Sample records for layer hen chicks

  1. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems B. Huber-Eicher* , F advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspeci®cs remains a serious problem with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both

  2. Propionic Acid and Calcium Propionate in Diets for Egg-Type Layers and Broiler Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Oruwari

    1993-01-01

    Oruwari, B.M. 1993. Propionic acid and calcium propionate in diets for egg-type layers and broiler chicks. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3:73–81.Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of low levels of supplemental propionic acid or calcium propionate on performance when these nutrients were included in diets for laying hens and broiler chickens. A supplementation of 1g calcium propionate\\/kg significantly

  3. Antibody responses of hens fed vitamin E and passively acquired antibodies of their chicks.

    PubMed

    Boa-Amponsem, K; Price, S E; Geraert, P A; Picard, M; Siegel, P B

    2001-01-01

    Antibody responses of hens and their progeny were studied in commercial broiler nuclear lines. Starting at 168 days of age, individually housed pullets from lines A and B were fed a 16% crude protein and 2752 kcal metabolizable energy/kg mash diet supplemented with either 10 or 300 IU/kg of vitamin E fed as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate. Fifty-eight days later (226 days of age), 12 hens per line-vitamin E subclass were inoculated i.v. with 0.1 ml of a 2.5% suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Plasma antibody titers were measured 6, 20, 40, 54, 70, and 88 days after inoculation. Hens from both lines were artificially mated to males from line C, and progeny from eggs collected 9-15, 25-30, and 65-70 days after inoculation were tested for antibodies to SRBC. Hens were reinoculated i.v. with 0.1 ml of 0.25% SRBC 88 days after the first inoculation, and their antibody levels were measured 3, 6, and 20 days later. Eggs laid 10-13 days after reinoculation were incubated, and antibody titers of chicks were measured at hatch. Antibody response of hens to an initial inoculation of SRBC was line-diet-time after inoculation specific. In line A, titers were greater for hens fed the lower than the higher vitamin E diet, whereas diet had no effect on the antibody levels in line B. Line effects (A > B) were observed on days 6 and 20 after inoculation but not thereafter. After the second inoculation, dietary vitamin E level had no effect on antibody levels of hens within lines, whereas a between-line difference (A > B) was observed for the lower but not the higher level of dietary vitamin E. Although there was no difference between diets for antibody transferred to progeny by line B, there was a difference (lower > higher) for line A. After reinoculation of their dams, antibody titers of chicks from line A, but not line B, reached levels similar to those after the first inoculation. Antibody levels were higher for chicks at hatch than in 16-day embryos or 10 days posthatch. The results of this research suggest genetic variation in response to immune stimulation by dietary vitamin E. PMID:11332472

  4. The effect of feeding high concentrations of cholecalciferol, phytase or the combination on broiler chicks and laying hens fed various concentrations of nonphytate phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jj Green

    2011-01-01

    Two broiler chick and one laying hen experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D 3 ), phytase (PHY) or the combination on the respective bird group (broiler chick or laying hen) fed various concentrations of nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) on performance, tibia ash and total tract phosphorus retention. The first broiler experiment utilized a

  5. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Sebö, F

    2001-07-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer several advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspecifics remains a serious problem that negatively affects the welfare of the birds as well as the economy of a farm. From experimental studies with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both behaviour are influenced by early access to litter substrate. We, therefore, hypothesised, that feather pecking in aviaries can be reduced with an adequate management in the first 2 weeks of life.Each of seven pens on six commercial poultry farms, was divided into two identical compartments (matched pair design). In one of the compartments (experimental compartment) chicks were reared for the first 2 weeks of life with access to litter (wood shavings, in one case with additional straw), while the chicks in the other compartment (control) were kept on a plastic grid. Thereafter, all chicks had unrestricted access to litter and there were no differences between the two compartments neither in housing conditions nor in management procedures.Chicks in the experimental compartments spent significantly more time foraging (week 5), showed significantly less feather pecking (weeks 5 and 14) and significantly fewer birds had damaged tail feathers (weeks 5 and 14).The study demonstrates that in aviaries, under commercial conditions, early access to litter substrate has a significant effect on the development of feather pecking. In order to reduce feather pecking and to increase foraging behaviour, it is recommended that laying hen chicks raised in aviary systems do get access to litter from day 1 on. PMID:11356291

  6. THE NATURE OF THE OPSONINS IN ADULT HEN SERUM AND DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS TO CERTAIN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Karthigasu; CR Jenkin; KJ Turner

    1964-01-01

    A study has been made of the opsonins present in the serum of developing chick embryos against certain strains of gram-negative bacteria. Comparison has been made with opsonins in serum from adult normal hens and from specifically immunised birds against the same bacterial strains. It has been shown that only 7S globulins are transferred across the yolk sac membrane, the

  7. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens 

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  8. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens

    E-print Network

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01

    THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

  9. Electrophoretic serum protein fractions in dwarf and normal layer hens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , belonging to 7 sire families, were compared for serum protein profiles, using a Polyacrylamide gel, dwarfism, serum protein, egg production. Résumé Fractions électrophorétiques des protéines du sérum chezNote Electrophoretic serum protein fractions in dwarf and normal layer hens and their correlations

  10. Effects of providing dietary wood (oak) charcoal to broiler chicks and laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Ilknur Ünsal; Murat Görgülü

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to determine whether dietary wood (oak) charcoal applied during entire or phase feeding period would affect growth performance, abdominal fat weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass composition and nutrient excretion of broilers and to determine whether dietary wood charcoal supplementation would affect laying performance and egg quality of laying hens. In the first experiment, different

  11. Plasma Catecholamine and Corticosterone Levels During Manual Restraint in Chicks from a High and Low Feather Pecking Line of Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mechiel Korte; Gerard Beuving; Wim Ruesink; Harry J Blokhuis

    1997-01-01

    Korte, S. M., G. Beuving, W. Ruesink and H. J. Blokhuis. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels during manual restraint in chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens. Physiol Behav 62(3) 437–441, 1997.—Neurosympathetic and adrenal responsivity to manual restraint was studied in two White Leghorn chicken lines which differ in their tendency to feather peck. Blood

  12. Bioeconomic Performance of Pullets and Layer Hens Fed Soybean Grains-Based Diets in Hot and Humid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Houndonougbo, M. F.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Daga Dadjo, F.; Adjaho, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of toasted soybean grains on bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens in hot and humid environment. A total of 972 three-week-old Harco chicks were divided into 12 groups. At starter, pullet and laying phases, birds were fed four diets containing 0% (R0), 5% (R5), 10% (R10), and 15% (R15) of soybean grains. Results showed similar feed intake, body weight gain, laying rate, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate between dietary treatments at each phase. The egg weight increased significantly in diet R15 (P < 0.05). The use of soybean grains reduced the feed prices. Feeding cost decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during growth and laying phases in soybean grains added diets. Feeds efficiency increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase of dietary soybean grains rate. Properly toasted soybean grains can be therefore included up to 15% in heavy line layer hens' diet in tropical conditions. PMID:23738130

  13. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  14. Composition and phosphorus bioavailability of a solid by-product from anaerobically digested waste from caged layer hens

    SciTech Connect

    Steinsberger, S.C.; Ort, J.F.; Shih, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    A poultry waste digester was constructed at the North Carolina State University Poultry Research Farm to produce methane from the waste of caged layer hens. A solid by-product (SBP) from the digester was recovered and dried for chemical and biological analysis as a feed supplement. Dried SBP was chemically analyzed for minerals, trace elements, and certain vitamins. The SBP was evaluated as a phosphorus (P) supplement in broiler diets. Biological availability of P in the SBP was determined by a slope ratio assay with femur bone ash as the criterion of P availability. Dietary treatments consisted of graded levels of standard available P (AP) supplemented as to provide .2, .3, .4, and .6% AP and graded levels of SBP added to provide 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5% SBP to a corn-soy basal diet. Two treatments, containing 1.5% and 2.5% SBP added to an adequate diet (.4% AP) were used to determine if other factors in SBP were contributing to femur bone ash. The P in SBP was determined to be 90% available to the growing broiler chick. Femur bone ash did not respond to SBP in the diets already adequate in AP. Body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion were not significantly different (P less than .05) among treatments with similar AP levels. The study concluded that SBP is a safe, effective feed supplement that supplies P, Ca, and total minerals.

  15. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250?000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16?h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9?Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls that represented potential to increase ventilation energy efficiency, and reduce carbon footprints and operational costs. PMID:22404801

  16. Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens

    E-print Network

    Park, Shinyoung

    2005-02-17

    phase investigated the ability of zinc propionate, as an alternative salt form of zinc, to induce molt in laying hens, the influence of zinc acetate and zinc propionate on gastrointestinal tract fermentation, and susceptibility of laying hens to S...

  17. The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1936-01-01

    for I that ie vitamin A in the feed of the hen laying the eggs from which chicks are hatched and the vitamin A intake of the chicks , be adequate if good results are to be obtained. These e'xperi- ;s showed that chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens... receiv- !65 Sherman-Mnnsell units of vitamin A per day (or 323 units LOO grams of feed) had low vitality. The mortality of the ;s for the first eight weeks on different vitamin A levels hd from 64.4 per cent for the chicks from the hens receiving...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN 1 D OLD LAYER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to determine if any relationship exists between body weight and beak characteristics in day old chicks for developing an automated system to standardize infrared beak treatment. At the hatchery, 1-day-old W-36 chicks (n=344) were weighed and digital pictures were taken of th...

  19. Sources of Hens Though it's sometimes possible to buy five-month old pullets (young hens) that are ready to

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Sources of Hens Though it's sometimes possible to buy five-month old pullets (young hens) that are ready to start laying eggs, it's more likely you'll need to raise your own hens from baby chicks and Watering Buy a complete laying ration of about 16 percent protein. Store feed in rodent-proof containers

  20. Residues of lindane and its metabolites in eggs, chicks, and body tissues of hen pheasants after ingestion of lindane? C via treated wheat seed or gelatin capsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Saha; R. H. Burrage

    1976-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate possible contamination of pheasants with residues of lindane used as seed dressings for the control of wireworms in cereal crops. One group of laying hen pheasants was fed 20 mg of lindane? C in gelatin capsules while another group was fed wheat seed treated with 100 ppm of lindane? C for 15 days. Residues

  1. Genetic Capability of Young Layers for Survival after Salmonella entritidis Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Soliman; H. Busby; C. Kilpatrick; Y. Nagamalleswari; P. McDuff; M. A. A. Sobieh

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Genetic line differences in resistance of layer hens and young chicks to Salmonella entritidis have been identified through a lot of studies. That is why the agricultural industry was prepared for the potential phasing out of antib iotics for use in controlling bacterial pathogens. Early infection may result in long term colonizatio n of layers with Salmonella entritidis

  2. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growi...

  3. Significance of interactions between Escherichia coli and respiratory pathogens in layer hen flocks suffering from colibacillosis-associated mortality.

    PubMed

    Vandekerchove, D; Herdt, P De; Laevens, H; Butaye, P; Meulemans, G; Pasmans, F

    2004-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the significance of interactions between Escherichia coli and various respiratory pathogens during outbreaks of colibacillosis-associated mortality in layer hen flocks under field conditions. For this purpose, a case-control study involving 20 control flocks with baseline mortality and 20 flocks with increased mortality due to E. coli septicaemia and polyserositis, was conducted. In each colibacillosis flock, blood samples were taken from 20 hens at the onset of clinical disease and three times thereafter at 2-week intervals. Control flocks of comparable ages were sampled in the same way. Pooled sera, taken at the first and last sampling, were examined for antibody titres against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the individual sera from all four samplings were examined for the presence and/or titres of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (APV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Titre increases were seen for IBV D274 (one control flock) and O. rhinotracheale (one control and one colibacillosis flock). An increase in per cent reactors was seen for APV (one control flock), and for M. synoviae (one control and two colibacillosis flocks). The study failed to detect any consistent interactions between E. coli and the aforementioned pathogens. These results indicate that, at least as observed in this study, outbreaks of increased mortality resulting from colibacillosis are not necessarily associated with IBV, NDV, APV, M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or O. rhinotracheale infections. PMID:15223556

  4. Brown hen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timophey Tkachik (None; )

    2007-02-07

    A female chicken is called a hen. A hen is capable of laying eggs. She has feathers to let her fly, a tail for balance, and the comb and wattle both help cool the hen off by circulating blood through them.

  5. Major derivatives of the ectoderm germ layer Primary neurulation: neural tube formation in the chick embryo (Part 1)

    E-print Network

    in the chick embryo (Part 1) #12;Primary neurulation: neural tube formation in the chick embryo (Part 2) #12;Neurulation in an amphibian embryo, showing early, middle, and late neurulae in each case (Part 1) #12;Neurulation in an amphibian embryo, showing early, middle, and late neurulae in each case (Part 2) #12

  6. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  7. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, C S; Friend, T H; McReynolds, J L; Kim, W K; Dunkley, K D; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2008-05-01

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens that were either on a conventional layer diet (FF) or hens that had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9-d trial. Each treatment consisted of 24 hens (3 hens per battery cage), and treatment began after a 2-week acclimation period. Video cameras connected to a digital multiplexer recorded the behavior of the hens. The percentages of observations performing nonnutritive pecking, feeder activity, drinking, walking, preening, head movement, and aggression were quantified for two 10-min periods at daily intervals. The FF hens spent significantly more (P < or = 0.05) time drinking than the other treatments, whereas FW hens displayed the most head movements. From d 1 through 7, FW hens walked less than ALC hens except on d 8 when FW hens walked more than ALC and FF hens. On d 4 and 6, the FW hens spent an increased amount of time preening compared with FF hens until the last few days of the molt period. For the most part, FW hens generally displayed more nonnutritive pecking than ALC and FF hens throughout the molt period. However, FW hen visits to the feeders declined as the trial proceeded, whereas ALC and FF hens generally spent more time at the feeder. In summary, the ALC diet showed potential as an alternative to FW for inducing a molt in laying hens based on reduced nonnutritive pecking behavior, head movements, and greater feeding activity. PMID:18420970

  8. Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

  9. The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks.

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1936-01-01

    fed the hen Effect of vitamin A in the feed upon the mart-ality, health, and ,gain in weight of chicks from eggs high in vitamin A .---_---------. Summary References TIN NO. 528 SEPTEMBER, 19 3 6 THE QUANTITIES OF VITAMIN A REQUIRED BY GROWING... in Bulletins 493 and 514. Mr. Ray Treiehler was in charge of this estima- tion. In the 1933 experiments, each lot of chicks numbered from 30 to 42; in the 1934 experiments, 3 lots of 25 to 26 chicks each were placed on each vitamin level; and in the 1935...

  10. Production performance and egg quality of four strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Silversides, F G

    2009-02-01

    Production performance and egg quality were compared between 4 strains of beak-trimmed layers: 3 commercial strains-Lohmann White (LW), H&N White (HN), Lohmann Brown (LB)-and a noncommercial cross between Rhode Island Red (male) and Barred Plymouth Rock (female) in conventional cages and in floor pens. All chicks were reared and 857 pullets were housed at 18 wk of age in their respective environments. Body weight, hen-day egg production, feed consumption and efficiency, and egg quality were measured at wk 20, 30, 40, and 50. In floor pens, the location of eggs was recorded for 4 consecutive days at 4-wk intervals between 20 and 50 wk of age. Eggs from cages, nest-boxes, and the floor were tested for Escherichia coli and coliform contamination at 38 and 42 wk of age. Mortality was recorded during the rearing and laying periods. Housing systems significantly influenced BW and mortality but not feed consumption or feed efficiency. The interaction between environment and strain was significant for hen-day egg production at wk 20 to 30 and for BW at wk 30, 40, and 50. Hens in floor pens had greater BW, egg and yolk weights, and yolk color than those in cages. Commercial hens produced more eggs than the cross hens. Overall, HN hens had the best production performance, whereas cross hens had better egg quality. In floor pens, LW and HN hens laid most of their eggs in nest boxes, whereas LB and cross hens laid half of their eggs on the floor. Eggs from cages had lower E. coli and coliform contamination than those from nest-boxes and the floor, and E. coli contamination was greater for LB eggs than for LW eggs. Significant strain differences were found for the use of nest-boxes, with a high percentage of floor eggs for brown egg strains. This study suggests that genotype x environment interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are proposed. PMID:19151338

  11. Effects of ipriflavone on caged layer bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Zhang, J; Hou, J-F

    2007-03-01

    The effects of ipriflavone on caged layer bone metabolism were examined in vitro and in vivo. Ipriflavone at 10(-8) M stimulated the activity of osteoblasts cultured from embryonic chick calvariae, and 10(-9) to 10(-7) M inhibited osteoclasts from chick tibias and humeri. Ipriflavone concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M inhibited osteoblast activity. These results suggest that ipriflavone influences bone metabolism by regulating the functional balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Based on these in vitro experiments, in vivo studies were conducted to further clarify the effects of ipriflavone. Five hundred 58-wk-old ISA caged layers were divided into 5 groups that were fed diets containing 0, 15, 25, 50, and 100 ppm of ipriflavone. The experiment lasted 70 d. Egg production increased in hens fed 25 ppm and decreased in hens fed 50 and 100 ppm when compared with the controls and hens fed 15 ppm (P < 0.05). Egg weight, shell quality, BW, and serum P, Ca, estrogen, and bone mineral content were not affected by inclusion of ipriflavone in the diet. Hens consuming 25 ppm of ipriflavone had greater serum alkaline phosphatase and bone gla-protein levels than controls. Adding 25 ppm of ipriflavone to the feed appears to be close to an ideal level for clinical treatment of osteoporosis because of improved egg production while maintaining bone mineral content. PMID:17297162

  12. Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

    2012-09-01

    Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 ?g m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 ?g m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

  13. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken. PMID:25972012

  14. The effect of vitamin B?? on the embryonic development of the chick

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas Morgan

    1954-01-01

    produced by such deficiency through the administration of vitamin B12. It was felt that such observations would provide further insight into the physiological action of vitamin B12 in em? bryonic stages of development. Congenital anomalies in the chick... of biotin, noted skeletal deformities, ataxia, and congenital perosis in chicks from hens fed on a low biotin diet. These deformities were prevented by the feeding of biotin or by injecting biotin into the egg. Skeletal deformities due to biotin...

  15. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n = 98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 ?g 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P > 0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. PMID:25743414

  16. Evaluation of the effects of cage height and stocking density on the behaviour of laying hens in furnished cages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Albentosa; J. J. Cooper; T. Luddem; S. E. Redgate; H. A. Elson; A. W. Walker

    2007-01-01

    1.?Limited information is available on how changes in horizontal and vertical space within enriched or furnished layer cages (as defined by Directive 1999\\/74\\/EC) influence hen behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of varying minimum cage heights and space allowances on the behaviour of laying hens housed in furnished cages. It was conducted on two flocks of medium brown hybrid hens

  17. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  18. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    PubMed

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  19. Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy breed) and white (light breed) laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M

    2010-03-01

    Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869

  20. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmu?, I; Yalç?n, S; Y?ld?r?m, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period. Moreover under COLDS condition, SOD production of LOW-Inc hens was higher than those of CONT- and HIGH-Inc hens indicating an induction in antioxidant enzyme activity. Nonetheless, prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos had no advantage on laying performance of hens under temperature stress conditions. PMID:25965022

  1. Influence of canthaxanthin on broiler breeder reproduction, chick quality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Hernandez, J M; Yao, B; Zhu, Q

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect of canthaxanthin supplied via a maternal route on the production of both breeder hens and chickens, 270 Chinese Three-Yellow breeder hens were randomly divided into 2 groups consisting of 135 birds each (5 replicates of 27) for study. The breeder hens were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 6 mg of canthaxanthin/kg for 24 wk. At the end of the 24-wk breeder experiment, all hatching eggs laid in 5 consecutive days of each group were collected and incubated. For each breeder group, 100 newly hatched chicks (5 replicates of 20) were reared under environmentally controlled conditions for 21 d. Canthaxanthin supplementation resulted in the following outcomes: an enhancement of the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of breeder hens (P = 0.029), a significant increase in the yolk colorimetric score of Roche Yolk Color Fan (RYCF; P < 0.001), and a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the egg yolk (P < 0.05). The chicks that hatched from eggs laid by breeder hens fed the canthaxanthin supplementation diet demonstrated a higher pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF for their shank skin (P < 0.05), and the antioxidant capacity of the newly hatched chicks was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Both of these positive effects on shank skin pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF and antioxidant capacity were observed for at least 7 d posthatching, and the chicks that hatched from canthaxanthin-enriched eggs showed a lower mortality (0 vs. 4%) during the first 21 d posthatching. These findings support the hypothesis that canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet enhances the protective capacity of tissues against oxidative stress in vivo, which might be beneficial for poultry producers. PMID:21673167

  2. PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCI.. VOL. 54 <19;51 13; EFFECTS OF ATBAZINE ON PENNED HEN PHEASANTS

    E-print Network

    the previous year. Two groups of hens (Replicate A with 32 and Replicate B with 40) and 13 cocks were caged to a different cock starting on the first of March. Cages and feeding procedures used were as described by Baxter weeks old. SusceptlbUlty tests of the chicks to hand-capture as described by Dahlgren et al. (1970) were

  3. Black Noddy with Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Black Noddy (with a chick) is one of eight seabird species whose population density was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project. ...

  4. The effects of taurine on the performance of laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Reger, Mark Myron

    1971-01-01

    Allen, R. D. , 1970. Effect of two commercial unidenti- fied. growth factors on growth rate and, feed conversion of the chick using practical diets. Poultry Sci. 49:615-620. Atkinson, R. L. , T. M. Ferguson and J. R. Couch, 1955. Further studies on unid... Subject: Poultry Science R o 0 a', l4 0 I?I THE EFFECTS OF TAURINE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS A Thes1s MARK MYRON REGER Approved. as to style and content by: a1rman of Comm1tte ad of Department Member Mem er Member Member December 19...

  5. Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    _____________ UR 3520 ­ STRUCTOR: Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R ONE/VOICE MAIL: hhhoch ACHING ASS am Benjamin Lauderdale ducation Cen 577-6378 u Thu: 10:40a- ass: 04/24/12 ERIALS: tment Compu for each sess dologies for a horough For each ass r 24 hours wil d

  6. Cocks and Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Lowe

    1891-01-01

    WHILST I was living at Highfield House in Nottinghamshire in 1879, a duck-wing game bantam injured her leg after she had been sitting for a fortnight, and could no longer remain on the eggs. The cock bird, however, took her place, and not only hatched the brood, but acted in all respects like a hen, brooding the young, setting his

  7. Movements of British hen harriers circus cyaneus outside the breeding season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Etheridge; Ron W. Summers

    2006-01-01

    Hen Harrier chicks were wing?tagged in four regions in Scotland and in North Wales between 1990 and 1995, and resighted or recovered dead as fully grown birds during the non?breeding season (August to April) throughout Britain and Ireland, and on the Continent, until April 1997. Results were analysed in terms of the percentages of birds that carried out long?distance movements

  8. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester on chick liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María Evangelista de Duffard; Adriana Fabra de Peretti; Stella Castro de Cantarini; Ricardo Duffard

    1993-01-01

    Fertilized hen eggs were externally treated with 3.1 mg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D ester) before starting incubation. Liver lipid composition, (14C)2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution and covalent binding to proteins and lipids of chicks hatched from these eggs were studied. Furthermore, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-phosphatase activities as well as reduced glutathione content were determined. The herbicide produced

  9. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  10. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the development of the chick retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Meller; W. Tetzlaff

    1976-01-01

    Fixed retinae of chick embryos and chicks of the first week after hatching were fractured and examined with the scanning electron microscope. The matrix cells of the retina proliferate up to the beginning of the second week. The migrating cells are oriented in cell cords. This columnar organization prevails up to the development of the plexiform layers formed as a

  11. Conversation with Jonathan Chick.

    PubMed

    Chick, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    In this occasional series, we record the views and personal experiences of people who have especially contributed to the evolution of ideas in the journal's field of interest. Professor Jonathan Chick is now retired from a long and successful career as a clinician in addiction psychiatry for the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland. He was formerly consultant psychiatrist at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and senior lecturer at Edinburgh University. His career as an academic and as a renowned clinician in the field of alcohol dependence continues, with his most recent appointments being as a Professor at Queen Margaret's University in Edinburgh and as a Medical Director at Castle Craig Hospital. He is an author and editor of many books and articles concerning the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems. Professor Chick is also editor of Alcohol and Alcoholism. PMID:24930469

  12. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...

  13. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  14. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen’s egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun

    2005-01-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen’s egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients’ IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

  15. Tissue-specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Filiz; Wood, Nicholas A R; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nicholas H C

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in egg and tissues of newly hatched chicks from wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), free-range guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), hen (Gallus domesticus) and domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and intensively housed hens. Carotenoid concentrations in the egg yolk of free-range guinea fowl, pheasant and wild mallard were similar (61.3-79.2 microg/g). Egg yolks from ducks and intensively housed hens were characterised by the lowest carotenoid concentration comprising 11.2-14.8 microg/g. However, carotenoid concentration in eggs from free-range ducks and hens was less than half of that in free-range guinea fowl or pheasant. Depending on carotenoid concentration in the livers of species studied could be placed in the following descending order: free living pheasant>free-range guinea fowl>free-range hen>intensively housed hen>wild mallard>housed duck>free-range duck. The carotenoid concentrations in other tissues of free-range guinea fowl and pheasant were substantially higher than in the other species studied. Egg yolk of housed hens was characterised by the highest alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. In accordance with the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk, the birds can be placed in the following descending order: intensively housed hen>wild mallard>free-living pheasant>free-range duck>free-range hen=free-range guinea fowl>housed duck. The main finding of this work is species- and tissue-specific differences in carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in the various avian species studied. PMID:15936711

  16. Distinct Subpopulations of Sensory Afferents Require F11 or Axonin-1 for Growth to Their Target Layers within the Spinal Cord of the Chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence E. Perrin; Fritz G. Rathjen; Esther T. Stoeckli

    2001-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion neurons project axons to specific target layers in the gray matter of the spinal cord, according to their sensory modality. Using an in vivo approach, we demonstrate an involvement of the two immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules axonin-1\\/TAG-1 and F11\\/F3\\/contactin in subpopulation-specific sensory axon guidance. Proprioceptive neurons, which establish connections with motoneurons in the ventral horn, depend

  17. Comparison of bones of 4 strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Korver, D R

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of bone strength has been an important issue in the debate over cage use for laying hens. Bone strength depends on adequate mechanical load and cages restrict movement. Four laying crosses (Lohmann White, Lohmann Brown, H&N White, and Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock cross hens) were housed in conventional cages or in floor pens equipped with perches and nest boxes to measure the effect of the housing system on bone strength. Approximately 15 hens of each genotype from each housing system were killed at 50 wk of age and the radius and tibia of each were removed for analysis. There were no differences between the Lohmann White and H&N White (White Leghorn) hens, likely because of their similar genetic background. The Lohmann Brown and the cross hens (brown-egg layers) were larger and they had heavier bones, but the bone density was not different from that of the other lines. The radius was heavier for hens kept in floor pens than for those kept in cages, but the tibia was not. When hens were kept in floor pens, both bones had greater cortical bone density and cross-sectional area, but the difference between housing systems in cortical bone cross-sectional area was much greater for the radius than it was for the tibia. Although the movement of hens in cages is limited, they spend a great deal of time standing, which puts a mechanical load on the tibia. Hens in floor pens are able to stretch their wings or fly, in contrast to hens kept in cages, which likely explains why the difference between housing systems in cortical bone was greater for the radius than for the tibia. PMID:22184423

  18. Interactions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E with regard to vitamin E status, fat composition and antibody responsiveness in layer hens.

    PubMed

    Sijben, J W C; Schrama, J W; Nieuwland, M G B; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C; Verstegen, M W A; Parmentier, H K

    2002-05-01

    1. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin E (VE) on an immune response may interact because VE may protect PUFA from in vivo oxidation. The present study was designed to study the presence of such an interaction in growing layer chickens. 2. Three dietary concentration of linoleic acid (LA, 3.3, 6.6 and 10%), in combination with 4 concentration of dietary VE (5, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) were used. Effects of LA and VE on circulating VE concentration, fatty acid composition of bursal and adipose fat, and antibody kinetics against keyhole limpet hemocyanin and Mycobacterim butyricum were established. 3. At high dietary LA concentration, bursal and adipose LA were higher but bursal arachidonic acid and long chain n-3 PUFA decreased. The dietary VE level did not consistently affect the deposition of PUFA in tissue. Plasma VE concentrations were affected by the dietary VE and LA content, but not by their interaction. Antibody responses before and 7 d after immunisation were affected by the dietary treatments. Antibody concentration were not affected by tissue fatty acid content. 4. In conclusion, the interaction effects of dietary PUFA and VE on fat deposition and immune responses are of minor importance compared to separate PUFA and VE effects. This implies that, within the studied range, adding extra VE to preserve or affect the effects of dietary PUFA on antibody responsiveness is unnecessary. PMID:12047096

  19. Olfactory lateralization in the chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

    1994-04-01

    Chicks using their right nostril (and so with direct olfactory input to the right hemisphere), and presented simultaneously with two objects identical in visual appearance with the rearing object, and differing only in odour, chose that which smelled like the rearing object. Chicks using the left nostril chose equally readily but at random. Earlier work, using similar tests, has shown special interest of the right hemisphere in change in visual properties of familiar stimuli, suggesting that analysis of a wide range of properties of a familiar stimulus may be an important function of the right hemisphere in the chick, with consequent detection of novelty. PMID:8047249

  20. Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2006-01-01

    In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

  1. Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?

    PubMed

    Tornberg, Risto; Helle, Pekka; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2011-07-01

    The plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (Microtinae spp.) and grouse (Tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast depression hypothesis; MDH). The predation facilitation hypothesis (PFH) in turn states that increased searching activity of vole-eating predators during or after the decline year of voles disturbs incubating and brooding grouse females. The behaviours used by grouse to avoid these terrestrial predators make them more vulnerable to predation by goshawks. We tested the main predictions of the MDH and PFH by collecting long-term (21-year) data from black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens and cocks killed by breeding goshawks supplemented with indices of bilberry crop, vole abundance and small carnivores in the vicinity of Oulu, northern Finland. We did not find obvious support for the prediction of the MDH that there is a negative correlation of bilberry crop in year t with vole abundance and with predation index of black grouse hens in year t + 1. We did find obvious support for the prediction of the PFH that there is a positive correlation between predator abundance and predation index of grouse hens, because the stoat Mustela erminea abundance index was positively related to the predation index of black grouse hens. We suggest that changes in vulnerability of grouse hens may mainly be caused by the guild of vole-eating predators, who shift to alternative prey in the decline phase of the vole cycle, and thus chase grouse hens and chicks to the talons of goshawks and other avian predators. PMID:21181416

  2. GROWTH IN HEN HARRIERS (Circus cyaneus cyaneus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M C. SCH

    The sexual dimorphism of adult Hen Harriers (Circus cyaneus cyaneus) was described and compared to other European harriers by Nieboer (1973). Scharf and Hamer- strom (1975) and Picozzi (1982) describe adult sexual dimorphism in live, wild-caught populations comparing Hen Harriers with Northern Harriers (C. c. hudsonius). The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism and growth of Hen Harrier nestlings identified by sex

  3. Effects of variations in fish meal quality on performance of laying hens

    E-print Network

    Narasimhamurthy, Pinapaka Venkata Lakshmi

    1966-01-01

    laatshsgcQL~ was rays&eel by ~, et ~ (1936) te be present iu fish meaL. Titus, st aL. (1936) ebeervect that, the addition ef fish meal to hen rations resulted in increased egg production snd higher hstchability. Lessen csxl Bacon (1946) stated... unidentified mineral ~aired by the chick. Poultry Soi. 34s738-740. Nestler, R. B. , T. C. Byerly, R? R. KLlis and H. M. Titus, 1936. neo factor, not vitamin 0, necessary for hatcbsbility. Poultry Sci. 15t 67~70. ONa4N~ Q. Se g EXXxL 14 % Nsg&O'x ~e Ag. g...

  4. CHICK GROWTH, SIBLING RIVALRY, AND CHICK PRODUCTION IN AMERICAN BLACK OYSTERCATCHERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH GROVES

    I studied chick growth, sibling rivalry, and chick production in a population of American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) on Cleland Island, British Columbia from 1975 to 1978. For these birds, survival from hatching until time of first flight is the critical life-history stage. Chick growth varied with brood size, and heavier chicks had higher survival to the time of first

  5. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

  6. FAILURE MECHANISMS OF HENS' EGGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. MacLeod?; M. M. Bain; S. E. Solomon; J. W. Hancock?

    The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens eggs have been examined experimentally under contact loading conditions. Eggs of known provenance were tested in compression between stiff platens, and the deformation modelled computationally as a Hertzian contact problem between a thin walled shell and a rigid plate. The associated contact damage was determined by scanning electron microscopy and by optical

  7. Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland

    2004-01-01

    Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

  8. Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J

    2005-09-01

    Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance. PMID:17312759

  9. Effect of Sulphur on Chick Nutrition. 

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1943-01-01

    on the requirmatis of chicks itnmins A, D and riboflaTSrz. le result of these experiments, are in agreement with the work of rs, in fhat chicks fed sulphur away from sunlight require roar s as much vitamin D carrier as chicks fed no sulphur. On the other chicks... not make it necessary to increase the vitamin content of the CONTENTS Page ( Introduction I Procedure 1 Experimental Results. I Study of Types and Amounts of Sulphur 7 Effect of Amounts' of Sulphur on Chick Growth 7 I The Effect of Sulphur Flour...

  10. Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    III IV V VI _____________ UR 3331 CTURE INST Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57 mail: hhhochm ACHING ASS jid (FLREC Fo eed Lab 404A m-3pm, Wedne :55pm (per. 8 (per. 9) ass: 04/17/12 ERIALS: tt (2000): Ele. F per and one ass exc 3. T be CO The inst _____________ RADING PO R 3331+SUR rade Pe 90 - 87 + 85 77

  11. Physiological Stress in Laying Hens1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Odihambo Mumma; J. P. Thaxton; Y. Vizzier-Thaxton; W. L. Dodson

    Stress responses in laying hens were medi- ated by continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) via osmotic pumps. The ACTH was dissolved in saline solution (0.85%), and each pump delivered 8 IU of ACTH per kilogram of BW per day at the rate of 1 L\\/h for 7 d. Control hens received pumps loaded with saline. Measurements were made at 6

  12. [A new method for quantitative measurement of the cadmium absorbed by chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Gottofrey, J

    1984-01-01

    We attempted to determine the quantity of cadmium incorporated in hens eggs after immersion in cadmium solutions, and the cadmium concentration measured in embryos. We discussed equipment allowing simultaneous treatment of up to 42 samples, and called it " digestor ". It consisted of two gas-heated sand baths, two stands for cooling down solutions and an evacuation system for toxic vapours. Our method was based on wet mineralisation. It consisted of desintegrating experimental chick embryos in a HNO3/H2O2 mixed solution. After heating and evaporating, the quantity of cadmium in the remnant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The reliability of such a technique was tested by studying as controls controls 17 days-old chick embryos injected with a known quantity of Cd(NO3). It showed no loss of cadmium. We also compared our procedure with a dry ashing method. The latter showed unacceptable losses and insufficient precision for the problems we wanted to investigate. Our method gave us much more precise results. The equipment we developed has functioned wholly satisfactorily and allowed us to investigate for instance cadmium distribution and concentration in embryonic organs of 17 days-old chicks. It could also be useful for researches concerning other biological samples analyzed for different heavy metals. PMID:6724786

  13. Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks.

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1932-01-01

    of phosphoric acid than for the higher levels ,studied. The mineral requirements recommended for normal gains in live weight also resulted in satisfactory calcification of the bones. With these amounts of phosphoric acid and lime for chicks up to twelve... ______....____._...-----------.-.-----------.-------------.------------------------- 13 Literature Cited 14 BULLETIN NO. 462 NOVEMBER, 1932 LIME AND PHOSPHORIC ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR CHICKS R. M. SHERWOOD Studies on the calcium and phosphorous requirements for chicks have been conducted by numerous workers. Those working...

  14. NOTES ON THE STRUCTURE OF SHELL AND MEMBRANES OF THE HEN'S EGG;

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTES ON THE STRUCTURE OF SHELL AND MEMBRANES OF THE HEN'S EGG; A STUDY WITH THE SCANNING ELECTRON made of the structure of the avian egg-shell. In the egg envelop different layers can be discerned and true cuticle (Ty!,!R, rg65). During transport and handling of eggs more than 10 p. 100 may crack

  15. Physical Properties of Chick Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Kreuz, Leo E.; Levy, Allan H.

    1965-01-01

    Kreuz, Leo E. (The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.), and Allan H. Levy. Physical properties of chick interferon. J. Bacteriol. 89:462–469. 1965.—The sedimentation coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and molecular weight of chick-embryo interferon were determined by zone centrifugation and equilibrium sedimentation in cesium chloride density gradients, and by chromatography on Sephadex G-100 columns. Purified interferon is not available in quantities sufficient to permit direct analysis by chemical or physical means; its relative concentrations were determined, therefore, by bioassay. I125-human serum albumin was used as an internal reference in all experiments. The sedimentation coefficient of chick-embryo interferon is 2.2 to 2.3S; the diffusion coefficient is 9.5 × 10?7 cm2sec?1. A molecular weight of 26,000 was calculated from the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, and a range of 25,000 to 34,000 daltons was obtained from equilibrium-sedimentation analyses. PMID:14255715

  16. The effect of increased oxygen atmospheres on the early growth and development of chick embryos grown in plastic shells 

    E-print Network

    Bryant, James Nathan

    1967-01-01

    by gently cracking the egg shell with a knife, placing the opened egg near the mouth of the plastic shell, and allowing the contents to flow into it. The outside of the plastic shell, containing the egg contents, was then wiped with cheesecloth dampened... growth and survival of explanted chick embryos cultured under high levels of oxygen. Devel. Biol. 10:17-44. Kosin, Igor L. , 1944. Macro- and microscopic methods of detecting fertility in unincubated hen' s eggs. Poultry Sci. 2):266-269. Lamson, G, H...

  17. Differential involvement of right and left hemisphere in individual recognition in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

    1994-12-01

    Right hemisphere advantage in individual recognition (as shown by differences between response to strangers and companions) is clear in the domestic chick. Chicks using the left eye (and so, thanks to the complete optic decussation, predominantly the right hemisphere) discriminate between stranger and companion. Chicks using the right eye discriminate less clearly or not at all. The ability of left eyed chicks to respond to differences between strangers and companions stimuli is associated with a more general ability to detect and respond to novelty: this difference between left and right eyed chicks also holds for stimuli which are not social partners. The right hemisphere also shows advantage in tasks with a spatial component (topographical learning; response to change in the spatial context of a stimulus) in the chick, as in humans. Similar specialisations of the two hemispheres are also revealed in tests which involve olfactory cues presented by social partners. The special properties of the left hemisphere are less well established in the chick. Evidence reviewed here suggests that it tends to respond to selected properties of a stimulus and to use them to assign it to a category; such assignment then allows an appropriate response. When exposed to an imprinting stimulus (visual or auditory) a chick begins by using right eye or ear (suggesting left hemisphere control), and then shifts to the left eye or ear (suggesting right hemisphere control), as exposure continues. The left hemisphere here is thus involved whilst behaviour is dominated by vigorous response to releasing stimuli presented by an object. Subsequent learning about the full detailed properties of the stimulus, which is crucial for individual recognition, may explain the shift to right hemisphere control after prolonged exposure to the social stimulus. There is a marked sex difference in choice tests: females tend to choose companions in tests where males choose strangers. It is possible that this difference is specifically caused by stronger motivation to sustain social contact in female chicks, for which there is extensive evidence. However, sex differences in response to change in familiar stimuli are also marked in tests which do not involve social partners. Finally, in both sexes there are two periods during development in which there age-dependent shifts in bias to use one or other hemisphere. These periods (days 3-5 and 8-11) coincide with two major changes in the social behaviour of chicks reared by a hen in a normal brood. It is argued that one function of these periods is to bring fully into play the hemisphere most appropriate to the type of response to, and learning about, social partners which is needed at particular points in development. Parallels are discussed between the involvement of lateralised processes in the recognition of social partners in chicks and humans. PMID:24925239

  18. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  19. Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang

    2010-02-10

    The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

  20. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SORA AND VIRGINIA RAIL CHICKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD W. KAUFMANN

    Sora (Porzana carolina) and Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) chicks were ob- served in the wild and in captivity. In both species the chicks are precocial in ground and aquatic locomotion, semiprecocial in feeding themselves, and altricial in feather develop- ment, flight, and possibly thermoregulation. Sora chicks had more conspicuous head col- oration and begging display than did Virginia Rail chicks,

  1. Perch width preferences of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

    2009-07-01

    1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units. PMID:19735010

  2. Perch width preferences of laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; B. Ampe; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck; L. Duchateau

    2009-01-01

    1.?In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1·5, 3·0, 4·5, 6·0, 7·5, 9·0 and 10·5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate

  3. Chronic fenthion toxicity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tuler, S M; Bowen, J M

    1999-10-01

    White leghorn laying hens were exposed to weekly dermal applications of either 1 mg fenthion/kg (FEN; low dose) or 4 mg FEN/kg (high dose) for 24 w with the objective of evaluating chronic FEN toxicity. Four of 24 hens at the high dose exhibited transitory loss of proprioception, perching ability, and righting reflex after 8 to 16 w exposure. All hens receiving the high dose lost the ability or desire to jump from a box during the latter half of the FEN exposure period. Inhibition of serum cholinesterase and brain acetylcholinesterase was greater in the high-dose hens. Brain neuropathy target esterase was not inhibited. Behavioral changes were not correlated with changes in brain concentrations of enzymes or neurotransmitters or their metabolites. Muscle fiber abnormalities were more common in the high-dose hens. Muscle electrical activity was recorded electromyographically via telemetry. Fibrillation (denervation) potentials were absent, but amplitude times duration values for motor unit potentials of the peroneus longus muscle for 5 of the 6 4-w evaluation intervals were higher in the high-dose hens. This EMG response suggested presence of a mild neuropathy which was supported by results of ultrastructural examinations of the sciatic nerve. The low dose initially produced 8% stimulation of egg production while the high dose inhibited egg production 10% during the latter 16 w of the study and reduced body weight 8% during this period. PMID:10509433

  4. Effect of Sulphur on Chick Nutrition.

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1943-01-01

    the effect of 2, 2 ?h, and 5 per cent of 325 mesh dusting sulphur and flowers of sul- on gains in live weight and feed efficiency. .The vitamin D for experiment was supplied by including 1/2 per cent of 400-D fish oil in basal diet 3. The chicks were... destroyed by heat and aeration was supplied to the chicks. ~ould contain approximately -150 A. 0. A. C. units of vitamin D 10 grams of feed. No sunlight was supplied. le 3 gives the gains in live weight of the New Hampshire chicks ~eriments 6s and 72...

  5. Protein, grain and sources of methionine in the nutrition of the laying hen and broiler chick

    E-print Network

    Ernst, Herbert Lloyd

    1967-01-01

    Cornr K% 4 1764 219 1718 191 65 29 239 . 70. 73 1739 236 69. 92 1790 226 6'f . 14 15$ Proteia 4 1532 1704 f Nilo 4 MHA ]. 5$ Protein 5 ' 1541 1739 / Milo 8. FM 57. 63 1. 696 57. 66 1. 796 58. 99 l. '(78 58. 59 1. 778 59. 85 1, 669 59. 65 1.... 27 60. 25 1. 728 8. 33 2. 17$ Protein ]0. 100$ MHA 16$ Protein 1549 1706 1535 1706 157 69. 29 70. 66 60. 02 1. 691 58. 99 1. 714 12. 50 4. 164 Protein 154. 1 j0. 075$ MHA 1731 190 70. 59 59. 19 1. 682 10. 41 15$ Protein 1540 1660 120 67. 50...

  6. Protein, grain and sources of methionine in the nutrition of the laying hen and broiler chick 

    E-print Network

    Ernst, Herbert Lloyd

    1967-01-01

    . (1951) showed that, egg production was reduced when protein levels of 13/ to 15/ were fed. Heywang (1955) showed that when an 11. 5/-protein diet was fed, the average egg production was less than when a 13/-protein diet was fed. Heywang maintained a... of protein 26 level from 17. 5%%u to 15. 3/ or 13. 3/ had no effect on body weight, egg size, egg production or Haugh units, during 16 weeks of production. Vest (1966) reports that phase feeding of protein decreases body weight and egg size during...

  7. Summation of Large Numerousness by Newborn Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Newly hatched domestic chicks, reared with identical objects, when presented with sets of 3 vs. 2 objects disappearing one-by-one behind separate screens, spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set; even when the continuous variables (area or perimeter) were controlled for (Rugani et al., 2009). Here, using a similar paradigm, we investigated the ability of chicks to perform addition on larger sets of objects. Chicks imprinted on five identical objects, were presented at test with 6 vs. 9 objects which disappeared one-by-one (Exp. 1). In Exp. 2, the same overall number of objects (15) was used, but employing an increased ratio, i.e., 5 vs. 10. In both experiments, when continuous variables were not made equal, chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set. However, when the size of the objects was adjusted so as to make the total surface area or perimeter equal for the two sets, chicks did not exhibit any preference. Lack of choice in the control conditions could be due to a combination of preferences; to rejoin the larger numerousness as well as the bigger objects (Rugani et al., 2010a). In Exp. 3, chicks were familiarized, during imprinting, with objects of various dimensions, in an attempt to reduce or suppress their tendency to approach objects larger than the familiar ones. Again chicks failed to choose at test between 5 vs. 10 objects when continuous variables were made equal. Results showed that chicks, after a one-by-one presentation of a large number of objects, rejoined the larger set. In order to choose the larger set, chicks estimated the objects in the two sets and then compared the outcomes. However, differently to what has been described for small numerousness, chicks succeeded only if non-numerical cues as well as numerical cues were available. This study suggests that continuous variables are computed by chicks for sets of objects that are not present at the same time and that are no longer visible at the time of choice. PMID:21941514

  8. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 ?g/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 ?g/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  9. DIELDRIN EFFECTS IN TWO GENERATIONS OF PENNED HEN PHEASANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM L. BAXTER; RAYMOND L. LINDER; Brookings ROBERT B. DAHLGREN

    Effects of encapsulated dieldrin fed to penned hen pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were studied through two generations. First-generation hens received 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg of dieldrin per week for 13 weeks. Hens which were offspring of these 0, 4 and 6 mg treated groups received 0 or 6 mg per week for 14 weeks. Effects of dieldrin were evaluated

  10. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  11. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ? 0.05). Our results showed that preference for a dustbathing substrate increased with decreasing lipid content, implying that food particles may not be a suitable dustbathing substrate. PMID:22010226

  12. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of propolis on hematological and immunological variables in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E; Silici, S; Cetin, N; Güçlü, B K

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of 4 different levels of propolis supplementation on the hematological and immunological parameters of laying hens, a trial was conducted with 60 White Leghorn layer hens. The experiment was conducted by using a randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replicates, and 3 hens in each replicate. Treatments included basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 g of propolis/kg of diet, respectively. At the end of the 12-wk treatment period, samples of blood were collected to determine hematological and immunological values. The results showed that the addition of propolis at 3 g/kg in the diet resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in the serum IgG and IgM levels and significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the peripheral blood T-lymphocyte percentage compared with those of the control and other treatment groups. In addition, the level of 3 g/kg of propolis supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) erythrocyte count (red blood cells) compared with the other treatments. On the other hand, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and total leucocyte (white blood cells) and differential leucocytes counts were not influenced by propolis supplementation. These results indicate that the inclusion of propolis at the level of 3 g/kg of diet may have a positive effect on humoral immunity of laying hens. PMID:20634526

  13. Evaluation of Cellulolytic Enzyme Supplementation on Production Indices and Nutrient Utilization of Laying Hens Fed Soybean Hull Based Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate cellulolytic enzyme supplementation on production indices and nutrient utilization of laying hens fed soybean hull based diets. Seven experimental layers diets were formulated incorporating soybean hull meal at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% (without enzyme supplementation) and 10, 20 and 30% (with 2.0% enzyme supplementation) dietary levels respectively. One hundred and forty seven

  14. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n = 144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P = 0.0013) and AVR2 (P < 0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin × line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r = 0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes. PMID:25630677

  15. Patterned assembly and neurogenesis in the chick dorsal root ganglion

    PubMed Central

    George, Lynn; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer; Nelson, Branden R.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Lefcort, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The birth of small-diameter TrkA+ neurons that mediate pain and thermo reception begins approximately 24 hours after the cessation of neural crest cell migration from progenitors residing in the nascent dorsal root ganglion. Although multiple geographically distinct progenitor pools have been proposed, this study is the first to comprehensively characterize the derivation of small diameter neurons. In the developing chick embryo, we identify novel patterns in neural crest cell migration and colonization that sculpt the incipient ganglion into a post-mitotic neuronal core encapsulated by a layer of proliferative progenitor cells. Furthermore, we show that this outer progenitor layer is composed of three spatially, temporally, and molecularly distinct progenitor zones, two of which give rise to distinct populations of TrkA+ neurons. PMID:20017208

  16. Effects of Dietary Yucca schidigera Powder on Performance and Egg Cholesterol Content of Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Murat Görgülü; Ilknur Ünsal

    2001-01-01

    Kutlu, H.R., Görgülü, M. and Ünsal, I. 2001 Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera powder on performance and egg cholesterol content of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 49–56.The present study was carried out to determine whether dietary Yucca schidigera powder would affect egg yolk cholesterol content and laying performance of chickens. Sixty, 28-week-old White Hyline layers were divided into

  17. Theca cell cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase and aromatase messenger ribonucleic acid abundance and serum steroid levels during follicular atresia associated with incubation behavior in the domestic turkey hen.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, C; Silsby, J L; Rozenboim, I; Pitts, G R; Foster, D N; el Halawani, M E

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine changes in cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (C17) and aromatase (ARO) mRNA contents in the theca layer of preovulatory follicles (POF) as turkey hens transit from egg laying to incubation. Hens were grouped into the following categories: 1) laying hens--laid one egg per day and nested 1-2 times per day; 2) transitional hens--laid one egg per day and nested > 4 times per day; and 3) Day 1, Day 3, and Day 5 incubating hens--laid no eggs for 2, 4, or 6 days, respectively, and nested > 4 times per day. Small white follicles (SWF) and the theca layer from the largest (F1) and the third (F3), fifth (F5), and seventh (F7) largest POF were dispersed and challenged with testosterone (T) for 5 h. Relative levels of C17 and ARO mRNA were examined from the theca layers of F1, F3, F5, F7, and SWF. The number of atretic follicles increased from 0 (layers) to 8 (Day 5 incubating hens). Serum LH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E), but not T, declined on Day 1 of incubation. Basal levels of P, T, and E from theca and SWF cells declined in incubating hens. Both basal and T-stimulated theca and SWF production of E decreased in incubating hens. C17 and ARO mRNA declined in SWF, F7, and F5 during follicular atresia. It is suggested that reduced gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes may be a partial determinant of reduced circulating sex steroid levels in incubating hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819456

  18. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the probiotic on excreta Lactobacillus counts and serum HDL cholesterol concentration were observed at wk 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.01% probiotic improved egg production and egg quality and decreased excreta ammonia emission. The use of a probiotic in the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets may be more favorable than the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets in laying hens. PMID:23893973

  19. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  20. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  1. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  2. Providing Scholarship Support hen Kyuchang Jung ('14)

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Providing Scholarship Support #12;W hen Kyuchang Jung ('14) was in high school at Staten Island proud of me," says Jung, who lives with his parents on Staten Island but has been otherwise independent on Staten Island but has been otherwise independent since graduating from high school. Jung came with his

  3. The case for chick lit in academic libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Davis-Kahl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to prove that chick lit is a legitimate and important area of collection for academic libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article presents a definition of chick lit with an overview of the origin and significance of the term itself, discusses chick lit's impact on publishing, and its relationship to academia and women's writing.

  4. Care of Baby Chicks1 Christopher DeCubellis2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    is at a Figure 1. Wire brooder, light on #12;2Care of Baby Chicks comfortable temperature, the chicks will moveAN-170 Care of Baby Chicks1 Christopher DeCubellis2 1. This document is Series AN-170 one need a clean environment that protects them from drafts and keeps them at the proper temperature

  5. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of B-cadherin, a novel chick cadherin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion is mediated in large part by a set of homologous integral membrane glycoproteins termed cadherins. In this report, antibodies to conserved domains in previously described cadherins have been used to isolate cDNAs encoding a novel chick cadherin. The deduced primary structure of this novel molecule, assigned the name B-cadherin, contains 726 amino acid residues which include five extracellular domains characteristic of this class of adhesion molecules, a single putative transmembrane spanning region, and a cytoplasmic tail. In each domain, B-cadherin shares extensive homologies with other cadherins, but is more closely related to E- cadherin, P-cadherin, and L-CAM than to N-cadherin. It is expressed in a wide variety of chick tissues at embryonic day 13. In particular, immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization localize B- cadherin protein and mRNA to the epithelial lining of the choroid plexus and to cells in specific layers of the optic tectum in chick brain. Levels of the protein and RNA transcript change dramatically as development proceeds in chick brain. These results suggest that B- cadherin has important functions in neurogenesis, in at least some epithelia, and in embryogenesis. PMID:2026653

  7. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (ir-LH) cells in the lung and stomach of chick embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Shirasawa; Masataka Shiino; Yoshifusa Shimizu; Haruo Nogami; Susumu Ishii

    1995-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactivity was detected in the lung and stomach of chick embryos by the immunoperoxidase staining technique using specific antiserum to chicken LH. Immunoreactive LH (ir-LH) cells first appeared in the primordial cells of the epithelial layer of lung bud and foregut as well as of Rathke's pouch in the 3-day-old embryo, Hamburger and Hamilton stage 21. Ir-LH

  8. Detoxication of Dietary Tannic Acid by Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. FULLER; S. I. CHANG; K. POTTER

    In an effort to learn more about the mechanism for detoxication of dietary tannins in aves, tannic (digallic) acid (TA) was fed to young chicks at 0.5 and 1.0% of their diet together with supplemental methionine (as the hydroxy analogue, Ca salt) (MHA), choline, betaine, arginine and ornithine individually and in various combinations. In the absence of these nutrients, TA

  9. Differentiation of the chick embryo floor plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Griffith; E. J. Sanders

    1991-01-01

    In a number of species, the floor plate of the developing neural tube and spinal cord has been ascribed specialized functions associated with the patterning of neuronal differentiation. The differentiation of the floor plate itself is believed to be closely related to the presence of the underlying notochord. Grafting experiments have previously shown that in the chick embryo an implanted

  10. Research paper Experienced chicks show biased avoidance

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    a predator's previous interaction with less conspicuous prey. This study investigates whether domestic chicks- itable prey is the synergistic eect produced by predator generalisation behaviour. Warning col- oration to the concept of warning coloration would mean that a predator who gains experience of dis- tasteful prey

  11. Regeneration following somite removal in chick embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Lian Liu; Keith M. Bagnall

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed for ensuring complete removal of single somites with minimal damage to surrounding tissues in 2-day-old chick embryos. Histological examination of the site of somite removal at various time intervals after operation revealed that a regeneration mechanism could be triggered. Replacement of the cells that had been removed could occur, but the extent of the replacement was

  12. Whooping Crane Chick L4-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  13. Whooping Crane Chick L1-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  14. Whooping Crane Chick L5-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  15. Whooping Crane Chick L7-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  16. Whooping Crane Chick L3-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  17. Whooping Crane Chick L6-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  18. Whooping Crane Chick L10-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  19. Whooping Crane Chick L2-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s.    ...

  20. Whooping Crane Chick L3-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s.  ...

  1. Whooping Crane Chick L9-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  2. Whooping Crane Chick L8-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  3. Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance

    E-print Network

    Brister, Roy David

    1980-01-01

    for a longer period of time. In their in vitro study, there were no significant differences in the solubility rates between hen-sized oyster shell and hen-sized limestone. The in vitro solu- bility rate was slightly greater for pullet-sized than... for hen-sized particles for both limestone and oyster shell. Studies conducted on calcium sources for laying hens have produced a variety of results. Ground limestone and oyster shell have failed to show consistent significant differences in egg shell...

  4. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P < 0.05) versus the indoor group. The crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items. PMID:22820940

  5. dd ? 3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-10-01

    The dd ? 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3 He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data.

  6. Class 14 November 14, 2009 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    Class 14 November 14, 2009 1 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 1) 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 2) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 2 Chick neurulation 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 3 12.2 Neurulation in a chick

  7. HAEMOPROTEUS BALEARICAE AND OTHER BLOOD PARASITES OF FREE-RANGING FLORIDA SANDHILL CRANE CHICKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Dusek; Marilyn G. Spalding; Donald J. Forrester; Ellis C. Greiner

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pra- tensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell

  8. Analysis of risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in laying hen growers.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Audigé, L

    1999-12-01

    1. Potential risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in laying hen growers raised under commercial conditions were investigated on Swiss farms with more than 500 rearing places. On-farm interviews were conducted on a sample of 64 flocks which represented 42.6% of all farms concerned. 2. All variables considered were dichotomised and their univariate correlation with the occurrence of feather pecking was tested for significance at P <0.20 using chi2 tests. Logistic regression with backward elimination was then used with the significant variables to identify the potentially most important factors influencing feather pecking. These variables included stocking density, light intensity, intensity of care, access to elevated perches, access to a roofed and littered outdoor area ('bad weather run'), time of access to the feeding facilities of the housing system, stocking density in the restricted area at the beginning of the rearing period, additional open feeding areas in the beginning and air quality. 3. The final model contained stocking density and access to elevated perches as significant factors (P<0.05). Flocks kept in high density (> or = 10 birds per m2) and with no access to elevated perches were 6.4 (95% Confidence interval 1.7 to 24.2) and 4.0 (95% Confidence interval 1.2 to 12.9) times more likely to be affected by feather pecking, respectively. 4. The study identified 2 risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in flocks of laying hen growers reared under commercial conditions. It is concluded that in order to reduce feather pecking chicks should be reared at low density and with access to elevated perches. PMID:10670670

  9. Egg yolk omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids modify tissue lipid components, antioxidant status, and ex vivo eicosanoid production in chick cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ortega, J; Goeger, D E; Cherian, G

    2009-06-01

    The effects of maternal n-6 and n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on hatched chick tissue FA profile, antioxidant status, and ex vivo eicosanoid production by the cardiac tissue were investigated. Eggs with low, medium, and high levels of n-3 FA were obtained by feeding Cobb breeder hens were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 3.5% sunflower oil (low n-3), 1.75% sunflower oil plus 1.75% fish oil (medium n-3), or 3.5% fish oil (high n-3). Total n-3 FA in the yolk ranged from 1.8, 10.3, and 13.3% for low, medium, and high n-3 eggs, respectively (P < 0.001). Total long-chain (>20 C) n-6 FA in the egg yolk were 7.4, 2.1, and 1.3 for low n-3, medium n-3, and high n-3 eggs, respectively (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in total fat content of the eggs, which was 33.3, 31.6, and 31.9% for low n-3, medium n-3, and high n-3 eggs, respectively (P > 0.05). Hatchability for the low, medium, and high n-3 eggs was 89, 85, and 83%, respectively (P > 0.05). The total lipid content of chick liver, heart, brain, and lungs can be placed in the following descending order: liver > brain > heart > lung and was not affected by egg FA (P > 0.05). Total n-3 FA were higher in the tissues of medium and high n-3 chicks than in the tissue of low n-3 chicks (P < 0.05). There was no effect of egg FA on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in the heart of low, medium, and high n-3 chicks (P > 0.05). There were no differences in total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, or superoxide dismutase activities in the tissues of chicks from low n-3, medium n-3, and high n-3 eggs (P > 0.05). The medium n-3 and high n-3 chicks had lower catalase activity in the heart than did the low n-3 chicks (P = 0.013). The TBA reactive substances were significantly lower in the liver of high n-3 chicks than in that of low and medium n-3 chicks (P < 0.05). Heart tissue prostaglandin E(2) concentration was higher in low n-3 chicks than in those hatched from medium or high n-3 eggs (P < 0.05). Heart tissue thromboxane A(3) was lowest in low n-3 chicks (P < 0.05). There was no effect of yolk FA on ex vivo prostaglandin E(3) or thromboxane A(2) production in cardiac tissue (P > 0.05). These results indicate that modulating egg yolk n-3 FA enhances tissue n-3 FA and reduces proinflammatory cardiac eicosanoid production without affecting hatchability. PMID:19439626

  10. Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

  11. Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1924-01-01

    ...................................................... 5 Experiment 1-Comparative Value of Meat Scrap. Tankzge 2nd Cotton- ................................ . seed Meal for Laying Hens 6 ............................ Time. Objects. Stock Used. Feeds Used G Prices of Feeds... of Meat Scrap with Cottonseed Meal For Laying Hens ........................................ 16 ............................ Time. Object. Stock Used. Feeds Used 16 Prices of Feeds ................................................ 17 Results of.the Test...

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

  13. A role for aquaporin-4 during induction of form deprivation myopia in chick

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Melinda J; Junghans, Barbara M; Giummarra, Loretta; Murphy, Melanie J

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQP) form a family of specialized water channels known to transport water across cell membranes and reduce osmotic gradients. The isoform AQP4 is highly expressed in the astroglia of the brain and Müller cells in the retina. In the brain, AQP4 play a role in the control of cerebral edema by shunting excess fluid into blood vessels and by upregulating during conditions of hyperosmolarity. Thus, on the basis of the hyperosmolarity seen across the retina and choroid of hatchling chickens made myopic by form deprivation (FD), we predicted an upregulation of retinal AQP4 expression during induction of myopia. Methods Two-day-old hatchling chicks were monocularly form-deprived for 48, 72, or 96 h, and then after biometric assessment, the eyes of these animals and the normal controls of the same age were enucleated. Retinal tissue was prepared either for western blot analysis to show the presence of the AQP4 protein in the chick retina or for immunolocalization using polyclonal AQP4 antibodies to determine regional distribution and intensity of labeling during the induction of form deprivation myopia (FDM). Results As expected, ultrasonography demonstrated that all post hatchling eyes showed rapid elongation with occluded eyes elongating faster than fellow eyes or normal controls and becoming progressively more myopic with the duration of visual deprivation. Western blot analyses revealed an approximately 30 kDa band immunoreactive for AQP4 protein and confirmed the presence of AQP4 in chicks. Immunohistochemical staining showed the greatest positive immunoreactivity for antibodies to AQP4 in the inner retina along the vitreoretinal interface, nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer in all animals. The control eyes showed relatively constant levels of AQP4 expression until day 5 after which the level appeared to decrease. By comparison, positive AQP4 immunoreactivity in the nerve fiber layer increased significantly over the first 48 h in form-deprived eyes and in fellow eyes and then decreased over the next 48 h but not to the level of expression in the normal untreated eyes. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of AQP4 protein in the chick retina and to associate AQP4 expression in the inner retina with the initiation of form deprivation and the period of fastest axial elongation. This increased expression of AQP4 channels near the vitread border during the time of rapid growth suggests a role for AQP4 as a conduit for movement of retinal fluid into the vitreous in form-deprived chicks. PMID:18334967

  14. Lacquer crack lesions in experimental chick myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Hirata; Akira Negi

    1998-01-01

    • Background: Lacquer crack lesion (LCL) is a complication of human pathologic myopia, accompanied by loss of retinal pigment\\u000a epithelium (RPE) and break of Bruch’s membrane. The present paper describes comparable lesions occurring in prolonged experimental\\u000a myopia in the chick. • Methods. Form-deprivation myopia was induced by unilateral eyelid suturing on the 1st day after hatching.\\u000a Bruch’s membrane in NaOH

  15. Vanadium stimulates immunological responses of chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Qureshi; C. H. Hill; C. L. Heggen

    1999-01-01

    In a continuation of studies on the interaction of dietary phosphorus (P) and vanadium (V) levels, studies have directed toward an examination of this interaction on the immune system of chicks. Antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were increased at 7 days post-inoculation (PI) by as little as 10mg V\\/kg diet in the P-deficient group, while 50mg V\\/kg

  16. Lipid oxidation products and chick nutritional encephalopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Budowski; I. Bartov; Y. Dror; E. N. Frankel

    1979-01-01

    Safflower oil and its distilled methyl esters were thermally oxidized and fed to young chicks in a vitamin E deficient diet.\\u000a At a dietary level of 10%, the oxidized lipids caused more severe nutritional encephalopathy (NE) than the unoxidized methyl\\u000a esters, indicating that factors other than dietary linoleic acid and vitamin E affect the development of NE. A polar lipid

  17. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  18. Potential for horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine hens were inoculated orally and intravaginally with a marker strain of Salmonella and Campylobacter at 56 wk-of-age and housed in individual cages in isolation. Challenged hens were comingled with non-challenged hens 2 wk post-inoculation, at a ratio of 1 challenged hen per 4 non-challenged he...

  19. Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; L. Duchateau; T. Leroy; M. Cox; E. Vranken; J. Buyse; J. Zoons; D. Berckmans; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck

    2008-01-01

    1.?The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26,

  20. In ovo electroporation in embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Doh, Sung Tae; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study gene regulation in retinal stem/progenitor cells during retinal development. Different type of assays such as reporter gene assay, gene over-expression, gene knock down (shRNA) etc. can be performed using the electroporation technique. This video demonstrates targeted retinal injection and in ovo electroporation into the embryonic chick retina at the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 22-23, which is about embryonic day 4 (E4). Here we show a rapid and convenient in ovo electroporation technique whereby a plasmid DNA that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker is directly delivered into the chick embryonic subretinal space and followed by electric pulses to facilitate DNA uptake by retinal stem/progenitor cells. The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons(1), which has been difficult with the conventional method of injection and electroporation at E1.5(2). PMID:22330044

  1. In Ovo Electroporation in Embryonic Chick Retina

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed M.; Doh, Sung Tae; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study gene regulation in retinal stem/progenitor cells during retinal development. Different type of assays such as reporter gene assay, gene over-expression, gene knock down (shRNA) etc. can be performed using the electroporation technique. This video demonstrates targeted retinal injection and in ovo electroporation into the embryonic chick retina at the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 22-23, which is about embryonic day 4 (E4). Here we show a rapid and convenient in ovo electroporation technique whereby a plasmid DNA that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker is directly delivered into the chick embryonic subretinal space and followed by electric pulses to facilitate DNA uptake by retinal stem/progenitor cells. The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons1, which has been difficult with the conventional method of injection and electroporation at E1.52. PMID:22330044

  2. Right hemisphere advantage for social recognition in the chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G

    1992-09-01

    Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was studied in pair-reared chicks tested binocularly or with only one eye in use. Chicks were tested on day 3 in pairs composed of either cagemates or strangers. Social discrimination, as measured by the ratio "number of pecks at the strangers/total number of pecks" was impaired in right-eyed chicks with respect to left-eyed and binocular chicks. Male chicks showed higher levels of social pecking than females, and chicks that used both eyes showed higher pecking than monocular chicks. There were no significant differences in the total number of pecks (i.e. pecks at companions plus pecks at strangers) between right- and left-eyed chicks: the impairment in social discrimination of right-eyed chicks seemed to be due partly to a reduction in pecking at strangers and partly to an increase in pecking at companions. It is suggested that neural structures fed by the left eye (mainly located at the right hemisphere) are better at processing and/or storing of visual information which allows recognition of individual conspecifics. This may be part of a wider tendency to respond to small changes in any of a variety of intrinsic stimulus properties. PMID:1407491

  3. The inner perivitelline layer sperm-hole assay: use of filter paper rings for the isolation of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc and new observations on its morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm must penetrate the hen’s ovum (egg yolk) for fertilization. The inner perivitelline layer (IPL) is a fibrous protein mesh surrounding the ovum that the sperm attach to and then digest a hole through at the onset of the fertilization process. This process of sperm attachment and digestion of ...

  4. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

  5. Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos Octavian Voiculescu helped the chick embryo to become a powerful system to study gene regulation and function during development. Although this is a simple procedure for embryos of 2-d incubation, earlier stages (from laying

  6. ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR

    E-print Network

    Aldridge, Cameron

    ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE IN CANADA: FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR 2000 SAGE GROUSE) 492-9457 aldridge@ualberta.ca December, 2000 #12;ii ABSTRACT The Alberta sage grouse population has also performed a 2-stage pilot experiment, focusing on attaching transmitters to sage grouse chicks. I

  7. AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS

    E-print Network

    at the Wisconsin State Game Fann since 1962 bas enabled sexing of 900-1,000 day-old chicks per man-hour with minimum accuracy of 90 percent among cocks. Based on facial profile and down pat- tcrn, Latham (1942) described a practicable method of sexing day-old pheasants. Among chicks classed as male or female, accuracy

  8. Assessing thermal comfort of broiler chicks during brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  9. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  10. Social housing and domestic chicks' responses to symbolic video images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bryan Jones; Nina Carmichael; Catherine Williams

    1998-01-01

    Female ISA Brown chicks were housed in groups of three in wooden boxes. They received daily exposure from 1 to 9 days of age to either a blank (B) but illuminated monitor screen or one showing a complex, coloured, moving screensaver (SS). `Fish' was used as the SS stimulus. The video images were presented at one end of the chicks'

  11. [Naturally-acquired microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) infections in hens].

    PubMed

    Reetz, J

    1993-10-01

    During a short period of time, four approximately ten months old chickens from an egg production (group A) unit developed symptoms of apathy, lameness, mild diarrhoea and loss of weight. The layers were killed and submitted for necropsy. For the first time, microsporidia infection, probably Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E.c.) was diagnosed in chickens. The diagnosis was mainly based on immunohistochemical methods. E.c. was found particularly in the cells of the cutaneous mucous membrane of the crop and in epithelial cells, the cells of the propria mucosae and the smooth muscle cells of the small intestine. E.c. also frequently occurred in the fibres of the skeletal muscle. Intracellularly, E.c. and its development stages were located primarily in the cytoplasm and less frequently in the nucleus of cells. Retrospective investigations on tissue samples from a domestic cock and 9 hens by immunohistochemical methods also revealed occurrence of this microsporidian. The results showed that in chickens E.c. infections can cause multi-symptomatic illness but may also be clinically inapparent. PMID:8248903

  12. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  13. Parental preference for red mouth of chicks in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Götmark, F.; Ahlström, M.

    1997-01-01

    Parental preferences during feeding and care-giving may select for ornamental traits in young, such as bright coloration. For chicks of coots, there is experimental evidence for this idea. We examined the hypothesis that bright yellow, orange and red mouths of chicks of songbirds have been favoured by feeding preferences in parents. In a field experiment, the orange–yellow mouths of great tit nestlings were dyed brightly red, and the feeding response of parents recorded. In nest boxes with extra daylight through a window, experimental chicks were on average given twice as much food (biomass) as control chicks (sham dyed). In normal nest boxes, the tendency was similar, but not significant. Thus, at least in good light, great tit parents prefer to feed young with red mouths, a preference for colourfulness that helps explain the evolution of bright gapes in chicks of songbirds (passerine birds).

  14. Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1932-01-01

    For Chicks - AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFFj- Administration : Veterinary Science: A. B. Conner, M. S.. Director *M. Francis, D. V. M., Chief R. E. Karper, M. S.. Vice-Director H. Schmidt, D. V. M..... Veterinarian Clarice Mixson, B. A., Secretary I. B. Boughton, D. V. M.. Veterinarian M. P. Holleman, Chief Clerk **F. P. Mathews, D. V. M., M. S., Veterinarian J. K. Francklow, Asst. Chief Clerk W. T. Hardy, D. V. M., Veterinarian Chester Higgs, Executive...

  15. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ?, values for the major, ?L, and minor, ?s, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  16. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of Common Loon chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. Kenow; Michael W. Meyer; Francois Fournier; William H. Karasov; Abdulaziz Elfessi; Steve Gutreuter

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly

  17. Telekom Innovation Laboratories Dr. Henning Breuer (bovacon Designing Business Interaction)

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    Telekom Innovation Laboratories Dr. Henning Breuer (bovacon ­ Designing Business Interaction) & Sarah Mahdjour (Telekom Innovation Laboratories), October 2012 Business Models for Lean Ventures #12;Telekom Innovation Laboratories Overview. Business Models for Lean Ventures. Background Introduction

  18. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  19. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  20. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  1. Effect of the presence of hens on roosters sperm variables.

    PubMed

    Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the effect of the presence of hens on sperm variables in Black Barred Andaluza roosters (which respond well to the massage technique). Between 8 and 22 weeks of age, roosters (n = 60) were housed separate from hens in straw litter pens (4 birds/m(2)). Two groups of roosters were then formed to study the effect of hen presence on sperm variables at 36 weeks of age. The first group (n = 11 roosters) was housed with hens (n = 55; sex ratio 1:5), while the second (n = 27 roosters) was again housed separate from hens. Twenty four sperm pools were obtained over 12 weeks (12 pools from each group, each pool produced by mixing semen from 11 males) for analysis. Compared to the no-female-contact group, the roosters living with hens showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced percentages of non-progressive motile sperm and slow sperm, and significantly increased VCL and VSL values; they also showed trends (P < 0.1) towards increased progressive motility and a higher percentage of rapid sperm. The presence of hens had no significant effect on the number of spermatozoa per ejaculate or sperm concentration. Positive correlations were recorded between VSL and VCL, and between both of these and progressive motility, and the percentage of rapid sperm. In addition, both VSL and VCL correlated negatively with non-progressive motility and the percentage of slow sperm. These results indicate that rooster sperm quality, but not quantity, improves in the presence of hens. PMID:26009755

  2. Multifactorial investigation of various housing systems for laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shimmura; S. Hirahara; T. Azuma; T. Suzuki; Y. Eguchi; K. Uetake; T. Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    1.?The advantages and disadvantages of various housing systems for laying hens were compared as a pilot study for work in commercial conditions.2.?At 16 weeks of age, 284 hens were introduced into one of 6 housing systems: two types of conventional cages (small: SC; large: LC), furnished cages (small: SF; large: LF), and non-cage systems (single-tiered aviary: SA; free-range: FR).3.?We evaluated

  3. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  4. Early chick mortality associated with rupture of the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D P; Halvorson, D A

    1993-01-01

    Rupture of the yolk sac was identified in leghorn chicks from six placements of a commercial hatchery that had high mortality (up to 3%) during the first 3 days. The abdomens of these chicks were filled with cloudy yellowish fluid; kidneys were swollen, and many chicks also had severe visceral urate deposition (visceral gout). No significant bacterial growth was detected. The hatchery had recently hired new sexors. After the sexors were cautioned to handle the chicks more carefully, the problem abruptly subsided. In an experimental attempt to reproduce the condition, a graded series of doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ml) of egg yolk were injected intraperitoneally into five groups of twenty 1-day-old chicks. Twelve of the 20 chicks that received the 4-ml dose died. They developed swollen, pale kidneys and had cloudy yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity, but no visceral urate deposition. Only six of the remaining 80 chicks that received lesser doses or no yolk died. PMID:8257362

  5. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  6. The effect of pharmacological levels of dietary vanadium on the egg production, shell thickness and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens and coturnix.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Y S; Kratzer, F H

    1976-05-01

    The addition of 100 p.p.m. of vanadium to a ration for White Leghorn laying hens caused a significant increase (p less than 0.01) in the egg shell thickness, but did not cause any significant change in the production, egg weight or egg ypok cholesterol content. The addition of 300 p.p.m. of vanadium caused a severe depression in the egg production which was the only symptom of vanadium toxicity to be observed. The addition of 50, 100, 200 or 300 p.p.m. vanadium to the ration of laying coturnix did not cause any significant change in egg production, egg weight, or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of the same levels of vanadium to one-day old male coturnix chicks did not cause any significant growth depression or mortality. We suggest that coturnix may be more resistant to vanadium toxicity than chickens. PMID:935058

  7. Estimation of heritability and breeding values for early egg production in laying hens from pooled data.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, F; Bovenhuis, H; Ellen, E D; Addo, S; van Arendonk, J A M

    2010-09-01

    Under commercial conditions, data on egg production in laying hens are usually collected per cage rather than individually. In current breeding programs, genetic evaluations are, however, based on individually recorded egg production. Because commercial flocks are not maintained in single cages, this environmental difference between the breeding and commercial setting may result in a genotype x environment interaction. This study was aimed at estimating genetic parameters and predicting estimated breeding values for early egg production of laying hens by using pooled data (i.e., data from multiple bird cages) from pedigree birds housed in 4-bird cages. Using cage records, we compared 2 different methods of handling pooled data: cage sums and the assignment of cage means to individual birds, referred to as the approximate method. The 2 methods were compared by using cross-validation. Data from 3 purebred White Leghorn layer lines were used. Estimated heritability for early egg production was 0.36 when cage sums were used and 0.30 with the approximate method. The correlation of estimated breeding values between the cage sums method and the approximate method was 0.88. Cross-validation showed that the use of cage sums led to better predictions of missing phenotypes compared with the approximate method. The results of the research demonstrate that pooled data can be used in the genetic evaluation of laying hens and show that using directly pooled records (e.g., cage sums) gives better results than assigning group means to the birds of the group, thus simulating individual records. PMID:20709968

  8. The Effect of Dietary Selenium Source and Level on Hen Production and Egg Selenium Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Pavlovi?; Ivanka Mileti?; Živan Joki?; Sla?ana Šobaji?

    2009-01-01

    A 16-week experiment was conducted to compare effects of various levels of sodium selenite (SS) and Se-enriched yeast (SY),\\u000a on the whole-egg Se content and hen’s productivity. One hundred Shaver 579 hens, 27 weeks old, were placed on one of five\\u000a experimental treatments. Each treatment was replicated four times with five hens per cage. Treatments consisted of feeding\\u000a a low Se

  9. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2?=?0.7664, P?=?0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2?=?0.6406, P?=?0.0001) and food intake (R2?=?0.784, P?=?0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  10. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander S. Kitaysky; Marc D. Romano; John F. Piatt; John C. Wingfield; Motoshi Kikuchi

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing\\/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could

  11. Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

    1994-04-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

  12. 31 P NMR Investigation of vanadium-treated chick muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tyler Burt; Benjamin Chen; C. H. Hill

    1991-01-01

    The phosphorus NMR profile of normal and vanadium-treated chick muscle was obtained in vivo. The data show that the differentiation\\u000a of breast and thigh muscles in terms of pH, lipid related metabolites, and bioenergetic parameters can be readily followed.\\u000a Although the vanadium-treated chicks showed substantial retardation of growth, the only NMR parameter that was significanty\\u000a affected by dietary vanadium was

  13. All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy

    2008-01-01

    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

  14. West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

  15. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  16. Effect of Perches at Different Positions in Conventional Cages for Laying Hens of Two Different Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson

    1993-01-01

    Production, health and behaviour were studied in 648 White Leghorn hens of two strains, LSL and Shaver 288, housed in three-tier battery cages (four hens per cage, 600 cm2 per hen) with three treatments; two with a perch fitted across the cage, 17 (PB) or 24 cm (PC) from the back of the cage, respectively, and control cages without perch

  17. Structureenergy relations in hen egg white lysozyme observed during refolding from a quenched unfolded statew

    E-print Network

    Structure­energy relations in hen egg white lysozyme observed during refolding from a quenched by rapidly quenching thermally unfolded hen egg white lysozyme in a glassy matrix, followed by reheating possible tech- nique to quench fast-folding proteins.9 Hen egg white lysozyme was chosen as the model

  18. Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Guesdon; A. M. H. Ahmed; S. Mallet; J. M. Faure; Y. Nys

    2006-01-01

    1.?Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs.2.?Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to

  19. OIKOS 102: 6774, 2003 Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    OIKOS 102: 67­74, 2003 Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea reproduction Mirjam. G. and Richner, H. 2003. Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea reproduction responses in great tit (Parus major) hosts on the reproductive success of their common ectoparasite, the hen

  20. Thymic cell activity of thiouracil-treated chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.; Glick, B.

    1986-03-01

    Thymus glands of chickens fed a diet containing .1% thiouracil from day of hatch are less well developed than those of controls. Thymus weights are reduced, and the cortical and medullary areas are found to have poor cellularity upon histological examination. Fewer mitotic figures are observed in the thymic cortices of thiouracil-treated chickens, and indications of regression at an early age are noticeable in their medullae. The phytohemmagglutin-M response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) is reduced in thiouracil-fed chicks. However, PBL from thiouracil-treated chicks do not produce lower graft versus host responses (GvH). Thymic cells from 1 and 3 week-old chicks were cultured in vitro with BPMI 1640 medium for short lengths of time. The uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR) was measured after 1 and 4 hr incubation periods at 40/sup 0/C in a humidified 5% CO/sub 2/ atmosphere. There was more uptake of /sup 3/HTdR by thymic cells from control chicks after both 1 and 4 hr of incubation. Autoradiographic studies of thymic cells labeled in vitro with /sup 3/HTdR were also conducted. The T cells from chicks treated with thiouracil from day of hatch are less active than those from control chicks. But the functional ability of the T-cell subpopulation involved in GvH is not altered. A thiouracil-induced hypothyroid state would appear to affect thymic development in young chickens.

  1. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

  2. NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals coordinate laminar formation in the developing chick optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuji; Sakuma, Chie; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    The optic tectum comprises multiple layers, which are formed by radial and tangential migration during development. Here, we report that Neuropilin 1 (NRP1)-mediated Sema3A signals are involved in the process of tectal laminar formation, which is elaborated by tangential migration. In the developing chick tectum, NRP1, a receptor for Sema3A, is expressed in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive intermediate layers IV and V. Sema3A itself is a diffusible guidance factor and is expressed in the overlying layer VI. Using stable fluorescent labeling of tectal cells, we show that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are formed by the neurons that have been dispersed by tangential migration along the tectal efferent axons. When Sema3A was mis-expressed during laminar formation, local Sema3A repelled the tangential migrants, thus eliminating MAP2-positive neurons that expressed NRP1. Furthermore, in the absence of the MAP2-positive neurons, tectal layers were disorganized into an undulated form, indicating that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are required for proper laminar formation. These results suggest that NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals provide repulsive signals for MAP2-positive neurons to segregate tectal layers, which is important in order to coordinate laminar organization of the optic tectum. PMID:25183873

  3. Effects of group size on performance, health and birds’ use of facilities in furnished cages for laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson

    1997-01-01

    A total of 1584 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were kept in 144 modified cages furnished with—perch, nest and sandbath for 5, 6, 7 or 8 hens per cage or in 162 conventional cages for 4 hens. Cage floor area was 600 cm per hen excluding nest and sandbath. Doors to nests and sandbaths were time monitored. Production, mortality, exterior egg

  4. Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E(2) in laying hen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Eilati, Erfan; Hales, Karen; Zhuge, Yan; Ansenberger Fricano, Kristine; Yu, Rui; van Breemen, Richard B; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2013-09-01

    Prevention of ovarian cancer is the best approach for reducing the impact of this deadly disease. The laying hen is a robust model of spontaneous ovarian cancer that recapitulates the human disease. Dietary intervention with flaxseed, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) and phytoestrogen lignans, demonstrate the potential for effective prevention and amelioration of ovarian cancer by targeting inflammatory prostaglandin pathways. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to investigate the effect of flaxseed supplementation for one year on ovarian cancer and correlate its effects to expression of COX enzymes and concentrations of prostaglandins. White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for one year. The severity of ovarian cancer was determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 localization and protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGE3 concentrations in ovaries were measured by IHC, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors in the flaxseed-fed hens compared with the control diet-fed hens. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity, concentrations of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. PGE3 concentrations were below the level of detection. The results demonstrated that in normal ovaries, COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer surrounding the follicles and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) whereas COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle. Extensive COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression was found throughout the ovarian carcinoma. Our findings suggest that the flaxseed-mediated reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer in hens is correlated to the reduction in PGE2 in the ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials of dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23978451

  5. The effect of a helium-oxygen atmosphere on chick embryo development and subsequent chick performance 

    E-print Network

    Valera, Juan

    1969-01-01

    !ie hc I ium-oxygen groups r ere stroller t!ian embryos from the air group after 12 and 16 darys of development. The util is- tion of yolt& and al!'umen by the helium-oxygen etibryos during incu!ration r;as less than for the air grou... and reorod. ctive performance of chicks hatched in a helium- omycen atmosphere showed es -entially no differences when compared with c!sicks of the same ape hatched in the a ir chambers. physiolosical seasure. cnts, body weights, heso, lobin, hemntocr its...

  6. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  7. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun

    2005-01-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

  8. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Engberg; M. Hammershøj; N. F. Johansen; M. S. Abousekken; S. Steenfeldt; B. B. Jensen

    2009-01-01

    1.?An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2–1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition

  9. Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements 

    E-print Network

    Moore, David Joe

    1975-01-01

    BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Poultry Science (Physiology) BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm' ee ad o Department) Member Member '7 I ls&wr g ~, /0...

  10. Relationship between body weight and beak characteristics in one-day-old white Leghorn chicks: its implications for beak trimming.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A G; Marchant-Forde, R M; Cheng, H W

    2007-07-01

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effect of beak trimming on bird well-being depends on multiple factors, including the amount of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a relationship existed between BW and beak characteristics in 1-d-old chicks, with a future aim to develop an automated system for standardizing beak trimming. Three hundred forty-four 1-d-old chicks (Hy-Line W-36) were sorted into 3 categories based on their BW (heavy, intermediate, and light), and their beaks were photographed. Dimensional measures of beaks, including the lengths of the culmen, gonys, maxillary tomia, mandibular tomia, and the width of the upper mandible and lower mandible measured at 2, 3, and 4 mm from the tip of the upper and lower beaks, were calculated using imaging software. Correlations between BW and beak measures were evaluated using Pearson product-moment, Spearman rank-order, Kendall's tau, and Hoeffding's dependency tests. Results showed there were no significant correlations between beak dimensions and BW in the light BW group. In contrast, correlations were present between BW and the width of the upper mandible measured at 4 mm from the tip of the upper beak (P < 0.05) and the width of the lower mandible measured 2 to 4 mm from the tip of the lower beak (P < 0.05) in the intermediate BW group. In the heavy BW group, BW was positively correlated with mandibular tomia, gonys, and the width of the lower mandible measured at 2 mm from the tip of the lower beak (P < 0.05). However, in general, these correlations were too low (all below 0.23) to have any practical use for predicting beak size. Overall, the data indicated that BW cannot be used as a reliable predicator of beak size in 1-d-old Hy-Line W-36 chicks. PMID:17575176

  11. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  12. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

    1989-10-01

    The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation. PMID:2801995

  13. Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

    1998-01-01

    The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

  14. Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, David J.

    Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies Elisa M October 2002 Abstract Nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti) often approach unattended chicks boobies during the breeding season. We compared the hormonal status of chick-visiting adults

  15. Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Michael

    Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus Carly M. Nickerson, Laurie L from the black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus "chick-a-dee" call. Each individual note notes of the "chick-a-dee" call of the black- capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus . A. Note

  16. Essentiality of Dietary Carbohydrate for Maintenance of Liver Lipogenesis in the Chick1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE L. HILLARD; PAULA LUNDIN; STEVEN D. CLARKE

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain (a) if chick liver fatty acid synthesis was selectively inhibited by polyunsaturated fat, and (b) if dietary fat suppression of chick liver lipogenic activity was due to diet fat addition or carbohydrate deletion. Addition of either saturated (SFA) or poly unsaturated (PUFA) fat to the diet of chicks at the expense of

  17. Cardiac responses to first ever submergence in double-crested cormorant chicks ( Phalacrocorax auritus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred R Enstipp; Russel D Andrews; David R Jones

    1999-01-01

    Heart rates were recorded from double-crested cormorant chicks during their first ever and subsequent voluntary head submergences and dives, as well as during longer dives made after the chicks were accustomed to diving. Despite variation between chicks, the cardiac response to first ever and subsequent voluntary submergence (head submergences and dives) was similar to the response observed in adult cormorants.

  18. The effects of propolis on antibody production by laying hens.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J A; Vanat, N; Pinheiro, J W; Balarin, M R S; Sforcin, J M; Venancio, E J

    2011-06-01

    Propolis is a honeybee product showing several biological properties that enhance the immune response, depending on the concentration and intake period. Because propolis possesses an immunomodulatory action on mammals, the objective of our study was to investigate the effects of propolis on the humoral immune response of laying hens by evaluating antibody production. Laying hens (ISA Brown) were divided into 5 groups with 7 birds each. Group 1 was a nonimmunized control, whereas birds in group 2 were immunized intravenously with SRBC, and those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated intraperitoneally with propolis (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively) on 3 consecutive days and then inoculated intravenously with SRBC. Hematological and serological analyses were carried out on d 0, 3, and 38. Natural and specific antibody levels were determined by hemagglutination with rabbit red blood cells and SRBC, respectively. Propolis-treated birds (50 mg/kg) showed a significant decline in heterophils and in the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. After SRBC immunization, significant increases in levels of IgG were observed in groups 4 and 5. Furthermore, higher levels of natural antibodies were observed in propolis-treated laying hens. The administration of propolis to laying hens increased the production of IgG specific to SRBC and natural antibodies, and could be used to increase antigen-specific antibody responses to vaccines. PMID:21597063

  19. Organic Cosolvents and Hen Egg White Lysozyme Folding

    E-print Network

    Luhua, Lai

    1 Organic Cosolvents and Hen Egg White Lysozyme Folding Bing Lai, Aoneng Cao, Luhua Lai* State Key of Chemistry, Peking University, BEIJING 100871, China Key words: lysozyme; organic cosolvent; circular on the influence of organic cosolvents on lysozyme folding have been reported. As most of the researches

  20. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  1. The RealTime Transport Protocol Henning Schulzrinne

    E-print Network

    Schulzrinne, Henning

    : fixed point, NTP­format, wallclock time 7 #12; RTP options RTP, RTCP options share : : : ffl same formatRTP The Real­Time Transport Protocol Henning Schulzrinne AT&T Bell Laboratories (Murray Hill) MCNC 2nd Packet Video Workshop December 1992 1 #12; Overview RTP = Transport services for real­time

  2. Ascarid infections in laying hens kept in different housing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Désirée S. Jansson; Ann Nyman; Ivar Vågsholm; Dan Christensson; Magnus Göransson; Oddvar Fossum; Johan Höglund

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of ascarid infections in Swedish commercial laying hens in 2004 and 2008 following a recent nationwide change to alternative housing systems but before anthelmintics became available. Also, the influence on prevalence of farm and flock characteristics and management was studied in 2004. The results showed that the overall prevalence was significantly

  3. Reliability-Constrained Latent Structure Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning

    E-print Network

    Westfall, Peter H.

    Reliability-Constrained Latent Structure Models Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning Texas Tech allow you to estimate reliability of your measure of the fuzzy concept · LSMs allow you to estimate cannot identify reliability. · LSMs cannot identify relationships between fuzzy concepts. · LSMs cannot

  4. Effects of a Perch in Conventional Cages for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Tauson

    1984-01-01

    A total of 720 Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (SCWL's Shaver 288) were studied from 22 to 82 weeks of age for the effect of a perch on production, egg weight, exterior egg quality and egg rolling-out efficiency, plumage condition, foot health, claw length, throat skin health, mortality, live weight, behaviour and usage of the perch at different times

  5. Infinite matroids in graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Reinhard

    Infinite matroids in graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Abstract It has recently been shown that infinite matroids can be axiomatized in a way that is very similar to finite matroids and permits duality. This was previously thought impossible, since finitary infinite matroids must have non-finitary duals. In this paper

  6. Polarimetric Segmentation using Wishart Test Statistic Henning Skriver1

    E-print Network

    Polarimetric Segmentation using Wishart Test Statistic Henning Skriver1 , Jesper Schou1 , Allan Research Foundation. Abstract - A newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance statistic has been used in a segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithm is based on the MUM (Merge

  7. Zur versorgung subkapitaler humerusfrakturen mit spiralbündelnägeln nach henning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Habernek; Erwin Aschauer; Richard Kdolsky; Reinhard Weinstabl; Lothar Schmid; Georg Barisani

    1999-01-01

    In den Jahren 1994 bis 1996 wurden 31 Patienten wegen eines subkapitalen Oberarmbruchs mit Spiralbündelnägeln nach Henning versorgt. An Komplikationen traten vier primäre Achsenfehlstellungen und eine sekundäre Redislokation sowie ein Infekt an der Einschlagstelle auf. Bei zwei Patienten perforierten die Nägel den Oberarmkopf ohne funktionelle Beeinträchtigung. Die Patienten wurden durchschnittlich drei Wochen in einem Gilchrist-Verband immobilisiert. Bei ausreichender Nagelzahl (sieben

  8. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  9. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  10. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  11. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

  12. Ontogeny of bipedal locomotion: walking and running in the chick.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, G D; Gosline, J M; Steeves, J D

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the production of an energy-efficient bipedal walk is an innate attribute of a precocial bird. 2. The locomotor characteristics of hatchling chicks were quantified using kinetic (ground reaction forces) and kinematic (stride length, leg support duration) measurements as the animals moved overground unrestrained. All measurements were made over a range of velocities and at regular intervals throughout the first 2 weeks of life. 3. Ground reaction force records showed that, like all terrestrial walking vertebrates, chicks undergo cyclical increases and decreases in the body's potential and kinetic energy with each step. The out-of-phase exchange of potential with kinetic energy is an efficient mechanism for the conservation of energy during walking. However, comparisons between chicks at posthatching (P) days 1-2 and P14 revealed that P1-2 chicks are unable to conserve energy because they walk with disproportionately small potential energy oscillations. During running, however, the oscillations between potential and kinetic energy are similar for both P1-2 and P14 animals. 4. P1-2 chicks also walk with a shorter stride length than P14 chicks. Examination of limb support durations shows that younger animals (P1-2, P3) spend less time in single limb support than P14 animals during walking but not running. 5. The results show that even highly precocial bipeds need to acquire the ability to walk in a controlled and energy efficient manner, although they can innately run as well as an adult. This disparity could be due to the distinct actions of the legs in these two behaviours, and the requirement for longer durations of single leg support during walking. These differences relate to constraints inherent to bipedal locomotion and many of the locomotor changes occurring in the first weeks after hatching may therefore be analogous to similar changes seen during human locomotor development. PMID:8782119

  13. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p?=?0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p?=?0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p?=?0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  14. Effect of foraging material and food form on feather pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Aerni, V; El-Lethey, H; Wechsler, B

    2000-03-01

    1. The aim was to test whether provision of foraging material and food form influence feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens. 2. From week 19 of age, 16 groups of 11 hens (white Lohman Selected Leghorn hybrids) were kept in pens with or without access to long-cut straw as foraging material and fed on either mash or pellets. 3. Foraging behaviour was increased in hens with access to straw and time spent feeding was increased in hens fed on mash. In addition, hens fed on mash had longer feeding bouts and higher rates of pecking at the food during feeding than hens fed on pellets. 4. There were interaction effects of foraging material and food form on both feather pecking and feather damage. High rates of feather pecking and pronounced feather damage were only found in hens housed without access to straw and fed on pellets. In groups characterised by high rates of feather pecking the hens also showed more severe forms of this behaviour. 5. Differences in the time budgets of hens kept in different housing conditions suggested that birds fed on mash used the food not only for feeding but also as a substrate for foraging behaviour. 6. In order to avoid problems with feather pecking it is recommended that laying hens are provided with foraging material and fed on mash. PMID:10821517

  15. Bronchial asthma induced by chick pea and lentil.

    PubMed

    Martin, J A; Compaired, J A; de la Hoz, B; Quirce, S; Alonso, M D; Igea, J M; Losada, E

    1992-04-01

    Allergic reactions to legumes through inhalation have rarely been described. We report the case of a 20-year-old man who experienced asthmatic attacks when exposed to the steam from cooking either chick pea or lentil. Type I hypersensitivity to the antigens in these legumes was demonstrated by means of immediate skin reactivity, histamine release tests, RAST and RAST inhibition. Specific bronchial challenges with the heated (75 degrees for 30 min) extracts of chick pea and lentil elicited isolated immediate responses. PMID:1514671

  16. Isoproterenol--induced damage to the liver of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Dusek, J; Ostádal, B

    1984-01-01

    Isoproterenol has been shown to cause severe liver damage in chick embryos. Most severe lesions were observed in embryos 10 to 12 days old, which showed extensive parenchymal necrosis. In older embryos, the lesions were mostly represented by areas of fatty degeneration. In 6 to 9-day-old embryos, the changes were indistinct (slight). The necrotic foci underwent slow resorption with disperse dystrophic calcification. Surviving hepatocytes around the damaged areas revealed some regenerative phenomena. The possible cause of marked hepatotoxicity of isoproterenol for chick embryos is discussed. PMID:6709728

  17. The effects of copper and iron deficiencies in the chick 

    E-print Network

    McGhee, Flin Cameron

    1964-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND IRON DEFICIENCIES IN THE CHICK A Thesis By Flin C. McGhee Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Biochemistry and Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND IRON DEFICIENCIES IN THE CHICK A Thesis By Flin C. McGhee Appro ed as o style and content by: UC C. M. Lym n, P . D M. Ferguso Ph. D. N. C, Rose, P . D. , . ~p...

  18. HEN1 and HEN2: a subgroup of basic helix-loop-helix genes that are coexpressed in a human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L; Espinosa, R; Le Beau, M M; Siciliano, M J; Baer, R

    1992-01-01

    An important family of regulatory molecules is made up of proteins that possess the DNA-binding and dimerization motif known as the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. The bHLH family includes subgroups of closely related proteins that share common functional properties and overlapping patterns of expression (e.g., the MyoD1 and achaete-scute subgroups). In this report we describe HEN1 and HEN2, mammalian genes that encode a distinct subgroup of bHLH proteins. The HEN1 gene was identified on the basis of cross-hybridization with TAL1, a known bHLH gene implicated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In situ fluorescence hybridization was used to localize the human HEN1 gene to chromosome band 1q22. HEN1 and HEN2 are coexpressed in the IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line, and they encode highly related proteins of 133 and 135 residues, respectively, that share 98% amino acid identity in their hHLH domains. These data imply that the bHLH protein subgroup encoded by HEN1 and HEN2 may serve important regulatory functions in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:1528853

  19. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  20. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Forrester, Donald J; Greiner, Ellis C

    2004-10-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume = 13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. PMID:15650085

  1. The Spread of a Pathogenic and an Apathogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus in the Chick Embryo as Depending on the Protease Sensitivity of the Virus Glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nagai; K. Shimokata; T. Yoshida; M. Hamaguchi; M. Iinuma; K. Maeno; T. Matsumoto; H.-D. Klenk; R. Rott

    1979-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenic strain Italien and the apathogenic strain Ulster of Newcastle disease virus have been compared with respect to organ tropism and spread of infection in I I-day-old chick embryos. After infection of the endodermal layer of the chorioallantoic membrane by intra-allantoic inoculation with strain Italien, high virus titres are found in all extra-embryonic membranes and fluids and in

  2. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  3. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2011-08-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

  4. Genotype diet interaction in Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red layers and their crosses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Genotype diet interaction in Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red layers and their crosses M. ABOU Génétique factorielle, F 78350 Jouy-en-Josas Summary Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red (R.I.R.) layers words : Hen, Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red, egg production, feed, barley. Résumé Interaction génotype

  5. Dual adhesion systems of chick myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gibralter, D; Turner, D C

    1985-12-01

    Cultured chick myoblasts (Mb) were resuspended by incubation with 100 micrograms/ml trypsin/2.5 mM CaCl2 (to yield TC-Mb), or with 5 micrograms/ml trypsin/2.5 mM EDTA (to yield LTE-Mb). As measured in a particle counter, TC-Mb aggregation was Ca2+ dependent, whereas LTE-Mb aggregated equally well in the presence of CaCl2 or EDTA. Cells subjected to the same treatments in sequence, like cells dissociated directly with 100 micrograms/ml trypsin/2.5 mM EDTA, did not aggregate significantly in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Adhesive specificity was assessed by mixing unlabeled cells with cells labeled with a fluorescent dye and then analyzing the distribution of fluorescent and nonfluorescent cells in aggregates. No adhesive specificity was seen in controls (i.e., TC-Mb aggregated randomly with TC-Mb, or LTE-Mb with LTE-Mb), but TC-Mb and LTE-Mb did not cross-adhere. These results indicate the existence of two independent, noncomplementing, adhesion systems, and suggest that the differential treatments preserve or activate one system while destroying the other. Myoblasts dissociated with 2.5 mM EDTA in the absence of exogenous trypsin (E-Mb) have both adhesion systems active on their surfaces, as do Mb grown in Ca2+-free medium and then dissociated with 0.7 mM EDTA (Knudsen, K. A., and Horwitz, A. F., Dev. Biol. 58, 328-338, 1977). Although aggregation of E-Mb is largely Ca2+ independent and that of Knudsen/Horwitz-Mb is largely Ca2+ dependent, they adhere well to each other and to LTE-Mb while segregating from TC-Mb. Fibroblasts also have dual adhesion systems, one Ca2+ dependent and the other Ca2+ independent, but TC-Fb do not cross-adhere to TC-Mb (nor E-Fb to E-Mb). Cell type-specific adhesive selectivity may thus contribute to the selectivity of myocyte fusion. PMID:3935501

  6. LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Cline, Mark A; Layne, Jessica E; Calchary, Wendy A; Sheehy, Robert R; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-15

    Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0 nmol in Cobb-500 chicks and the effect had diminished by 30 min post-injection. In Bobwhite quail all doses of LPLRFamide tested caused anorexia that remained throughout the 60 min observation period. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted and Cobb-500 chicks had increased food pecks early in the observation period and spent a greater amount of time in deep rest. Although food pecks were increased pecking efficiency was decreased. In Bobwhite quail, feeding pecks and the number of jumps were reduced after LPLRFamide treatment. We judged that these behaviors in both species were likely not competitive with ingestion and thus did not secondarily contribute to anorexia. These results demonstrate that LPLRFamide is associated with satiety-related processes in Cobb-500 chicks and Bobwhite quail, while threshold of responses are different. PMID:19646446

  7. Ingestion of crude oil: sublethal effects in herring gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S; Peakall, D B; Kinter, W B

    1978-01-20

    A single small oral dose of Kuwait or South Louisiana crude oil caused cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, and hypertrophy of hepatic, adrenal, and nasal gland tissue in herring gull chicks living in a simulated marine environment. These findings suggest that ingesting crude oil causes multiple sublethal effects that might impair a bird's ability to survive at sea. PMID:145655

  8. Skull deformity in a herring gull chick (Larus argentatus).

    PubMed

    Threlfall, W; Roy, N A

    1988-01-01

    A skull deformity resulting in death of a herring gull chick (Larus argentatus) is described in detail. The bones of the skull and upper jaw were twisted, asymmetrical and of unusual size or absent. The lower jaw had an almost "spoon-like" external appearance and lacked normal articular surfaces. PMID:3352082

  9. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  10. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  11. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  12. Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks

    E-print Network

    Colwell, Mark

    of young Snowy Plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, here- after, plovers) were studied to evaluate331 Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks CAROL A * Corresponding author; E-mail: capepeirce@yahoo.com Abstract.--Movements of adult Snowy Plovers (Charadrius

  13. AGE-RELATED SURVIVAL AND BEHAVIOR OF SNOWY PLOVER CHICKS

    E-print Network

    Colwell, Mark

    a peligros naturales y antropoge´nicos para la especie amenazada Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus en el a, and response to natural and anthropogenic danger for the threatened Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) in coastal northern California, USA. Plover chicks were most likely to die in the first

  14. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  15. Chick growth and breeding success of the Burrowing Parrot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Masello; Petra Quillfeldt

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. We present the first data on the breeding biology of wild Burrowing Parrots (Cyanoliseus patagonus). We studied chick growth and breeding success at the largest col- ony of the species in the province of R? ´o Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the 1999? 2000 breeding season. A very high fledging success was observed and related to the absence of nest

  16. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL MEMORY IN OCCLUSION-EXPERIENCED DOMESTIC CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At around day 11 of life, domestic chicks show a tendency to move out of sight of their mother before returning and regaining social and visual contact. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of this voluntary "out-of-sight" behaviour on the development of spatial memory in yo...

  18. Induced Refractive Anomalies Affect Chick Orbital Bone Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. WILSON; J. G. SIVAK; M. G. CALLENDER

    1997-01-01

    Experiments have shown that it is possible to induce ametropias (myopia and hyperopia) in the eyes of young animals by distorting early visual experience through the use of negative and positive defocussing lenses mounted over the eye. Defocus lenses (+15 and ?15 diopters) were mounted unilaterally over one eye of day old broiler chicks using a contact lens—goggle and velcro

  19. ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN OSPREY CHICKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Elliott; Laurie K. Wilson; Charles J. Henny; Suzanne F. Trudeau; Frederick A. Leighton; Sean W. Kennedy; Kimberly M. Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and

  20. Characterization of myelin of chick sciatic nerve during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Maeei; Novia Scotia

    2010-01-01

    Myelin was isolated from the sciatic nerves of chicks of ages 18-day embryonic, l-day, May, 7-day post- hatch, and adult to study developmental changes in lipid composition of this structure. The yield of myelin increased throughout the early stages of development and the prepara- tions were of high purity. Although the lipid content of the myelin did not change, significant

  1. Ontogenetic Expression of Trk Neurotrophin Receptors in the Chick

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    -growth factor (trkA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4/5 (trkB), and neurotrophin-3 (trkOntogenetic Expression of Trk Neurotrophin Receptors in the Chick Auditory System SARAH L. COCHRAN, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 ABSTRACT Neurotrophins and their cognate receptors

  2. Ontogenetical development of the chick and duck subcommissural organ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Schoebitz; O. Garrido; M. Heinrichs; L. Speer; E. M. Rodríguez

    1986-01-01

    The ontogenetical development of the subcommissural organ (SCO) was investigated in chick embryos collected daily from the 1st to the 21st day of incubation. Some duck embryos, and adult chickens and ducks were also studied. Immunocytochemistry using an anti-Reissner's fiber (RF) serum as the primary antibody was the principal method used.

  3. Haematological and morphological responses of broiler chicks to hypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell

    1990-01-01

    Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome

  4. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus) middle ear columella formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie L Wood; Ami J Hughes; Kathryn J Mercer; Susan C Chapman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella

  5. Ganglioside Expression During Differentiation of Chick Retinal Cells In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Panzetta; Maria L. Allende

    2000-01-01

    The neural retina has been widely used to study the developmental patterns of ganglioside metabolism. Recent findings about in vitro differentiating chick embryo retina cells showed that: a) GD3 and GD1a ganglioside patterns undergo the most dramatic changes; b) when the cells emit neurites, GD3 ganglioside and a group of complex gangliotetraosylgangliosides (GTOG) are transiently coexpressed; c) synchronized developmental phenomena

  6. The Oldest Bird in the Northern Hemisphere Raises a Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Laysan albatross named Wisdom, is at least 60 years old and was spotted in February 2011 raising a chick at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Islands. The bird has sported and worn out 5 bird bands since she was first banded by U.S. Geological Survey scientist Chandler Robbi...

  7. INTRODUCTION The chick homologue of Spemann's organizer, Hensen's node,

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    , the `prechordal plate' was considered to be the axial mesendoderm that lies immediately in front of the forming notochord, visible in the chick embryo as a fan-shaped thickening at the rostral tip of the head process rostral to the above-mentioned fan-shaped structure, and suggested that the mesodermal cells behind

  8. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed. PMID:7724456

  9. The size and migratory origins of the population of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus wintering in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. M. Dobson; Michèle Clarke; Nils Kjellen; Roger Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Capsule The majority of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus that spend the winter in England are derived from the British breeding population.Aims To investigate the popular hypothesis that Hen Harriers which over-winter in England are derived principally from breeding populations in mainland Europe.Methods Demographic data were used to estimate numbers of Hen Harriers in Britain at the end of the breeding

  10. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

  11. Evaluation of eggshell quality of hens infected with Salmonella enteritidis by application of compression.

    PubMed

    Guard-Bouldin, J; Buhr, R J

    2006-01-01

    Eggs collected from hens of different ages and that differed in infection status with Salmonella enteritidis were evaluated for the ability to resist cracking following application of maximum compression load from an Instron materials testing machine. Orally infected 24-wk-old hens that were prepeak produced eggs with significantly lower hardness units (HU) of shells compared with a paired control group (P < or = 0.01). However, 1 of 3 additional infection trials in hens at peak (29 wk) and older hens postpeak (58 wk) showed an increase in HU in one trial and no difference in the other 2 trials. Thus, Salmonella enteritidis may be able to alter HU in a manner that is influenced by multiple factors, which include the age of the hen and the strain used for infection. Hardness was overall a sensitive physiological barometer of age, because readings correlated positively (all R > 0.50) with hens entering peak production, regardless of infection status. Detection of a very low HU reading (<1.0) was indicative of a hairline crack in the egg, which increased in incidence from 0.01% preinfection to 0.08% postinfection. Two other clinical signs noted postinfection in hens were that i) daily egg production significantly increased in older hens, and ii) emaciation was evident in a few hens that were infected by contact. These results suggest that there may be supportive approaches to achieve reduction of S. enteritidis in table eggs that do not rely on culturing. PMID:16493956

  12. Recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from hens initially infected with serovar Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Guard, Jean; Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Shah, Devendra H; Rothrock, Michael J; Gast, Richard K; Jones, Deana R

    2015-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Kentucky differ greatly in epidemiology. We wanted to know if the non-pathogenic serotype Kentucky impacted the recovery of the pathogen Enteritidis from chickens. To explore this issue, 4 groups of hens were treated as follows: (i) hens were inoculated orally with Kentucky and injected intramuscularly 2weeks later with Enteritidis, (ii) hens were contact infected with Kentucky and then with Enteritidis, (iii) hens were injected with Enteritidis only, and (iv) hens were contact infected with Enteritidis only. Hens exposed orally to serotype Kentucky received 10 exp9 CFU, and hens injected with serotype Enteritidis received 10 exp7 CFU intramuscularly. Contact infected hens were kept in rooms with deliberately infected hens. Droppings, cecal tonsils and 5 internal organs were sampled and cultured at 6, 13 and 20days post-infection from the 4 groups. Egg production was monitored. Results suggest that non-pathogenic serotypes of Salmonella may mitigate recovery of Enteritidis from chickens exposed by contact. In summary, we show results from an initial experiment intended to investigate if multiple serotypes impact the ecology of pathogenic S. enterica on-farm. PMID:26190605

  13. Shock excitation of the knots of Hen 3-1475

    E-print Network

    A. Riera; L. Binette; A. C. Raga

    2006-05-10

    We present new optical STIS HST spectroscopic observations of the jets of the proto-planetary nebula Hen 3-1475. The excitation conditions of the knots of Hen 3-1475 are derived from the observed optical spectra, confirming that the knots are shock excited. The shocked spectra are qualitatively reproduced by simple ``3/2''D bow shock models. We present a set of bow shock models devoted to planetary nebulae, and discuss the effects of the pre-ionization conditions, the bow shock velocity, the bow shock shape and the chemical abundances on the predicted spectra. To explore the reliability of the ``3/2''D bow shock models, we also compare the observed spectra of other three proto-planetary nebulae (M 1-92, M 2-56 and CRL 618) to the predicted spectra.

  14. Iodine toxicity in large white turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Christensen, V L; Ort, J F

    1991-12-01

    Iodine was fed to turkey breeder hens during a 20-wk laying cycle to determine the appropriate dietary level to support reproduction and avoid toxicity. A basal diet that contained by analysis. 7 ppm iodine supported good hatchability of Large White turkey eggs. Supplementing 35 or 350 ppm iodine to the basal diet resulted in toxic effects (P less than or equal to .05) on hatchability. Feeding 350 ppm also depressed (P less than or equal to .05) egg weights, egg production, and eggshell water vapor conductance. Embryonic mortality data indicated that toxic effects of iodine on embryos occur principally during the 1st wk of incubation and immediately prior to and during pipping. It was concluded that iodine toxicity may occur in Large White turkey breeder hens when 350 ppm are fed in the diet. PMID:1784560

  15. Different soil media for free-range laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Sossidou; S. P. Rose; S. S. P. Silva; N. W. Hall; A. Tserveni-Goussi; V. Christodoulou

    2008-01-01

    1.?A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit.2.?The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on

  16. The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens’ eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall Macleod; Maureen M. Bain; John W. Hancock

    2006-01-01

    The mechanics and mechanisms of failure of hens’ eggs have been examined experimentally under contact loading conditions relevant\\u000a to industrial conditions by testing eggs of known provenance in compression between stiff platens. Deformation was modelled\\u000a computationally as a Hertzian contact problem between a thin walled elastic shell and a rigid plate. Contact damage was determined\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy and

  17. Adsorption of a hazardous dye, erythrosine, over hen feathers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod K. Gupta; Alok Mittal; Lisha Kurup; Jyoti Mittal

    2006-01-01

    Erythrosine is a popular dye that is widely used in cosmetics, foodstuffs, medicines, and textiles. It is highly toxic to mankind and can lead to many diseases including carcinogenicity. Removal of erythrosine has been carried out using waste material—hen feathers—as adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of the dye, temperature, and adsorbent dosage have been studied. Adsorption of erythrosine over

  18. An HSUS Report: A Comparison of the Welfare of Hens in Battery Cages and Alternative Systems | Prepared by Drs. Shields and Duncan 1 An HSUS Report: A Comparison of the Welfare of Hens in Battery Cages and Alternative Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Shields; Ian J. H. Duncan

    Housing systems for egg-laying hens range from small, pasture-based flocks to large, commercial-scale operations that intensively confine tens of thousands of hens indoors. The overwhelming majority of laying hens used for commercial egg production in the United States are confined in battery cages and provided 432.3 cm 2 (67 in 2 ) of space per bird. Cages prevent hens from

  19. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  20. Toxic Peripheral Neuropathy of Chicks Fed Senna occidentalisSeeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore; Maria José Cavaliere; Mitsue Haraguchi; Silvana Lima Górniak; Maria Lúcia Zaidan Dagli; Paulo César Raspantini; Nilda Maria Perez Calore; Ruth Weg

    1998-01-01

    Plants of the genusSenna(formerlyCassia) are poisonous to livestock and other laboratory animals, leading to a syndrome of a widespread muscle degeneration, incoordination, recumbence, and death. The main histologic lesion is necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers. Recently, a mitochondrial myopathy with ragged-red and cytochrome oxidase (COX)-negative muscle fibers was recognized in hens chronically intoxicated with parts of seeds ofS. occidentalis. The

  1. An evaluation of sesame oil meal and Peruvian fish for egg-strain and broiler-type breeder hens 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Edwin B

    1964-01-01

    with protein level not shown by the eggs laid by hens fed diets containing Peruvian fish meal. However, as was to be expected, the reverse was observed for the percent of eggs weighing 22-23 ounces per, dozen eggs. The highest per- cent of 24/ ounce eggs... meal as protein sources for egg-strain hens . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ 16 Composition of. laying hen diets . . . . . . ~ . 17, 18 Calculated percent protein and certain amino acid content in laying hen diets from analyses of ingredients...

  2. USE OF A LIVE ATTENUATED SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM VACCINE TO PROTECT HENS AGAINST S. ENTERITIDIS INFECTION WHILE UNDERGOING MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies demonstrated that Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal were more severe than in full fed hens. Two trials were conducted to determine whether immunizing hens with Megan®Vac1, a commercially-available attenuated S. typhimurium vaccine, w...

  3. Influence of cottonseed meal on vanadium toxicity and ⁴⁸vanadium distribution in body tissues of laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Sell; C. Y. Davis; S. E. Scheideler

    1986-01-01

    Hens of two commercial White Leghorn strains were fed diets representing a complete factorial arrangement of 0, 3, or 6 ppm vanadium (V) from dicalcium phosphate and 0 or 5% cottonseed meal (CSM). Test diets were fed for 4 consecutive weeks beginning when hens were 25, 40, 62, or 76 weeks old. After each 4-week treatment period, all hens were

  4. Responses of adult laying hens to abstract video images presented repeatedly outside the home cage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colette H Clarke; R. Bryan Jones

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies reported that domestic chicks showed progressively greater attraction towards biologically neutral video images (screensavers) with repeated exposure [Jones, R.B., Carmichael, N., Williams, C., 1998. Social housing and domestic chicks' responses to symbolic video images. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 56, 231–243; Jones, R.B., Larkins, C., Hughes, B.O., 1996. Approach\\/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar video images

  5. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  6. Interactive and vicarious acquisition of auditory preferences in Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Harshaw, Christopher; Lickliter, Robert

    2007-08-01

    Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar call 24 hr following exposure and significantly greater preferences than chicks given noncontingent exposure. Chicks given vicarious exposure to recordings of another chick interacting with the maternal call showed significant deviations from chance responding; however, the direction of chick preference (toward the familiar or unfamiliar) depended on the particular call used. These results indicate that both direct and indirect (vicarious) exposure to stimulus contingency can enhance the acquisition of auditory preferences in precocial avian hatchlings. Precocial avian hatchlings thus likely play a more active role in directing their own perceptual and behavioral development than has typically been thought. PMID:17696658

  7. Suspected sodium toxicity in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Bowes, V A; Hughes, M R; Hart, L E

    1992-01-01

    Sodium toxicity was suspected in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks fed herring frozen in brine (seawater). Affected chicks were lethargic with stiff legs that extended to the posterior, and breathing was labored. Chicks regurgitated food or refused to eat. All chicks that were fed herring exclusively and eight of the 10 chicks fed a mixed diet (herring and salmonids) died, whereas all chicks fed only salmonids survived. Renal lesions ranged from mild to marked generalized nephrosis, which was characterized by degeneration and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and dilation of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. These observations suggest that fish frozen in brine is unsuitable food for hand-rearing of young herons. PMID:1417607

  8. Evaluation of Yeast Cell Wall on Early Production Laying Hen Performance 

    E-print Network

    Hashim, Mohammed Malik Hashim 1981-

    2012-11-08

    he influence of two levels of yeast cell wall on phase one laying hen performance was investigated in this study. A total of 75 Lohmann W-36 replacement pullets, 17-weeks-old, were distributed among 75 laying hen cages (1 bird per pen). A total of 3...

  9. THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF CLONIDINE, AN ALPHA-2-ADRENERGIC AGONIST, IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the sympathetic nervous system to regulate chicken immune functions was examined. Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, was administrated at 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/L in the drinking water of White Leghorn hens at 48 wks of age. The hens were randomly housed in conventional c...

  10. Organic cosolvents and hen egg white lysozyme folding Bing Lai, Aoneng Cao, Luhua Lai *

    E-print Network

    Luhua, Lai

    Organic cosolvents and hen egg white lysozyme folding Bing Lai, Aoneng Cao, Luhua Lai * State Key July 2000; accepted 3 August 2000 Abstract Studies on the influence of organic cosolvents on lysozyme soluble organic cosolvents on hen egg white lysozyme heat induced denaturation and refolding dynamics

  11. The importance of pre-thicket conifer plantations for nesting Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK W. WILSON; SANDRA IRWIN; DAVID W. NORRISS; STEPHEN F. NEWTON; KEVIN COLLINS; THOMAS C. KELLY

    2009-01-01

    Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus are threatened across much of their range and their conser- vation requires appropriate habitat management. The locations of 148 Hen Harrier nests found in the Republic of Ireland during national breeding surveys in 2000 and 2005 were used to assess nest-site selection. The distribution of these nests was compared to distri- butions of randomly located points

  12. Effects of Housing Systems on Biochemical Indicators of Blood Plasma in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pavlík; M. Pokludová; D. Zapletal; P. Jelínek

    2007-01-01

    Pavlík A., M. Pokludová, D. Zapletal, P. Jelínek: Effects of Housing Systems on Biochemical Indicators of Blood Plasma in Laying Hens. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 339-347. The aim of this study was to compare biochemical indicators of blood plasma of laying hens housed in three different housing systems (conventional cage system, enriched cage system and deep litter system). In

  13. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krimpen van M. M; T. Veldkamp; G. P. Binnendijk; Veer de R

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and

  14. Evaluation of Eggshell Quality of Hens Infected with Salmonella enteritidis by Application of Compression1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Guard-Bouldin; R. J. Buhr

    Eggs collected from hens of different ages and that differed in infection status withSalmonellaenterit- idis were evaluated for the ability to resist cracking follow- ing application of maximum compression load from an Instron materials testing machine. Orally infected 24-wk- old hens that were prepeak produced eggs with signifi- cantly lower hardness units (HU) of shells compared with a paired control

  15. Use of High Levels of Full-Fat Soybeans in Laying Hen Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Senkoylu; H. E. Samli; H. Akyurek; A. Agma; S. Yasar

    SUMMARY To examine the effects of various inclusion levels of full-fat soybeans (FFSB) on laying hen performance and eggshell quality during peak production, 288 Bovans White strain laying hens, 33 to 42 wk of age, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments. The diets were prepared with the inclusion of 0, 10, 16, and 22% FFSB. Egg production was not

  16. Performance of Four Hybrids of Laying Hens in Modified and Conventional Cages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson; Michael C. Appleby

    1995-01-01

    In two trials, production, feed consumption, mortality, egg quality and birds' live weight of a total of 2877 caged laying hens of four hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in Trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in Trial 2, were studied during full production cycles. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens

  17. Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

  18. Final-state interactions in the system {sup 8}He+n

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Govaert, K.; Blank, B.; Chartier, M.; Galonsky, A.; Hansen, P. G.; Kruse, J.; Maddalena, V.; Thoennessen, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Ieki, K.; Iwata, Y.; Higurashi, Y.; Takeuchi, S. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Deak, F.; Horvath, A.; Kiss, A. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Seres, Z. [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-21

    Final-state interactions in the systems {sup 6}He+n and {sup 8}He+n have been studied via the breakup of 30 MeV/u {sup 10,11,12}Be beams on a {sup 9}Be target. The results for the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions of the outgoing neutron and fragment are presented and discussed.

  19. Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California July 2008 Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California i Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg Summary A ballot initiative in California that would place restrictions on the housing of commercial egg

  20. A generalized method for HEN synthesis using stochastic optimization – I. General framework and MER optimal synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R Lewin; Hao Wang; Ofir Shalev

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of heat-exchanger networks (HENs) based on genetic algorithms (GAs). The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on the solution of relatively simple HEN synthesis problems in which maximum energy recovery (MER) is desired and which can be resolved without resorting to stream splitting. As a result, the parametric optimization problem is

  1. Measures against Ammonia Release in a Floor Housing System for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gustafsson; E. von Wachenfelt

    2005-01-01

    How age of hens, storage time of manure, ventilation rate, ventilation technique and bedding materials affect concentration and release of ammonia in a floor housing system for laying hens have been carried out at the Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Technology (JBT) research station Alnarp Södergård during two 433 and 464 days long production batches. A climate chamber was equipped

  2. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models Hyoung-joo Lee1, and 2 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK Feather pecking in laying hens of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking

  3. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objectives of this research were to determine if inclusion of dietary fiber and a lowered dietary crude protein content would decrease ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 con...

  4. Comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of early chick neural crest network genes

    PubMed Central

    Khudyakov, Jane; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Specification of neural crest progenitors begins during gastrulation at the neural plate border, long before migration or differentiation. Neural crest cell fate is acquired by progressive activation of discrete groups of transcription factors that appear to be highly conserved in vertebrates; however, comprehensive analysis of their expression has been lacking in chick, an important model system for neural crest development. To address this, we analyzed expression of ten transcription factors that are known specifiers of neural plate border and neural crest fate and compared them across developmental stages from gastrulation to neural crest migration. Surprisingly, we find that most neural crest specifiers are expressed during gastrulation in chick, concomitant with and in similar domains as neural plate border specifiers. This suggests that interactions between these molecules may occur much earlier than previously thought, an important consideration for interpretation of functional studies. PMID:19235729

  5. Dietary influences on resistance to Salmonella infection in chicks.

    PubMed

    Hill, C H

    1979-06-01

    Studies on the influence of nutritional factors on the resistance of chicks to Salmonella gallinarum have been reviewed. Increased dietary protein decreased the resistance of chicks to this infection although resistance to Escherichia coli infections was not appreciably affected. The administration of high levels of iron, particularly when accompanied by a chelating agent such as EDTA, resulted in increased resistance to this infection. The additional iron resulted in the prevention of the transient hypoferremia and anemia during the course of the disease. Fewer viable S. gallinarum were present in the blood, liver, and spleen in the presence of increased dietary or injected iron. Cadmium added to the diet at a nontoxic level also enhanced resistance to this infection. PMID:446767

  6. Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  7. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P = 0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P < 0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P < 0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. PMID:25825783

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROTEIN NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND IMMUNOCOMPETENCE IN NORTHERN BOBWHITE CHICKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT L. LOCHMILLER; MICHELLE R. VESTEY; JON C. BOREN

    ABSTRCr.--We investigated the effects of dietary protein quality on the development and functioning of the immune system in four-week-old Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks. Chicks were fed isocaloric diets containing 8, 15, or 33% protein over a three-week period. Significant reductions in the rate of body growth were evident in chicks receiving 8 and 15% protein. Development of the bursa

  9. Predicting Starling Chick Carcass PCB Concentrations from PCB Concentrations in Ingested Animal Matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Arena; R. S. Halbrook; C. A. Arenal

    1999-01-01

    .   Preremediation studies at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) revealed statistically significant accumulations\\u000a of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and effects in starling chicks (Sturnus vulgaris) from contaminated sites, including decreased nest attentiveness, decreased fledging success, and an increase in chick mortality.\\u000a Although the expected route of exposure for starling chicks is thought to be via diet, this has not previously

  10. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Custer; Christine M. Custer

    1995-01-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older.

  11. Calcium and phosphorus dynamics in commercial laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cage systems.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; House, J D; Guenter, W; Kebreab, E

    2011-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in Shaver White hens (19-63 wk of age) were compared between enriched (EC) and conventional cage (CC) systems. Calcium and P intake and their levels in egg components and excreta were considered. Using commercial levels of production (4,836 hens), 10 test cages/system (24 hens/test cage) were used as replicate units. Enriched cages provided a nesting area, scratch pad, perches, and more floor space (643 cm(2)/hen ) than CC (468 cm(2)/hen). All birds were offered similar phase-fed diets based on wheat-soybean formulation and housed under semicontrolled environmental conditions for 11 periods (28 d each). Egg weight, production, and shell quality indices (egg specific gravity, shell weight, thickness, and percentage shell) were also measured. Data were analyzed as a repeated measures design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Egg production, weight, and shell quality measurements were not significantly different between the 2 systems. On a DM basis, EC hens exhibited lower feed disappearance than CC hens (92.5 vs. 95.0 ± 0.61 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01), and lower Ca and P excretions in manure compared with CC hens (Ca: 2.11 vs. 2.29 ± 0.04 g/hen per day, respectively; P: 0.619 vs. 0.643 ± 0.005 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01). Even though eggs from EC compared with CC had lower Ca deposition (2.07 vs. 2.13 ± 0.01 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.0001) and output (38.3 vs. 38.8 ± 0.15 mg/g of egg, respectively; P < 0.05), both EC and CC systems exhibited similar Ca outputs in eggs when expressed as a proportion of Ca intake (56.5 vs. 56.6 ± 0.51% Ca intake, respectively). The overall mean P retention between EC and CC hens was not significantly different (-7.22 vs. -7.45 ± 0.71% P intake, respectively), but Ca retention was higher in EC than CC hens (-1.37 vs. -4.76 ± 0.89% Ca intake, respectively; P < 0.05). In addition to providing environmental enrichment, EC systems may help to reduce Ca and P excretions when compared with CC systems, thereby improving the utilization of these nutrients. PMID:21934024

  12. Chick diet of dovekies Alle alle in Northwest Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Egevang Pedersen; Knud Falk

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of dovekies (Alle alle) breeding at Hakluyt Island in the Thule District, Northwest Greenland. The paper presents a comprehensive examination of\\u000a the chick diet of dovekies in the species' most important breeding area. Food delivered to nestlings consisted primarily of\\u000a copepods Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis in the copepodite stages IV and

  13. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints. PMID:24005252

  14. Fast-deactivating calcium channels in chick sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Swandulla; C. M. ARMSTRONG

    1988-01-01

    Whole-cell Ca and Ba currents were studied in chick dorsal root gan- glion (DRG) cells kept 6-10 h in culture. Voltage steps with a 15-\\/zs rise time were imposed on the membrane using an improved patch-clamp circuit. Changes in membrane current could be measured 30 #s after the initiation of the test pulse. Currents through Ca channels were recorded under

  15. Angiotensinogen impairs angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Brand; Noël Lamandé; Etienne Larger; Pierre Corvol; Jean-Marie Gasc

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensinogen shares with other members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family antiangiogenic properties. Angiotensinogen\\u000a inhibits in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, and is antiangiogenic in ovo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay.\\u000a The cellular mode of action of angiotensinogen has been studied by applying purified human angiotensinogen or Chinese hamster\\u000a ovary cells producing recombinant angiotensinogen onto the developing chorioallantoic membrane.

  16. Calretinin and calbindin in the retina of the developing chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Ellis; D. E. Richards; J. H. Rogers

    1991-01-01

    Calretinin and calbindin-D28k are two calcium-binding proteins that are present in largely different sets of nerve cells in the central nervous system. Their appearance during development of the chick retina was studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blots. The patterns are mature one day before hatching. Each cell type acquires its characteristic calcium-binding protein several days after its differentiation has started,

  17. Temperature reinforcement for visual discrimination training in baby chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Lee-Teng; STUART R. BUTLERt

    1971-01-01

    A fully automated training apparatus, using thermoregulation as performance incentive, was constructed to train baby chicks\\u000a on visual discrimination and reversal problems. In the base condition, the S is bathed in cold air in a small training cubicle.\\u000a Two stimuli are back-projected onto two display windows according to a pseudorandom balanced schedule. A peck at the positive\\u000a stimulus gives convective

  18. All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy

    2008-01-01

    The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

  19. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. De Reu; T. B. Rodenburg; W. Messens; M. Heyndrickx; F. Tuyttens; B. Sonck; J. Zoons; L. Herman

    2009-01-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished cages and 7 flocks in noncage systems were visited when hens were about 60 wk

  20. Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

  1. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  2. Social influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Amita, Hidetoshi; Kawamori, Ai; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2010-04-23

    Social factors involved in the control of impulsiveness were examined in domestic chicks. In binary choices between a large/long-delay option (LL) and a small/short-delay alternative (SS), chicks that had been competitively trained in groups of three individuals showed fewer choices of LL than did those trained in isolation (experiment 1), suggesting that competition causes impulsive choice. In experiment 2, in order to identify the critical factor involved, we tested the effects of perceived competition (coincident feeding without interruption) and scrounging (gaining food without pecking bead) separately. To examine the effects of risk/noise that individual chicks experienced in competition, the food amount varied randomly in trials according to a binomial distribution around the expected mean. Perceived competition primarily contributed to the influence on the impulsive choice, whereas the contribution of scrounging was weaker. Collection risk did not explain the social influences since the perceived competition was not accompanied by actual interruption of the delayed food reward. The risk owing to variable food per se did not cause impulsive choices. Coincident foraging during competition is thought to play a critical role. PMID:19906684

  3. eChickAtlas: an introduction to the database.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances; Welten, Monique C M; Anderson, Claire; Bain, Andrew A; Liu, Jiahui; Wicks, Michael N; Pavlovska, Gordana; Davey, Megan G; Murphy, Paula; Davidson, Duncan; Tickle, Cheryll A; Stern, Claudio D; Baldock, Richard A; Burt, David W

    2013-05-01

    The precise control of gene expression is critical in embryonic development. Quantitative assays, such as microarrays and RNA sequencing, provide gene expression levels for a large number of genes, but do not contain spatial information. In contrast, in situ methods, such as in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, provide spatial resolution, but poor quantification and can only reveal the expression of one, or very few genes at a time. Furthermore, the usual methods of documenting the results, by photographing whole mounts or sections, makes it very difficult to assess the three-dimensional (3D) relationships between expressing and nonexpressing cells. Optical projection tomography (OPT) can capture the full 3D expression pattern in a whole embryo at a reasonable level of resolution and at moderately high throughput. A large database containing spatio-temporal patterns of expression for the mouse (e-Mouse Atlas Project, EMAP, www.emouseatlas.org) has been created, incorporating 3D information. Like the mouse, the chick is an important model in developmental biology and translational studies. To facilitate comparisons between these important model organisms, we have created a 3D anatomical atlas, accompanied by an anatomical ontology of the chick embryo and a database of gene expression patterns during chick development. This database is publicly available (www.echickatlas.org). PMID:23355415

  4. The development of responses to novel-coloured objects in male and female domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M

    1994-04-01

    Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel colour was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar colour were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex difference was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in colour prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of colour. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935

  5. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  6. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  7. Visual memory of shapes in quail chicks: discrimination among 2-dimensional objects.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yumiko; Hayashi, Isako; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2002-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks spontaneously peck at conspicuous objects, and soon learn to discriminate between edible food particles and inedible objects. To examine whether this discrimination is based on a chick's ability to memorize objects by shape cues, we analyzed the pecking behavior. One- to 3-day old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica) were presented with dry objects of different shapes (ball, disk, triangle and T-shape) of similar size (4 mm) and color (green). Habituation occurred after repeated presentation of any one of these objects (duration: 30 sec; interval: 4 min). When chicks showed significantly more pecks at a novel object (dishabituation), we assumed that chicks had memorized the habituated shapes and distinguished the novel object. Chicks did not show dishabituation between a ball and a disk. On the other hand, chicks discriminated a triangle or T-shape from the memorized image of disk, but did not memorize either triangle or T-shape by its shape. Similarly, chicks did not memorize the size of disks as a reference for subsequent pecking behavior. Chicks proved to have a limited ability to memorize shape and size cues for selective pecking behavior, in strong contrast to their accurate memorization of colors. PMID:12149571

  8. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on laying hen performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1982-09-01

    In periods of extremely cold weather, energy conservation in a pit-type laying house usually results in a restricted ventilation rate and an increase in air pollutants particularly ammonia. Results show that 200 ppm ammonia for 17 days causes a significant loss in percent egg production and the hens lose a significant amount of weight with a reduced feed intake. Although not satisfactory, it appears that lesser amounts of ammonia (100 ppm) can be tolerated for short periods without an immediate drastic loss in laying performance if a choice has to be made between frozen waterers and cold stress versus atmospheric ammonia in the laying house.

  9. Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

  10. Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.

    PubMed

    Stienen; Brenninkmeijer

    1999-05-01

    Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

  11. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  12. Comparison of methyl anthranilate and denatonium benzoate as aversants for learning in chicks.

    PubMed

    Richard, S; Davies, D C

    2000-09-15

    Methyl anthranilate (MeA) has been widely used as a taste aversant for domestic chicks in the one-trial passive avoidance learning (PAL) task. However, MeA has a strong smell that may be aversive to chicks. Therefore, odourless denatonium benzoate (DB) has been suggested as an alternative taste aversant in PAL. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of MeA and DB as aversants in the one-trial PAL task. In this task, young chicks peck a visually conspicuous bead coated with a taste aversant and in a single trial learn to avoid a similar, but uncoated bead at subsequent presentation. In Experiment 1, chicks were trained using a silver-coloured bead coated with 100% MeA, 0.5% DB or distilled water. After 3 h, MeA-trained, but not DB-trained chicks, exhibited significantly higher avoidance of the test bead than water-trained chicks. In Experiment 2, three pre-training presentations of an uncoated red bead preceded training with the silver bead. MeA-trained chicks showed significantly higher avoidance of the test bead than water-trained chicks. The numbers of water- and DB-trained chicks that avoided pecking the test bead were low and not significantly different from each other. However, DB-trained chicks exhibited significantly longer latencies to peck the test bead than water-trained chicks, indicating that they had retained some memory of the task. Thus, 0.5% DB is a weaker aversant than MeA and it does not induce high levels of learning in the one-trial PAL task. However, DB may prove useful for investigating weakly reinforced learning. PMID:11111006

  13. Distribution of glial-associated proteins in the developing chick auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Korn, Matthew J; Cramer, Karina S

    2008-07-01

    In the avian brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) projects bilaterally to nucleus laminaris (NL) in a pathway that facilitates sound localization. The distribution of glia during the development of this pathway has not previously been characterized. Radial glia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes facilitate many processes including axon pathfinding, synaptic development, and maturation. Here we determined the spatiotemporal expression patterns of glial cell types in embryonic development of the chick auditory brainstem using glial-specific antibodies and histological markers. We found that vimentin-positive processes are intercalated throughout the NL cell layer. Astrocytes are found in two domains: one in the ventral neuropil region and the other dorsolateral to NM. GFAP-positive processes are primarily distributed along the ventral margin of NL. Astrocytic processes penetrate the NL cell layer following the onset of synaptogenesis, but before pruning and maturation. The dynamic, nonoverlapping expression patterns of GFAP and vimentin suggest that distinct glial populations are found in dorsal versus ventral regions of NL. Myelination occurs after axons have reached their targets. FluoroMyelin and myelin basic protein (MBP) gradually increase along the mediolateral axis of NL starting at E10. Multiple GFAP-positive processes are directly apposed to NM-NL axons and MBP, which suggests a role in early myelinogenesis. Our results show considerable changes in glial development after initial NM-NL connections are made, suggesting that glia may facilitate maturation of the auditory circuit. PMID:18498086

  14. Timing of Presentation of Prenatal Auditory Stimulation Alters Auditory and Visual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus virginianus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merry J. Sleigh; Robert Lickliter

    1998-01-01

    One group of bobwhite quail embryos (Colinus virginianus) was exposed to 10 min\\/hr of bobwhite chick contentment calls immediately followed by 10 min\\/hr of bobwhite chick distress calls. A 2nd group of embryos was exposed to the same auditory stimulation but in the opposite order of presentation. Postnatal testing revealed that chicks exposed prenatally to the bobwhite chick contentment call

  15. The effect of dietary selenium source and level on hen production and egg selenium concentration.

    PubMed

    Pavlovi?, Zoran; Mileti?, Ivanka; Joki?, Zivan; Sobaji?, Sladana

    2009-12-01

    A 16-week experiment was conducted to compare effects of various levels of sodium selenite (SS) and Se-enriched yeast (SY), on the whole-egg Se content and hen's productivity. One hundred Shaver 579 hens, 27 weeks old, were placed on one of five experimental treatments. Each treatment was replicated four times with five hens per cage. Treatments consisted of feeding a low Se diet without supplementation (basal diet) or basal diet with one of two levels of supplemented Se (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) supplied by SS or SY. All supplemented treatments had significantly higher whole-egg Se concentration from basal diet (P < 0.05). On the same supplemented level, hens fed on SY had higher egg Se content from hens feed on SS (P < 0.001). No effects of dietary treatments on egg weight, percentages of dirty and cracked egg, and feed intake and conversion of feed were observed throughout the trial (P < 0.05). In the first 8 weeks, there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in hen-day egg production among treatments. From the ninth week on to the end of the trial, supplementation of SY to hen's diet resulted in a higher egg production than SS (P < 0.01). PMID:19352598

  16. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10.2 vs. 9.9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding of fermented feed increased intestinal health by acidification of the upper digestive tract, forming a natural barrier towards infection with acid sensitive pathogens, e.g. E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. 8. It was concluded that fermented wet feed offers potential benefits for health and nutrition, but may become suitable for layers only after the practical problems related to this feeding form have been overcome. However, an early adaptation of the birds during the rearing period seems to be necessary. PMID:19373724

  17. A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major food-borne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the future as control over Salmonella Enteritidis continues to improve. To that end, the present review examines the published literature on Salmonella Typhimurium in laying hens and eggs, with particular reference to comparative studies examining different serovars. Experimentally Salmonella Enteritidis is more often isolated from egg contents and seems to adhere better to reproductive tract mucosa, whilst Salmonella Typhimurium appears to provoke a more intense tissue pathology and immune response, and flock infections are more transient. However, it is observed in many cases that the present body of evidence does not identify clear differences between specific behaviours of the serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, whether in laying hens, in their eggs, or in the laying environment. It is concluded that further long-term experimental and natural infection studies are needed in order to generate a clearer picture. PMID:21879803

  18. Interactive and Vicarious Acquisition of Auditory Preferences in Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Harshaw; Robert Lickliter

    2007-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar

  19. Effects of Low Phytic Acid Barley on Zinc Utilization in Young Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21 day experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of low phytic acid barley (LPB) on Zn utilization by young broiler chicks, and to determine the contribution of endogenous phytase, present in LPB. In the first experiment, 96 d-old male chicks were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangeme...

  20. The role of helpers in feeding chicks in cooperatively breeding green (red-billed) woodhoopoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morné A. Plessis

    1991-01-01

    Observations were made of ten green (red-billed) woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus flocks during the breeding season in order to quantify the relationship between flock size and the amount of food delivered to chicks. The study period was kept short specifically to minimize the effects of environmental stochasticity. Neither woodhoopoe feeding visit rates nor the total amount of food brought to chicks

  1. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  2. Individual Variation in Field Metabolic Rate of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the Chick-Rearing Period

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    343 Individual Variation in Field Metabolic Rate of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the Chick), using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, was measured in free-ranging adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) early and late in the chick-rearing period at Svalbard, Norway. Individual variation in FMR

  3. Effects of Dietary DL-Methionine on Tissue Levels of Glutathione in Hypothyroid Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADELINE K. KANO; DUANE F. HOUGHAM ANDL; W. CHARKEY

    Earlier studies have shown that dietary DL-methionine counteracts various effects associated with hyperthyroidism in chicks. A study has now been con ducted to ascertain whether methionine counteracts, or augments, effects associated with hypothyroidism in chicks. The principal criteria were blood, liver, heart and muscle content of reduced glutathione (GSH). The hypothyroid state was induced by incorporating 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) into the

  4. Fgf4 Positively Regulates scleraxis and Tenascin Expression in Chick Limb Tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédérique Edom-Vovard; Bernadette Schuler; Marie-Ange Bonnin; Marie-Aimée Teillet; Delphine Duprez

    2002-01-01

    In vertebrates, tendons connect muscles to skeletal elements. Surgical experiments in the chick have underlined developmental interactions between tendons and muscles. Initial formation of tendons occurs autonomously with respect to muscle. However, further tendon development requires the presence of muscle. The molecular signals involved in these interactions remain unknown. In the chick limb, Fgf4 transcripts are located at the extremities

  5. The effect of prenatal hypoxia and malnutrition on memory consolidation in the chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice L. Rodricks; Ilona A. Rose; Emily J. Camm; Graham Jenkin; Suzanne L. Miller; Marie E. Gibbs

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of hypoxia and malnutrition to cognitive impairments was investigated in chicks incubated in conditions of reduced gas exchange. Previous research has shown that reducing gas exchange during incubation by wrapping half the eggshell with an impermeable membrane results in impaired cognitive ability in young chicks. The results were interpreted within a three stage sequential model of memory using

  6. Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Broiler Breeder Eggs with Hairline Cracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Barnett; B. L. Kumpula; R. L. Petryk; N. A. Robinson; R. A. Renema; F. E. Robinson

    SUMMARY Eggs with hairline cracks are often placed in incubators, as they can appear structurally sound and, hence, capable of producing a saleable chick. The relative incubation weight loss, embryonic mortality, hatchability, and early chick growth rates associated with normally shelled broiler eggs andthose withhairlinecracks underpracticalconditions arenotknown. Todeterminethe incidence of hairline cracks, eggs from 5 commercial flocks of various strains

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic

    E-print Network

    Marinova, Elena

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Bulgaria Cicer arietinum (chick pea), is one of the elements of the Neolithic founder crop assemblage. It was spread from the Near East to southeastern Europe during the Neolithic, but until recently

  8. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase zeta/beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    chick spinal cord. RPTPZ/b was expressed throughout the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing spinal a single ,9 kbp RPTPZ/b transcript expressed in the embryonic chick spinal cord, indicating that the shorter alternative-splice products of RPTPZ/b found in rodent spinal cord and brain

  9. Nutritional, Genetic and Morphological Studies of an Abnormal Cartilage Formation in Young Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. LEACH; J. R. ANDM; C. NESHEIM

    Factors affecting the occurrence of an abnormal cartilage formation in the bones of young chicks have been studied. The condition occurs in chicks fed a purified diet and is prevented by the use of natural feed ingredients. The incidence of this abnormality can be increased by genetic selection. The abnormal cartilage formation is characterized by an accumulation of immature chondrocytes

  10. ChickScope: An Interactive MRI Classroom Curriculum Innovation for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, B. C.; Carragher, B. O.; Damon, B. M.; Dawson, M. J.; Eurell, J. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Lauterbur, P. C.; Marjanovic, M. M.; Mason-Fossum, B.; Morris, H. D.; Potter, C. S.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-01-01

    Describes ChickScope, a 21-day chick embryonic development project, to demonstrate the remote control of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instrument through the World Wide Web. Topics include remote instrumentation and the Web, teacher-based implementation, impact in elementary and secondary school classrooms, and future directions. (Author/LRW)

  11. Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks.

    PubMed

    Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W

    2010-07-01

    Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. PMID:20223237

  12. Nest location affects chick growth rates in Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Minias; Bartosz Lesner; Tomasz Janiszewski

    2012-01-01

    Capsule?Body mass of Whiskered Tern chicks from the central parts of subcolonies grew at a higher rate in comparison to chicks hatched in the peripheral zones. Growth rates of both body mass and head length correlated positively with nest density. We suggest that spatial distribution of pair quality within the colony of Whiskered Terns follows a central–periphery gradient.

  13. Use of Implanted Radiotransmitters to Estimate Survival of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL A. GREGG; MIKE R. DUNBAR; JOHN A. CRAWFORD

    2007-01-01

    Reduced chick survival has been implicated in declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Because monitoring survival of unmarked sage-grouse chicks is difficult, radiotelemetry may be an effective technique to estimate survival rates, identify causes of mortality, and collect ecological data. Previous studies have used subcutaneous implants to attach radiotransmitters to hatchlings of several species of birds with precocial young.

  14. A New Low-Molecular-Weight Component Promoting Adrenergic Development in Cultured Chick Sympathetic Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Zurn

    A low-molecular-weight component present in medium con- ditioned by cultured chick liver cells (LCM) enhances the adrenergic properties of dissociated chick superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in culture (Zurn and Mudry, 1988). This substance cannot replace NGF as a survival, growth, or differentiation factor. However, in the presence of NGF, it stimulates neuronal metabolism and catecholamine (CA), but not ACh

  15. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  16. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  17. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  18. Adoptive Transfer of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Primed ?? T Cells Bearing CD8 Antigen Protects Chicks from Acute Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Heui Seo; Jianwu Pei; W. Elwood Briles; Jennifer Dzielawa; Ellen W. Collisson

    2000-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection and associated illness may be dramatically modified by passive transfer of immune T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes collected 10 days postinfection were transferred to naive chicks before challenge with virus. As determined by respiratory illness and viral load, transfer of syngeneic immune T lymphocytes protected chicks from challenge infection, whereas no protection was observed in the chicks

  19. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  20. Mass and date at departure affect the survival of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus chicks after leaving the colony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY J. GASTON

    1997-01-01

    I compared the timing of colony departure and body mass of 53 Ancient Murrelet Synth- liboramphus antiquus chicks that were retrapped as adults in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, with those of 3992 chicks not retrapped. If the probability of recapture is a measure of survival, survival was related to both mass and date. Chicks that left the colony at 26

  1. Retrograde tracing with fluorescent microspheres reveals bifurcating projections from central retina to tectum and thalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Naito, J; Chen, Y

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the dual-projection pattern of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) projecting to the tectum and visual thalamus in chick using retrograde fluorescent tracers and also to define the morphological properties of these RGCs with dual projections by intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) combined with immunohistochemistry. Thirty-two chicks received double injections of green and red fluorescent microspheres into their thalamus and tectum in the same side. In the central retina, most of the labelled RGCs were tec-RGCs (RGCs projecting to the tectum), a quarter was tha-RGCs (RGCs projecting to the thalamus), and almost all of the tha-RGCs were double-labelled RGCs. An intracellular injection of LY into the double-labelled RGCs showed all six groups of RGCs without specific populations in each group (J. Comp. Neurol., 2004, 469: 360). These dendritic patterns were mostly mono- and bistrata, which extended horizontally in the deeper part of the inner plexiform layer. PMID:22780878

  2. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    middlings, appear to be effective in lowering cholestet'ol in the egg yolk, but not in the blood serum of the laying hens. The cost of producing lower cholesterol eggs by feeding a high fiber diet is greater than producing normal eggs with a standard... serum cholesterol in laying hens during twelve 28-day periods 16 The influence of type of diet on mean egg yolk and blood serum cholesterol in laying hens (periods pooled) 17 The effect of the type of diet on changes in egg yolk cholesterol during...

  3. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic measures, including efficient biosecurity routines, to reduce the risk of infectious diseases and cannibalism in litter-based housing systems for laying hens. PMID:19146656

  4. [Assessment of furnished cages for laying hens--development for small aviaries].

    PubMed

    Buchenauer

    2005-03-01

    Observations on six farms keeping laying hens in furnished cages showed that hens accepted the installations of this new housing type. Behaviours indicating that the adaptations of hens were problematic have not been observed. Locomotion and dust bathing in some groups occured as not sufficient. Lighting was too low and affected expressions of behaviour patterns. For further developments are proposed more usable space per bird and a different placement of perches. Dust bathes should be utilized permanently and should contain sufficient amount of litter. PMID:15847065

  5. Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-?-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver. PMID:22069604

  6. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M. [National Biological Survey, LaCrosse, WI (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

  7. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  8. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Kain, Kristin H; Miller, James W I; Jones-Paris, Celestial R; Thomason, Rebecca T; Lewis, John D; Bader, David M; Barnett, Joey V; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-02-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome, the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance, suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  9. The protective role of squalene in alcohol damage in the chick embryo retina.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Dorado, Manuel E; Prada, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan J; Quesada, Adela; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2005-04-01

    The developing CNS, and in particular the visual system, is very sensitive to the effects of alcohol. Alcohol causes lipid peroxidation. Squalene, the major olive oil hydrocarbon, is a quencher of singlet oxygen and prevents the corresponding lipid peroxidation. We presumed that squalene can protect against the alcohol-induced damage already observed during the development of the chick retina. Alcohol+squalene was administered directly into the yolk sac of the egg of White Leghorn chicks at day 6 of incubation. The lipid composition of the retina was analyzed in embryos at E7, E11, E15 and E18. The proportions of phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol, diacylglycerides and free fatty acids were estimated using the Iatroscan TLC/FID procedure. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to determine the fatty acid composition. The morphological study was carried out at E11 using semithin sections, and by means of immunohistochemical techniques at E19. Comparing the results obtained in control embryos, the administration of alcohol+squalene reduces the effects of alcohol on the total lipid composition of the retina during development. The effects were, in fact, of less magnitude than in embryos treated only with alcohol. The major phospholipid species of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited total recuperation at E15. As far as fatty acids are concerned, no significant changes were observed with regard to control embryos during development. From a morphological point of view, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos show at E11 fewer cellular alterations than the retinas of alcohol-treated embryos. In this respect, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited: a columnar cell arrangement similar to that observed in control retinas; few pycnotic cells and very few alterations in ganglion cell layers and in the optic nerve fibers layer. At E19 the recuperation of the expression of myelin oligodendrocyte specific protein (MOSP) in alcohol+squalene-treated embryos was recorded. Since squalene reduces the deleterious effects caused by alcohol on the lipid composition and the structure of the retina, squalene could act as a naturally occurring agent for the prevention of damage caused by abusive alcohol ingestion during pregnancy. PMID:15781281

  10. Specific neurons in chick central nervous system stain with an antibody against chick intestinal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Baetens, D; Norman, A W; Garcia-Segura, L M

    1981-10-19

    A specific antiserum against intestinal vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was used for a systematic immunohistochemical evaluation of immunoreactive sites in the central nervous system of chick. CaBP was observed in the perikarya, dendrites and axons of a specific population of neurons. It is concluded that CaBP represents a marker for selected neurons in the central nervous system of chick. PMID:7284793

  11. Chick vincula: elastic structures with a check-rein mechanism.

    PubMed

    Beckham, C; Greenlee, T K

    1975-04-01

    From their mode of attachment and their elastic composition, it is clear that the vincula of the chick serve other functions besides that of carrying blood vessels to the digital flexor tendons within their synovial sheaths. Evidence is presented in support of the argument that elastic fibres bear the brunt of rapidly applied tensile forces and that the interweaving collagen fibres only become taut when the vincula are stretched to the limit and about to tear. Our hypothesis is that the collagen serves as a check-rein mechanism in an otherwise elastic structure. PMID:1133097

  12. Effects of Antitumor Drug Sorafenib on Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Sen; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Chen, Yue-Lei; Chuai, Man-Li; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xue-Song

    2015-07-01

    Sorafenib has been used as an oral anti-cancer drug because of its ability to inhibit tumor growth. However, the pharmacological effect of sorafenib is still the lack of in vivo experimental evidence. Tumor and embryonic cells share some similar features, so we investigated the effects of sorafenib on the development of gastrulating chick embryos. We found that sorafenib exposure was markedly attributed to the number of embryonic cell in proliferation and apoptosis. We also detected sorafenib significantly interfered with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, sorafenib treatment impaired the production and migration of neural crest cells. Anat Rec, 298:1271-1281, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25810088

  13. Studies on the Chick-lethal Toxin of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A toxin which is lethal for two week old chicks has been recovered from strains of Escherichia coli O78:K80 of bovine and avian origin and from avian isolates of serogroups O2, O45 and O109. The toxin is heat-labile, antigenic, high in protein, inactivated by pronase, trypsin, amylase, and pancreatic lipase. The toxin may be precipitated by ammonium sulfate or TCA treatment from the supernatant obtained by repeated centrifugation of sonicated cells. Considerable purification has been obtained by column chromatography using Sepharose 6B. PMID:4270809

  14. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  15. Amount of vitamin D required in commercial chick rations 

    E-print Network

    Couch, James Russell

    1934-01-01

    . Octan ia Bin We?he With Varying dccounte Of Vitsain D Bud With !action 1 ?0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ P 18 Rxperiaeat II. Gaia in six weehn with vsryiag ksnuats of Vitenin D yed With Ration 1 ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ 50 Table 10. ]bcyeriaeat I Gains... of Chicks with Leg Defcs aisles sad Croohs4 Br?est s o ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 51 Table ld, Rxgeriasat ZIo Ruebsr of Ghioks ia Groups et tho Close Of the RCZNCriaCatc LC?rbelityc Total Crea? Of feed Coasraedi Total Gaia, sad Orans of teal...

  16. Values of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks

    E-print Network

    Couch, James Russell; Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1940-01-01

    concentrates and percentages used in each ration Ration 1 1 Ration 2 ' seed meal. seed meal, I Ration 3 1 Ration 4 1 Ration 5 1 Ration 6 6% Fish meal, 67, Cotton- seed meal, 470. Soybean oil meal 2 % Linseed heal 6% Fish meal, 670 Cotton- seed meal... and bone scraps, cottonseed meal, soybean oil meal, peanut meal, liver meal, and linseed meal in chick rations. Neither mortality nor perosis (slipped tendon) was a factor in these experiments. The rations were not extreme enough to cause losses...

  17. Colonization of gastrointestinal tracts of chicks by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Beery, J T; Hugdahl, M B; Doyle, M P

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial enumeration and histologic examination of organs and tissues of 8-day-old chicks 7 days after peroral inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni revealed that the organism colonized primarily the lower gastrointestinal tract. The principal sites of localization were the ceca, large intestine, and cloaca, where densely packed cells of C. jejuni were observed in mucus within crypts. Examination of C. jejuni-colonized crypts by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the campylobacters freely pervaded the lumina of crypts without attachment to crypt microvilli. Understanding the mechanism of colonization may lead to approaches that will reduce the incidence of C. jejuni carriage by poultry. Images PMID:3060015

  18. Congenital skeletal abnormalities in a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco).

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Andrés; de Trocóniz, Patricia Fdez; Vila, Mónica; López-Beceiro, Ana M; Pereira, José L

    2003-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco) coming from a Wild Fauna Recovery Center with multiple congenital malformations in the limbs. The animal was unable to fly and showed marked malnutrition and poor general appearance. Physical, radiologic, and anatomic examinations showed osseous malformations including dislocation of radius and carpometacarpus with abnormal nonfunctional fixation of ligamentum propatagialis, absence of most parts of the bones of the manus in both wings, and twisted nonfused left tarsometatarsus with marked griphosis of digits. Routine toxicologic and pathologic examinations did not reveal a specific etiology. PMID:14562912

  19. Physiological and fitness correlates of experimentally altered hatching asynchrony magnitude in chicks of a wild seabird.

    PubMed

    Merkling, Thomas; Chastel, Olivier; Blanchard, Pierrick; Trouvé, Colette; Hatch, Scott A; Danchin, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    Nest-bound chicks depend entirely on their parents for food, often leading to high sibling competition. Asynchronous hatching, resulting from the onset of incubation before clutch completion, facilitates the establishment of within-nest hierarchy, with younger chicks being subject to lower feeding and growth rates. Because social and nutritional stresses affect baseline stress hormone levels in birds, younger chicks are expected to have higher levels of corticosterone than their siblings. As previous studies showed that hatching asynchrony magnitude influences the course of sibling competition, it should also affect baseline corticosterone. We measured baseline corticosterone at age 5 days in nestling black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in 3 types of experimental broods: synchronous, asynchronous, and highly asynchronous. Sexual dimorphism takes place during chick-rearing and might also influence baseline corticosterone, we thus included chick sex in our analyses and also monitored chick growth and survival. Baseline corticosterone did not differ among A-chicks, but was higher in B-chicks from highly asynchronous broods compared with the other brood types, in line with the presumed increase in nutritional stress. In asynchronous broods, A-chicks had higher baseline corticosterone than their siblings, contrary to our expectations. We interpret that result as a cost of dominance among A-chicks. In line with previous studies, mass gain was negatively correlated with baseline corticosterone levels. We found that baseline corticosterone predicted survival in a sex-specific way. Regardless of hatching rank, males with higher baseline corticosterone suffered higher mortality, suggesting that males were more sensitive to high level of stress, independently of its cause. PMID:24380674

  20. Reduction in choroidal blood flow occurs in chicks wearing goggles that induce eye growth toward myopia

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yung-Feng; Fitzgerald, Malinda E.C.; Norton, Thomas T.; Gamlin, Paul D.R.; Hodos, William; Reiner, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Goggles that degrade the retinal image produce axial enlargement of the ocular globe and large myopic refractive errors. Many authors have assumed that visual image degradation itself leads to myopia. Hodos and co-authors have shown, however, that goggled eyes in chicks are considerably warmer than normal. Such temperature changes may either underlie or be a consequence of alterations in choroidal blood flow (CBF). Since alterations in CBF could affect eye growth, we explored the effect of monocular goggling on CBF in chicks. Plastic goggles were glued over one eye in four-day old chicks and the goggles were left in place for 12 or 14 days. Fourteen days after the goggling, CBF was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. Three groups of chicks were studied: 1) chicks with goggles for 14 days; 2) chicks with goggles for 12 days followed by no goggles for the two days; 3) age matched non-goggled chicks. A-scan ultrasonography confirmed that the visual deprivation produced vitreous chamber elongation in the goggled eye and that the degree of elongation for the goggled eye was the same for the two goggled groups. The results were : 1) blood flow in non-goggled chicks was similar in both eyes; 2) blood flow was significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks wearing goggles for 14 days- 37% of control; and 3) blood flow was still significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks whose goggles were removed two days before measurement- 51% of control. These results show that CBF is reduced by goggles that result in myopic eye growth. These findings have implications for the mechanisms underlying myopic eye growth and for the retinopathy that often attends high myopia. PMID:8482110

  1. SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN V. de.,., Nouzilly, 3i'380 Monnaie In order to decrease the toxic effects of aflatoxin and pesticides in the laying

  2. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  3. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  4. 1355SEPTEMBER 2004AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | hen radars first came into operation during

    E-print Network

    Reising, Steven C.

    1355SEPTEMBER 2004AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | W hen radars first came into operation during of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DAVIDSON AND FREDERICKSON--Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; REID--Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research

  5. www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to the career fair in a portfolio or professional folder. · Research the companies www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE 19716 I 302-831-1231 I udcareers

  6. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus development, antipredation strategy, Centrocercus urophasianus, Greater Sage-Grouse, habitat, parental

  7. Central projections of lagenar primary neurons in the chick.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Amany; Reed, Caitlyn; Maklad, Adel

    2013-10-15

    Perception of linear acceleration and head position is the function of the utricle and saccule in mammals. Nonmammalian vertebrates possess a third otolith endorgan, the macula lagena. Different functions have been ascribed to the lagena in arboreal birds, including hearing, equilibrium, homing behavior, and magnetoreception. However, no conclusive evidence on the function of the lagena in birds is currently available. The present study is aimed at providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the function of the lagena in the chicken as an example of terrestrial birds. The afferents from the lagena of chick embryos (E19) to the brainstem and cerebellum were investigated by the sensitive lipophilic tracer Neuro Vue Red in postfixed ears. The results revealed that all the main vestibular nuclei, including the tangential nucleus, received lagenar projections. No lagenar terminals were found in auditory centers, including the cochlear nuclei. In the cerebellum, the labeled terminals were found variably in all of the cerebellar nuclei. In the cerebellar cortex, the labeled fibers were found mostly in the uvula, with fewer afferents in the flocculus and paraflocculus. None was seen in the nodulus. The absence of lagenar afferent projections in auditory nuclei and the presence of a projection pattern in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum similar to that of the utricle and saccule suggest that the primary role of the lagena in the chick lies in the processing of vestibular information related to linear acceleration and static head position. PMID:23749554

  8. A STUDY OF GENERALIZED VACCINIA IN THE CHICK EMBRYO

    PubMed Central

    Buddingh, G. J.

    1936-01-01

    1. Chick embryos infected by the chorio-allantoic route with a bacteria-free strain of vaccinia virus develop a general dissemination of the virus throughout the entire organism with the exception of the central nervous system. 2. Quantitative estimation of the distribution of the virus in the various organs of the infected chick by cutaneous inoculation on the rabbit skin offers no evidence for a heightened affinity of the virus for special tissues. 3. Histological study of the lesions in the various organs demonstrates the focal character of the lesions which apparently originate as perivascular infiltrations around the smaller blood vessels. No lesions could be demonstrated in the central nervous system proper. 4. In the earlier stages of the disease Guarnieri bodies are clearly demonstrable in the cells of the epidermis and the squamous epithelium of the buccal mucosa. Inclusion bodies closely resembling Guarnieri bodies are demonstrated in all the lesions occurring in the various other organs. 5. It was not possible to demonstrate conclusively the presence of Paschen bodies in the lesions of the internal organs by the Morosow method usually used for the demonstration of these bodies in the membranal lesion. PMID:19870469

  9. Excess dietary zinc decreases tissue alpha-tocopherol in chicks.

    PubMed

    Lü, J X; Combs, G F

    1988-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the basis of the reduction in tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations by excess dietary zinc (Zn) in chicks fed purified diets. These reductions were preceded by elevations in the Zn concentrations of plasma and pancreas, and in the amylase activity of plasma and by reductions of exportable enzymes of the pancreas. Chicks fed similar levels of Zn as supplements to a non-purified diet showed no such impairments in either exocrine pancreatic function or tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Depression of feed intake and subsequent changes of concentrations of tissue lipid components by excess dietary Zn accounted for only a minor portion of the reduction of tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations were moderately correlated with tissue lipid concentrations. The rate of appearance of radioactivity from an oral dose of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol-[3,4-3H]2 in plasma was reduced by 64% by addition of 500 mg Zn/kg to the purified diet for 2 wk. These results indicate that impaired enteric absorption and/or transport of vitamin E as a consequence of Zn-induced pancreatic insufficiency is a major cause of reduced tissue concentrations of alpha-tocopherol produced by excess dietary Zn. PMID:2461440

  10. Mechanism of hen egg white lysozyme adsorption on a charged solid surface.

    PubMed

    Kubiak-Ossowska, Karina; Mulheran, Paul A

    2010-10-19

    The mechanism of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) adsorption on a negatively charged, hydrophilic surface has been studied using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Sixteen 90 ns trajectories provide adequate data to allow a detailed description of the adsorption process to be formulated. Two distinct adsorption sites have been identified. The main one is located on the N,C-terminal protein face and comprises Arg128 (the crucial one), supplemented by Arg125, Arg5, and Lys1; the minor one is used accidentally and contains only Arg68. Adsorption of this protein is driven by electrostatics, where the orientation of the protein dipole moment defines the direction of protein movement. The diffusion range on the surface depends on protein side-chain penetration through the surface water layers. This is facilitated by the long-range electric field of the charged surface, which can align polar side chains to be perpendicular to the surface. A simulation of adsorption onto a neutral ionic surface shows no such surface water layer penetration. Therefore, protein flexibility is seen to be an important factor, and to adsorb the HEWL has to adjust its structure. Nevertheless, at a flat surface only a slight loss of ?-helical content is required. The adsorbed HEWL molecule is oriented between side-on and end-on ways, where the angle between the protein long axis (which mostly approximates the dipole moment) and the surface varies between 45° and 90°. Simulations with targeted mutations confirm the picture that emerges from these studies. The active site is located on the opposite face to the main adsorption site; hence, the activity of the immobilized HEWL should not be affected by the surface interactions. Our results provide a detailed insight into the adsorption mechanism and protein mobility at the surface. This knowledge will aid the proper interpretation of experimental results and the design of new experiments and functional systems. PMID:20873744

  11. Effects of selected enzyme inhibitors on blood and eggshell parameters in the laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Long, Jody Renee

    1987-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARAMETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fullfilment of the requirement for the degree... of Committee) @q ~ y. g~p( A. Naqi (Member) C. R. cger (Head of De rtment) C. R. cger (Hember) December 1987 ABSTRACT Effects of Selected Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood and Eggshell Parameters in the Laying Hen. (December, 1987) Jody R. Long, B. S...

  12. Nickel-induced blood biochemistry alterations in hens after an experimental peroral administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Kolesarova; Marcela Capcarova; Henrieta Arpasova; Anna Kalafova; Peter Massanyi; Norbert Lukac; Jaroslav Kovacik; Monika Schneidgenova

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine certain blood biochemical parameters in hens of Isa Brown breed (n = 20) after nickel administration. Animals were divided into four groups (K, P1, P2, P3). Experimental hens (n = 5; in each group) received nickel (NiCl2) as peroral administration in drinking water in various doses (P1 – 0.02 g NiCl2\\/L; P2

  13. Research Note The Immunomodulatory Effects of Clonidine, an ?-2Adrenergic Agonist, in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Cheng

    The ability of the sympathetic nervous sys- tem to regulate chicken immune function was examined. Clonidine,an ?-2adrenergicreceptoragonist,wasadmin- istrated at 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg\\/L in the drinking water of White Leghorn hens at 48 wk of age. The hens were randomly housed in conventional cages in pairs. Concen- trations of plasma IgG (also named IgY) were detected usingchicken IgGELISA,and thepercentage

  14. Research Note Phytase Effects on Amino Acid Digestibility in Molted Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Snow; M. W. Douglas; C. M. Parsons

    Two hundred sixteen previously molted Dekalb Delta Leghorn laying hens (78 wk of age) were utilized to determine the effect of phytase on the ileal digestibility of amino acids. The hens were randomly arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial to evaluate three diet types that were corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), C-SBM-meat and bone meal (C-SBM-MBM), and C-SBM-wheat middlings (C-SBM-WM) and

  15. Perch Arrangements in Small-Group Furnished Cages for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wall; R. Tauson

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2 trials, including 2,768 birds in total, 3 different perch arrangements were evaluated in furnished 8-hen cages for laying hens. The hybrids used were Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown in trial 1 and Hy-Line White and Hy-Line Brown in trial 2. The furnished cages were identical in all other respects than the arrangement of perches. A perch

  16. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery. PMID:21753218

  17. The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes

    E-print Network

    Burns, Robert Paul

    1978-01-01

    (Pagan, 1969) . Pagan (1969) noted that spawned eggs fall through floating cages, unfertilized; he reported that cage culture was efficient in producing more fish per unit volume than ponds, though little use has been made of cage culture by tilapia... of unfertilized pond waters. The remaining three ponds depicted in Figure 9 (p. 49) (fertilized by 50, 100, and 200 laying hens, respectively), presented a step-wise increase in phosphate level with increased laying hen wastes. Alkalinity and Hardness...

  18. Effect of cross-wise perch designs on perch use in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; E. Van Poucke; L. Duchateau; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck; F. A. M. Tuyttens

    2008-01-01

    1.?The use of cross-wise perches by laying hens was investigated in 8 groups of 6 hens. During a period of 5 weeks each group was exposed to 4 different perch arrangements: a single straight perch of 60 cm (P60), a 30-cm perch crossing the middle of another 30-cm perch (P30?+?30), crossing a 45-cm (P45?+?30) or crossing a 60-cm perch (P60?+?30).2.?Perch

  19. Amyloid fibrillation of hen egg-white lysozyme is inhibited by TCEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven S.-S. Wang; Kuan-Nan Liu; Yen-Chun Lu

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the inhibitory effect of TCEP on the in vitro fibrillation of hen lysozyme at pH 2. We demonstrate that the inhibition of hen lysozyme fibrillation by TCEP follows a dose-dependent manner. Our data show that the addition of TCEP prevents ?-to-? transition and promoted unfolding of lysozyme. Moreover, our findings suggested that the TCEP-induced attenuated fibrillation is

  20. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  1. Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.

    PubMed

    Tjørve, Kathleen M C; Underhill, Leslie G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Chicks with small growth rate coefficients for body mass exhibited retarded growth of all body measures except wing length. This enabled these chicks to fledge in a shorter period of time than their slow growth would otherwise allow. The growth rate of body mass was observed to vary greatly between chicks. Fast-growing African black oystercatchers had a shorter pre-fledging period; were larger at fledging and were more likely to fledge successfully. African black oystercatchers display sibling rivalry, and once a dominance relationship is established, the larger chick remains so during the pre-fledging period. Larger siblings fledged earlier and at a heavier mass than the smaller siblings and this may improve their chances of survival. Neither hatching date nor brood size influenced the growth rate coefficients. PMID:18838259

  2. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G G; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  3. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  4. Inversion of contrast polarity abolishes spontaneous preferences for face-like stimuli in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    A spontaneous preference for face-like stimuli has been demonstrated in domestic chicks, similar to that shown by human newborns, suggesting evolutionary continuity across species. Inversion of contrast polarity of face-like stimuli abolishes face preferences in human newborns. Here we investigated the effects of contrast polarity inversion and brain lateralization in chicks' preferences for faces. In Experiment 1 face-naïve chicks were tested with a negative face obtained from a stimulus that elicited preferential approach in previous research. As in human newborns, reversal of contrast polarity abolished face-preferences. Experiments 2, 3 and 5 investigated the effect of adding a pupil-like dot within the inner features of the negative and of positive stimuli (a manipulation that re-established face-preference in human newborns). Chicks reacted to this by avoiding the face stimulus. In Experiments 4 and 6 we found that the preference expressed by chicks having only their left eye (right hemisphere) in use changed according to contrast polarity, whereas it remained unaffected in chicks having their right eye in use. Thus, in domestic chicks, as in human beings, a stimulus is perceived as face-like only if it presents the correct luminance pattern expected for a face under natural top-lit illumination and the right hemisphere seems to play a crucial role in this kind of social orienting responses. PMID:22155610

  5. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  6. Glucocorticoid-lnduced Cataract of the Developing Chick Embryo – Prevention by Propylene Glycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Nishigori; Jung W. Lee; Motoharu Iwatsuru

    1995-01-01

    When 0.25 ?mol of hydrocortisone succinate sodium (HC) was administered to 15-day-old hen’s fertile eggs, almost all lenses of the embryos became cataractous with stages IV-V ( > 90%) 48 h after the treatment. However, a triple application of propylene glycol (1.5 mmol\\/egg) at 3, 10 and 20 h after HC treatment effectively prevented the HC-induced cataract formation (I: 84%,

  7. Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K

    2013-07-01

    The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development. PMID:24665397

  8. Individual variation in field metabolic rate of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the chick-rearing period.

    PubMed

    Fyhn, M; Gabrielsen, G W; Nordøy, E S; Moe, B; Langseth, I; Bech, C

    2001-01-01

    Field metabolic rate (FMR), using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, was measured in free-ranging adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) early and late in the chick-rearing period at Svalbard, Norway. Individual variation in FMR was analysed by comparing FMR with body mass, sex, nest attendance, chick age, brood size, and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Mean FMR of kittiwakes during the chick-rearing period was 27.0+/-0.9 (SE) W kg(-1), while the individual variation (calculated as coefficient of variation [CV]) in FMR was 24%. Sex, time spent away from the nest, age of the chicks, and brood size contributed significantly to FMR and explained 65% of the variation in FMR. The FMR increased by 32% from early until late in the chick-rearing period. This occurred simultaneously with an increase in the time spent away from the nest. In 15 of 20 pairs, one of the mates had 15% or higher (mean of the 15 pairs, 22%+/-8%) FMR (W kg(-1)) than their partner, even though the mates spent equal amounts of time away from the nest. This indicates an intrapair conflict in FMR. The variation in total FMR of pairs was 40% less than the individual variation, and total FMR of pairs increased with age of the chicks. This indicates that the mates adjust their energy expenditure within a relatively constant FMR determined by the energy needs of the chicks. Individual variation in FMR could not be explained by variation in body mass or BMR. BMR measured late in the chick-rearing period was 26% lower than previous measurements of BMR from the prebreeding and incubation periods. The increase in FMR and simultaneous decrease in BMR caused a 40% increase in metabolic intensity (FMR/BMR) of kittiwakes during the chick-rearing period. It is suggested that the metabolic intensity is not a proper measure of the metabolic load in seabirds. PMID:11331506

  9. Social Facilitation Revisited: Increase in Foraging Efforts and Synchronization of Running in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation. PMID:21811436

  10. Social facilitation revisited: increase in foraging efforts and synchronization of running in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation. PMID:21811436

  11. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Shang; T. M. Hu; Y. J. Lu; H. X. Wu

    2010-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial.2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced

  12. Effect of adding extracted hesperetin, naringenin and pectin on egg cholesterol, serum traits and antioxidant activity in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tu Fa Lien; Hui Shuang Yeh; Wu Tien Su

    2008-01-01

    In this study three feed additives (hesperetin, naringenin and pectin) for laying hens were investigated on their influence on the egg yolk cholesterol, serum traits and antioxidant activities in hens. Additives were extracted from citrus and grapefruit peels and contained 31.5% crude hesperetin, 39% crude naringenin and 60% galacturonic acid (pectin). Eighty 30-week-old Leghorn laying hens were randomly assigned to

  13. A probabilistic model of the spatial patterning of pecking in birds : Pilot study with young chicks.

    PubMed

    Bovet, P; Vauclair, J

    1985-11-01

    The pecking behaviour of young chicks (Gallus gallus ) is studied in a situation involving several equivalent targets (mealworms). The question is raised whether the successive pecks are randomly distributed or whether they follow a systematic order based on the spatial arrangement of the targets. Data collected with one-week-old chicks indicate that pecking is compatible with a probabilistic model where the probability to peck at a given place is inversely proportional to the energy used for this particular peck. Pecking by chicks is interpreted as a functional compromise between random sampling and optimal exploitation of the environment. PMID:24896695

  14. Effects of Mycotoxin Contaminated Diets on Immunosuppression or Interference with Other Physiological Parameters in Commercial-Strain Laying Chicks, Pullets or Hens 

    E-print Network

    Iselt, Stephanie Mae

    2013-04-08

    inclusion in body weights. Following necropsies (d 35 and 65), relative liver weights and histopathological liver tissue damage were increased (Pfed high toxin diets when compared to control and low toxin diets. Relative kidney weights...

  15. The effect of the age of a hen on fertility and hatchability of eggs and on livability and growth of chicks 

    E-print Network

    Crossland, Aubrey Lee

    1935-01-01

    that, the age of the ben is uot associated with the 47 gaia of the c!'cks dulong the fi-"'t ~ght weeks of tho which's life~ This statAg4llt is cootradic1AC hf BolLMG (19M) l&g 55giGg that ~&a fwa older hcus grow faster ~isg t'?eir carboy Dfe ~G...

  16. Receptive properties of embryonic chick sensory neurons innervating skin.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, M; Lewin, G R

    1997-11-01

    Receptive properties of embryonic chick sensory neurons innervating skin. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2560-2568, 1997. We describe a new in vitro skin-nerve preparation from chick embryos that allows detailed study of the functional properties of developing sensory neurons innervating skin. Functionally single sensory afferents were isolated by recording from their axons in microdissected filaments of the cutaneous femoralis medialis nerve, which innervates skin of the thigh. A total of 157 single neurons were characterized from embryos [embryonic days 17-21 (E17-E21), n = 115] and hatchlings up to 3 wk old (n = 42). Neurons were initially classified on the basis of their conduction velocity; those conducting below 1.0 m/s were being classified as C fibers and faster conducting fibers as A fibers. The proportions of A and C fibers encountered in embryonic and hatchling preparations were not very different, indicating that myelination and axon growth proceeds quite slowly over the period studied. Afferent fibers that could subserve nociceptive and nonnociceptive functions were identified in the time period studied. Subpopulations of low-threshold myelinated afferent units exhibited rapidly or slowly adapting discharges to constant force stimuli and could have tactile functions. Many afferent fibers responded to noxious heat and were excited and sensitized by exposure to inflammatory mediators, suggesting that they are nociceptors. The behavior of these units changed in several respects over the period studied. The discharge of C fibers to noxious heat increased with age as did their mechanical thresholds. A substantial population of heat-responsive neurons (34% of the A fibers) present in embryos were not encountered in hatchling chicks. This indicates that substantial changes in the physiological response properties of sensory afferents occur after hatching. We conclude that this new preparation can be used for quantitative assessment of the receptive properties of developing sensory neurons and has considerable potential for the investigation of factors, such as neurotrophins, that specify and influence the functional phenotype of sensory neurons during embryonic development in vivo. PMID:9356405

  17. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  18. Effects of high and low erucic acid rapeseed oils on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function of the chick.

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Innis, S M; Clandinin, M T

    1979-03-01

    Duplicate experiments were conducted to compare energy utilization, growth, cardiac mitochondrial oxidative phosphoryl,tion, and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid composition of chicks fed diets containing 20 parts of high erucic acid rapeseed oil (HER), low erucic acid rapeseed oil (LER) or sunflower seed oil (SFO) for 24 days. Chicks fed diets containing HER deposited less fat and utilized energy less efficiently (kcal gained/kcal consumed) than chicks fed diets containing either LER or SFO. Energetic efficiency and fat deposition of chicks pair-fed diets containing LER were significantly lower than for chicks fed diets containing SFO. Cardiac mitochondria isolated from chicks fed diets containing either HER or LER for 24 days had significantly reduced ADP/O ratios and reduced rates of ATP synthesis utilizing pyruvate and malate as the respiratory substrates when compared with mitochondria isolated from chicks fed SFO. Diet induced transitions in fatty acid composition of cardiac mitochondrial membranes were also observed. The composition of fat ingested affected the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial diphosphatidyl glycerol more than the fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl choline or phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The linoleic acid content of mitochondrial diphosphatidyl glycerol was lower and the gadoleic acid and erucic acid content higher for chicks fed diets containing rapeseed oils than for chicks fed SFO containing diets. These studies indicate that a complex dynamic mechanism exists associating dietary fat with mitochondrial structural-functional changes and energetic efficiency in the growing chick. PMID:430239

  19. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  20. Morphological properties of tectal neurons that project to the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis (GLv) and the surrounding ventral thalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Hu, M; Takayanagi, M; Naito, J

    2014-02-01

    Layer 10 neurons of the chick tectum were morphologically investigated. The layer 10 neurons displayed heterogeneous immunoreactivities to calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs). Calbindin (CB)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons had pyramidal or round somata, primarily found in layers 5, 9, and 13. Parvalbumin (PV)-ir neurons were of various shapes with small to large somata (109.7±48.6?m(2)) that were located mainly in layers 4 and 10. Calretinin (CR)-ir neurons had small to middle-sized somata (79.3±9.7?m(2)) located primarily in layers 10 and 13, and most of them were similar to typical radial cells in size and shape. Two distinct types of neurons that projected to the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis (GLv) and ventral thalamus were demonstrated in layer 10. Type 1 cells had small to middle-sized somata (74.3±33?m(2)), and each cell had a single apical dendrite that ramified into bush-like branches in layer 7. These cells corresponded to CR-ir neurons and radial cells in size and shape. Type 2 cells had larger somata (124.7±52.6?m(2)), and their shapes were pyramidal, polygonal, or oval. They had multiple obliquely ascending dendrites that ramified into bush-like branches in layer 7. These cells often appeared similar to PV-ir neurons. PMID:24411713

  1. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n?=?120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1?ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20?mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1?ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20?mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20?mg/kg showed significantly (P???0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P???0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P???0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P???0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P???0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks. PMID:26071807

  2. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Wilson, L K; Henny, C J; Trudeau, S F; Leighton, F A; Kennedy, S W; Cheng, K M

    2001-04-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects. PMID:11345464

  3. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ? 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fc?3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ? 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens. PMID:25436390

  4. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  5. Ontogeny of heterophil function in neonatal chicks by administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines 

    E-print Network

    Genovese, Lacy Lynne

    1998-01-01

    whether decreased heterophil function plays a role in the susceptibility of young chicks to Salmonella infections. Results demonstrated the ability of the heterophil to phagocytose Salmonella enteritidis did not change on Day 1 or Day 4, but then doubled...

  6. Ontogeny of chick responses to maternal food calls in the Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus).

    PubMed

    Moffatt, C A; Hogan, J A

    1992-03-01

    Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) chicks were reinforced at 5 days old with a mealworm at the end of a runaway in the presence of a maternal food call. Two food calls were used, one made to a highly preferred food item (a mealworm) and one made to a less preferred food item (chick crumbs). Chicks initially approached the food call made to the mealworm faster regardless of reinforcement contingencies, but by the 3rd day of training chicks responded faster to the call that was reinforced. These results indicate that functional experience can modify preexisting response tendencies to food-calling stimuli. We discuss the implications of these results for the interpretation of published accounts that chickens use food calls deceptively. PMID:1555403

  7. Distribution of Glial-Associated Proteins in the Developing Chick Auditory Brainstem

    E-print Network

    Cramer, Karina

    of the chick auditory brainstem using glial-specific antibodies and histological markers. We found- lowing the onset of synaptogenesis, but before pruning and maturation. The dynamic, nonoverlapping expres

  8. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  9. From woman to chick: the rhetorical evolution of women in american film 

    E-print Network

    Day, Danya Rhae

    2009-05-15

    Throughout its history, the American film industry has produced films about women and for women, and three distinct phases may be identified within it: the “woman’s film,” the “new” woman’s film, and the “chick flick.” I ...

  10. Comparison of Trace Element Concentrations Between Chick and Adult Black-Tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-06-01

    Trace elements were measured in the feathers of black-tailed gull chicks (n = 10) and adults (n = 10) collected at Chilsando Is., Jeollanam-do, Korea, in June 2011. Pb, Mn and Fe were significantly greater in adult (arithmetic mean 2.02, 3.81, 92.1 ?g/g dw, respectively) than chick (0.74, 2.14, 68.7 ?g/g dw) gulls. In contrast, Zn was greater in chicks (74.9 ?g/g dw) than adults (46.5 ?g/g dw). Cd, Pb and Cr in all chicks and adults were lower than an approximate threshold level for toxic effects. Cd, Pb and Cr were comparable or lower than reported in other gull studies worldwide. Essential elements including Al, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe were within the background and normal physiological levels reported earlier in other gull species including black-tailed gulls. PMID:25899571

  11. Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  12. Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of hen egg white proteins during early phase of embryonic development by combinatorial peptide ligand library and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijun; Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu

    2013-07-01

    Little is known regarding the diversification of relative low-abundance proteins in hen egg white that underlie the process of chicken embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to identify changes that may be involved in the development of chick embryos. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducive to revealing the potential biological function of low-abundance proteins and embryonic development demand. In addition, those proteins that are increased in abundance seem to have advantages to be targeted as new biomarkers for animal disease or animal production. However, the huge disparity in abundance in chicken egg white and poor performance of affinity depletion methods were specific challenges. This study applied combinatorial peptide ligand library for expanding the deep proteomics. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed with the hen embryo egg white, which was obtained from embryos at d 0 and 7. The protein spots showing significant increases were selected for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (2 mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry). Many precursors were identified as strongly increased after 7 d of incubation. They were ovoinhibitor precursor, clusterin precursor, apolipoprotein D precursor, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor. Moreover, clusterin precursor were observed concentrated in 2 regions: one is the range of molecular weight increase and the other is the range of high pH. In addition, ovalbumin and ovotransferrin were observed in high pH area in a 2-DE map. These findings will give insight into the changes in fertilized egg white proteins during hatching and provide a better understanding of the biochemical changes in the egg development process. PMID:23776278

  14. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished and Battery Cages on Egg Production and Physiological Parameters of White Leghorn Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in a species-special “natural” or “near to natural” environment. This study was to examine if housing environment, furnished cages vs. battery cages, causes a similar impact on well-being in laying hens. One hundred seventy-two, on...

  15. Effect of Added Extra Calcium Carbonate into the Diets, One Hour Before Starting Dark Period on Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the effect of four levels of extra calcium carbonate as limestone (0, 1, 2 and 3 g\\/hen\\/day, laying hen size, 3-4 mm) in a finished standard diets of laying hens, one hour before starting dark period, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens, 85 weeks of age (after force molting) were selected and tested in a completely randomized

  16. Disposition kinetics of albendazole and metabolites in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

    2013-04-01

    An increasing prevalence of roundworm parasites in poultry, particularly in litter-based housing systems, has been reported. However, few anthelmintic drugs are commercially available for use in avian production systems. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) in poultry has been demonstrated well. The goal of this work was to characterize the ABZ and metabolites plasma disposition kinetics after treatment with different administration routes in laying hens. Twenty-four laying hens Plymouth Rock Barrada were distributed into three groups and treated with ABZ as follows: intravenously at 10 mg/kg (ABZ i.v.); orally at the same dose (ABZ oral); and in medicated feed at 10 mg/kg·day for 7 days (ABZ feed). Blood samples were taken up to 48 h posttreatment (ABZ i.v. and ABZ oral) and up to 10 days poststart feed medication (ABZ feed). The collected plasma samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZ and its albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and ABZSO2 metabolites were recovered in plasma after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ parent compound showed an initial concentration of 16.4 ± 2.0 ?g/mL, being rapidly metabolized into the ABZSO and ABZSO2 metabolites. The ABZSO maximum concentration (Cmax ) (3.10 ± 0.78 ?g/mL) was higher than that of ABZSO2 Cmax (0.34 ± 0.05 ?g/mL). The area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) for ABZSO (21.9 ± 3.6 ?g·h/mL) was higher than that observed for ABZSO2 and ABZ (7.80 ± 1.02 and 12.0 ± 1.6 ?g·h/mL, respectively). The ABZ body clearance (Cl) was 0.88 ± 0.11 L·h/kg with an elimination half-life (T1/2el ) of 3.47 ± 0.73 h. The T1/2el for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 6.36 ± 1.50 and 5.40 ± 1.90 h, respectively. After ABZ oral administration, low ABZ plasma concentrations were measured between 0.5 and 3 h posttreatment. ABZ was rapidly metabolized to ABZSO (Cmax , 1.71 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and ABZSO2 (Cmax , 0.43 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). The metabolite systemic exposure (AUC) values were 18.6 ± 2.0 and 10.6 ± 0.9 ?g·h/mL for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively. The half-life values after ABZ oral were similar (5.91 ± 0.60 and 5.57 ± 1.19 h for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively) to those obtained after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ was not recovered from the bloodstream after ABZ feed administration. AUC values of ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 61.9 and 92.4 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The work reported here provides useful information on the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ after both i.v. and oral administrations in hens, which is a useful first step to evaluate its potential as an anthelmintic tool for use in poultry. PMID:22533477

  17. The heat increment of feeding in house wren chicks: magnitude, duration, and substitution for thermostatic costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark. A. Chappell; Gwendolyn C. Bachman; Kimberly A. Hammond

    1997-01-01

    The heat increment of feeding (HIF), a transient postprandial increase in metabolic rate, is the energy cost of processing\\u000a a meal. We measured HIF in house wren chicks (Troglodytes aedon) ranging in mass from 1.6 to 10.3?g. This mass range (age 2–10 days) spanned a transition from blind, naked, ectothermic\\u000a chicks through alert, endothermic birds with nearly complete feathering. We

  18. EFFECTS OF GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL INSECTICIDES ON SURVIVAL AND BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE OF PHEASANT (PHASIANUS COLCHICUS) CHICKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela A. Martin; Daniel L. Johnson; Douglas J. Forsyth

    1996-01-01

    Ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) chicks were exposed via contact and\\/or ingestion to formulations of three insecticides (Lorsban 4E, chlorpyrifos; Cygon 480E, dimethoate; and Furadan 480F, carbofuran) applied to pasture plots at one and four times the rate recommended for control of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in prairie Canada. Chicks (3 d old) were exposed for 48 h in pens with

  19. Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Utilization of Phytate Phosphorus by Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. NELSON; T. R. SHIEH; R. J. WODZINSKI

    Chicks were used to determine whether the addition of a mold phytase to a diet containing natural phytate phosphorus causçdthe phosphorus in the phytate to be hydrolyzed in vivo to a form which could be utilized by the chick. Phytase, produced by Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135, was fed as an ace tone-dried preparation. The diets contained from 0.18 to 0.24%

  20. Evidence for a receptor for ceruloplasmin on chick aortic and heart cell membranes

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Michael Duane

    1982-01-01

    SOA into copper-deficient chicks elevated the cerulo- plasmin and led to enhanced activity of lysyl oxidase in aortic tis- sue. A system for studying lysyl oxidase activation in vitro sug- gested serum proteins may be responsible for activation. Other studies... OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS. page Vl Vl1 Viii 1. X Animals Preparation of Aortic and Heart Membranes Purification of Chick Ceruloplasmin Iodination of Ceruloplasmin Binding Studies Purification of Glycoproteins...

  1. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kitaysky; J. F. Piatt; J. C. Wingfield; M. Romano

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissatridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of\\u000a their food. Starting at the age of 10?days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum\\u000a energy intake. After 20?days

  2. Appearance of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in noninnervated cultured primary chick muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Popiela; Robert L. Beach; Barry W. Festoff

    1983-01-01

    1.Asymmetric forms of AChE have generally not been detected in cultured chick skeletal muscle cells in the absence of cocultured neurons. To explore further neurotrophic effects of adult peripheral nerve extracts (NE) on musclein vitro, we reexamined the appearance of various molecular forms of AChE in cultured chick muscle cells in the presence of NE.2.The various molecular forms of AChE

  3. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of coniine-induced teratogenesis between these two species. PMID:9001585

  4. Effects of methylmercury exposure on the behavior of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.

    PubMed

    Kenow, Kevin P; Hines, Randy K; Meyer, Michael W; Suarez, Sarah A; Gray, Brian R

    2010-06-01

    Behavioral effects resulting from exposure to dietary methylmercury (MeHg) have been reported in studies of several wildlife species. However, quantifying the impact of contaminant exposure on wild populations is complicated by the confounding effects of other environmental stressors. We controlled confounding stressors in a laboratory study to quantify the level of dietary MeHg exposure associated with negative effects on the fitness of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. We evaluated the effect of MeHg on loon chick behavior by employing several assays, including measures of righting reflexes, responsiveness to taped parental calls, reaction to frightening stimuli, and estimates of time activity budgets. Evidence suggested that as chicks aged, those exposed to nominal dietary dose levels of 0.4 and 1.2 microg Hg/g wet-weight in food (average estimated delivered dietary level of 0.55 and 1.94 microg Hg/g, respectively) were less likely (p < 0.01) to right themselves after being positioned on their backs during outdoor trials (> or =37 days old) compared to chicks on the control diet. We detected differences (p < 0.05) in several response variables with respect to source of eggs. Chicks from nests on low-pH lakes tended to spend more time on resting platforms, spent less time in the shade, were more likely to walk across a platform upon release and do it quicker, were less responsive to a frightening stimulus, and exhibited less intense response to parental wail calls than did chicks from neutral pH-lakes. Rapid MeHg excretion during feather growth likely provides loon chicks protection from MeHg toxicity and may explain the lack of behavioral differences with dietary intake. Lake source effects suggest that in ovo exposure to MeHg or other factors related to lake pH have consequences on chick behavior. PMID:20217222

  5. Studies on the role of iron in the reversal of vanadium toxicity in chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Blalock; C. H. Hill

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of dietary iron levels on vanadium toxicity was studied in chicks. Dietary iron levels ranged from a deficiency,\\u000a ca. 10 ppm, to an adequacy, 100 ppm supplemental iron. to an excess, 1000 ppm supplemental iron. Vanadium was fed at 10, 20,\\u000a and 40 ppm. Vanadium toxicity as measured by chick growth was more severe in the iron-deficient animals

  6. The Influence of Diet on Mercury Intake by Little Tern Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitor H. Paiva; Paula C. Tavares; Jaime A. Ramos; Eduarda Pereira; Sandra Antunes; Armando C. Duarte

    2008-01-01

    We assessed mercury levels in the feathers of little tern (Sternula albifrons) chicks from hatching to fledging and in their prey captured by adults in three main foraging habitats: lagoon, salinas,\\u000a and adjacent sea. These data were used to model mercury concentration in chick feathers through food ingestion, in order to\\u000a explore the effects that changes in diet would have

  7. Estrogen modulates the expression of L?arginine:glycine amidinotransferase in chick liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunfeng Zhu; Marilyn I. Evans

    2001-01-01

    Identification of estrogen-responsive genes is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to screen estrogen-responsive genes in chick liver. A single injection of estrogen into 6-week-old chick induced up-regulation of several known genes encoded for yolk proteins, such as Vitellogenin I and II and very low density lipoprotein II (apo-VLDL II). One novel

  8. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories. PMID:17681433

  9. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:23428720

  10. Expression of class I histone deacetylases during chick and mouse development

    PubMed Central

    MURKO, CHRISTINA; LAGGER, SABINE; STEINER, MARIANNE; SEISER, CHRISTIAN; SCHOEFER, CHRISTIAN; PUSCH, OLIVER

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes which regulate the acetylation state of nucleosomal histones, as well as non-histone proteins. By altering local chromatin architecture, HDACs play important roles in shaping cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Expression of class I HDACs during early chick development has so far not been analyzed. Here, we report the expression profile of chick class I HDACs from the onset of gastrulation (HH2) to day 4 of development and compare it to relevant stages during mouse development. Visualized by in situ hybridization to whole mount embryos and tissue sections, we found tissue-specific overlapping temporal and spatial expression domains for all four class I HDACs in chick and mouse, although species-specific differences could be identified. All class I HDACs in both species are highly expressed in the developing brain. In particular, HDAC1 is expressed at sites of anterior and posterior neural tube closure most obvious in the hot spot-like expression of HDAC1 in HH12 chicken embryos. A significant species-specific spatio-temporal expression pattern was observed for HDAC8. Whereas HDAC8 is exclusively found in fore- and midbrain regions during early mouse embryogenesis, the chick ortholog shows an expanded expression pattern, suggesting a more diversified role of HDAC8 in the chick system. Our results present a basis for further functional analysis of class I HDACs in chick development. PMID:20979029

  11. Is Mullerian-inhibiting substance a circulating hormone in the chick-quail chimera?

    PubMed

    Hutson, J M; Donahoe, P K

    1983-10-01

    Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein from the fetal testis which causes regression of the embryonic Mullerian duct. It was thought to be a locally acting agent, because in the true hermaphrodite, a Fallopian tube remains on the side contralateral to that bearing a testis, but is absent on the side adjacent to the testis. To test whether Mullerian duct regression could occur at a distant site, the chick-quail chimera was used. Chick embryos were maintained in shell-less culture from 3-14 days of incubation. At 7-9 days of incubation, a chick/quail chimera was created by grafting a quail Mullerian duct into the eye of the chick. Three or four days later, the eye was enucleated and histologically examined using the Feulgen reaction or a modification of this technique. Under these conditions, the quail cell nuclei could be readily identified, allowing absolute identification of the cells around the graft. Twenty-three female chick hosts received grafts; of the 17 grafts recovered, 16 were developing normally. In 16 male chicks receiving grafts, 10 Mullerian ducts were recovered, with 9 of these showing clear signs of regression, such as basement membrane dissolution, condensation of mesenchyme, diminution of epithelial tube size, and thinning of mesenchymal cuff. These results suggest that MIS reached the quail duct in the eye and was functionally active. This model suggests that MIS may be a true endocrine testicular secretion. PMID:6688583

  12. Uncomplicated selenium deficiency produced in chicks fed a corn-soy-based diet.

    PubMed

    Combs, G F; Liu, C H; Lu, Z H; Su, Q

    1984-05-01

    Day-old chicks were fed a practical-type diet based on corn- and soybean meal produced in a severely Se-deficient area of northeastern China. The diet contained 0.007 ppm Se and resulted in marked decreases in the activities of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase in plasma and pancreas within 6 days of feeding. Chicks fed this basal diet showed histological signs of acinar atrophy of the pancreas, hyaline body formation, vacuolation and cytoplasmic shrinkage by 18 days and significantly elevated activities of amylase in plasma by 30 days. Each of these changes was prevented by supplementing the basal diet with Se to bring it to a level of 0.20 ppm. Chicks fed a Se-deficient purified diet based on crystalline amino acids also showed decreased Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities in plasma and pancreas, pancreatic damage as evidenced by histological examination and increases in plasma amylase activities. However, these signs of nutritionally induced pancreatic atrophy occurred sooner and were of greater magnitude than those observed in Se-deficient chicks fed the practical diet within the 30-day experimental period. These results, therefore, constitute the first report of nutritionally induced pancreatic atrophy in Se-deficient chicks fed a diet containing intact protein, and we suggest that a factor(s) associated with the practical diet acts to partially protect the chicks from this pathological consequence of severe Se deficiency. PMID:6202860

  13. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  14. Respiratory epithelium, production performance and behaviour of formaldehyde-exposed broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, I; Fauziah, O; Omar, A R; Shaipullizan, S; Siti Selina, A H

    1999-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde vaporization of a hatcher on the tracheal epithelium of chick embryos, and on the production performance and behaviour of commercial broiler chicks. In experiment 1, chick embryos were exposed to 23.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour during the last 3 days of incubation. Tracheal samples were taken at 0, 6, 30 and 54 h after exposure to formaldehyde and examined by scanning electron microscopy for pathological changes. Observable lesions included excessive accumulation of mucus, matted cilia, loss of cilia and sloughing of the epithelium. The lesions were more severe in chicks exposed for 54 h as compared to those exposed for 6 or 30 h. In experiment 2, 60 chicks that had been exposed to formaldehyde vapour as above and 60 control chicks were used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde fumigation on production performance and behaviour. Formaldehyde vaporization resulted in higher weekly (days 0-6 and 21-27) and total (days 0-41) feed intake and poorer weekly (days 0-6, 7-13, 21-27 and 28-34) and overall (days 0-41) feed conversion ratios. Body weight, mortality and behaviour (eating, drinking, sitting and standing activities) were not affected by formaldehyde fumigation. PMID:10359153

  15. Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in Cecal Contents of Laying Hens Fed Various Molting Diets Using Bacterial Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laying hens are typically induced to molt in order to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12-14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella Enteriditis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes ...

  16. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    PubMed

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible cost. PMID:18753437

  17. Variability and possible rapid evolution of the hot post-AGB stars Hen 3-1347, Hen 3-1428, and LSS 4634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Komissarova, G. V.; Tekola, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for three hot southern-hemisphere post-AGB objects, Hen 3-1347 = IRAS 17074-1845, Hen 3-1428 = IRAS 17311-4924, and LSS 4634 = IRAS 18023-3409. In the spectrograms taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in 2012, we have measured the equivalent widths of the most prominent spectral lines. Comparison of the new data with those published previously points to a change in the spectra of Hen 3-1428 and LSS 4634 in the last 20 years. Based on ASAS data, we have detected rapid photometric variability in all three stars with an amplitude up to 0{·/ m }3-0{·/ m }4 in the V band. A similarity between the patterns of variability for the sample stars and other hot protoplanetary nebulae is pointed out. We present the results of UBV observations for Hen 3-1347, according to which the star undergoes rapid irregular brightness variations with maximum amplitudes ? V = 0{·/ m }25, ? B = 0{·/ m }25, and ? U = 0{·/ m }30 and shows color-magnitude correlations. Based on archival data, we have traced the photometric history of the stars over more than 100 years. Hen 3-1347 and LSS 4634 have exhibited a significant fading on a long time scale. The revealed brightness and spectrum variations in the stars, along with evidence for their enhanced mass, may be indicative of their rapid post-AGB evolution.

  18. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2015-03-10

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens negatively impact egg production and cause egg contamination. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H5N2 HPAIV. However, Asian H5N1 HPAIV infection has some characteristics of increased pathogenicity compared to other H5 HPAIV such as more rapid drop and complete cessation in egg production. Sham (vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age), inactivated H5N1 Once (1X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 28 weeks of age only) and inactivated H5N1 Twice (2X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age) vaccinated adult White Leghorn hens were challenged intranasally at 31 weeks of age with 6.1 log10 mean embryo infectious doses (EID50) of clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 HPAIV (A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-675/2011) which was homologous to the inactivated vaccine. Sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality within 3 days post-challenge; laid soft and thin-shelled eggs; had recovery of virus from oral swabs and in 53% of the eggs from eggshell surface (35%), yolk (24%), and albumin (41%); and had very high titers of virus (average 7.91 log10 EID50/g) in all segments of the oviduct and ovary. By comparison, 1X- and 2X-H5-Vax challenged hens survived infection, laid similar number of eggs pre- and post-challenge, all eggs had normal egg shell quality, and had significantly fewer contaminated eggs with reduced virus quantity. The 2X-H5-Vax hens had significantly higher HI titers by the day of challenge (304 GMT) and at termination (512 GMT) than 1X-H5-Vax hens (45 GMT and 128 GMT). The current study demonstrated that AIV infections caused by clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 variants can be effectively controlled by either double or single homologous vaccination. PMID:25657093

  19. Prevalence of anti-tumor antibodies in laying hen model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Dirks, Angela L; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale B.; Bradaric, Michael J.; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibodies are associated with tumors in human cancers. There is relatively little information on the timing and progression of antibody response to tumors. The objective of the study was to determine if spontaneous ovarian cancer in the egg-laying hen is associated with anti-tumor antibodies. Antibodies were detected by immunoassay and immunoblotting using proteins from normal ovary and ovarian tumors. Candidate antigens were identified by mass spectrometry of immunoreactive spots cut from two-dimensional gels and Western Blot. Anti-tumor (serum reacting against tumor ovarian extract) and anti-ovarian (serum reacting against normal ovarian extract) antibodies were significantly associated with ovarian cancer (67%, P?0.001) compared to normal control hens. Hens with abnormal histology but no gross tumor had anti-tumor antibodies (63%, P?0.025) but not anti-ovarian antibodies. There were common as well as different immunoreactions against normal ovary, and homologous and heterologous tumor proteins in two-dimensional Western blots. The candidate antigens included those commonly associated with human cancers and other diseases such as vimentin, apolipoprotein A1, Annexinn II, enolase, DJ-1 etc. The results suggest that anti-tumor antibodies are associated with ovarian cancer in hens, similar to human ovarian cancer. The egg-laying hen may be a model for understanding the anti-tumor humoral immune response, particularly at early tumor stages that are not readily accessible in human ovarian cancer. PMID:19509543

  20. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  1. Hen1 is required for oocyte development and piRNA stability in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kamminga, Leonie M; Luteijn, Maartje J; den Broeder, Marjo J; Redl, Stefan; Kaaij, Lucas J T; Roovers, Elke F; Ladurner, Peter; Berezikov, Eugene; Ketting, René F

    2010-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germ line-specific small RNA molecules that have a function in genome defence and germ cell development. They associate with a specific class of Argonaute proteins, named Piwi, and function through an RNA interference-like mechanism. piRNAs carry a 2?-O-methyl modification at their 3? end, which is added by the Hen1 enzyme. We show that zebrafish hen1 is specifically expressed in germ cells and is essential for maintaining a female germ line, whereas it is dispensable in the testis. Hen1 protein localizes to nuage through its C-terminal domain, but is not required for nuage formation. In hen1 mutant testes, piRNAs become uridylated and adenylated. Uridylation frequency is highest on retro-transposon-derived piRNAs and is accompanied by decreased piRNA levels and mild derepression of transposon transcripts. Altogether, our data suggest the existence of a uridylation-mediated 3?–5? exonuclease activity acting on piRNAs in zebrafish germ cells, which is counteracted by nuage-bound Hen1 protein. This system discriminates between piRNA targets and is required for ovary development and fully efficient transposon silencing. PMID:20859253

  2. High fiber low energy diet for molt induction in laying hens: the impact of alfalfa on physiology, immunology and behavior 

    E-print Network

    Dunkley, Claudia Sharene

    2009-05-15

    in the levels of blood plasma metabolites after hens were challenged with 106 colony forming units of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). Hens fed alfalfa diets displayed similar (P ? 0.05) levels of cholesterol, glucose, and total protein when compared to full...

  3. EVIDENCE FOR THE PENETRATION OF THE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE HEN'S OVUM BY A TRYPSIN-LIKE ACROSOMAL ENZYME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. HOWARTH; S. T. DIGBY

    1973-01-01

    In the process of fertilization, most mammalian spermatozoa must penetrate through a series of egg investments before reaching the vitelline membrane. By contrast, cock spermatozoa have only to penetrate the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum. The composition of the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum at the time of ovulation has been described by Bellairs, Harkness & Harkness (1963)

  4. Blood Plasma Mineral Profile and Qualitative Indicators of the Eggshell in Laying Hens in Different Housing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Lichovníková; Pavel Jelínek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the blood plasma mineral profile (Ca, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu and Se) and egg-shell quality (eggshell weight, eggshell breaking strength and thickness) of laying hens housed in three different housing systems (traditional cage system, enriched cage system and deep litter system). In each housing system, 12 ISA Brown laying hens were

  5. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  6. The symbiotic star Hen 2-468 detected with Swift/XRT/UVOT during its current outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Nunez, N.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic star Hen 2-468 is undergoing its second (recorded) outburst as reported by Munari et al. (Atel #6841). We report the detection of Hen 2-468 in X-rays and UV with Swift during a ToO observation taken on 12/26/2014 with 9 ks exposure time.

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF THE MAMMILLARY LAYER OF THE DOMESTIC HEN'S EGG-SHELL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    containing cobalt sulphate (o.o18M) and sodium bicarbonate (o.2IM) at pH 7.5 (PEARSE ig6o) and incubated adsorption of cobalt ions were carried out in the cobalt solutions without sodium bicarbonate. The pH value of these solutions was adjusted to !.5 with o.IM sodium hydroxide. Tests were also carried in the cobalt bicarbonate

  8. Effects of dietary L-carnitine on the performance and egg quality of laying hens from 65-73 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Rabie, M H; Szilágyi, M; Gippert, T

    1997-10-01

    The effects of L-carnitine supplementation (50-500 mg/kg diet) of a practical layer diet, based on maize, soyabean and wheat, on the performance of laying hens and some indices of egg quality were studied for 8 weeks, using 65-week-old hens kept in cages. Albumen quality (albumen height and Haugh (1937) unit score) was improved, while yolk index and yolk colour score were not affected by dietary L-carnitine. The percentage of egg-white increased and that of egg yolk decreased in response to dietary supplementation of L-carnitine. Dietary L-carnitine did not influence laying performance (egg production rate, mean egg weight, daily feed intake, daily egg mas and feed conversion) or external egg quality measured by egg weight, egg-shape index or by eggshell quality, either measured directly as shell breaking strength or indirectly as shell weight, shell thickness or shell weight per unit surface area. Based on the results of the present study, L-carnitine had a beneficial effect on albumen quality and could modify the components of the edible part of the egg, during the late laying period. PMID:9389887

  9. Changes in blood chemistry, hematology, and histology caused by a selenium\\/vitamin E deficiency and recovery in chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Bartholomew; David Latshaw; David E. Swayne

    1998-01-01

    Exudative diathesis, a condition caused by a selenium (Se)\\/vitamin E deficiency, was studied in chicks. Trios of chicks that\\u000a showed clinical signs of exudative diathesis were matched for severity. One was injected subcutaneously with 0.5 mL distilled\\u000a water, and the other two received 15 ?g of Se in 0.5 mL distilled water. A chick fed a diet with supplemental Se

  10. Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Bukaci?ski; Monika Bukaci?ska; Thomas Lubjuhn

    2000-01-01

    In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven

  11. ATP-induced noncooperative thermal unfolding of hen lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Honglin; Yin, Peidong; He, Shengnan; Sun, Zhihu [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Zhuang, Hao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Guobin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wei, Shiqiang, E-mail: sqwei@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2010-07-02

    To understand the role of ATP underlying the enhanced amyloidosis of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, combined with tryptophan fluorescence, dynamic light-scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry, is used to examine the alterations of the conformation and thermal unfolding pathway of the HEWL in the presence of ATP, Mg{sup 2+}-ATP, ADP, AMP, etc. It is revealed that the binding of ATP to HEWL through strong electrostatic interaction changes the secondary structures of HEWL and makes the exposed residue W62 move into hydrophobic environments. This alteration of W62 decreases the {beta}-domain stability of HEWL, induces a noncooperative unfolding of the secondary structures, and produces a partially unfolded intermediate. This intermediate containing relatively rich {alpha}-helix and less {beta}-sheet structures has a great tendency to aggregate. The results imply that the ease of aggregating of HEWL is related to the extent of denaturation of the amyloidogenic region, rather than the electrostatic neutralizing effect or monomeric {beta}-sheet enriched intermediate.

  12. Ovarian laying hen follicular maturation and in vitro Salmonella internalization.

    PubMed

    Howard, Z R; Moore, R W; Zabala-Diaz, I B; Landers, K L; Byrd, J A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Birkhold, S G; Ricke, S C

    2005-06-15

    Transovarian transmission of paratyphoid Salmonella is well documented and occurs at a low incidence in chickens. However, the exact mechanism of follicular invasion is not well understood. The following study investigates the ability of Salmonella to invade ovarian follicles at different stages of follicular maturity in vitro. Ovarian follicles were collected from Leghorn hens and separated into three stages of maturity: (1) large yellow follicles or F follicles (LYF), (2) small yellow follicles (SYF), and (3) small white follicles (SWF). All follicles were incubated at 37 degrees C in RPMI 1640 medium. Follicles were incubated with 1 x 10(6) CFU/mL of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis sensitive to gentamicin for 2 h. Samples were then removed from the bacterial culture, and placed in medium containing gentamicin sulfate for 5 h to kill any S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis, which had not invaded the follicular membrane. After the 5 h incubation, follicles were stomached in phosphate buffered saline. Serial dilutions were made of each follicle and viable S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis cells were enumerated on brilliant green agar. Two identical trials were conducted. Data suggest that Salmonella may differentially invade ovarian follicles depending on maturity of the follicle, and that SWF may be more susceptible to S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis invasion than either the SYF or the LYF. PMID:15917137

  13. Internal hirudiniasis in a hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus)-The first report in literature

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Ghotbian, Fereidon; Bahmani, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    The leech is a blood sucking worm belonging to the class Hirudinea of the phylum Annelida. Leeches are commonly found in the waterland of temperate and tropical countries. Hirudiniasis, a rare condition with unusual symptoms, is caused by accidental introduction of leeches through natural orifices. In August 2011, a 1-year-old hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus) referred to private veterinary clinic in Iran with symptoms of severe respiratory distress, restless and inappetite. According to owner statement, the hen had a history of using spring water. After physical examination, black object was found attached to the internal mucous membrane of floor of mouth. The diagnosis was leech infection. The leech was removed by forceps without administration of drugsand detection, the hirudiniasis was caused by immature larvae of Limnatis nilotica (L. nilotica). According to author's knowledge, there is no report of Hirudiniasisin birds and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis due to L. niloticain hen in literature.

  14. The influence of the housing system on Salmonella infections in laying hens: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Dewulf, J

    2011-08-01

    From 2012 onwards, housing of laying hens in conventional battery cages will be forbidden in the European Union and only enriched cages and non-cage housing systems such as aviaries, floor-raised, free-range and organic systems will be allowed. Although this ban aims at improving the welfare of laying hens, it has also initiated the question whether there are any adverse consequences of this decision, especially with respect to the spread and/or persistence of zoonotic agents in a flock. A zoonotic agent that is traditionally associated with the consumption of eggs and egg products is Salmonella enteritidis. This paper provides a summary of the current knowledge regarding the direct and indirect effects of different housing systems on the occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. PMID:20875073

  15. Higher rates of internal ovulations occur in broiler breeder hens treated with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Navara, Kristen J; Pinson, Sara E; Chary, Parag; Taube, Patrick C

    2015-06-01

    Maximal profit in both the commercial egg and meat industries requires that the quantity of oviposited eggs closely matches the quantity of large yellow follicles maturing in the ovary. While laying hens are genetically selected for maximal egg production and strategies for management of broiler breeders have been constructed to achieve a similar outcome, a percentage of ovarian follicles that are selected into the ovulatory hierarchy in these hens still never make it to oviposition possibly due to atresia of large yellow follicles or internal ovulation of the oocyte into the peritoneal cavity rather than the oviduct. The causes and mechanisms responsible for these processes remain unclear, however, evidence in wild birds suggests that stressful and/or territorial challenges may stimulate oocyte losses. Since testosterone and corticosterone are central to the responses to territorial intrusions and stress, respectively, and since both large yellow follicles and the oviduct that will engulf them are sensitive to hormonal cues, one or both hormones may play a role in the loss of large yellow follicles via atresia and/or internal ovulation in laying hens. To test this, broiler breeder hens were treated with corticosterone or testosterone 5 h prior to ovulation and observed to see whether these treatments influenced the likelihood that a hen would lay an egg 24 h after the predicted ovulation time. A subset of hens that did not lay an egg were killed and dissected to look for evidence of follicle atresia and internal ovulation. Testosterone treatment resulted in significantly more oocyte losses, and 60% of these occurred due to internal ovulations, as was indicated by the presence of yolk in the peritoneal cavity. Corticosterone did not influence the rate of oocyte losses, follicle atresia, or internal ovulation. These results suggest that testosterone can cause disruptions that ultimately prevent the oviduct from capturing the oocyte after ovulation. PMID:25834248

  16. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems. PMID:25306464

  17. Detection of X-rays from the jet-driving symbiotic star Hen 3-1341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I. F.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Hen 3-1341 is a symbiotic binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star that is one of about ten symbiotics that show hints of jets. The bipolar jets have been detected through displaced components of emission lines during its outburst from 1998 to 2004. These components disappeared when Hen 3-1341 reached quiescence. On February 23, 2012, Hen 3-1341 started a new outburst with the emergence of new bipolar jets on March 3, 2012. Aims: We observed Hen 3-1341 during quiescence with XMM-Newton in March 2010 with an effective exposure time of 46.8 ks and with Swift on March 8-11, 2012 as ToO observations with an effective exposure time of 10 ks in order to probe the interaction of the jet with the ambient medium and also the accretion onto the white dwarf. Methods: We fitted the XMM-Newton X-ray spectra with XSPEC and examined the X-ray and UV light curves. Results: We report the detection of X-ray emission during quiescence from Hen 3-1341 with XMM-Newton. The spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed one-temperature plasma or an absorbed blackbody. We did not detect Hen 3-1341 during our short Swift exposure. Neither periodic or aperiodic X-ray nor UV variability were found. Conclusions: Our XMM-Newton data suggest that interaction of the residual jet with the interstellar medium might survive for a long time after outbursts and might be responsible for the observed X-ray emission during quiescence. Additional data are strongly needed to confirm these suggestions.

  18. Plasticity in the growth of the chick eye: Emmetropization achieved by alternate morphologies.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Howland, Howard

    2015-05-01

    Both refractive properties of the eyes and ambient light conditions affect emmetropization during growth. Exposure to constant light flattens the cornea making chicks hyperopic. To discover whether and how growing chick eyes restore emmetropia after exposure to constant light (CL) for 3, 7, or 11weeks, we returned chicks to normal (N) conditions with 12h. of light alternating with 12h. of darkness (designated the "R", or recovery, condition) for total periods of 4, 7, 11, or 17weeks. The two control groups were raised in CL conditions or raised in N conditions for the same length of time. We measured anterior chamber depths and lens thicknesses with an A-scan ultrasound machine. We measured corneal curvatures with an eight-axis keratometer, and refractions with conventional retinoscopy. We estimated differences in optical powers of CL, R and N chicks of identical age by constructing ray-tracing models using the above measurements and age-adjusted normal lens curvatures. We also computed the sensitivity of focus for small perturbations of the above optical parameters. Full refractive recovery from CL effects always occurred. Hyperopic refractive errors were absent when R chicks were returned to N for as little as 1week after 3weeks CL treatment. In R chicks exposed to CL for 11weeks and returned to N, axial lengths, vitreous chamber depths and radii of corneal curvatures did not return to normal, although their refractions did. While R chicks can usually recover emmetropia, after long periods of exposure to CL, they cannot recover normal ocular morphology. Emmetropization following CL exposure is achieved primarily by adjusting the relationship between corneal curvature and axial length, resulting in normal refractions. PMID:25765992

  19. Factors affecting chick provisioning by Caspian Terns nesting in the Columbia River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting chick provisioning by radio-tagged Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting in a large colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary during 2001. Caspian Tern predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the estuary prompted resource managers to relocate ca. 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to consume fewer salmonids in favor of marine forage fishes. This study investigated factors influencing foraging success, diet composition, and overall reproductive success at the managed Caspian Tern colony. Our results indicated that daytime colony attendance by nesting terns averaged 64% and decreased throughout the chick-rearing period, while duration of foraging trips averaged 47 min and increased during the same period; these seasonal changes were more strongly related to date than chick age. Average meal delivery rates to 2-chick broods (0.88 meals h-1) were 2.6 times greater than to 1-chick broods (0.33 meals h-1). Parents delivered more juvenile salmonids to chicks during ebb tides than flood tides, but meal delivery rates to the nest remained constant, suggesting diet composition tracks relative availability of prey species. Foraging trips resulting in delivery of juvenile salmonids averaged 68% longer than foraging trips for schooling marine forage fishes, indicating higher availability of marine prey near the colony. High availability of marine forage fish in the Columbia River estuary during 2001 was apparently responsible for high colony attendance, short foraging trips, high chick meal delivery rates, and high nesting success of Caspian Terns on East Sand Island.

  20. Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

  1. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:24803465

  2. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  3. Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth

    2014-01-01

    Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22?±?0.03 (mean?±?SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8?km) reference tern colony (0.29?±?0.10 in 2010 and 0.25?±?0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

  4. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid. PMID:12828207

  5. Expansion, folding, and abnormal lamination of the chick optic tectum after intraventricular injections of FGF2

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Luke D.; Alaama, Roula A.; Freise, Amanda C.; Huang, Johnny C.; Charvet, Christine J.; Striedter, Georg F.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research has shown that evolutionary increases in brain region volumes often involve delays in neurogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of such changes on subsequent development. To get at this question, we injected FGF2—which delays cell cycle exit in mammalian neocortex—into the cerebral ventricles of chicks at embryonic day (ED) 4. This manipulation alters the development of the optic tectum dramatically. By ED7, the tectum of FGF2-treated birds is abnormally thin and has a reduced postmitotic layer, consistent with a delay in neurogenesis. FGF2 treatment also increases tectal volume and ventricular surface area, disturbs tectal lamination, and creates small discontinuities in the pia mater overlying the tectum. On ED12, the tectum is still larger in FGF2-treated embryos than in controls. However, lateral portions of the FGF2-treated tectum now exhibit volcano-like laminar disturbances that coincide with holes in the pia, and the caudomedial tectum exhibits prominent folds. To explain these observations, we propose that the tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in FGF2-treated tecta outpaces the expansion of the pial surface, creating abnormal mechanical stresses. Two alternative means of alleviating these stresses are tectal foliation and the formation of pial holes. The latter probably alter signaling gradients required for normal cell migration and may generate abnormal patterns of cerebrospinal fluid flow; both abnormalities would generate disturbances in tectal lamination. Overall, our findings suggest that evolutionary expansion of sheet-like, laminated brain regions requires a concomitant expansion of the pia mater. PMID:22723357

  6. Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

  7. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  8. MicroRNA processing machinery in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Carraco, Gil; Gonçalves, Ana N; Serra, Carlos; Andrade, Raquel P

    2014-11-01

    Gene expression regulation during embryo development is under strict regulation to ensure proper gene expression in both time and space. The involvement of microRNAs (miRNA) in early vertebrate development is documented and inactivation of different proteins involved in miRNA synthesis results in severe malformations or even arrests vertebrate embryo development. However, there is very limited information on when and in what tissues the genes encoding these proteins are expressed. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of DROSHA, DGCR8, XPO5 and DICER1 in the developing chick embryo, from HH1 (when the egg is laid) to HH25 (5-days incubation), using whole mount in situ hybridization and cross-section analysis. We found that these genes are co-expressed in multiple tissues, mostly after stage HH4. Before early gastrulation DICER1 expression was never detected, suggesting the operation of a Dicer-independent pathway for miRNA synthesis. Our results support an important role for miRNAs in vertebrate embryo development and provide the necessary framework to unveil additional roles for these RNA processing proteins in development. PMID:25266146

  9. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  10. Microarray analysis of normal and abnormal chick ventricular myocardial development.

    PubMed

    Krej?í, E; Pesevski, Z; DeAlmeida, A C; Mrug, M; Fresco, V M; Argraves, W S; Barth, J L; Cui, X; Sedmera, D

    2012-01-01

    The left and right ventricle originate from distinct parts of the cardiac tube, and several genes are known to be differentially expressed in these compartments. The aims of this study were to determine developmental differences in gene expression between the left and right ventricle, and to assess the effect of altered hemodynamic loading. RNA was extracted from isolated left and right normal chick embryonic ventricles at embryonic day 6, 8, and 10, and from day 8 left atrial ligated hearts with hypoplastic left and dilated right ventricles. cRNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Chicken Genome array according to manufacturer protocols. Microarray analysis identified 302 transcripts that were differentially expressed between the left and right ventricle. Comparative analysis detected 91 genes that were different in left ventricles of ligated hearts compared to age-matched ventricles, while 66 were different in the right ones. A large number of the changes could be interpreted as a delay of normal maturation. The approach described in this study could be used as one of the measures to gauge success of surgical procedures for congenital heart disease and help in determining the optimal time frame for intervention to prevent onset of irreversible changes. PMID:22827870

  11. Molecular Architecture of the Chick Vestibular Hair Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Krey, Jocelyn F.; Hassan, Ahmed; Metlagel, Zoltan; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Pagana, James M.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Jeffery, Erin D.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Zhao, Hongyu; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L.; Auer, Manfred; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Hair bundles of the inner ear have a unique structure and protein composition that underlies their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified >1100 proteins, present from a few to 400,000 copies per stereocilium, from purified chick bundles; 336 of these were significantly enriched in bundles. Bundle proteins that we detected have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton structure and dynamics, energy metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, and cell signaling. Three-dimensional imaging using electron tomography allowed us to count the number of actin-actin crosslinkers and actin-membrane connectors; these values compared well to those obtained from mass spectrometry. Network analysis revealed several hub proteins, including RDX (radixin) and SLC9A3R2 (NHERF2), which interact with many bundle proteins and may perform functions essential for bundle structure and function. The quantitative mass spectrometry of bundle proteins reported here establishes a framework for future characterization of dynamic processes that shape bundle structure and function. PMID:23334578

  12. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase C? (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds. PMID:25249465

  13. A cellular lineage analysis of the chick limb bud.

    PubMed

    Pearse, R V; Scherz, P J; Campbell, J K; Tabin, C J

    2007-10-15

    The chick limb bud has been used as a model system for studying pattern formation and tissue development for more than 50 years. However, the lineal relationships among the different cell types and the migrational boundaries of individual cells within the limb mesenchyme have not been explored. We have used a retroviral lineage analysis system to track the fate of single limb bud mesenchymal cells at different times in early limb development. We find that progenitor cells labeled at stage 19-22 can give rise to multiple cell types including clones containing cells of all five of the major lateral plate mesoderm-derived tissues (cartilage, perichondrium, tendon, muscle connective tissue, and dermis). There is a bias, however, such that clones are more likely to contain the cell types of spatially adjacent tissues such as cartilage/perichondrium and tendon/muscle connective tissue. It has been recently proposed that distinct proximodistal segments are established early in limb development; however our analysis suggests that there is not a strict barrier to cellular migration along the proximodistal axis in the early stage 19-22 limb buds. Finally, our data indicate the presence of a dorsal/ventral boundary established by stage 16 that is inhibitory to cellular mixing. This boundary is demarcated by the expression of the LIM-homeodomain factor lmx1b. PMID:17888899

  14. Molecular analysis of regulative events in the developing chick limb

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Chris; Vargesson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The developing chick limb has the remarkable ability to regulate for the loss of large amounts of mesenchyme and maintain a normal limb pattern in early (Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 19; E3) limbs. How the limb can regulate for tissue loss and why this ability is lost as development proceeds (after Hamburger and Hamilton Stage 21; E3.5) is unclear. We have investigated the origins of cells involved in regulative processes and, for the first time, the molecular changes occurring, and find striking differences between developmental time points just 0.5 days apart. We demonstrate that subtle changes in cell dispersal and cell proliferation occur in HH St21 limbs but not in HH St19 limbs and also demonstrate that there is no net replacement of removed tissue at either HH St21 or St19. We further show that changes in the Fgf8/Shh/Bmp4/Gremlin signaling pathway together with the appearance of distal Hox gene activation coincide with the limbs' ability to regulate for large tissue loss. We also demonstrate that following small tissue loss, limbs can regulate for missing tissue to produce normal pattern with no net replacement of missing tissue, as seen in limbs following large tissue loss. Our results indicate the regulative ability of the limb is not due to changes in cell proliferation, cell lineage nor replacement of the missing tissue – regulative ability is reliant upon the signaling environment remaining. PMID:23678942

  15. Origin and development of the pronephros in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Hiruma, Tamiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    The process by which the pronephros develops was morphologically examined in chick embryos from Hamburger–Hamilton stage (ST) 8+ to ST34. The intermediate mesoderm, from which the pronephros arises, was first seen as a faint ridge of undifferentiated mesoderm between the segmental plate and lateral plate at ST8+. It formed a cell cord at the level of the 6th to the presumptive 13th somites at ST9 to ST10. This cell cord then separated into dorsal and ventral parts, the former becoming the nephric duct and the latter the tubules by ST14. The primordia of the external glomeruli (PEGs) appeared at ST15 through some epithelial cells protruding in the nephrostome (the opening of the nephric tubule into the body cavity). PEGs formed gradually in the caudal direction until ST18, while the pronephric tubules and PEGs in cranial locations disappeared. At this stage, only a few PEGs remained at the level of the 13th and 14th somites and these developed from ST23 to ST29 to become ultrastructurally similar to the glomeruli of the functional kidney. From these observations in the avian pronephros, we infer that the pronephric duct and tubules both form from a cell cord in the intermediate mesoderm and at the same time, but later develop differently. PMID:14686690

  16. Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.

    PubMed

    Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn

    2000-02-01

    In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

  17. Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

  18. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L. [National Biological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Research Center; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Larson, J.X. [Northeast Technical College, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fry, D.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept of Avian Sciences

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  19. PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.; Buehler, D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Halbrook, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

  20. Interannual variation in the adrenal responsiveness of black-legged kittiwake chicks (Rissa tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Brewer, John H; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Dean Kildaw, S; Loren Buck, C

    2008-04-01

    Over the last decade, field endocrinologists have explored the efficacy of using plasma corticosterone concentrations of breeding seabirds as an indicator of food availability and predictor of breeding success. However, studies have been predominately confined to adults and the results have been inconsistent. We examined the relationship between the productivity of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and the baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels of 12-15 day-old kittiwake chicks in a multi-year study in Chiniak Bay, Kodiak, Alaska. We predicted that corticosterone levels would negatively correlate with productivity. Productivity decreased across years from relatively high levels in 2002, to very low levels in 2004 and 2005. Baseline corticosterone levels of the chicks did not increase consistently across years. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were statistically indistinguishable in high productivity years but increased significantly in low productivity years. The decline in kittiwake productivity coincided with warming ocean conditions, which, historically, are linked to declines in forage abundance for kittiwakes. Inconsistent changes in baseline corticosterone levels suggest some adult kittiwakes were able to buffer their chicks from poor foraging conditions. However, large increases in stress-induced corticosterone levels during the low productivity years indicate chicks were physiologically stressed for some period prior to sampling. Our results suggest that stress-induced corticosterone levels of kittiwake chicks are effective indicators of productivity in poor years, whereas the changes in baseline corticosterone levels across years are not as pronounced and therefore may not be as reliable. PMID:18308320

  1. Effects of aluminum and nicotinic acid on bone minerals and growth in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.E.; Dunn, M.A.; Ross, E.; Zierold, C. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

    1991-03-15

    One-day old Brown Leghorn-Cross male chicks were divided into three groups of ten chicks for each of the following experimental treatments: control; .05% Al and AlCl{sub 3}; 1.5% nicotinic acid (nic); .05% Al + 1.5% nic (Alnic). A standard corn-soybean meal chick starter diet served as the basal diet. Feed consumption and growth rates were recorded during the 14-day study. Chicks were sacrificed at the end of the study. Tibias were taken, weighed, ashed and dissolved in dilute acid. The acid digests were analyzed for mineral content (P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn) using induction-coupled-plasma emission spectroscopy. There were no significant differences between treatments based on mineral content per gram of bone. Bone weights of the Alnic group were decreased by 33% as compared to the control and all other groups; control being 6.49 {plus minus} 1.28g and Alnic being 4.37 {plus minus} 1.32. Body weight was decreased by 21% in the Alnic group. Although Al or nic had no effect on mineral content of bone, the combination of Al and nic caused a decrease in bone weight of the chicks. The combination was more toxic than administrative of either Al or nic alone. This finding may be relevant to the use of nicotinic acid as a supplement when Al containing substances are ingested at the same time.

  2. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e. ?=?0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e. ?=?0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e. ?=?0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  3. Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Fraser, William R; Irwin, Andrew J; Oliver, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Pygoscelis penguins are experiencing general population declines in their northernmost range whereas there are reported increases in their southernmost range. These changes are coincident with decadal-scale trends in remote sensed observations of sea ice concentrations (SIC) and sea surface temperatures (SST) during the chick-rearing season (austral summer). Using SIC, SST, and bathymetry, we identified separate chick-rearing niche spaces for the three Pygoscelis penguin species and used a maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) to spatially and temporally model suitable chick-rearing habitats in the Southern Ocean. For all Pygoscelis penguin species, the MaxEnt models predict significant changes in the locations of suitable chick-rearing habitats over the period of 1982-2010. In general, chick-rearing habitat suitability at specific colony locations agreed with the corresponding increases or decreases in documented population trends over the same time period. These changes were the most pronounced along the West Antarctic Peninsula where there has been a rapid warming event during at least the last 50 years. PMID:23504726

  4. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e. ?=?0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e. ?=?0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e. ?=?0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  5. Use of Nonsettable Eggs to Evaluate Turkey Hen Fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Bakst; S. McGary; I. Estevez; T. Knapp

    SUMMARY The use of nonsettable eggs (checked, cracked) to perform fresh egg breakouts to estimate true fertility and to assess the rate of sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc was evaluated. Germinal discs and the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc were accessible for assessments. The stage of blastodermal development positively correlated (r = 0.65, P

  6. Structural and biochemical insights into 2?-O-methylation at the 3?-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.; (UIUC); (NWU)

    2010-01-28

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  7. Enhanced progesterone and testosterone secretion and depressed estradiol secretion in vitro from small white follicle cells of incubating turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Porter, T E; Hargis, B M; Silsby, J L; el Halawani, M E

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if lower steroid secretion by the small white follicles in incubating turkey hens contributes to lower circulating steroid concentrations during this time. Turkey hens were grouped as either laying or incubating. Serum samples and the ovarian small white follicles (SWF; 2-7 mm diameter) were collected from each hen. The SWF were pooled for each group and their cells were dispersed by trypsin digestion. Serum-luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E) concentrations were lower and serum prolactin concentration was higher during incubation than during egg laying. SWF cells from incubating hens secreted more P and T and less E in response to ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) than did similar cell suspensions from laying hens. The incubating hens' SWF cells' capacity to secrete E but not their capacity to secrete P or T in vitro is consistent with the observed circulating levels. It is hypothesized that lower levels of circulating LH and/or higher levels of prolactin found in incubating hens may have a depressing effect on aromatase activity and/or an up-regulating effect on LH-induced P and T secretion by the SWF cells. PMID:2744409

  8. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  9. Effects of steroid sex hormones on chick embryo gonads in organ culture, with special reference to hormonal control

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of steroid sex hormones on chick embryo gonads in organ culture, with special reference to hormonal control of gonadal sex differentiation J. JORDANOV Pavlina ANGELOVA lnstitute of Morpho. At the initial stages of sex differentiation (7.5 and 8.5 days of incubation chick embryo gonads were treated

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull ( Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Hario; K Himberg; T Hollmén; E Rudbäck

    2000-01-01

    Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991–1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same

  11. Inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake is mediated by the corticotropin-releasing factor system in neonatal chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ei-Suke Saito; Hiroyuki Kaiya; Tetsuya Tachibana; Shozo Tomonaga; D. Michel Denbow; Kenji Kangawa; Mitsuhiro Furuse

    2005-01-01

    It is known that, in rats, central and peripheral ghrelin increases food intake mainly through activation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. In contrast, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin inhibits food intake in neonatal chicks. We examined the mechanism governing this inhibitory effect in chicks. The ICV injection of ghrelin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which also inhibits feeding and causes hyperactivity

  12. Effects of hCG and of season on in vitro steroidogenesis by 18-day chick embryo gonads.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effects of hCG and of season on in vitro steroidogenesis by 18-day chick embryo gonads. Arlette'Embryologie, CNRS et Collège de France, 94130 Nogent sur Marne Summary. Fragmented 18-day chick embryo gonads were embryos but not qualitative sex differences. The observation could be related to season

  13. Effect of prenatal auditory enrichment on developmental expression of synaptophysin and syntaxin 1 in chick brainstem auditory nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Alladi; S Wadhwa; N Singh

    2002-01-01

    Neural activity plays an important role in shaping the developing brain. We have determined the consequence of increased auditory stimulation on the developmental profile of synaptic proteins, synaptophysin and syntaxin 1, in the chick brainstem auditory nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris, by immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques. The chick embryos were provided with patterned sounds of species-specific calls or

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel ATP P2X Receptor Subtype from Embryonic Chick Skeletal Muscle*

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    6BT, United Kingdom We have cloned a new P2X ligand-gated ion channel receptor from embryonic chick skeletal muscle, which is tentatively named as chick P2X8 (cP2X8) receptor. The cloned cDNA encodes level of expression was also detected in gizzard and retina. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed

  15. Pakistan Vt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pakistan Vêt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS responsible for yolk rétention in broiler chicks. l: our dilieront expcrimonts were conducted to tlnd ont thé infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler

  16. QUANTITATIVE INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF PUROMYCIN ON THE AGGREGATION OF TRYPSIN AND VERSENE-DISSOCIATED CHICK FIBROBLAST CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. KEMP; B. M. JONES; I. CUNNINGHAM; M. C. M. JAMES

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY Embryonic chick fibroblast cells were used to test the effects of puromycin on cell adhesion and aggregation. Single cell suspensions were prepared by dissociating the muscle tissues of 5- and 9-day-old chick embryos with either trypsin or versene according to standard cell dis- sociation procedures.' Cell aggregation was quantitatively estimated by a turbidimetric method. Quantitative analyses of the components

  17. Neural control of hatching: Role of neck position in turning on hatching leg movements in post-hatching chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Bekoff; Julie A. Kauer

    1982-01-01

    1.A previous study showed that the pattern generating circuit for the leg movements of hatching remains functional in post-hatching chicks and can be turned on by folding chicks into the hatching position and placing them in glass eggs (Bekoff and Kauer 1980). The goal of the present study was to determine what conditions are both sufficient and necessary to turn

  18. Study of the Physiological Changes in Blood Chemistry, Humoral Immune Response and Performance of Quail Chicks Fed Supplemental Chromium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. El-Hommosany

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and fifty 2-week old Japanese quail chicks were allotted to 5 groups (30 chicks each) to investigate the effects of adding inorganic chromium (Cr) supplied from chromium chloride (CrCl , 6H O) 3 2 on some blood components, humoral immune responses and growth performance of growing quails. The dietary treatment was different dietary concentrations of Cr in the

  19. ANIMAL COGNITION. Comment on "Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans' mental number line".

    PubMed

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2015-06-26

    Rugani et al. (Reports, 30 January 2015, p. 534) presented evidence that domestic chicks employ a "mental number line." I argue that the hypothesis testing used to support this claim unjustifiably assumes that domestic chicks are unbiased when choosing between identical stimuli presented to their left and right. PMID:26113714

  20. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...