-hold experiments were performed on the intact heart and isolated cardiac jelly (extracellular matrix). An inverse computational method was used to determine the constitutive relations for the myocardium and cardiac jelly. With both layers assumed to be quasilinear viscoelastic, material coefficients for an Ogden type strain-energy density function combined with Prony series of two terms or less were determined by fitting numerical results from a simplified model of a heart segment to experimental data. The experimental and modeling techniques can be applied generally for determining viscoelastic material properties of embryonic tissues. PMID:22482677

Yao, Jiang; Varner, Victor D; Brilli, Lauren L; Young, Jonathan M; Taber, Larry A; Perucchio, Renato




PubMed Central

The intracellular position of the Golgi apparatuses in the basal cell layer of the corneal epithelium in embryonic and hatched chicks has been studied in the light microscope by impregnating the Golgi apparatus with silver. During two distinct periods in development the Golgi apparatuses in the basal cells shift from an apical to basal position. Each of these periods correlates in time with the appearance of an acellular collagenous matrix beneath the epithelium. Examination of the basal epithelial cells in the electron microscope confirms the intracellular shifts in position of the Golgi apparatus. The results suggest that the Golgi apparatus shifts to the basal cell pole of the corneal epithelium in order to excrete connective tissue materials into the developing corneal stroma.

Trelstad, Robert L.



Otic Lesions and Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Developing Chick*  

PubMed Central

In an effort to elucidate the relation, if any, between thyroid abnormality and congenital deafness in Pendred's syndrome, an experiment was designed to study the effects of hypothyroidism on middle and inner ear hearing structures, including the auditory nerve and its central projection, in developing chick embryos. Propylthiouracil (PTU), 2 mg, was injected into the albumin of fertile chick eggs on the 10th incubation day. Single doses of L-thyroxine (range 1-100?g) were inoculated in a similar manner, either alone or with PTU. Control inocula included sterile saline or water. After hatching, each chick was examined for obvious malformations. The thyroid glands, middle and inner ear mechanisms, auditory nerve, and brainstem were studied grossly and with different histologic staining techniques. When compared to controls, chicks exposed to PTU on their 10th incubation day exhibited: increased mortality, delayed hatching, reduced size, incomplete yolk sac absorption, and death within 5 days unless exogenous thyroid hormone was provided in the first 24-48 hr after hatching. Specific, consistent, morphologic alterations were observed in their thyroid glands as well as in the sensory hair cells of the acoustic papilla and cells of the spiral ganglion of the cochlea. Our data also indicate that if 50-75 ?g of L-thyroxine is given simultaneously with (or as long as 120 hr after) the PTU injection on the 10th incubation day, one cannot detect the gross defects, marked thyroid lesions, or abnormal histology in cells of the cochlea and its ganglion. A relationship between embryonic thyroid gland function and the hearing mechanism of the chick embryo is suggested. Images

Bargman, Gerald J.; Gardner, Lytt I.



Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.  


Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior. PMID:20548080

Navara, K J; Pinson, S E



The preference for high-fiber feed in laying hens divergently selected on feather pecking.  


Earlier studies in laying hens have demonstrated a negative correlation between feather pecking and the dietary fiber content of the feed. However, the factors underlying this relationship are not fully understood. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that birds prone to feather pecking would prefer a diet supplemented with dietary fiber. Thus, the aim was to investigate the voluntary consumption of a wheat-soy control diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 8% spelt hulls (FIB) on the expense of wheat in 20 individually caged hens selected for high feather pecking (HFP) behavior and 20 individually caged hens selected for low feather pecking (LFP) behavior. The proportional intake of FIB was 0.39 and significantly different from 0.50 (P<0.001). As hypothesized, HFP had higher proportional intake of FIB (0.43) than LFP hens (0.36; P<0.05). The HFP hens had inferior plumage condition (P<0.001), higher BW (P<0.001), and higher feed intake (P<0.01) than LFP. The HFP hens plucked more feathers from a simple inanimate feather-pecking model, but the number of feathers being pulled out did not correlate with the proportional intake of FIB. It was concluded that the preference for feed supplemented with spelt hulls was different between hens displaying different feather-pecking behavior. The underlying reason for such a difference needs further investigation. PMID:22802168

Kalmendal, R; Bessei, W



Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.  


Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin. PMID:17127475

Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto


A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens.  


Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major food-borne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the future as control over Salmonella Enteritidis continues to improve. To that end, the present review examines the published literature on Salmonella Typhimurium in laying hens and eggs, with particular reference to comparative studies examining different serovars. Experimentally Salmonella Enteritidis is more often isolated from egg contents and seems to adhere better to reproductive tract mucosa, whilst Salmonella Typhimurium appears to provoke a more intense tissue pathology and immune response, and flock infections are more transient. However, it is observed in many cases that the present body of evidence does not identify clear differences between specific behaviours of the serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, whether in laying hens, in their eggs, or in the laying environment. It is concluded that further long-term experimental and natural infection studies are needed in order to generate a clearer picture. PMID:21879803

Wales, A D; Davies, R H



Use of infrared thermography to assess laying-hen feather coverage.  


Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT. For all the 6 body parts and the area-weighted overall, the area of excellent feather (EF) determined by IRT was positively correlated with the 4-scale scores determined by FS (P < 0.05), whereas the areas of fair feather (FF), no feather (NF), and body surface temperature were negatively correlated with FS scores (P < 0.05). Feather deterioration occurred for elder hens at all body parts. Feather coverage of the hens was classified as 98.7% EF, 1.3% FF, and 0% NF at 28 wk of age; 70.2% EF, 20.6% FF, and 9.2% NF at 56 wk of age; and 35.4% EF, 17.1% FF, and 49.5% NF at 73 wk of age. As a result of less feather coverage and higher surface temperature, sensible heat loss was speculated to be higher for 56- and 73-wk-old hens than for 28-wk-old hens, potentially leading to higher feed-to-egg conversion for the elder hens. It was concluded that IRT is a promising technique or tool that may provide a more objective and quantitative evaluation of laying-hen feather conditions and delineation of bird thermoregulation. PMID:23300292

Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Dong, B



Evaporative cooling of ventral regions of the skin in heat-stressed laying hens.  


Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of water from the ventral regions of the bird. The type of plumage in the ventral regions and the exposed skin of the apteria enable more efficient wetting than is possible with dorsal cooling. A ventral cooling regime, comprising an initial period of frequent wettings followed by intermittent wetting for 10 s every 30 min was able to maintain normothermia of laying hens subjected to a 10-h period of heat exposure. Dorsal cooling was less efficient; body temperature and respiration rate were higher and skin temperatures were lower than in ventrally cooled hens. During 10 d of heat exposure, ventrally cooled hens maintained egg weight and shell index (mg/cm2), whereas their food intake decreased moderately. In contrast, egg weight, shell index, and food intake all decreased markedly in uncooled or dorsally cooled hens. Transient alterations in plasma concentrations of corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were noted in uncooled and dorsally cooled hens but not in ventrally cooled hens. Results indicate that ventral cooling is an efficient method to alleviate heat stress in laying hens during summer. Successful implementation of ventral cooling in poultry houses will depend on optimal installation of sprinklers and on minimal wetting of manure. PMID:11469662

Wolfenson, D; Bachrach, D; Maman, M; Graber, Y; Rozenboim, I



Effect of virginiamycin on serum carotenoid levels and long, segmented, filamentous organisms in broiler chicks.  


Virginiamycin (Stafac 20) was mixed with feed at three levels recommended for chickens--5.5, 11, and 22 mg/kg (respectively 5, 10 and 20 g/ton)--and fed to broiler chicks. When fed from 1 day through 2 weeks of age, the drug appeared to retard infection of the lower small intestine by long, segmented, filamentous organisms (LSFOs), and at 2 weeks of age serum carotenoids in treated chicks were significantly higher than levels found in unmedicated chicks. However, as chicks were grown out to 4 and 6 weeks of age, the drug did not completely prevent eventual LSFO infection, even at the highest dose, and mean serum carotenoid levels in treated chicks were not significantly different from levels in control chicks. However, chicks fed at the level of 22 mg/kg had fewer LSFOs. Withdrawal of virginiamycin from treated chicks at 4 weeks of age allowed LSFO infection to occur but did not significantly affect serum carotenoid levels. When the drug was fed for 2 weeks at 22 mg/kg to 2-week-old chicks already infected with LSFOs, the bacteria could no longer be detected, suggesting that virginiamycin may aid the natural decline in LSFO population. Coincident with this treatment, serum carotenoids were higher, but not significantly so. Virginiamycin did not significantly increase the mean body weights of chicks in any of these experiments. PMID:1485871

Allen, P C


PCB levels in egg yolks associated with embryonic mortality and deformity of hatched chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exposing White Leghorn hens for six weeks to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254 in water was investigated. While egg production decreased temporarily, no significant effects were noted on egg weights or fertility. Incubation of eggs from exposed hens indicated that this polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) did not interfere with gametogenesis and fertilization. As Aroclor 1254 accumulated in the

Casimir Francis Tumasonis; Brian Bush; Frederick Donald Baker



Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.  


1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10.2 vs. 9.9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding of fermented feed increased intestinal health by acidification of the upper digestive tract, forming a natural barrier towards infection with acid sensitive pathogens, e.g. E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. 8. It was concluded that fermented wet feed offers potential benefits for health and nutrition, but may become suitable for layers only after the practical problems related to this feeding form have been overcome. However, an early adaptation of the birds during the rearing period seems to be necessary. PMID:19373724

Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B



Economic feasibility of electricity generation on cage layer operations  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion has been proposed as a method that enhances the economic value of manure as well as environmental quality. The Technical feasibility of anaerobic digestion has been demonstrated in several small and large scale digesters operating with different animal manures. The economic feasibility of this technology, however, has been investigated in only a few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of anaerobically digesting cage layer manure, assuming that the biogas produced was used to generate electricity which was sold to a public utility. The first step was to estimate a biogas production function from cage layer manure based on published data gathered from laboratory and large scale digesters. This production function was used to calculate electricity output and to specify a unique biogas to electricity systems (BES) for eight egg farms ranging in size from 40,000 to 576,000 hens. In the second step, a computer simulation model was designed to determine the initial investment requirements for the BES in each farm size. In the third step, the simulation model was used to evaluate the economic feasibility of the BES investment under different economic and technical assumptions. The study shows initial capital requirements for setting up a BES ranging from $115,470 for a 40,000 hen farm to $649,120 for a 576,000 hen farm. Average investment per hen declined from $2.89 to $1.13 for the 40,000 and 576,000 hen farms, respectively. These figures indicate considerable economies of size associated with the BES investment. The simulation analysis revealed that the economic feasibility of the BES investment was significantly affected by farm size, electricity price projections, and technical performance levels. Tax credits and interest rates, ceteris paribus, had only a slight impact on net present value signs. 38 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

Bravo-Ureta, B.E.; McMahon, G.V.



Salmonella Gallinarum field isolates from laying hens are related to the vaccine strain SG9R.  


Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Gallinarum can cause severe systemic disease in chickens and a live Salmonella Gallinarum 9R vaccine (SG9R) has been used widely to control disease. Using whole-genome sequencing we found point mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase (aceE) and/or lipopolysaccharide 1,2-glucosyltransferase (rfaJ) genes that likely explain the attenuation of the SG9R vaccine strain. Molecular typing using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis showed that strains isolated from different layer flocks in multiple countries and the SG9R vaccine strain were similar. The genome of one Salmonella Gallinarum field strain, isolated from a flock with a mortality peak and selected on the basis of identical PFGE and MLVA patterns with SG9R, was sequenced. We found 9 non-silent single-nucleotide differences distinguishing the field strain from the SG9R vaccine strain. Our data show that a Salmonella Gallinarum field strain isolated from laying hens is almost identical to the SG9R vaccine. Mutations in the aceE and rfaJ genes could explain the reversion to a more virulent phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of using well defined gene deletion mutants as vaccines. PMID:23994381

Van Immerseel, F; Studholme, D J; Eeckhaut, V; Heyndrickx, M; Dewulf, J; Dewaele, I; Van Hoorebeke, S; Haesebrouck, F; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Ducatelle, R; Paszkiewicz, K; Titball, R W



Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens.  


The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells. PMID:20885842

Tran, Thi Q L; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine



Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens  

PubMed Central

The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells.

Tran, Thi Q.L.; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine



Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge at onset of lay on digestive and reproductive tract characteristics in commercial layers.  


Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a reproductive/respiratory pathogen in poultry, has been implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 20 wk of age. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, digestive tract weight and length, or histopathologic lesion scores, although significant differences were noted in the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. This study shows that S6MG inoculation does not detrimentally affect layer hen performance when in the absence of environmental stressors customary to a caged layer facility. PMID:12713163

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R


Replacement value of hatchery waste meal for fish meal in layer diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in which hatchery waste meal (HWM) replaced fish meal (protein for protein) in layer diets at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels. Both feed and protein intake were superior on HWM diets. The highest hen-day production of 73.97% was obtained on diet 2 in which 33% of fish meal was replaced with HWM. Egg weight and

S. S Abiola; E. K Onunkwor



Effect of Single or Combined Climatic and Hygienic Stress in Four Layer Lines: 1. Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of long-term climatic stress (heat exposure), short-term hygienic stress [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], or a combination of both challenges on performance of 4 layer lines were investigated. The lines were earlier characterized by natural humoral immune competence and survival rate. At 22 wk of age, 80 hens per line were randomly divided over 2 identical climate chambers and exposed to a

L. Star; B. Kemp; Anker van den I; H. K. Parmentier



Characterization of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment in laying hens fed an extruded flax enrichment source.  


The time required to reach a plateau of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in plasma and egg yolk and dynamics of the enrichment process were examined in laying hens. A group of 75 Lohmann White Leghorn layers (65 wk) were fed one of 3 diets: control, moderate, or high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet for 18 d. Diets provided similar ME and CP and contained 0, 7.5%, or 15% LinPRO (source of n-3 PUFA), respectively. Prior to dietary treatment, baseline values were established for the BW, fatty acid composition in egg yolk on a whole-egg basis, and in plasma. These measurements were repeated at 6, 12, and 18 d of feeding. Enzymatic conversion rates of linolenic acid (LNA) to long-chain fatty acids were calculated. Data were analyzed with Proc Mixed of SAS, and broken stick analysis was used to determine n-3 PUFA plateau using the NLIN procedure of SAS (P < 0.05). The total egg yolk n-3 PUFA reached a plateau of 343.7 mg/egg and 272.9 mg/egg after 6.6 and 5.9 d on the high and moderate diets, respectively. In blood plasma, the n-3 PUFA concentrations reached saturation in 7.2 d with 0.93 mg/mL and 0.67 mg/mL on high and moderate diets, respectively. The transfer efficiency of total n-3 PUFA from the diet to the egg yolk was calculated as 55.6% in control birds, 30.5% in moderate birds, and 22.2% in high birds, demonstrating reduced transfer efficiency of n-3 PUFA as inclusion in the feed increases. Final egg yolk n-3 PUFA concentrations had a CV of 16.5% compared with 28.5% for plasma. After 12 d, the long-chain n-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were significantly higher in egg yolk from hens on the moderate and high enriched diets compared with those from hens fed the control diet, whereas in plasma values did not differ. Broken stick analysis of egg enrichment indicated that high birds reached the target threshold of 300 mg of total n-3 PUFA/egg in 5 d. A significant increase in EPA, DPA, and DHA and reduction in arachidonic acid content in egg yolks from hens fed enriched diets compared with the control diet confirms competition for enzymes during postabsorptive modification of these fatty acids. This work contributes to the understanding of individual hen effects on n-3 PUFA absorption and the effect of level of dietary enrichment with an extruded flax product on final yolk n-3 PUFA concentration. PMID:22700520

Nain, S; Renema, R A; Korver, D R; Zuidhof, M J



In vivo gene transfer into skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks by electroporation.  


Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) show considerable growth of skeletal muscle during the neonatal period. The in vivo gene transfer method is useful for studying gene function and can be employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth in chicks. We evaluated the following conditions for gene transfer to the skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks by electroporation: (i) voltage; (ii) age of the chick; (iii) plasmid DNA injected amount; and (iv) duration of gene expression. The results obtained from this study indicate that the most efficient gene transfer condition was as follows: 75 µg of plasmid DNA encoding ?-galactosidase was injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of chicks at 4 days of age electroporated at 50 V/cm. In addition, peak transferred gene expression was observed from 3 days to 5 days after electroporation. Our results provide optimal electroporation conditions for elucidating the gene function related to skeletal muscle growth and development in neonatal chicks. PMID:22694336

Ijiri, Daichi; Saegusa, Akito; Matsubara, Tomoko; Kanai, Yukio; Hirabayashi, Miho



Isolation-stress-induced facilitation of passive avoidance memory in the day-old chick.  


This study showed that facilitation of recall of a weak version of the 1-trial passive avoidance learning task could be achieved by behavioral "stressing" of day-old chicks after training. Recall, usually retained for less than 9 hr, was extended by socially isolating the chicks for 1 hr immediately after training. There was a brief 3-fold increase in plasma corticosterone levels 10 min after isolation. Facilitated recall was not evident when chicks were isolated 2 hr after training, and it was blocked by intracerebral administration of 2-ng RU 38486, a specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, per chick. Male chicks responded more to isolation than did female chicks, presumably a consequence of the additional stress of the injection procedure. PMID:9733199

Johnston, A N; Rose, S P



Efficiency of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks (Rhea americana).  


1. The feasibility and accuracy of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks was assessed using chicks of two captive populations of greater rhea in Córdoba, Argentina. 2. A total of 46 greater rhea chicks of 2 to 3 months of age were randomly arranged into three groups and the members of each group were sexed by a different operator. 3. A feather of each chick was plucked for sexing through a molecular method and results were used as controls. 4. Sex was correctly assigned by cloacal inspection in 98% of the cases. Chick manipulation was easily performed and no infections or traumatic lesions were observed a posteriori. 5. Cloacal sexing of rhea chicks up to 3 months of age does not affect animal welfare and should be considered an efficient alternative to molecular methods. PMID:22978597

Bazzano, G; Lèche, A; Martella, M B; Navarro, J L



Effect of diets supplemented with different levels of manganese, zinc, and copper from their organic or inorganic sources on egg production and quality characteristics in laying hens.  


This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc, manganese, and copper sources (inorganic vs. organic) in the diet on laying performance and eggshell quality characteristics. One hundred and eighty Hy-Line W-36 layers at 38 weeks of age were allocated to 36-layer cages of five hens each. Each six cages were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental diets fed from 38 to 53 week of age. In three experimental treatments, the basal diet was supplemented with 65-75-7 or 65-75-7 or 40-40-7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from their oxide or sulfate sources. Three other groups were fed diets supplemented with 20-20-3.5 or 40-40-7.5 or 60-60-10.5 mg/kg of organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively. Dietary treatments significantly did affect feed intake (P?hens maintained their performance when substitution of Zn and Mn oxides and Cu sulfate (65, 75, and 7 mg kg(-1), respectively) reduced up to 20, 20, and 3.5 mg kg(-1) by amino acid complexes of the microelements. The results showed that a corn-soybean diet supplemented with the organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu at a dosage 50% to 75% lower than NRC recommendation is sufficient to maintain laying performance and can improve eggshell and albumen qualities of the egg in laying hens. PMID:20711683

Gheisari, Abbas Ali; Sanei, Abbas; Samie, Abdolhossein; Gheisari, Mohamad Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid



Posthatching evolution of in vivo mevalonate metabolism in chick liver.  


The in vivo mevalonate incorporation into total nonsaponifiable lipids by chick liver was minimal after hatching and drastically increased between 1-5 days. The hepatic synthesis of different cholesterol precursors emerged sequentially after hatching. Between 1-5 days increased strongly the conversion of mevalonate into squalene and also the formation of oxygenated lanosterol derivatives from squalene. The conversion of squalene became completely active at day 8. Cholesterol formation from lanosterol derivatives was completely activated between 8-11 days. Results in this paper demonstrate for the first time the accumulation of a fraction of nonsaponifiable lipids identified as lanosterol derivatives and cholesterol precursors formed from [5-14C]mevalonate in experiments carried out in vivo. Postnatal evolution of these oxysterols may explain the great increase of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity found in chick liver between 5-11 days, simultaneous or posterior to the diminution of the oxygenated cholesterol precursors. PMID:3579966

Aguilera, J A; García-Molina, V; Linares, A; Arce, V; García-Peregrin, E



Activation and Inactivation of Mechanosensitive Currents in the Chick Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The behavior of MS channels in embryonic chick ventricular myocytes activated by direct mechanical stimulation is strongly\\u000a affected by inactivation. The amplitude of the current is dependent not only on the amplitude of the stimulus, but also the\\u000a history of stimulation. The MS current inactivation appears to be composed of at least two contributions: (i) rearrangement\\u000a of the cortical

G. C. L. Bett; F. Sachs



Transplantation of neural tissue: quail-chick chimeras.  


Tissue transplantation is an important approach in developmental neurobiology to determine cell fate, to uncover inductive interactions required for tissue specification and patterning as well as to establish tissue competence and commitment. Avian species are among the favorite model systems for these approaches because of their accessibility and relatively large size. Here we describe two culture techniques used to generate quail-chick chimeras at different embryonic stages and methods to distinguish graft and donor tissue. PMID:24048938

Streit, Andrea; Stern, Claudio D



Chick embryo retina development in vitro: The effect of insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the development of chick embryo retina culturedin vitro and the effects exerted by insulin. Retinas were removed from 7-day embryos and cultured in serum-and hormone-free medium for 7 additional days. Under these conditions retinal cells survived and underwent cholinergic differentiation, as previously ascertained by Hausman et al. (Dev. Brain Res., 1991, 59: 31–37). However, a

Giovanni Tesoriere; Renza Vento; Vincenza Morello; Rosa Maria Tomasino; Maria Carabilló; Marianna Lauricella



A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipid- rich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding

Alexander S. Kitaysky; Evgenia V. Kitaiskaia; John F. Piatt; John C. Wingfield



Streptomycin retards the phenotypic maturation of chick myogenic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As part of an effort to optimize conditions required for the complete maturation of muscle cells in vitro, we have investigated\\u000a the effects of the antibiotics penicillin, streptomycin, and Fungizone (amphotericin B) on the development of cultured chick\\u000a embryo skeletal muscle. It is shown that even low dosages of streptomycin, but not penicillin or Fungizone, retard protein\\u000a synthesis and accumulation

Paul S. Moss; Dennis H. Spector; Charles A. Glass; Richard C. Strohman



A detailed paraxial schematic eye for the White Leghorn chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the normal ocular development of the chick (Gallus gallus domesticus, White Leghorn) up to 15 days of age using both longitudinal and cross-sectional methods. The change in refractive error,\\u000a corneal curvature and axial ocular distances were used to construct schematic eyes. Equations are presented which allow prediction\\u000a of refractive error changes associated with changes in vitreous chamber depth. The

Natalia V. Avila; Sally A. McFadden



Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).  


The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints. PMID:24005252

Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude



Role for purinergic receptors in memory processing in young chicks.  


The current study used a single trial bead discrimination task for the young chick to ascertain if inhibitors of P2 purinergic receptors would impair memory retention. Suramin and PPADS provided similar retention profiles. Loss of memory retention was evident by 60 min post-training. Both drugs caused persistent memory loss which was still evident 24h post-training. These findings suggest that P2 receptors have a role in memory processing. PMID:21600243

Cronin, Catherine; Edwards, Thomas M; Gibbs, Marie E




Microsoft Academic Search

The development of keratin in 9 to 17 day embryonic chick feathers has bcen studied by x-ray diffraction and cytochcmical mcthods. The x-ray diffraction pattcrn given by the 9-day feathers contains none of thc fcaturcs sccn in the adult pattern. In thc l0 to 1 l day pattcrns, besides two diffuse rings centered at 4.7 A and l0 A, two




Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the antioxidant status in the absence or presence of endotoxin exposure was studied with male broiler chicks.2. In experiment 1, a total of 240 1-d-old broilers were allotted into 4 dietary groups (0, 2·5, 5·0 or 10·0 g pure CLA\\/kg) to study the influence of CLA on growth performance and

H. J. Zhang; Y. M. Guo; Y. D. Tian; J. M. Yuan



Neurotoxic effects of aluminium on embryonic chick brain cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic damage of brain cells by aluminium (A1) is discussed as a possible factor in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in humans. To investigate neurotoxic effects of A1, serum-free cultures of mechanically dissociated embryonic chick (stage 28–29) forebrain, brain stem and optic tectum, and for comparison meningeal cells, were treated with A1 (0–1000 M) for 7 days. Effects of A1

Judith Pia Miiller; Arend Bruinink



Energy requirements of Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy requirements of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks were analysed with respect to body mass (W, 0.145–3.35 kg, n=36) and various forms of activity (lying, standing, minor activity, locomotion, walking on a treadmill). Direct respirometry was used to measure O2 consumption (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{_{O_{{\\\\text{ 2}}} } } ,l \\\\cdot h^{ - 1} $$\\u000a) and CO2 production. Heart rate

B. Culik; A. J. Woakes; D. Adelung; R. P. Wilson; N. R. Coria; H. J. Spairani



Transmembrane chloride flux in tissue-cultured chick heart cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the transmembrane movement of chloride in a preparation of cardiac muscle lacking the extracellular diffusion limitations of natural specimens, intracellular chloride concentration ( (Cl) i) and transmembrane ³⁶Cl efflux have been determined in growth-oriented embryonic chick heart cells in tissue culture. Using the method of isotopic equilibrium, (Cl)i was 25.1 +\\/- 7.3 mmol x (liter cell water)-1, comparable

D. Piwnica-Worms; R. Jacob; C. R. Horres; M. Lieberman



LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0–15.0nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0nmol

Mark A. Cline; Jessica E. Layne; Wendy A. Calchary; Robert R. Sheehy; Tetsuya Tachibana; Mitsuhiro Furuse



A Chick Model of Retinal Detachment: Cone Rich and Novel  

PubMed Central

Background Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD) model in the chick. Methodology/Principal Findings Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG). Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP), proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas. Conclusions/Significance Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies.

Cebulla, Colleen M.; Zelinka, Chris P.; Scott, Melissa A.; Lubow, Martin; Bingham, Amanda; Rasiah, Stephen; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Fischer, Andy J.



Manolos, Marriage, and Mantras: Chick-Lit Criticism and Transnational Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical readings of “chick lit” are typically limited to a framework that understands the popular fiction genre as a sign or symptom of “postfeminism” in the U.S. In its readings of chick lit in general, and of South Asian American chick lit as a particular women of color subgenre, this essay steps away from the framework of postfeminism that so

Pamela Butler; Jigna Desai



In vitro Formation of Piperidine, Cadaverine and Pipecolic Acid in Chick and Mouse Brain during Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated for the first time in vitro formation of cadaverine and pipecolid acid from L-lysine in (a) chick embryos and chick embryo heads at 3–7 days of incubation (d.i.) and 5–7 d.i., respectively; (b) brain of chick embryos from 11 d.i. to 30 days after hatching (d.a.h.) for cadaverine and from 20 d.i. to 30 d.a.h. for pipecolic

Y. Nomura; T. Schmidt-Glenewinkel; E. Giacobini



Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on lipid metabolism in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of corn oil, coconut oil, and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT, a glyceride mixture consisting almost exclusively\\u000a of fatty acids of 8 and 10 carbons in length) ingestion on lipid metabolism was studied in chicks. In chicks fed cholesterol-free\\u000a diets, MCT ingestion elevated plasma total lipids and cholesterol and depressed liver total lipids and cholesterol when compared\\u000a to chicks receiving

Gilbert A. Leveille; Ronald S. Pardini; Jerry Ann Tillotson



Natural and Imposed Astigmatism and their Relation to Emmetropization in the Chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the ocular response of young chicks to astigmatic errors imposed by spectacle lenses and as a related issue, we examined the nature and prevalence of astigmatism in young chicks, and its relation to corneal development and natural emmetropization.Normal hatchling chicks exhibited significant against-the-rule refractive astigmatism (approx. 8 D) of which 60–90% was corneal. Both types of astigmatism




Parental quality and egg size affect chick survival in a precocial bird, the lapwing Vanellus vanellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of egg size and parental quality on lapwing Vanellus vanellus chick survival were studied in southwestern Sweden over 6 years. Chicks from large eggs were heavier at hatching and survived\\u000a significantly better than those from small eggs. To control for the confounding effect of parental quality on egg size and\\u000a chick survival, we performed a cross-fostering experiment during 2

Donald Blomqvist; Olof C. Johansson; Frank Götmark



Glycoprotein 115, a glycoprotein isolated from chick blood vessels, is widely distributed in connective tissue  

PubMed Central

An extracellular glycoprotein (gp 115) with an apparent Mr = 115,000 isolated from chick aortas (Bressan, G. M., I. Castellani, A. Colombatti, and D. Volpin, 1983, J. Biol. Chem., 258:13262-13267), was used to immunize mice. The antisera were shown to specifically recognize gp 115 by numerous criteria: a major band around Mr = 115,000 plus minor bands of lower Mr were visible by immunoblotting on aorta extracts, and a similar pattern was observed with a monoclonal antibody; no cross-reactivity was detected by radioimmunobinding with other extracellular proteins, namely, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen types I, III, IV, V, and VI. Antigen distribution on frozen tissue sections from newborn chicks was investigated by using affinity- purified antibody. Strong immunoreactivity was always found in blood vessels. In the digestive tract, the fluorescent staining was localized both at the level of muscular layers and in the stromal matrix of the villi. Within skeletal muscle and myocardium, staining was associated with large connective tissue bundles and the matrix around each muscle fiber. Intense fluorescence was observed in the kidney, in smooth muscle cells rich areas of parabronchi, and within the portal space and along liver sinusoids. The antigen was not detected at the epidermal- dermal junction; immunoreactivity in the dermis was present as a diffuse fibrillar pattern. That the antigen detected by immunofluorescence in the various organs was indeed gp 115 was demonstrated by immunoblotting analysis: as in aorta extracts, a major band around Mr = 115,000 was detected in several tissues. Antibody- reacting material was also incorporated into the extracellular matrix produced by embryo smooth muscle cells grown in vitro and was organized as a meshwork of fine fibrils.



Social influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks  

PubMed Central

Social factors involved in the control of impulsiveness were examined in domestic chicks. In binary choices between a large/long-delay option (LL) and a small/short-delay alternative (SS), chicks that had been competitively trained in groups of three individuals showed fewer choices of LL than did those trained in isolation (experiment 1), suggesting that competition causes impulsive choice. In experiment 2, in order to identify the critical factor involved, we tested the effects of perceived competition (coincident feeding without interruption) and scrounging (gaining food without pecking bead) separately. To examine the effects of risk/noise that individual chicks experienced in competition, the food amount varied randomly in trials according to a binomial distribution around the expected mean. Perceived competition primarily contributed to the influence on the impulsive choice, whereas the contribution of scrounging was weaker. Collection risk did not explain the social influences since the perceived competition was not accompanied by actual interruption of the delayed food reward. The risk owing to variable food per se did not cause impulsive choices. Coincident foraging during competition is thought to play a critical role.

Amita, Hidetoshi; Kawamori, Ai; Matsushima, Toshiya



Social influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.  


Social factors involved in the control of impulsiveness were examined in domestic chicks. In binary choices between a large/long-delay option (LL) and a small/short-delay alternative (SS), chicks that had been competitively trained in groups of three individuals showed fewer choices of LL than did those trained in isolation (experiment 1), suggesting that competition causes impulsive choice. In experiment 2, in order to identify the critical factor involved, we tested the effects of perceived competition (coincident feeding without interruption) and scrounging (gaining food without pecking bead) separately. To examine the effects of risk/noise that individual chicks experienced in competition, the food amount varied randomly in trials according to a binomial distribution around the expected mean. Perceived competition primarily contributed to the influence on the impulsive choice, whereas the contribution of scrounging was weaker. Collection risk did not explain the social influences since the perceived competition was not accompanied by actual interruption of the delayed food reward. The risk owing to variable food per se did not cause impulsive choices. Coincident foraging during competition is thought to play a critical role. PMID:19906684

Amita, Hidetoshi; Kawamori, Ai; Matsushima, Toshiya



Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure.  


Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3mg/kg, 28.4mg/kg and 42.6mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species. PMID:22554862

Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A M; Joshi, C G; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan



Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with /sup 65/Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection.

Hill, C.H.



Effect of arsenic trioxide on metallothionein and its conversion to different arsenic metabolites in hen liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of arsenic, its affinity to metallothionein (MT), its influence on selenium levels, and its biotransformation\\u000a to different metabolites in the liver tissue of laying hens exposed to arsenic trioxide (As2O3) was investigated. The experiment was performed with two groups of hens fed for 19 d with either a standard diet or with\\u000a the same diet enriched in arsenic

Ingrid Falnoga; Vekoslava Stibilj; Majda Tušek-Žnidari?; Zdenka Šlejkovec; Darja Mazej; Radojko Ja?imovi?; Janez Š?an?ar



The relationship between isofenphos cholinergic toxicity and the development of polyneuropathy in hens and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species differences have been observed between hen and human clinical manifestations of isofenphos toxicities. Hens treated with the insecticide isofenphos (90 mg\\/kg p.o.) developed severe cholinergic toxicity followed by mild organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). However, a patient developed severe OPIDP, which was preceded by very mild cholinergic signs, after an attempted suicide with a commercial formulation containing isofenphos and phoxim,

Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti



Effects of breeder hen age and dietary L-carnitine on progeny embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were given diets containing 0 or 25?mg L-carnitine\\/kg (8 replications per treatment) from 21 weeks of age.2. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males. In a common facility, subsequent progeny hatchability and embryonic mortality at 25, 30, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated.3. Subsequent egg component weights, incubational

E. D. Peebles; M. T. Kidd; C. D. McDaniel; J. P. Tanksley; H. M. Parker; A. Corzo; J. C. Woodworth



Upper limb and grasp rehabilitation and evaluation of stroke patients using HenRiE device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study with a HenRiE (Haptic environment for reaching and grasping exercises) device with two hemiparetic subjects. The HenRiE device is intended for use in a robot-aided neurorehabilitation for training of reaching and grasping in haptic environments. The goal of the study is to develop a single system that retrains both hand grasping and releasing movements

Janez Podobnik; Matja Mihelj; Marko Munih



Effects of Broiler Breeder Hen Age and Dietary Fat Intake on Circulating Serum Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latour, M.A., Peebles, E.D., Doyle, S.M. and Panskv, T. 2001. Effects of broiler breeder hen age and dietary fat intake on circulating serum lipids. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 19: 73–84.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet and broiler breeder hen age on serum cholesterol (CHOL) and very low density (VLDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins.

Mickey A. Latour; E. David Peebles; S. M. Doyle; T. Pansky



Changes in Egg Production Rate Induced by Progesterone Injection in Broiler Breeder Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polycystic ovarian follicle (PCOF) syn- drome associated with high baseline concentrations of progesterone (P4) without preovulatory luteinizing hor- mone (LH) surges has been reported in turkey hens. The PCOF syndrome could be induced in turkey hens by injecting P4 (0.33 mg\\/kg per d) daily early in the repro- ductive period for 10 to 12 d and then waiting 3

H.-K. Liu; W. L. Bacon


Effects of Dietary Zinc Supplementation on Hen Performance, Ammonia Volatilization, and Nitrogen Retention in Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnSO4 supplementation on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in hen manure. One hundred twenty, 45-wk-old commercial Leghorn laying hens were sequentially fed diets with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 (Zn-1000, Zn-2000, and Zn-3000), then followed by two control dietary periods with 114 ppm Zn (Control-1 and Control-2)




Interaction of methamidophos with hen and human acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methamidophos causes acute cholinergic toxicity in several species, including man, and organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy which has been reported in man but not in the hen. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) are thought to be the molecular targets of acute and delayed toxicity, respectively. The rate constants of inhibition (ka) and reactivation (k+3) of human and hen brain AChE

Mariaemilia Bertolazzi; Stefano Caroldi; Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti



Plumage loss in medium?bodied hybrid hens: The effect of beak trimming and cage design  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Plumage loss was assessed by visual scoring in 288, 78?week?old hens, housed as groups of four in battery cages, which differed in the design of the cage front and the position of the nipple drinkers.2. Half the hens had undergone beak trimming at 18 weeks, but in many cases regrowth had occurred.3. Plumage damage and loss was significantly reduced

B. O. Hughes; W. Michie



Dietary coenzyme Q10 suppressed hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in laying hens.  


The effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens were investigated. Dietary CoQ10 significantly reduced egg yolk cholesterol content and suppressed hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity. It is therefore likely that CoQ10 acts as an HMGR inhibitor in the livers of laying hens, which in turn results in a reduction in egg-yolk cholesterol. PMID:23832331

Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Motoki, Tohru; Park, Yuriko; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi



A spectrographic study of the symbiotic system HEN 1761  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a spectroscopic study in the optical and near infrared region of the symbiotic star Hen 1761. Relative fluxes and radial velocities of emission and absorption lines are obtained on the basis of low, intermediate and high resolution spectra. Our observations show that this scarcely studied object underwent very important spectroscopic variations in the interval 1990-1995. The observed variations are quite similar to those of symbiotic stars where accretion events on a hot dwarf are responsible for an eruptive behavior. Some of the physical parameters of the system are derived. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient\\'{\\i

Brandi, E.; Barba, R.; Garcia, L. G.; Beltran, N.



Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. (Technological Education Institute, Larissa (Greece)); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. (Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))



Pneumonia of turkey breeder hens associated with Mycoplasma synoviae.  


Turkey breeder hens showed an increase in mortality beginning at 38 wk of age with no other clinical signs or changes in egg production. While no respiratory signs were observed in live turkeys, those that died consistently had gross lesions of pneumonia. Histopathology of lungs revealed serofibrinous bronchopneumonia, lymphofollicular reaction, and other features suggesting a bacterial etiology. However, except for incidental findings, bacteria were not visualized in the sections examined, and none were isolated in meaningful numbers on routine bacteriologic media. At 42 wk of age the flock showed serologic evidence of infection with Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and MS was identified by both mycoplasma culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures in samples from choanal clefts and tracheas. Results of lung histopathology and PCR tests were consistent with a diagnosis of pneumonia caused by MS. PMID:17992944

Osorio, Claudia; Fletcher, Oscar J; Abdul-Aziz, Tahseen; Gonder, Eric; Tilley, Becky; Ley, David H



Effect of simultaneous exposure to nickel chloride and benzo(a)pyrene on developing chick embryos.  


In the present investigation the effect of Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and Nickel chloride, quite often identified in crude and refined or waste oil, when injected in combination, was investigated on developing chick embryos after exposing them through yolk sac route on 6th day of incubation. Exposure to this combination in different doses resulted in no new deformities other than those experienced in BP treated chick embryos. The mortality and malformations experienced in the chick embryos exposed to BP alone and NiCl2 alone were seen to be added when both the chemicals were simultaneously inoculated into the same chick eggs. PMID:3757825

Anwer, J; Mehrotra, N K



Call recognition in chicks of the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami).  


Most birds rely on imprinting and experience with conspecifics to learn species-specific recognition cues. Australian brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami) do not imprint and form no bonds with parents. They hatch asynchronously, disperse widely and meet juvenile conspecifics at an unpredictable age. Nevertheless, in captivity, hatchlings respond to other chicks. A recent study, which involved the use of robotic models, found that chicks prefer to approach robots that emit specific visual cues. Here, we evaluated their response to acoustic cues, which usually play an important role in avian social cognition. However, in simultaneous choice tests, neither 2-day-old nor 9-day-old chicks preferred the choice arm with playback of either chick or adult conspecific calls over the arm containing a silent loudspeaker. Chicks of both age classes, however, scanned their surroundings more during chick playback, and the response was thus consistent in younger and older chicks. We also presented the chicks with robotic models, either with or without playback of chick calls. They did not approach the calling robot more than they did the silent robot, indicating that the combination of visual and acoustic cues does not evoke a stronger response. These results will allow further comparison with species that face similar cognitive demands in the wild, such as brood parasites. Such a comparative approach, which is the focus of cognitive ecology, will enable us to further analyse the evolution and adaptive value of species recognition abilities. PMID:16160818

Barry, Katherine L; Göth, Ann



Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies.  


Nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti) often approach unattended chicks and perform parental and/or aggressive behaviors toward the chicks. Earlier descriptions of these encounters included sexual behaviors as well. We studied hormonal correlates of chick visits by such nonbreeding boobies during the breeding season. We compared the hormonal status of chick-visiting adults with that of nonvisiting adults in the colony. We determined levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), androstendione, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol as potential candidate hormones controlling parental, aggressive, or sexual behavior. Only T and CORT differed between chick-visiting and nonvisiting adults. Chick-visiting adults had higher CORT levels after the interaction than nonvisiting adults randomly caught in the colony. To the contrary. T levels after interactions were lower in chick-visiting compared to random nonvisiting adults. T levels, however, did not vary with level of aggression among chick-visiting adults. We suggest that chick-visiting behavior may be permitted by low T levels and activated by, or resulting in, high CORT levels. PMID:12695114

Tarlow, Elisa M; Wikelski, Martin; Anderson, David J



Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens.  


Experiment 1 was conducted to study the effects of feeding 60% untreated ervil seeds (UE) or ervil soaked in water at room temperature (RTWE) or at 40 degrees C (40WE) for 72 h with water change every 12 h on the performance and internal organ size of broilers. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet (control) and diets containing 60% UE, RTWE, or 40WE were fed to battery caged broilers in 4 replicates with 8 birds per replicate, from 8 to 49 d. Broilers consuming UE from 8 to 28 d gained less weight, used feed less efficiently, and had heavier liver, pancreas, and gall bladder weights (%BW) than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Compared with control birds, broilers on 40WE had similar relative organ weights, except for kidney, but lower BW gain at 49 d (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ervil seeds were soaked in 1% acetic acid at room temperature (RTAAE) or at 40 degrees C (40AAE) for 24 h. A conventional diet and diets containing 60% UE, 40WE, RTAAE, or 40AAE were fed to individually caged laying hens in 4 replicates per treatment with 5 hens per replicate for 42 d. Hens on UE had the poorest performance followed by RTAAE, 40WE, and then 40AAE (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, all treated ervil diets resulted in lower shell thickness values but higher Haugh unit scores (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, 30% dietary UE and 40AAE at 10, 20, and 30% were fed to layers for 56 d. The general performance of hens on 30% 40AAE was comparable with that of the control except for BW and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Compared with UE, the performance of broilers and layers was improved by 40WE and that of hens was further enhanced by 40AAE. In addition, diets containing up to 20% 40AAE had no adverse effects on feed conversion, egg production, or quality of hens. PMID:16463969

Farran, M T; Halaby, W S; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M



[Energy metabolism in laying hens of different body weight genotypes].  


Energy metabolism and some performance parameters were investigated in laying hens of 3 different body weight-genotypes: 6 x 7 (normal-sized, crossbred from normal-sized male and female lines, group 1), 47 x 38 (dwarf-sized, breeding from a dwarf-sized male line and a normal-sized female line, group 2) and 44 x 47 (dwarf-sized, breeding from dwarf-sized male and female lines, group 3). Energy balance was measured by indirect calorimetry through C- and N-balances in 12 animals of each group during 10 consecutive days at production peak, within the period between the 27th and the 37th week of age. Hens were caged individually at 23 degrees C environmental temperature and fed ad libitum on a laying mash. The mean body weight in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 was 32% lower than in the normal-sized group 1 during the energy balance period. The daily gross energy intake in group 2 and 3 was decreased by 33 and 34%, respectively. There were no significant differences in digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy between the groups. The energy requirements for maintenance [kJ ME/kg0.75.d] derived from the energy balances were lower by 4% (P > 0.05) and 14% (P < 0.05) in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 as compared with the normal-sized group 1, when equal coefficients of partial efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for energy retention in body and eggs are assumed for the 3 body-mass genotypes. There were no relevant differences in body composition at the end of the energy balance periods as well as in egg composition between the 3 experimental groups. PMID:9850795

Klein, M; Neubert, M; Strobel, E; Hoffmann, L



Effects of diets supplemented with zinc and manganese on performance and related parameters in laying hens.  


Iron is often found to be of excessive concentrations in laying hens' diets, which may cause antagonistic interactions with other minerals. This study was conducted to investigate how to supplement Zn and Mn in the diets without Fe supplementation. In experiment 1, 420 18-week Lohmann Brown layers were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 30-0, 65-30 and 100-60 mg/kg of Zn and Mn, respectively. In experiment 2, 360 40-week Lohmann Brown layers were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 15-0, 35-0 and 55-15 mg/kg of Mn and Zn, respectively. Minerals were supplemented in the form of sulfate. Egg production was improved by supplementing 30 mg/kg Zn or 65 mg/kg Zn in combination with 30 mg/kg Mn in experiment one. In experiment two, a significant reduction of egg performance occurred with 35 mg/kg Mn supplementation. Mn and/or Zn supplementation increased eggshell thickness in experiment one, and decreased yolk cholesterol in both experiments. Mn and/or Zn supplementation increased Zn and Mn excretion in both experiments. Serum growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T(4) ), and insulin levels, or alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity were not affected by treatments; serum estrogen (E(2) ) and triiodothyronine (T(3) ) were different but there was no consistency by dietary treatments. This study demonstrates that 30 mg/kg supplemental Zn is necessary to obtain maximal egg production, and there seems to be no need to supply Mn in this type of diet. PMID:22694331

Yang, Xiaojun; Zhong, Lelun; An, Xiaofang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Limin; Han, Jincheng; Yao, Junhu; Cote, Charron; Sun, Yajing



Calcitonin receptor binding in the hen anterior pituitary during an oviposition cycle.  


The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d) ) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max) ) of calcitonin (CT) receptor in the plasma membrane of the anterior pituitary in hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125) I-labeled chicken CT. Values of K(d) and B(max) of CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in non-laying hens. A decrease in the K(d) and B(max) value of CT receptor was observed in the anterior pituitary after the injection of estradiol-17? and progesterone into nonlaying hens, but not changed after the injection of 5?-dihydrotestosterone. During an oviposition cycle, the K(d) and the B(max) value decreased 3 h before oviposition. In non-laying hens, neither the K(d) nor the B(max) value changed during a full day period. The present study suggests that the CT action on the anterior pituitary may increase 3 h before oviposition by the effect of estradiol-17? and progesterone in laying hens. PMID:21951904

Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, Kaori; Kawashima, Mitsuo



Relative bioavailability of tropical volcanic soil-bound chlordecone in laying hens (Gallus domesticus).  


The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils and of food chains. CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through polluted soil ingestion. Tropical volcanic soils display variable capacities of pollutant retention: CLD is less available and more persistent in andosol than in nitisol. The impact of soil type on CLD bioavailability to hens was tested through a relative bioavailability study. The deposition of CLD in egg yolk and in abdominal fat was measured in 42 individually housed laying hens fed with diets containing graded levels of CLD from polluted andosol, nitisol, or spiked oil during 23 days. Within each ingested matrix, the concentration of CLD in yolk and in abdominal fat linearly increased with the amount of ingested CLD (P < 0.001). However, the response to andosol diets and to nitisol diets was not different from the response to oil diets (P > 0.1), indicating that CLD was equally bioavailable to laying hens, irrespective of the matrix. This suggests that the hen's gastrointestinal tract efficiently extracts CLD from the two tropical volcanic soils, regardless of their retention capacity. Thus, hens reared on polluted soils with CLD may lay contaminated eggs. PMID:22684877

Jondreville, Catherine; Bouveret, Cécile; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril



Migration of Rat RNA Polymerase I Nuclei Undergoing Reactivation in into Chick Chick-Rat Erythrocyte Heterokaryons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptionally inactive chick erythrocyte nuclei were reactivated by Sendal virus- induced fusion of erythrocytes with rat L6J1 myoblasts. We used antibodies to trace the appearance of a specific protein engaged in transcription of a defined class of genes, those coding for rRNA, during reactivation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found increasing amounts of rat RNA polymerase I to appear, during a



Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA\\/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) domain and a long N-terminal extension

Karolina L Tkaczuk; Agnieszka Obarska; Janusz M Bujnicki



Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.  


Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

Stienen; Brenninkmeijer



Induction of an antimicrobial biotin-binding egg white protein (avidin) in chick tissues in septic Escherichia coli infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The induction of avidin in chick tissues was found in septicEscherichia coli infection. Avidin concentrations in the plasma roughly corresponded to those in the other tissues studied which suggests that avidin in chicks is a secretory protein.

H. A. Elo; S. Räisänen; P. J. Tuohimaa



Effect of Strain of Layer and Age at Photostimulation on Egg Production, Egg Quality, and Bone Strength1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone strength in layers is a concern for economic reasons and animal welfare concerns. Bone characteristics were investigated in 3 strains of hens: Bab- cock B-300, a small-bodied commercial white-egg layer; ISA-Brown, a commercial brown-egg layer; and an unse- lected Brown Leghorn line (BL). After being reared to- gether in a single pen with 8 h of light per day,

F. G. Silversides; D. R. Korver; K. L. Budgell


Localization of basic fibroblast growth factor binding sites in the chick embryonic neural retina.  


We have investigated the localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) binding sites during the development of the neural retina in the chick embryo. The specificity of the affinity of bFGF for its receptors was assessed by competition experiments with unlabelled growth factor or with heparin, as well as by heparitinase treatment of the samples. Two different types of binding sites were observed in the neural retina by light-microscopic autoradiography. The first type, localized mainly to basement membranes, was highly sensitive to heparitinase digestion and to competition with heparin. It was not developmentally regulated. The second type of binding site, resistant to heparin competition, appeared to be associated with retinal cells from the earliest stages studied (3-day-old embryo, stages 21-22 of Hamburger and Hamilton). Its distribution was found to vary during embryonic development, paralleling layering of the neural retina. Binding of bFGF to the latter sites was observed throughout the retinal neuroepithelium at early stages but displayed a distinct pattern at the time when the inner and outer plexiform layers were formed. During the development of the inner plexiform layer, a banded pattern of bFGF binding was observed. These bands, lying parallel to the vitreal surface, seemed to codistribute with the synaptic bands existing in the inner plexiform layer. The presence of intra-retinal bFGF binding sites whose distribution varies with embryonic development suggests a regulatory mechanism involving differential actions of bFGF on neural retinal cells. PMID:2090518

Cirillo, A; Arruti, C; Courtois, Y; Jeanny, J C




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella can be transmitted to chicks through contaminated litter. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a Sulfuric acid (SA) product to reduce the horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chicks. Two different levels of SA-base product was evalua...


In vitro Phosphate Transport in Chick Ileum: Effect of Cholecalciferol, Calcium, Sodium and Metabolic Inhibitors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three parameters of phosphate transport were monitored in everted gut sacs prepared from the ileum of rachitic chicks injected with cholecalciferol 48 hours before use and untreated rachitic chicks by measuring tracer T movement: transfer from the outside ( mucosa) ) compartment to inside ( serosa! ) compartment; total transfer out of mucosa! compartment, i.e., into intestinal tissue plus serosal



Exposure to ecotourism reduces survival and affects stress response in hoatzin chicks ( Opisthocomus hoazin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism helps to protect many habitats, but may also have negative impacts on wildlife. We investigated effects of ecotourists on reproductive success of hoatzins (Opisthocomus hoazin) and on hormonal status of their chicks in Amazonian rainforest lakes by comparing birds from undisturbed and from tourist-exposed nests. Hatching success was similar in both groups but chick survival was much lower at

Antje Müllner; K Eduard Linsenmair; Martin Wikelski



Exposure to ecotourism reduces survival and affects stress response in hoatzin chicks (Opisthocomus hoazin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism helps to protect many habitats, but may also have negative impacts on wildlife. We investigated effects of ecotourists on reproductive success of hoatzins (Opisthocomus hoazin) and on hormonal status of their chicks in Amazonian rainforest lakes by comparing birds from undisturbed and from tourist-exposed nests. Hatching success was similar in both groups but chick survival was much lower at

Antje M; K. Eduard Linsenmair


Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  


The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E



Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks.  


Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for investigating links between recognition, learning, and their fitness consequences. One major evolutionary puzzle has continued to capture the attention of naturalists for centuries: why do hosts of brood parasites generally fail to recognize parasitic offspring after they have hatched from the egg, even when the host and parasitic chicks differ to almost comic degrees? One prominent theory to explain this pattern proposes that the costs of mistakenly learning to recognize the wrong offspring make recognition maladaptive. Here we show that American coots, Fulica americana, can recognize and reject parasitic chicks in their brood by using learned cues, despite the fact that the hosts and the brood parasites are of the same species. A series of chick cross-fostering experiments confirm that coots use first-hatched chicks in a brood as referents to learn to recognize their own chicks and then discriminate against later-hatched parasitic chicks in the same brood. When experimentally provided with the wrong reference chicks, coots can be induced to discriminate against their own offspring, confirming that the learning errors proposed by theory can exist. However, learning based on hatching order is reliable in naturally parasitized coot nests because host eggs hatch predictably ahead of parasite eggs. Conversely, a lack of reliable information may help to explain why the evolution of chick recognition is not more common in hosts of most interspecific brood parasites. PMID:20016486

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E



Changes in the Composition of Plasma Membrane Proteins during Differentiation of Embryonic Chick Erythroid Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythroid cells which are homogeneous with regard to stage of maturation are naturally available from the circulation of chick embryos at various times of development. This provides a convenient system for examining the changes in plasma membrane protein composition during red cell maturation. Plasma membranes are isolated from chick embryonic erythroid cells at various stages of maturation. Extensive characterization of

Lee-Nien L. Chan



Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks.  


Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. PMID:20223237

Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W




Microsoft Academic Search

This study was planned to investigate the effect of different levels of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the overall performance of broiler chicks. Four experimental rations designated as A, B, C and D having 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% Turmeric (Curcuma longa) was fed to 160 broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 16 replicate, so as to have 4 replicate per treatment

F. R. Durrani; Mohammad Ismail; Asad Sultan; S. M. Suhail; Naila Chand; Z. Durrani


From Doom Town to Sin City: Chick Tracts and Anti-gay Political Rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most popular and recognized of all Christian religious tracts are Chick Publications. The comic-book format tracts have been distributed since the 1960s and are now translated into over 100 languages. Some Christian Right opinion leaders regard the tracts with ambivalence, and many outside the Christian conservative community who comment on Chick's career believe that the tracts are no longer

Cynthia Burack



Type and amount of prenatal stimulation alters perceptual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the relationship between the type and amount of sensory stimulation provided prenatally and its impact on postnatal responsiveness to maternal cues, bobwhite quail embryos were exposed to 5 or 10 min\\/hour of either bobwhite chick contentment calls or bobwhite chick distress calls. Results revealed that embryos exposed to 5 or 10 min\\/hour of distress calls continued to respond

Merry J. Sleigh; Robert Lickliter



Relative Distribution of Cholesterol in Plasma and Liver Compartments of Chicks Fed Different Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growing male chicks were fed a fat-free diet or this diet supplemented with stearic, oleic or linoleic acid, with or without added cholesterol. In cholesterol-fed chicks, dietary oleic or linoleic acid increased plasma and liver cholesterol levels and pla...

G. A. Leveille H. E. Sauberlich



Manipulation of the crop and intestinal flora of the newly hatched chick1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ceca of newly hatched chicks obtained either from commercial hatcheries or from a carefully controlled experimental hatchery have been shown to contain high numbers of a variety of microorganisms. Fecal streptococci, clostridia, enterobacteria, pediococci, and occasion- ally Pseudomonas aeruginosa have all been isolated, but never lactobacilli. After the chick has been on feed for 1 day, the numbers of

Ella M. Barnes; Clive S. Impey; Doreen M. Cooper


Hypocholesterolemic activity of dipyridamole: effects on chick plasma and lipoprotein composition and arachidonic acid levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effects of dipyridamole treatment on chick plasma and lipoprotein composition in postprandial and fasting (12 h) conditions. Plasma cholesterol levels were higher in fasted than in fed chicks, whereas triglycerides declined during starvation. Dipyridamole treatment reduced plasma cholesterol content, mainly of the free cholesterol fraction. In postprandial conditions, total cholesterol content of high and low density

Eduardo Garc??a-Fuentes; Almudena Gil-Villarino; Mar??a F. Zafra; Eduardo Garc??a-Peregr??n



Studies on the nutritive value of full-fat sunflower seed in broiler chick diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of hulled full-fat sunflower seed (HFFSS) for broiler chicks was evaluated in two experiments. In the first experiment, the crude fat digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) were determined in HFFSS using chicks of 28 days of age. The birds consumed HFFSS as single ingredient ad libitum for 24 h and total excreta were collected. The crude

M. L Rodr??guez; L. T Ortiz; J Treviño; A Rebolé; C Alzueta; C Centeno



Noradrenaline and Learning: Effects of the Noradrenergic Neurotoxin DSP4 on Imprinting in the Domestic Chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP4 on imprinting in domestic chicks were investigated. Chicks received either DSP4 or distilled water and were trained 60 hr after hatching by exposing them to either a rotating red box or a stuffed jungle fowl. Noradrenaline concentration was determined in Wulst and medial and basal forebrain samples. The medial forebrain sample comprised mainly

D. C. Davies; G. Horn; B. J. McCabe



Brain Electrode Preparation for the Gross EEG Monitoring of Large Chick Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report suggests a procedure for EEG monitoring of large chick samples where post-operative healing and electrode cement hardening permit recording to begin 24 hours after surgery and implantation of 7 day post-hatched chicks. The electrographic resul...

L. R. Pomeroy A. J. Welch



Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Nutritional Value of Dry Field Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for Chicks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) of different vari eties and breeding lines of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on chick growth was determined using a chick growth assay in which the diet con tained approximately 50% beans. Total protein (N X 6.25) in beans was not changed appreciably by irradiation ( 21 Mrad ) but protein solubility in water




Orange-tufted Sunbirds do not Feed Nectar to their Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

on flower nectar but would not feed it to their chicks. If so, this would provide us with an experimental tool to manipulate parental self feeding independent of chick feeding and enable us to address questions pertaining to the evolution of parental-care strate- gies (e.g. Kacelnik and Cuthill 1990, Martins and Wright 1993, Ydenberg 1994). We tested our hypoth- esis



Use of infectious bursal disease vaccines in chicks with maternally derived antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Day-old chicks with maternally derived infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibodies were inoculated with IBD oil emulsion vaccine. The vaccine protected at least 85 per cent of the chicks when they were challenged at four weeks old with virulent IBD virus and at least 90 per cent of those challenged at seven weeks of age. There was no benefit in using

PJ Wyeth; NJ Chettle



Utilization of Different Soy Products as Affected by Age in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to eval- uate the utilization of several different soy products at different ages in New Hampshire × Columbian male chicks. Six pens of eight chicks were fed dextrose-protein source diets (23% CP) containing 1 of 10 different protein sources from 0 to 21 d of age. Excreta were collected at 0 to 2, 3 to 4,

A. B. Batal; C. M. Parsons


Heavier Chicks at Hatch Improves Marketing Body Weight by Enhancing Skeletal Muscle Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gas- trointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and

D. Sklan; S. Heifetz; O. Halevy


‘Shocking’ developments in chick embryology: electroporation and in ovo gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient gene transfer by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the analysis of gene regulation, function and expression, creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick embryonic system. This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell

Nobue Itasaki; Sophie Bel-Vialar; Robb Krumlauf



9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...



Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs.…

Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Food acquisition by common cuckoo chicks in rufous bush robin nests and the advantage of eviction behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, is a brood parasite that monopolizes parental care of its host species: soon after hatching, the chicks remove the host offspring. Although cuckoo chicks trick their foster pa- rents into providing enough food, it is unknown whether cuckoo begging behaviour represents an advan- tage over that of the host chicks in a hypothetical competitive scenario.

David Martín-Gálvez; Manuel Soler; Juan José Soler; Manuel Martín-Vivaldi; José Javier Palomino



Effects of Response-Contingency and Stimulus Presentation Schedule on Imprinting in the Chick (Gallus gallus domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operant control over the presentation of a conspicuous imprinting stimulus on the formation of a filial preference were examined in day-old domestic chicks. Experimental chicks had to press one of two operant pedals to be exposed to the training object, a rotating red box. Chicks in a yoked control group received the same pattern of exposure to

J. J. Bolhuis; M. H. Johnson



Effect of Dietary Amino Acid Source on the Zinc-deficiency Syndrome in the Chick 1|2'3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of these studies was to compare isolated soybean protein, casein hydrolysate and dried egg white as amino acid sources in chick diets varying in zinc content. Compared with isolated soybean protein in low zinc diets for chicks, casein hydrolysate and dried egg white produced severe zinc deficiency, but the chicks did not develop leg abnormalities, and tibias and




Disposition kinetics of albendazole and metabolites in laying hens.  


An increasing prevalence of roundworm parasites in poultry, particularly in litter-based housing systems, has been reported. However, few anthelmintic drugs are commercially available for use in avian production systems. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) in poultry has been demonstrated well. The goal of this work was to characterize the ABZ and metabolites plasma disposition kinetics after treatment with different administration routes in laying hens. Twenty-four laying hens Plymouth Rock Barrada were distributed into three groups and treated with ABZ as follows: intravenously at 10 mg/kg (ABZ i.v.); orally at the same dose (ABZ oral); and in medicated feed at 10 mg/kg·day for 7 days (ABZ feed). Blood samples were taken up to 48 h posttreatment (ABZ i.v. and ABZ oral) and up to 10 days poststart feed medication (ABZ feed). The collected plasma samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZ and its albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and ABZSO2 metabolites were recovered in plasma after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ parent compound showed an initial concentration of 16.4 ± 2.0 ?g/mL, being rapidly metabolized into the ABZSO and ABZSO2 metabolites. The ABZSO maximum concentration (Cmax ) (3.10 ± 0.78 ?g/mL) was higher than that of ABZSO2 Cmax (0.34 ± 0.05 ?g/mL). The area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) for ABZSO (21.9 ± 3.6 ?g·h/mL) was higher than that observed for ABZSO2 and ABZ (7.80 ± 1.02 and 12.0 ± 1.6 ?g·h/mL, respectively). The ABZ body clearance (Cl) was 0.88 ± 0.11 L·h/kg with an elimination half-life (T1/2el ) of 3.47 ± 0.73 h. The T1/2el for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 6.36 ± 1.50 and 5.40 ± 1.90 h, respectively. After ABZ oral administration, low ABZ plasma concentrations were measured between 0.5 and 3 h posttreatment. ABZ was rapidly metabolized to ABZSO (Cmax , 1.71 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and ABZSO2 (Cmax , 0.43 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). The metabolite systemic exposure (AUC) values were 18.6 ± 2.0 and 10.6 ± 0.9 ?g·h/mL for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively. The half-life values after ABZ oral were similar (5.91 ± 0.60 and 5.57 ± 1.19 h for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively) to those obtained after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ was not recovered from the bloodstream after ABZ feed administration. AUC values of ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 61.9 and 92.4 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The work reported here provides useful information on the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ after both i.v. and oral administrations in hens, which is a useful first step to evaluate its potential as an anthelmintic tool for use in poultry. PMID:22533477

Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L



Retrograde tracing with fluorescent microspheres reveals bifurcating projections from central retina to tectum and thalamus in chicks.  


The goal of this study is to demonstrate the dual-projection pattern of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) projecting to the tectum and visual thalamus in chick using retrograde fluorescent tracers and also to define the morphological properties of these RGCs with dual projections by intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) combined with immunohistochemistry. Thirty-two chicks received double injections of green and red fluorescent microspheres into their thalamus and tectum in the same side. In the central retina, most of the labelled RGCs were tec-RGCs (RGCs projecting to the tectum), a quarter was tha-RGCs (RGCs projecting to the thalamus), and almost all of the tha-RGCs were double-labelled RGCs. An intracellular injection of LY into the double-labelled RGCs showed all six groups of RGCs without specific populations in each group (J. Comp. Neurol., 2004, 469: 360). These dendritic patterns were mostly mono- and bistrata, which extended horizontally in the deeper part of the inner plexiform layer. PMID:22780878

Cao, J; Naito, J; Chen, Y



Nitric oxide synthase-containing cells in the retina, pigmented epithelium, choroid, and sclera of the chick eye.  


Nitric oxide is a nonconventional neurotransmitter that is produced as needed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NOS has been detected in numerous neural structures, including distinct populations of retinal neurons in a variety of vertebrate species. The purpose of this study was to identify NOS-containing cells in the retina and extraretinal ocular tissues of hatched chicks. NOS was detected in frozen sections by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry and antisera to neuronal NOS. In the retina, NADPH-diaphorase and NOS immunolabelling were present in four subtypes of amacrine cells, some ganglion cells, efferent fibers, efferent target cells, and neuronal processes in both plexiform layers, whereas diaphorase alone was detected in photoreceptor ellipsoids and Müller cells. In addition, NADPH-diaphorase and immunoreactive NOS were detected in axon bundles and innervation to vascular smooth muscle in the choroid, whereas stromal and endothelial cells in the choroid, scleral chondrocytes, and the retinal pigmented epithelium contained only NADPH-diaphorase. The excitotoxin quisqualate destroyed all but one subtype of NOS-immunoreactive amacrine cell and caused increased NADPH-diaphorase activity in Müller cells. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced by many different cells in the chick eye, including retinal amacrine and ganglion cells, Müller cells, retinal pigmented epithelium, and cells in the choroid, and likely has a broad range of visual and regulatory functions. PMID:10022192

Fischer, A J; Stell, W K



Molecular basis of bacterial protein Hen1 activating the ligase activity of bacterial protein Pnkp for RNA repair.  


Ribotoxins cleave essential RNAs for cell killing in vivo, and the bacterial polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (Pnkp)/hua enhancer 1 (Hen1) complex has been shown to repair ribotoxin-cleaved RNAs in vitro. Bacterial Pnkp/Hen1 is distinguished from other RNA repair systems by performing 3'-terminal 2'-O-methylation during RNA repair, which prevents the repaired RNA from repeated cleavage at the same site. To ensure the opportunity of 2'-O-methylation by bacterial Hen1 during RNA repair and, therefore, maintain the quality of the repaired RNA, Pnkp/Hen1 has evolved to require the participation of Hen1 in RNA ligation, because Pnkp alone is unable to carry out the reaction despite possessing all signature motifs of an RNA ligase. However, the precise role of Hen1 in RNA ligation is unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of an active RNA ligase consisting of the C-terminal half of Pnkp (Pnkp-C) and the N-terminal half of Hen1 (Hen1-N) from Clostridium thermocellum. The structure reveals that the N-terminal domain of Clostridium thermocellum (Cth) Hen1, shaped like a left hand, grabs the flexible insertion module of CthPnkp and locks its conformation via further interaction with the C-terminal addition module of CthPnkp. Formation of the CthPnkp-C/Hen1-N heterodimer creates a ligation pocket with a width for two strands of RNA, depth for two nucleotides, and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-binding pocket at the bottom. The structure, combined with functional analyses, provides insight into the mechanism of how Hen1 activates the RNA ligase activity of Pnkp for RNA repair. PMID:22847431

Wang, Pei; Chan, Chio Mui; Christensen, David; Zhang, Can; Selvadurai, Kiruthika; Huang, Raven H



Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.  


These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J



Effect of raw legume diets on disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of chicks.  


The effect of four raw legume diets: field beans (Vicia faba) (RFB), navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (RNB), soybeans (Glycine soja) (RSB) and bitter vetch (VICIA ervilia) (RBV), on disaccharidase activities in chick small intestine have been studied. Maltase and sucrase activities, which vary with age, were determined in 1 to 60 day old animals, RFB and RBV diets had no effect on maltase activity and only increased sucrase activity in 60 day old chicks. Both maltase and sucrase activities decreased in chicks on RSB diet, regardless of their age, and the decrease was even more pronounced in chicks on RNB diet. Contrarywise, chicks fed on autoclaved navy beans and soybeans showed a considerably higher activity of these disaccharidases. PMID:7192009

Lasheras, B; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Fontán, J; Lluch, M; Larralde, J



Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

SciTech Connect

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M. [National Biological Survey, LaCrosse, WI (United States)



Quality of organic eggs of hybrid and Italian breed hens.  


The quality of eggs laid by 2 hybrid and 2 Italian dual-purpose genotypes of hens reared under organic farming system was studied. Hens belonging to Hy-Line Brown (brown eggshell, HLB), Hy-Line White (white eggshell, HLW), Ermellinata di Rovigo (brown eggshell, E), and Robusta maculata (brown eggshell, R) genotypes were reared from 24 to 43 wk of age. The trial was carried out from July to December, with environmental temperature ranging from 25°C (±5°C, summer) to 13°C (±7°C, autumn). The HLB eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than HLW (62.9 vs. 60.4 g), and R eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than E (56.5 vs. 54.4 g). The albumen weight differed (P < 0.01) among HLB, HLW, R, and E (40.7, 38.3, 32.7, 34.1 g, respectively). The E and R yolk weights were similar (16.2 g) and higher (P < 0.01) than hybrids; HLW yolk was higher (P < 0.05) than HLB (15.8 vs. 15.5 g). The HLB showed the highest (P < 0.01, 6.74 g) shell weight and E had the lowest (P < 0.01; 5.43 g). The yolk cholesterol content was higher (P < 0.01) in the Italian eggs than in the hybrids (258 vs. 219 mg/yolk). The HLB yolk had the lowest (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids (33.8 vs. 34.9%), and R yolks showed the lowest (P < 0.01) monounsaturated fatty acids (36.3 vs. 38.0%) and the highest (P < 0.01) polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.7 vs. 27.4%) than the other groups. The HLW yolk showed the highest (P < 0.01) n-6/n-3 ratio (13.7) in comparison to the other 3 groups (12.8). During 21 d of storage (at 21°C and 62% RH), the E eggs showed the lowest (P < 0.01) quality (albumen height, 4.93 vs. 5.56 mm; Haugh units, 71 vs. 74). A sensory profile of boiled eggs showed differences (P < 0.05) in odor and flavor sensations and in certain yolk and albumen texture properties according to genotype. The quality of organic eggs from different genotypes differs in relation to the strain but also the interaction with the environmental conditions has to be considered. PMID:22912471

Rizzi, C; Marangon, A



Acid glycosidases from hen oviduct and egg albumen.  


Activities of seven acid glycosidases: beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-HEX), alpha- and beta-galactosidase (alpha- and beta-GAL), alpha- and beta-mannosidase (alpha- and beta-MAN), alpha-glucosidase and alpha-fucosidase in magnum region of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) oviduct, and four acid glycosidases: beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN in egg albumen, were investigated. beta-HEX from magnum and egg albumen hydrolysed 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylhexosamine-6-sulphate (4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4)) like mammalian beta-HEX form A. Multiple forms of magnum and egg albumen beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN were separated by strong anion exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing method. Chromatofocusing of the magnum resulted in the appearance of multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.18, 5.43, 5.55, 5.34, 5.27 and 5.16, for beta-GAL with pI of 4.98, 4.84, 4.77, 4.64 and 4.68-4.63, for alpha-MAN with pI of >or=7.4, 6.75, 6.62 and 6.26, and for beta-MAN two forms with pI of 6.37 and 5.77. Chromatofocusing of egg albumen yields multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.24, 6.08, 5.55 and 5.35, for beta-GAL two forms with pI of 5.10 and 4.86-4.80 for alpha-MAN multiple forms with pI of >or=7.4, 6.80, 6.60 and 6.30, and for beta-MAN forms with pI of 6.30 and 5.77. In conclusion, this study was the first to show beta-HEX activity against 4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4) in the magnum and albumen of bird eggs, corresponding to beta-HEX A activity in mammals. Main multiple forms of beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN occurring in the magnum were revealed in the egg albumen. Comparison with a cock of the same breed showed that hen egg magnum and albumen has the same multiple forms of the enzymes that are found in the epididymides and seminal plasma of the cock. PMID:16236536

Droba, M; Droba, B; B?edniak, D



Hypolipidemic activity of silver preparations in chicks, Gallus serregineus.  


Three silver preparations (Varak or foil, ash or Raupya bhasma and sol or colloidal solution) were fed to three groups of young, male chicks for 10 days. There was significant fall in all the plasma lipid fractions--total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol. There was a marked rise in silver content of plasma and whole blood, ranging from 4 to 13 times, suggesting that the observed hypolipidemic action may be due to silver. The administration of the three silver preparations did not cause any retardation in growth, toxic manifestation, side effect or untoward reaction. PMID:15233477

Sharma, D C; Budania, Ragini; Shah, Mili; Jain, Priyanka; Gaur, B L



Negative Smad Expression and Regulation in the Developing Chick Limb  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory or negative Smads, Smad6 and Smad7, block TGF? superfamily signals of both the BMP and TGF? classes by antagonizing the intracellular signal transduction machinery. We report the cloning of one Smad6 and two Smad7 (Smad7a and Smad7b) chick homologs and their expression and regulation in the developing limb. Smad6 and Smad7a are expressed in dynamic patterns reflecting the domains of BMP gene expression in the limb. Activation and inhibition of the BMP signaling pathway in limb mesenchyme indicates that negative Smad gene expression is regulated, at least in part, by BMP family signals.

Vargesson, Neil; Laufer, Ed



Characteristics of ammonia and carbon dioxide releases from layer hen manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Ammonia (NH3) is an important gaseous pollutant generated from manure in commercial poultry farms and has been an environmental, ecological, and health concern. Poultry manure also releases carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas and is often used as a tracer gas to calculate building ventilation.2.?A 38-d laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of NH3 and CO2

J.-Q. NI; A. J. Heber; S. M. Hanni; T. T. Lim; C. A. Diehl



Residual Feed Intake and its Effect on Salmonella enteritidis Infection in Growing Layer Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous phenotypic selection on residual feed intake (RFI) identified 20 efficient R- chickens and 20 nonefficient R+ chickens. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed feed intake (FI) and expected FI based on metabolic BW and BW gain, and was used as a measure for feed efficiency. Body weight and BW gain were similar for both groups.

Eerden van E; Brand van den H; Vries Reilingh de G; H. K. Parmentier; Jong de M. C. M; B. Kemp



Residual feed intake and its effect on Salmonella enteritidis infection in growing layer hens.  


Previous phenotypic selection on residual feed intake (RFI) identified 20 efficient R- chickens and 20 nonefficient R+ chickens. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed feed intake (FI) and expected FI based on metabolic BW and BW gain, and was used as a measure for feed efficiency. Body weight and BW gain were similar for both groups. Feed intake and RFI were significantly higher in R+ birds. It is hypothesized that nonefficient R+ birds are more flexible to divert resources from production processes toward maintenance processes, thus being better capable of handling a bacterial challenge. Chickens of both groups were randomly allocated to immunization with heat-inactivated Salmonella enteritidis bacteria, or inoculation with live Salmonella bacteria. Transportation to the isolation units caused a decrease in FI in R+ birds. This may reflect a particular way of coping with stress in R+ birds. More R+ birds stopped bacterial shedding considering a nonshedding interval of 10 or 11 d (P = 0.041). Nonantigen-specific antibody responses against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were higher in R- birds. We conclude that R+ birds are able to keep their metabolism at a higher level, as indicated by higher heart and liver weights, and that Salmonella infection leads to reduced heart, liver, and gizzard weights. Oviduct weight and number of small yellow follicles were reduced in infected birds. Antigen-specific antibody responses were not different between the groups, indicating high priority for this parameter as a life trait. Possible differences in stress susceptibility between efficient and nonefficient chickens need further examination. PMID:15554069

van Eerden, E; van den Brand, H; De Vries Reilingh, G; Parmentier, H K; de Jong, M C M; Kemp, B



Surveillance of Salmonella populations, prevalence and serotype diversity in layer feces as a function of production cycle and molting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella species are recognized as a major cause of foodborne illnesses that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. The objective of this study was to determine whether the hen's laying cycle and the practice of reduced caloric intake molting influenced the prevalence and populations of Salmonella in layer feces and to evaluate the serotype



Developmental and behavioral effects of medetomidine following in ovo injection in chicks.  


Developmental and behavioral effects of medetomidine were assessed in chicks following in ovo exposure on incubation day 4. Medetomidine at 25 and 50 ?g/egg injected once into the air cell on incubation day 4, dose-dependently decreased the number of viable chick embryos starting on day 10 of the incubation. The percentages of successful hatching in the control and medetomidine treated groups were 93, 60 and 47%, respectively. Embryo lethalities in these groups were 7, 40 and 53%, respectively. In ovo exposure of the chicks to medetomidine at 25 and 50 ?g/egg did not significantly affect the body weight of the chicks as well as their morphometric measurements. In another experiment, 3- and 8-day old chicks exposed to medetomidine in ovo (25 ?g/egg) were monitored in the open-field for 5 min. Medetomidine suppressed the open-field activity of both 3- and 8-day old chicks. This was manifested by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square of the open-field arena and a decrease in the number of lines crossed (ambulation) with an additional decrease in vocalizations of the 3-day old chicks when compared with respective age-matched control values. In the same medetomidine-exposed chicks the duration of tonic immobility significantly increased in comparison with respective control values. Pharmacological challenge of the medetomidine-exposed chicks (8-day old) with medetomidine at 25 ?g/kg, intramuscularly significantly increased the latencies to onset of sedation and loss of righting reflex and decreased the duration of sleep when compared with the saline-control group challenged in the same manner. The data suggest that medetomidine could be a behavioral teratogen in chicks following in ovo exposure. PMID:21982944

Mohammad, Fouad K; Faris, Gada A-M; Al-Zubeady, Anwar Z



Influence of rearing conditions of pullets on space use and performance of hens placed in aviaries at the beginning of the laying period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown how laying aviaries can improve hens’ welfare, but little work has been done on the adaptation of hens to this system according to their previous rearing conditions, despite the specific adaptation skills it requires of them. The adaptation to laying aviaries of hens previously reared in different conditions was assessed here through their use of vertical

Sandra Colson; Cécile Arnould; Virginie Michel



Glucocorticoid-lnduced Cataract of the Developing Chick Embryo – Prevention by Propylene Glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 0.25 ?mol of hydrocortisone succinate sodium (HC) was administered to 15-day-old hen’s fertile eggs, almost all lenses of the embryos became cataractous with stages IV-V ( > 90%) 48 h after the treatment. However, a triple application of propylene glycol (1.5 mmol\\/egg) at 3, 10 and 20 h after HC treatment effectively prevented the HC-induced cataract formation (I: 84%,

Hideo Nishigori; Jung W. Lee; Motoharu Iwatsuru



Protection conferred by a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine against fowl typhoid in laying hens.  


Fowl typhoid is under control in poultry farms of developed countries, but it still endemically subsists in commercial laying hen farms of some countries. It has been demonstrated that Salmonella live vaccines can elicit cross-immunity against members of the same Kauffmann-White scheme serogroup. In this work, we explored the protection conferred by TAD Salmonella vac E, a live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine, against fowl typhoid. Three groups of laying hens were vaccinated with different vaccination schedules starting on the first day of life, and afterwards were infected with 2 x 10(5) CFU of a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain, either at wk 28 or wk 52. Mortality, fecal shedding, and organ invasion of Salmonella Gallinarum were assessed. In this work we demonstrated that this Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine is able to cross-immunize against Salmonella Gallinarum. At wk 28, hens vaccinated with three oral doses or with two oral doses combined with one subcutaneous dose were protected by the vaccine. At wk 52, when hens were infected 36 wk after the final immunization, the vaccine was not able to confer protection. Thus, revaccination every 3 mo would be highly recommended. In countries where Salmonella Gallinarum subsists together with Salmonella Enteritidis, control programs should include vaccination of laying hens using safe attenuated Salmonella strains. PMID:16863082

Chacana, P A; Terzolo, H R



The effect of keel fractures on egg production, feed and water consumption in individual laying hens.  


The impact of keel bone fractures on egg production, egg weight and feed and water consumption in individual laying hens. A total of 165 Lohmann brown laying hens were obtained from a commercial farm that consisted of 105 with keel fractures and 60 without keel fractures. 2. After a 4-d period of acclimatisation, hens were individually housed and provided with ad libitum food and water for a 24-h period. The number of eggs laid, egg weight, feed and water consumption during this period were recorded. Keel bone strength was also assessed. 3. Hens free from keel fractures laid more eggs (91.7% vs. 84.9%) of significantly heavier weight (61.9 g vs. 60.2 g), ate less feed (139 g vs. 151 g) and drank less water (212 ml vs. 237 ml) than hens with fractures. 4. There was a significant positive association between keel fracture severity and water consumption, and a significant negative association between keel fracture severity and egg weight and keel bone strength. 5. This small-scale study on individual birds shows that keel bone fractures may have an impact on the economics of egg production. PMID:23647178

Nasr, M A F; Murrell, J; Nicol, C J



The effect of lactose supplementation and source on feed intake and production characteristics of laying hens.  


Three experiments involving a total of 550 laying hens were conducted to study the effects of low level lactose feeding on the egg production characteristics of laying hens. The specific purposes were to determine if lactose influenced calcium utilization and feed intake and if there were any important interactions between lactose and calcium. There was a consistent significant improvement in egg shell breaking strength as a result of lactose supplementation. One percent dietary lactose appeared to be adequate to achieve this improvement. The addition of 2 or 3% lactose did not result in any greater improvement than 1%. There were no consistent influences of lactose, lactose source, or calcium level on feed intake or any of the other variables examined in the three experiments. As was expected, 61-week-old hens laid significantly fewer and larger eggs with weaker shells than 47-week-old hens. There were four statistically significant interaction effects: lactose level X calcium level on egg production; lactose level X calcium level on egg shell strength; and age X lactose level on egg shell strength. Even though these effects were statistically significant, it is questionable whether or not they are of practical importance in feeding laying hens. PMID:6984508

Gleaves, E W; Salim, A A



Comparative Assessment of Fertility and Hatchability of Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red and White Rock Hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A total of 3000 eggs; 750 eggs from each breed namely Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR),White Leghorn (WLH), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Rock (WR) were collected in 3 batches following AI from individually caged hens and were hatched to compare hatching parameters among breeds. The different hatchability traits of hen of different breeds; BPR, WLH, RIR and



Single and combined effects of organic selenium and zinc on egg fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of exotic cochin hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to examine the effects of three diets supplemented with organic selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) on the performance of Cochin exotic breeder hens. Cochin hens (n=120) and males (n=12) at 42 wks of age were separated into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment. ...


Effect of Egg Size and Strain and Age of Hens on the Solids Content of Chicken Eggs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg size and the age and strain of hens on the content of egg solids. Eggs were obtained from commer- cial farms from four strains of hens with similar age groups and received diets formulated to contain the same dietary energy and protein levels across the strains within a farm. Eggs

D. U. AHN; S. M. KIM; H. SHU


Aviary Systems and Conventional Cages for Laying Hens: Effects on Production, Egg Quality, Health and Bird Location in Three Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, a total of 4346 laying hens housed in battery cages, with three hens per cage (C), and in two aviary systems, both with tiered wire floors and litter (Lövsta with two tiers (L) and Marielund with three tiers (M)), were used for studies on production, egg quality, health, plumage and foot condition, bone strength and bird location.

Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two studies were conducted to determine if Campylobacter jejuni could rapidly spread and reside in the internal organs of adult broiler breeder hens. In study 1, university housed broiler breeders at 22 weeks of age were obtained and placed in individual cages. Each hen was intra-vaginally inocula...


Binding of hen egg white lysozyme fibrils with nucleic acids.  


Non proteinaceous substances are found to be associated with toxic protein aggregates commonly known as fibrils. Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is able to form fibrillar species under various conditions. Here for the first time we report concentration dependent binding affinities of preformed HEWL fibrils towards DNA and RNA at physiological pH (pH 7.4). We have found that HEWL fibrils bind with DNA and RNA that is distinctly different when compared to native HEWL. The association constant (Ka) of native HEWL and ct-DNA at pH 7.4 is 6.8×10(5)M(-1). We have also investigated the conformational alterations of DNA that occur on binding with HEWL fibrils. Our study has demonstrated dominant electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes which accounts for the binding of nucleic acids with fibrils. The affinity between the moieties could lead to disruption in the functions of cellular components that might be attributed to the toxicity of the aggregates formed in vivo. PMID:23933246

Ghosh, Sudeshna; Pandey, Nitin K; Sen, Sambuddha; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Dasgupta, Swagata



Biological modification of rabies virus as a result of its adaptation to chicks and developing chick embryos  

PubMed Central

This article describes experiments indicating a change in pathogenicity for laboratory animals of the Flury strain of rabies virus at high egg passages. Factors such as dilution of virus, number of egg passages, age of animals, and route of inoculation are taken into account. The results of the author's investigations indicate that living chick-embryo-adapted virus can be used both as a vaccine administered before exposure to rabies virus, and as an adjunct to antiserum in the protective treatment of animals after exposure.

Koprowski, Hilary



Differential expression of glucose transporters during chick embryogenesis.  


The patterns of Glut1 and Glut3 glucose transporter protein and mRNA expression were assessed during embryogenesis of chicken brain and skeletal muscle, Glut4 protein levels were also evaluated in skeletal muscle and heart, and Glut1 was examined in the developing heart and liver. Glut1 protein expression was detectable throughout brain ontogeny but was highest during early development. Glut1 mRNA levels in the brain remained very high throughout development. Glut3 protein was highest very early and very late and mRNA was highest during the last half of development. In embryonic skeletal muscle, the levels of Glut1 and Glut3 proteins and mRNA were highest very early, and declined severely by mid-development. Glut1 protein and mRNA in the heart also peaked early and then decreased steadily. Although Glut1 mRNA levels were consistently high in the embryonic liver, Glut1 protein expression was not detected. These results suggest that (1) Glut1 is developmentally regulated in chick brain, skeletal muscle, and heart, (2) Glut1 mRNA is present in liver but does not appear to be translated, (3) Glut3 in brain increases developmentally but is virtually absent in muscle, and (4) Glut4 protein and mRNA appear to be absent from chick heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:11361097

Carver, F M; Shibley, I A; Pennington, J S; Pennington, S N



Activin A inhibits formation of skeletal muscle during chick development.  


In this study we investigated the effect of recombinant activin A on the differentiation of limb muscle precursors of chick embryos. We show that treatment with activin resulted in a downregulation of Pax-3 and MyoD expression within 6 h after treatment, whereas expression of Myf-5 and Pax-7 was largely unaffected. The effect on gene expression was transient because 1 day after activin exposure the development of the premuscle masses had proceeded, and Pax-3 and MyoD expression was reexpressed at normal levels. Unlike other transforming growth factors-beta, activin did not induce programmed cell death in limb mesenchyme, thus myogenic cells were not permanently lost. In high-density cultures of embryonic chick limb mesenchyme (micromass cultures), activin repressed the generation of Pax-7-expressing muscle precursors. Furthermore, in the presence of activin, fewer muscle precursors differentiated, and the population of differentiating cells failed to fuse and form myotubes. Our data suggest that activin reversibly inhibited expression of two transcription factors, Pax-3 and MyoD, and thus transiently inhibited proliferation and differentiation of limb muscle precursors. However, myogenic cells were not lost as they continued to express Pax-7 and Myf-5, and this may have allowed precursors to commence development after the activin effect faded. We suggest that activin acts in conjunction with a closely related signalling molecule, myostatin, to prevent excessive growth of skeletal muscle. PMID:16007475

He, Liwen; Vichev, Konstantin; Macharia, Raymond; Huang, Ruijin; Christ, Bodo; Patel, Ketan; Amthor, Helge



Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.  


Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes. PMID:1380327

Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E


Central projections of lagenar primary neurons in the chick.  


Perception of linear acceleration and head position is the function of the utricle and saccule in mammals. Nonmammalian vertebrates possess a third otolith endorgan, the macula lagena. Different functions have been ascribed to the lagena in arboreal birds, including hearing, equilibrium, homing behavior, and magnetoreception. However, no conclusive evidence on the function of the lagena in birds is currently available. The present study is aimed at providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the function of the lagena in the chicken as an example of terrestrial birds. The afferents from the lagena of chick embryos (E19) to the brainstem and cerebellum were investigated by the sensitive lipophilic tracer Neuro Vue Red in postfixed ears. The results revealed that all the main vestibular nuclei, including the tangential nucleus, received lagenar projections. No lagenar terminals were found in auditory centers, including the cochlear nuclei. In the cerebellum, the labeled terminals were found variably in all of the cerebellar nuclei. In the cerebellar cortex, the labeled fibers were found mostly in the uvula, with fewer afferents in the flocculus and paraflocculus. None was seen in the nodulus. The absence of lagenar afferent projections in auditory nuclei and the presence of a projection pattern in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum similar to that of the utricle and saccule suggest that the primary role of the lagena in the chick lies in the processing of vestibular information related to linear acceleration and static head position. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:3524-3540, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23749554

Mahmoud, Amany; Reed, Caitlyn; Maklad, Adel



Chick embryo pancreatic transplants reverse experimental diabetes of rats.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of xenogeneic embryonic tissue in the treatment of experimental diabetes has been investigated in rats. The splenic lobes (80) of 15- to 18-d-old chick embryos, composed almost exclusively of endocrine tissue, were implanted directly into the hepatic parenchyma of the rat recipient. The biochemical and metabolic changes in the recipients suggest that embryonic transplants of 15-d-old chick pancreases were able to significantly improve, for a prolonged period of time (18 mo), the diabetic state of nonimmunosuppressed rats. None of the recipients of 18-d-old embryos splenic lobes exhibited a long-term improvement of the diabetic state after transplantation. The complete destruction of the pancreatic B cells of the recipients was assessed by: (a) immunocytochemical investigations of the recipient's pancreas, (b) measurement of insulin in the liver and pancreas of the recipients and (c) in situ vascular perfusion of their pancreas submitted to high glucose challenge. The results suggest that pancreatic tissue of the 15-d-old embryos is immunologically immature lacking one or several lymphocyte subsets implicated in the afferent lood of "non-self" recognition. Images

Eloy, R; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M; Grenier, J F



Annexin A6 Modulates Chick Cranial Neural Crest Cell Emigration  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate neural crest is a population of migratory cells that originates in the dorsal aspect of the embryonic neural tube. These cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesencyhmal transition (EMT), delaminate from the neural tube and migrate extensively to generate an array of differentiated cell types. Elucidating the gene regulatory networks involved in neural crest cell induction, migration and differentiation are thus crucial to understanding vertebrate development. To this end, we have identified Annexin A6 as an important regulator of chick midbrain neural crest cell emigration. Annexin proteins comprise a family of calcium-dependent, membrane-binding molecules that mediate a variety of cellular and physiological processes including cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Our data indicate that Annexin A6 is expressed in the proper spatio-temporal pattern in the chick midbrain to play a potential role in neural crest cell ontogeny. To investigate Annexin A6 function, we have depleted or overexpressed Annexin A6 in the developing midbrain neural crest cell population. Our results show that knock-down or overexpression of Annexin A6 reduces or expands the migratory neural crest cell domain, respectively. Importantly, this phenotype is not due to any change in cell proliferation or cell death but can be correlated with changes in the size of the premigratory neural crest cell population and with markers associated with EMT. Taken together, our data indicate that Annexin A6 plays a pivotal role in modulating the formation of cranial migratory neural crest cells during vertebrate development.

Wu, Chyong-Yi; Taneyhill, Lisa A.



Risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan.  


Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20.7% of the farms and 19.5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing. PMID:21849097

Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Maruyama, N; Tsujiyama, Y; Kusukawa, M; Asai, T; Yamada, Y



Radiodensity in the central cavity of humeri in high-producing non-commercial laying hens.  


1. Line differences in the incidence of the presence of radiodense material in the central cavities of humeri of 6 different lines of laying hens were observed using radiographs. 2. Internal humeral radiodense material was observed in over 60% of hens in two lines and 18% of hens in two other lines measured at 65 weeks of age. There was no difference in the incidence (15, 16%) between the last two lines observed at 47 weeks of age. 3. In the 4 lines studied at 65 weeks of age the presence of radiodense material was associated with increased humerus dry weight and ash weight in two lines, while percentage-ash was reduced in all 4 lines. 4. Results from this and previous studies suggest that humeral medullary bone could be an appreciable source of variability in experimental data collected to assess skeletal health. PMID:18085445

Clark, W D; Cox, W R; Silversides, F G



Iodine supplementation of laying hen feed: a supplementary measure to eliminate iodine deficiency in humans?  


Iodine deficiency still exists in many countries worldwide, to a certain degree this is also true for Germany. Food of animal origin can be a good source for iodine depending on the feed. To investigate the possible use of laying hen feed enriched with iodine, we conducted a feeding experiment with 40 laying hens receiving feed with different amounts of iodine either as KIO3 or in the form of seaweed. Iodine concentration in eggs increased significantly depending on iodine intake after a 2 week period. Seaweed could also be used as an iodine source by the hens. A subsequent consumption study with 24 volunteers showed that eggs enriched with iodine can increase human's iodine excretion and therefore improve human's iodine supply. This new strategy is thought to accompany salt iodization programs, not to replace them. PMID:9800320

Kaufmann, S; Wolfram, G; Delange, F; Rambeck, W A



The hen model of human ovarian cancer develops anti-mesothelin autoantibodies in response to mesothelin expressing tumors  

PubMed Central

Objective Study of the hen immune system led to seminal contributions to basic immunological principles. Recent studies of spontaneous ovarian cancer in the laying hen show strikingly similar tumor types and antigen expression compared to human ovarian cancer, suggesting hens would be valuable for studies of tumor immunology and pre-clinical vaccine development. Circulating mesothelin is a relatively specific marker for human ovarian cancer and autoantibodies to mesothelin were reported. We hypothesized that hen tumors express mesothelin and that circulating anti-mesothelin antibodies occur in response to tumors. Methods Mesothelin mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR in hen ovarian tumors and normal ovaries. Mesothelin protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE Western blots. Anti-mesothelin antibodies were assessed by immunoassay of sera from hens with normal ovaries and with ovarian tumors. Results Significant mesothelin mRNA expression was observed in 57% (12/21) of hen ovarian tumors but not in normal ovaries and was found predominantly in serous tumors as in humans. Mesothelin protein was detected in tumors with mesothelin mRNA by IHC and 2D Western blots, but not in normal ovaries or tumors without mesothelin mRNA. Circulating anti-mesothelin antibodies occurred in 44% (n = 4/9) of hens with ovarian tumors which express mesothelin mRNA and were not found in hens with tumors that did not express mesothelin (n = 0/5) or normal ovaries (n = 0/5). Conclusion The results support the utility of the hen as a novel model for preclinical studies of mesothelin as a biomarker and a target for immunotherapy.



Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.  


Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites. PMID:22521709

Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba



Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T. M.; Smith, M. R.



Differences in responses to repeated fear-relevant stimuli between Nagoya and White Leghorn chicks.  


Freezing responses to fearful stimuli are crucial for survival among all animal species within a prey-predator system. Generally, the degree of fearfulness correlates with intensity, duration, and frequency of freezing behaviours in response to fear-relevant stimuli. The present study examines innate fear responses to human handling in 144 newly hatched chicks through a tonic immobility (TI) test. Two fear responses-freezing duration and number of TI inductions-were examined. Individual variations in innate fear were investigated in chicks 1-2 days post-hatching when the restraint procedure was successively repeated 3 times within each day. Chicks showed sensitivity to fearful stimuli and considerable inter-individual variation in freezing duration and number of attempts required to induce TI. Moreover, differences were observed between breeds; White Leghorn chicks showed relatively low fear levels with gradual increases in TI duration, whereas Nagoya chicks showed extended TI duration and habituation to fearful stimuli. Our results suggest that TI reactions among newly hatched chicks are an innately determined behaviour specific to a breed or strain of chicken. Further, fearful responses among newborn chicks are not simple, but complex behaviours that involve multiple factors, such as breed-specific contextual fear learning and habituation/sensitisation processes. PMID:23860281

Abe, Hideaki; Nagao, Kenji; Nakamura, Akihiro; Inoue-Murayama, Miho



Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

Poisbleau, Maud; Muller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel




PubMed Central

While anti-human blood group B agglutinins are present in the majority of ordinary White Leghorn chicks by the age of 30 days, none could be demonstrated in germfree chicks up to the age of 60 days. Anti-B agglutinins in trace amounts were first found in germfree chicks 66 days old and increased to an average titer of about 1:2 by 91 days of age. This titer amounts to about 10 per cent of that found in ordinary chicks. The appearance of antibody in low titer is attributed to trace amounts of non-living antigenic contaminants penetrating the germfree barrier. The necessity of appropriate absorption in order to obtain well defined specificities was pointed out. Several means commonly used to differentiate between normal and immune antibodies were employed in this investigation. None showed a difference between anti-B agglutinins from ordinary chicks and from germfree chicks intentionally immunized with blood group B active E. coli O86 or with B active preparations from human meconium. The implications of these findings on the origin of natural agglutinins are discussed. It is concluded, that measurable anti-human blood group B agglutinins in White Leghorn chicks are acquired early in life and are not inherited. The possibilities as well as limitations of present day germfree technique for this kind of immunological research have been considered.

Springer, Georg F.; Horton, Richard E.; Forbes, Martin



Changes in angiotensin II receptor bindings in the hen neurohypophysis before and after oviposition.  


The present study was performed to elucidate whether the angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor exists in the plasma membrane fraction of the neurohypophysis in hens, to estimate the time of action of ANG II on the neurohypophysis before and after oviposition, and to examine relationships between the action of ANG II on the neurohypophysis and those of estrogen and prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF(2?)) in relation to arginine vasotocin (AVT) release. The specific binding had a binding specificity to chicken ANG II (cANG II), reversibility, and saturation in the [(125)I]cANG II binding assay. Scatchard analysis revealed that the binding sites are of a single class. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) obtained by kinetic analysis and Scatchard analysis suggested a high affinity, and the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) obtained by Scatchard analysis suggested a limited capacity. These results suggest that an ANG II receptor exists in the neurohypophysis of hens. The K(d) and the B(max) value was significantly smaller in laying hens than in nonlaying hens, which suggests that bindings of the cANG II receptor change, depending on the difference in laying condition. Values of the K(d) and the B(max) decreased approximately 15 min before oviposition in laying hens, and decreased 1 h after an intramuscular injection of estradiol-17? and 5 min after an intravenous injection of cANG II in nonlaying hens. The amount of specific binding of PGF(2?) receptor in the neurohypophysis also decreased and AVT concentration in blood increased after the cANG II injection. It seems likely that the action of cANG II in the neurohypophysis increases due to the effect of estrogen approximately 15 min before oviposition, and the cANG II action stimulates AVT release through the increase in the PGF(2?) action in this tissue. PMID:22010242

Takahashi, T; Nozaki, Y; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, K; Nakayama, H; Kawashima, M



The effects of a short-term molt method using cassava meal, broken rice, or corn on ovarian regression, bone integrity, and postmolt egg production and quality in older (95 week) laying hens.  


This study was conducted to determine the ability of different molt diets to induce molt in 95-wk-old hens. The hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments of 60 birds each: 1) molted by full feeding with broken rice (BROK), 2) corn (CRN), 3) cassava (CASS), or 4) nonmolted control (CONT) for 14 d. At 15 d, all hens were fed a layer diet (17% CP), and production performance was measured for 20 wk. Feed intake was depressed (P < 0.05) in the CASS treatment compared with BROK and CRN treatments during the 14 d. The most significant BW loss occurred in the CASS treatment (21.9%), whereas BROK and CRN treatments were 7.6 and 9.3%, respectively. The CASS treatment resulted in total cessation of egg production within 7 d, whereas those of BROK and CRN treatments decreased to 3.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Ovary weights, oviduct weights, and oviduct lengths of the CASS treatment were not significantly different from those of BROK and CRN treatments (P > 0.05). The weight of spleen and thymus glands, blood heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, bone parameters, and mortality during the 14-d treatment were not affected by treatments. No significant differences were found among treatments for postmolt cumulative egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and mortality. Significant (P < 0.05) improvements in albumen quality were observed in the CASS treatment, although shell thickness of this treatment was reduced (P < 0.05) compared with the CONT treatment in wk 2 after the 14-d treatment. With respect to shell ultrastructural traits, the palisade layer of CASS eggs was shorter (P < 0.05) than that of CONT eggs determined in wk 2 after the 14-d treatment. In addition, evidence of abnormal mammillae was detected in an egg produced by the CASS hens. This research indicates that cassava diets can induce molt in hens. Nonetheless, the technique needs to be adjusted to improve postmolt egg production and shell quality. PMID:24046430

Gongruttananun, N; Guntapa, P; Saengkudrua, K



Simple methods for generating neural, bone and endodermal cell types from chick embryonic stem cells.  


Most work on embryonic stem cell differentiation uses mammalian cells derived from the blastocyst stage and some of the most widely used protocols to induce differentiation involve growing these cells in monolayer culture. Equivalent stem cells can be obtained from embryos of non-mammalian vertebrates, but to date this has only been successful in birds. These cells can contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras and can be induced to differentiate into a variety of cell types in vitro via embryoid body formation. However to date there are no reliable methods for differentiating them into descendants from each of the germ layers in monolayer culture, comparable to the protocols used in mammals. Here we describe three simple and reproducible protocols for differentiation of chick embryonic stem cells into mesoderm (bone), endoderm and neuroectoderm (neurons and glia) in monolayer culture. These methods open the way for more direct comparisons of the properties of mammalian and avian embryonic stem cells that may highlight similarities and differences. PMID:23047046

Boast, Sharon; Stern, Claudio D



Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.



Social Facilitation Revisited: Increase in Foraging Efforts and Synchronization of Running in Domestic Chicks  

PubMed Central

Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.

Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya



Iodine concentration in fodder influences the dynamics of iodine levels in hen's egg components.  


In this study we determined the availability and accumulation of iodine in selected structures in hen's eggs: yolk, albumen, and eggshells. Iodine was administered as a yeast-derived biological complex mixed in standard fodder mix "DJ" to laying hens in their maximum egg yield period. The feeding period was sustained for 12 weeks, resulting in iodine enrichment in yolk and eggshells. These results suggest that iodine-enriched yeast can be added to fodder mix and premix (mineral-vitamin) given to monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. PMID:21773719

Doli?ska, Barbara; Opali?ski, Sebastian; Zieli?ski, Micha?; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew; Ryszka, Florian



Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.  


Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B



Development of endometriosis-like lesions after transplantation of human endometrial fragments onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.  


The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioassay was used to investigate the early pathogenesis of endometriosis. Endometrial fragments were explanted onto the CAM. The grafts including the surrounding CAM were excised at 24, 48 or 72 h after explantation, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to distinguish endometrial cells. To identify cells of human origin, in-situ hybridization was performed using a probe spec