These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems  

E-print Network

Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems B. Huber-Eicher* , F). In one of the compartments (experimental compartment) chicks were reared for the ®rst 2 weeks of life with access to litter (wood shavings, in one case with additional straw), while the chicks in the other

Richner, Heinz

2

Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four?hundred?and?eighty 18?week?old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious

A. H. Azzam; M. A. Gabal

1998-01-01

3

Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens.  

PubMed

A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four-hundred-and-eighty 18-week-old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease. A killed polyvalent bacterin was used for fowl cholera. Aflatoxin was fed for 22 weeks at a daily dose of 200 parts/10(9)/hen. Aflatoxin significantly reduced antibody titres, resulted in a decrease of egg weight, a decrease in egg production and an increase of mortality rate in challenged hens. Aflatoxin was detected in eggs at levels far above the permissible concentration. PMID:18484045

Azzam, A H; Gabal, M A

1998-01-01

4

Effect of sodium aluminosilicate on phosphorus utilization by chicks and laying hens.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of sodium aluminosilicate (SAS) on performance of chicks and laying hens fed diets varying in nonphytate P (NPP), phytate, and fiber content. In two chick growth experiments a corn and soybean meal diet and a phytate and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet were used. These diets contained .1% NPP and 1.1% Ca and were fortified with 0, .05, or .10% P from KH2PO4 and 0 or .5% SAS. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Sodium aluminosilicate supplementation significantly (P less than .05) depressed growth of chicks fed the corn and soybean meal diets containing 0 or .05% supplemental AP. Sodium aluminosilicate addition decreased (P less than .05) tibia ash and total tibia P (tibia weight x P concentration) in both chick experiments, with the effect being greater for chicks fed the corn and soybean meal diet. In the laying hen experiment, birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets containing NPP levels of .1, .45, or 1.8% and SAS levels of 0 or 1.0%. Egg production and egg yield were depressed (P less than .05) by feeding diets containing .1 or 1.8% NPP, and egg specific gravity was decreased (P less than .05) by feeding 1.8% NPP. Addition of SAS to the .1% NPP diet caused a large reduction (P less than .05) in egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency, whereas SAS supplementation of the 1.8% NPP diet had no significant effect. Sodium aluminosilicate supplementation increased (P less than .05) egg specific gravity for hens fed the .1 and 1.8% NPP diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1652134

Moshtaghian, J; Parsons, C M; Leeper, R W; Harrison, P C; Koelkebeck, K W

1991-04-01

5

Supplementation of xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines in hens and chicks.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-? and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, a total of 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls (six replicates per treatment). The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 d of the trial. The results showed that both levels of xanthophyll addition decreased IL-1? mRNA in the liver and jejunum, IL-6 mRNA in the liver, IFN-? mRNA in the jejunum and LITAF mRNA in the liver compared to the control group. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. The results showed that in ovo xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-? and LITAF) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10) in the liver, jejunum and ileum mainly at 0-7 d after hatching. In ovo effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls modulated proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and IFN-?) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the liver and jejunum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, xanthophylls could regulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:22273061

Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jing-Yun; Bi, Ying-Zuo

2012-11-28

6

Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P < 0.0001) and body temperature at hatch with 0.2 degrees C (P = 0.002). The TM chicks preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P < 0.05) and showed a higher body temperature response than CC chicks to the thermal challenge at d 2 and 8 (P < 0.05). No effects of TM on behavior and performance were observed. Because most TM studies are conducted in broilers, this study is the first attempt to unravel the effects of TM during late embryogenesis on posthatch environmental adaptation in layer chicks. The results demonstrated that effects of our TM on postnatal temperature preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to induce a hyperthermic response; and c) the postnatal effects of TM in layers are limited in time. PMID:20548079

Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

2010-07-01

7

THE NATURE OF THE OPSONINS IN ADULT HEN SERUM AND DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS TO CERTAIN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the opsonins present in the serum of developing chick embryos against certain strains of gram-negative bacteria. Comparison has been made with opsonins in serum from adult normal hens and from specifically immunised birds against the same bacterial strains. It has been shown that only 7S globulins are transferred across the yolk sac membrane, the

K Karthigasu; CR Jenkin; KJ Turner

1964-01-01

8

The effect of autoclaving and enzyme supplementation of guar meal on the performance of chicks and laying hens.  

PubMed

Four experiments with broilers and one with laying hens were conducted to study the effects of processing and hemicellulase supplementation of guar meal (37.0% protein) on growth, feed efficiency, and egg production. Guar meal at 0, 10, and 15%, either in raw form or autoclaved at 100, 102, or 132 C for 3, 15, or 30 min, was fed alone or in the presence of 0 to 250 ppm hemicellulase. In an experiment utilizing full-term broilers, 10 and 15% autoclaved guar meal was fed in the presence of lincomycin (3.3 ppm) or in combination with lincomycin and hemicellulase (25 ppm). The laying hen experiment was conducted with 36-week-old hens for 8 weeks. They were fed the raw or autoclaved meal (102 C, 15 min) alone and in combination with 30 ppm hemicellulase. The raw guar meal depressed growth and the depression was dose-related. Autoclaving at 102 C for 15 min increased growth and feed efficiency. A higher temperature or a longer time of autoclaving failed to give any further increase in growth or feed efficiency. The lowest (16.5 ppm) hemicellulase was as effective as the highest (250 ppm) in increasing growth and feed efficiency of chicks when added to guar meal diets. Penicillin had no effect on growth or feed efficiency when added to the diet containing autoclaved guar meal in the presence of hemicellulase. Dry heating at 150 C for 6 hr or water treatment of guar meal was not effective in stimulating growth or feed efficiency. Guar meal also increased stickiness of droppings; autoclaving enhanced the effect, whereas hemicellulase prevented the sticky droppings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4011554

Patel, M B; McGinnis, J

1985-06-01

9

Protein, grain and sources of methionine in the nutrition of the laying hen and broiler chick  

E-print Network

homocystine, but the rate of synthesis apparently is not fast enough to satisfy the requirement of the hen and thus dietary methionine must be supplied in adequate amounts if optimum performance is to be realized. Differences in the levels of protein... the experimental diets and watered ad libitum, from 7 to 28 days of age, with group weights and feed con- sumption recorded at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. The basal diet consisted of glucose monohydrate, promine 1 1 Isolated soybean protein manufactured...

Ernst, Herbert Lloyd

1967-01-01

10

The hen's fertile egg screening test (HEST): a comparison between the acute toxicity for chick embryos and rodents of 20 drugs.  

PubMed

The possibilities of using developing chick embryos for evaluating drug activities and toxicities were studied by determining LD50 values for 20 drugs with 14 different pharmacological activities. Fifteen-day old chick embryos received drugs through the air cell and deaths were measured at 48 hr after the treatments. The LD50 values were determined and compared to the i.v., i.p., s.c. and p.o. values from mice listed in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substance. The systemic toxicity of 15-day-old chick embryos to drugs were similar to those of mice with the following exceptions. The chick embryos seemed to be more sensitive than mice to antineoplastic or antibiotic agents such as actinomycin D and doxorubicin, whereas, LD50 values of cholinergic and cholinergic blocking drugs by this method were 10 to 20 fold of LD50 (i.v.) of mice. These observations are important for applying the hen's fertile screening test (HEST) to the determination of drug activities other than that of embryo toxicity or teratogenic activity. PMID:1493585

Nishigori, H; Mizumura, M; Iwatsuru, M

1992-01-01

11

The External Granule Layer of the Developing Chick Cerebellum Generates Granule Cells and Cells of the Isthmus and Rostral  

E-print Network

The External Granule Layer of the Developing Chick Cerebellum Generates Granule Cells and Cells a retroviral library to mark clones in the chick embryo at Hamberger­Hamilton stages 10­12. RRL clones; Alder et al., 1996). Likewise, retrovirally la- beled clones originating from the chick rostral rhombic

Tabin, Cliff

12

Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype  

PubMed Central

White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration. PMID:25049597

Küçüky?lmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Ç?nar, Mustafa; Çatl?, Abdullah U?ur; Binta?, Erol; Çöven, Fethiye

2012-01-01

13

The formation of the chick ileal muscle layers as revealed by ?-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genesis of intestinal smooth muscle layers was immunohistochemically investigated by use of an antibody to ?-smooth muscle\\u000a actin (?-SMA) in the developing chick ileum. Myoblast cells positive for ?-SMA were already found in the presumptive circular\\u000a muscle layer on E 8.5. On E 11.5 radially oriented muscle fibers were protruded from the outermost layer of the developing\\u000a circular musculature

Kouji Masumoto; Osami Nada; Sachiyo Suita; Tomoaki Taguchi; Rishu Guo

2000-01-01

14

Viral aetiology of haemangiosarcoma outbreaks among layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of neoplastic disease defined as haemangiosarcoma occurred among layer flocks of chickens in Israel. The disease caused bleeding tumours in the skin and internal organs of young layers, followed by anaemia, cessation of egg production and high mortality up to 20%.Avian leukosis virus was isolated from tumour cells which contain several viral DNA copies integrated in the cell genome.

Haim Burstein; Moshe Gilead; Uri Bendheim; Moshe Kotler

1984-01-01

15

Isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from layer hens showing clinical signs of infectious coryza.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causal agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease that affects swine nearly exclusively. An isolate with characteristics of some Pasteurellaceae family members (Gram-negative bacterium, pleomorphic, and NAD-dependent) was isolated from layer hens showing clinical signs of infectious coryza. This bacterium presented hemolysis on rabbit red blood cell agar plates, and PCR amplification and sequencing of its 16S rDNA gene indicated 99% identity with A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 3 and 7. The presence of a putative apxIIA gene was also determined by PCR. A single, smooth colony of this bacterium inoculated in five, 7-day-old chicken embryos via the yolk sac route induced 100% mortality. However, inoculation into 10-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free chickens induced only light facial swelling, and reisolation of the inoculated bacterium was negative. PMID:25619011

Pérez Márquez, V M; Ochoa, J López; Cruz, C Vázquez; Alonso, P Sánchez; Olmedo-Alvarez, G; Vaca, S; Abascal, E Negrete

2014-12-01

16

Effect of storage and layer age on quality of eggs from two lines of hens.  

PubMed

Eggs from ISA-White and ISA-Brown hens between 28 and 59 wk of age were stored for up to 10 d to produce a sample of 5,763 eggs differing in the three major determinants of albumen quality. Eggs from ISA-Brown hens were larger and had less yolk, more albumen, and a greater percentage of shell than those from ISA-White hens. Egg size increased with increasing age of the hen, although more for the ISA-White hens than the ISA-Brown hens, and the yolk increased more in size than did the shell and albumen. During storage, albumen weight decreased and yolk weight increased slightly. The height of the inner thick albumen of eggs from ISA-White hens was greater than that of eggs from ISA-Brown hens, and it decreased as the hen age increased and with increasing time in storage. The pH of the albumen was not different between strains, and the effect of hen age was small, but it increased with time in storage. Regression coefficients of the height of the inner thick albumen on the weight of the egg were between -0.058 and 0.102, showing that the fixed regression of 0.05-mm albumen height per gram of egg implied by the Haugh unit is wrong. The statistical association between albumen pH and egg weight was very low. If albumen quality is being used as a measure of freshness, then the albumen height is biased by the strain and age of hen, whereas the albumen pH is not. PMID:11495479

Silversides, F G; Scott, T A

2001-08-01

17

Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.  

PubMed

Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

2013-04-12

18

Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their parent hens to OTA and AFB(1) either alone or in combination. These studies provide emphasis for the need for mycotoxin regulation policy with respect to the ingredients used in poultry feed, since it is clear that feeding multi-mycotoxin-contaminated diets to breeder hens will almost certainly result in the hatching of manifestly unhealthy chicks. PMID:22530919

Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

2012-01-01

19

Effects of Mycotoxin Contaminated Diets on Immunosuppression or Interference with Other Physiological Parameters in Commercial-Strain Laying Chicks, Pullets or Hens  

E-print Network

(DC), in young pullets and replacement laying hens on performance, reproductive, serological, and histopathological parameters. In trial 1, experimental treatments consisted of control, low toxin (1 µg DON/g + 1 µg AFB1/g), and high toxin (2 µg DON...

Iselt, Stephanie Mae

2013-04-08

20

Tumors associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J in layer hens during 2007 to 2009 in China.  

PubMed

In the 3 years leading up to November 2009, 6 different types of naturally occurring neoplasms associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) were diagnosed by histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 140 layer hens out of approximately 100,000. The most prevalent tumor type was hemangioma (50%) in commercial layer flocks; the second most prevalent neoplasm type was myelocytoma (38.6%); a small number of ALV-J positive lymphomas (4.3%) that were not associated with Marek's disease (MD) or lymphoid leukosis (LL) was observed. Histiocytic sarcomas (2.1%) were found mainly in the spleen, liver and kidney. Fibrosarcomas (2.8%) presented as metastatic thigh, liver, lung and kidney neoplasms. Three cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma (2.1%) were found associated with ALV-J. Chickens with multiple tumors were a common phenomenon. Usually, hemangiomas plus myelocytomas (8.6%), myelocytomas plus histiocytic sarcomas (2.1%), hemangioma plus myelocytoma and lymphoma (3.6%) were found in various viscera organs. The present report describes the occurrence of multiple neoplasms associated with ALV-J in field layer hens. PMID:20467208

Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Jianzhu; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhang, Li

2010-08-01

21

Significance of interactions between Escherichia coli and respiratory pathogens in layer hen flocks suffering from colibacillosis-associated mortality.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the significance of interactions between Escherichia coli and various respiratory pathogens during outbreaks of colibacillosis-associated mortality in layer hen flocks under field conditions. For this purpose, a case-control study involving 20 control flocks with baseline mortality and 20 flocks with increased mortality due to E. coli septicaemia and polyserositis, was conducted. In each colibacillosis flock, blood samples were taken from 20 hens at the onset of clinical disease and three times thereafter at 2-week intervals. Control flocks of comparable ages were sampled in the same way. Pooled sera, taken at the first and last sampling, were examined for antibody titres against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the individual sera from all four samplings were examined for the presence and/or titres of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (APV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Titre increases were seen for IBV D274 (one control flock) and O. rhinotracheale (one control and one colibacillosis flock). An increase in per cent reactors was seen for APV (one control flock), and for M. synoviae (one control and two colibacillosis flocks). The study failed to detect any consistent interactions between E. coli and the aforementioned pathogens. These results indicate that, at least as observed in this study, outbreaks of increased mortality resulting from colibacillosis are not necessarily associated with IBV, NDV, APV, M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or O. rhinotracheale infections. PMID:15223556

Vandekerchove, D; Herdt, P De; Laevens, H; Butaye, P; Meulemans, G; Pasmans, F

2004-06-01

22

Brown hen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A female chicken is called a hen. A hen is capable of laying eggs. She has feathers to let her fly, a tail for balance, and the comb and wattle both help cool the hen off by circulating blood through them.

Timophey Tkachik (None; )

2007-02-07

23

Variance Component and Breeding Value Estimation for Reproductive Traits in Laying Hens Using a Bayesian Threshold Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variance components and breeding values were estimated for 3 reproductive traits in a pure line of White Leghorn laying hens. The traits were proportion of fertile eggs of eggs set, proportion of first quality chicks of eggs set, and proportion of first-quality chicks of fertile eggs. A total of 3,020 hens were tested up to 3 times over a period

J. Bennewitz; O. Morgades; R. Preisinger; G. Thaller; E. Kalm

24

Curlew Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Curlew Chicks hatch in late June and are almost immediately ready to leave the nest. The coloring and pattern of the downy chicks provides camouflage to protect them from avian and mammalian predators. Chicks follow their parents on long hikes to feeding areas. Curlews also migrate long distances ea...

25

Plumage condition in laying hens: genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects in two purebred layer lines  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking is a major welfare issue in laying hen industry that leads to mortality. Due to a ban on conventional cages in the EU and on beak trimming in some countries of the EU, feather pecking will become an even bigger problem. Its severity depends both on the victim receiving pecking and on its group mates inflicting pecking (indirect effects), which together determine plumage condition of the victim. Plumage condition may depend, therefore, on both the direct genetic effect of an individual itself and on the indirect genetic effects of its group mates. Here, we present estimated genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects on plumage condition of different body regions in two purebred layer lines, and estimates of genetic correlations between body regions. Methods Feather condition scores (FCS) were recorded at 40 weeks of age for neck, back, rump and belly and these four scores were added-up into a total FCS. A classical animal model and a direct–indirect effects model were used to estimate genetic parameters for FCS. In addition, a bivariate model with mortality (0/1) was used to account for mortality before recording FCS. Due to mortality during the first 23 weeks of laying, 5363 (for W1) and 5089 (for WB) FCS records were available. Results Total heritable variance for FCS ranged from 1.5% to 9.8% and from 9.8% to 53.6% when estimated respectively with the classical animal and the direct–indirect effects model. The direct–indirect effects model had a significantly higher likelihood. In both lines, 70% to 94% of the estimated total heritable variation in FCS was due to indirect effects. Using bivariate analysis of FCS and mortality did not affect estimates of genetic parameters. Genetic correlations were high between adjacent regions for FCS on neck, back, and rump but moderate to low for belly with other regions. Conclusion Our results show that 70% to 94% of the heritable variation in FCS relates to indirect effects, indicating that methods of genetic selection that include indirect genetic effects offer perspectives to improve plumage condition in laying hens. This, in turn could reduce a major welfare problem. PMID:24885199

2014-01-01

26

Persistent effect of broody hens on behaviour of chickens.  

PubMed

We reported previously that behavioral development of chicks was promoted remarkably by the presence of a broody hen. Here we report that these effects at an early age persist after maturity. A total of 60 female chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: six pens with five chicks (brooded group) each were reared by a broody hen and six pens with five chicks (non-brooded group) each were provided with an infrared heating lamp. We evaluated the persistent effects of broody hens by measures of behavior, physical condition and production at 9, 16, 35 and 55 weeks of age. The numbers of threatening, aggressive pecking, fighting and severe feather pecking behaviors were higher in non-brooded than in brooded chickens (all P < 0.05). Egg production was lower in brooded than in non-brooded chickens (P < 0.05), while the number of brooding chickens was higher in the brooded than in the non-brooded group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of broody hens at an early stage of chicks' lives has a persistent effect on behavior. Although brooded chickens showed more brooding and lower egg production than non-brooded chickens, feather pecking and aggressive interaction were decreased in brooded hens. PMID:25039794

Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yuji; Fujino, Saori; Kamimura, Eriko; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

2015-02-01

27

Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).  

PubMed

Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

2007-06-01

28

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

29

Large scale application of vibration sensors for fan monitoring at commercial layer hen houses.  

PubMed

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Bogan, Bill W; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

30

Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune® FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune®FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of white leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing M. gallisepticum mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect a...

31

Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

32

The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Züleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay

2009-02-01

33

Potential for amelioration of aflatoxin B1-induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of White Leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to vitamin E.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) on the immunotoxic effects induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the progeny of breeder hens. For this purpose, 192 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens were divided into 12 groups (A-L) and then fed test diets for either 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Group A was kept on basal feed (2900 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) and served as control, while group B was offered a feed supplemented with Vit E at 100?mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0?mg/Kg AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered the same dietary levels of AFB1 along with 100?mg/Kg Vit E supplementation. Hatching eggs were shifted to an incubator on a weekly basis to get progeny chicks. Hatched chicks in each group were maintained on basal ration and then subjected to different immunological assays. Lymphoproliferative responses (against PHA-P), antibody titers (against SRBC), oxidative damage to RBC, as well as phagocytic and nitrite production potential of the peritoneal macrophages from the chicks, were all adversely impacted by hen exposure to the higher doses of AFB1 or by increased intake (time) by the hens at a given dose of the toxin. No consistent ameliorative effects from Vit E were noted in these studies, i.e. effects seen against lower AFB1 doses were no longer apparent with the highest doses of AFB1. As such, for now it can be concluded that, with this particular single dose level of Vit E, AFB1-associated immunotoxic effects in progeny chicks can potentially be mitigated by dietary intake of Vit E by their hen dams. However, this is clearly an outcome that is driven by the level of the mycotoxin present in the feed. Future studies need to examine what impact higher Vit E doses than those employed herein might have in these ameliorative outcomes. PMID:23782308

Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Ul Hassan, Zahoor; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

2014-01-01

34

Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 ?g m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 ?g m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

2012-09-01

35

Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.  

PubMed

Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs. PMID:24931965

Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

2014-08-01

36

Nodal signal is required for morphogenetic movements of epiblast layer in the pre-streak chick blastoderm.  

PubMed

During axis formation in amniotes, posterior and lateral epiblast cells in the area pellucida undergo a counter-rotating movement along the midline to form primitive streak (Polonaise movements). Using chick blastoderms, we investigated the signaling involved in this cellular movement in epithelial-epiblast. In cultured posterior blastoderm explants from stage X to XI embryos, either Lefty1 or Cerberus-S inhibited initial migration of the explants on chamber slides. In vivo analysis showed that inhibition of Nodal signaling by Lefty1 affected the movement of DiI-marked epiblast cells prior to the formation of primitive streak. In Lefty1-treated embryos without a primitive streak, Brachyury expression showed a patchy distribution. However, SU5402 did not affect the movement of DiI-marked epiblast cells. Multi-cellular rosette, which is thought to be involved in epithelial morphogenesis, was found predominantly in the posterior half of the epiblast, and Lefty1 inhibited the formation of rosettes. Three-dimensional reconstruction showed two types of rosette, one with a protruding cell, the other with a ventral hollow. Our results suggest that Nodal signaling may have a pivotal role in the morphogenetic movements of epithelial epiblast including Polonaise movements and formation of multi-cellular rosette. PMID:21492150

Yanagawa, Nariaki; Sakabe, Masahide; Sakata, Hirokazu; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Yuji

2011-04-01

37

Assessment of the aversion of hens to different gas atmospheres using an approach-avoidance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approach-avoidance tests were conducted to evaluate the responses of laying hens to different gas atmospheres. Twelve hens were trained in a test apparatus consisting of a raised entry chamber connected by a descending chute to a lower chamber into which gas could be injected. Feed was removed from hens overnight before training sessions, and layer feed was presented in the

A. Bruce Webster; Daniel L Fletcher

2004-01-01

38

Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.  

PubMed

The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE. PMID:20070993

Stoev, Stoycho D

2010-06-01

39

Organ weight and serum triglyceride responses of older (80 week) commercial laying hens fed an alfalfa meal molt diet.  

PubMed

Since one of the costs in the commercial egg industry is that of replacement pullets, commercial egg layer managers have opted to induce molt older hens in order to extend their productive life for additional egg laying cycles. Conventional molt induction involves the complete removal of feed for several days. However, this management practice can lead to deleterious physiological responses by the hen and subsequent susceptibility to infection by pathogens. Consequently less stressful molting regimens involving the feeding of low energy diets such as alfalfa have been developed. In this study, 80 week old laying hens that were deprived of feed or fed alfalfa meal during a nine day induced molt. Full fed hens were used as the control. On day 8 serum triglycerides were quantified and on day 9 hens were euthanized and the liver, spleen, heart, intestine, pancreas, ovary, and kidney were collected and weighed. Intestinal weight were highest in the non-molted hens, lower in the hens fed alfalfa, and lower still in the hens deprived of feed. Molted hens exhibited reduced weights of liver, heart, ovary, and pancreas compared to the non-molted hens. Serum triglycerides were highest in the non-molted hens, less in feed deprived hens, and the lowest in alfalfa fed hens. These results suggest that a comparable molt could be achieved with feeding alfalfa meal to 80 week hens compared to feed deprivation. PMID:18164195

Landers, K L; Moore, R W; Herrera, P; Landers, D A; Howard, Z R; McReynolds, J L; Bryd, J A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

2008-09-01

40

Hummingbird with her chicks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Female hummingbirds lay two eggs in a clutch. She does all the work in raising the chicks; the male hummingbird has no involvement. Adult hummingbirds eat nectar and various insects. Hummingbird chicks eat insects because they need protein, so that is what the mother hummingbird catches for them.

Wolfgang Wander (None; )

2007-07-22

41

Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival  

PubMed Central

Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

2013-01-01

42

Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.  

PubMed

Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

2013-01-01

43

Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R  

E-print Network

_____________ UR 3520 ­ STRUCTOR: Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R ONE/VOICE MAIL: hhhoch ACHING ASS am Benjamin Lauderdale ducation Cen 577-6378 u Thu: 10:40a- ass: 04/24/12 ERIALS: tment Compu for each sess dologies for a horough For each ass r 24 hours wil d

Slatton, Clint

44

Black Noddy with Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Black Noddy (with a chick) is one of eight seabird species whose population density was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project. ...

45

Hypothalamic vasotocin and tyrosine hydroxylase levels following maternal care and selection for low mortality in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking and cannibalism are major concerns in poultry farming, both in terms of animal welfare and farm economics. Genetic selection and introduction of (aspects of) maternal care have been suggested as potential interventions to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. Altered brain development has been proposed to reflect welfare states in animals, and can provide more insight into the underlying processes involved in feather pecking. Both vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin) and dopaminergic neural circuitry have roles in control of social behaviors as well as in the stress response, and may be linked to feather pecking. Thus, the hypothalamus of adult laying hens selected for low early mortality (LML), which show low feather pecking, was examined and compared with a control line of adult laying hens selected for production characteristics only (CL). The effect of foster hen rearing on the two genetic lines and their hypothalamic morphology was also investigated. Results We demonstrated an increase in the number of neurons positive for the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus in the LML hens compared to CL hens. Hen-reared chicks showed more vasotocin -positive neurons in the medial pre-optic area compared to the hens raised without a hen. No correlations were found between behavior in an open field at 5–6 weeks of age, and the histology of the same hens at adulthood. Conclusion The hypothalamic dopaminergic and vasotinergic systems are altered in hens following genetic selection or maternal care, indicating a potential role for these systems in feather pecking. PMID:25080935

2014-01-01

46

Dietary safflower phospholipid reduces liver lipids in laying hens.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control, tallow), a mixture of safflower oil and palm oil (SP-oil), crude safflower phospholipid (Saf-PLcrude), or purified safflower phospholipid (Saf-PL) for 7 wk. Egg production ratio and daily egg mass were significantly higher in hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets than in hens of the other diet groups. There were no significant differences in egg weight among groups. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were significantly decreased in all treated groups as compared with the control. The activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was the highest in hens fed the Saf-PLcrude diet. Serum esterified cholesterol concentration was decreased by feeding of SP-oil, Saf-PLcrude, or Saf-PL diets. Serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was highest in hens fed the tallow diet. Excreta neutral steroid excretion was significantly increased in the Saf-PLcrude or Saf-PL diet groups, although acidic steroid excretion was not affected by dietary treatments. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid contents in egg yolks were not different for any dietary treatments. The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks from hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets were not different with those fed the SP-oil diet, although eggs of hens fed the Saf-PL diet showed lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary safflower phospholipids may be a valuable ingredient to layers for reducing liver triglycerides and serum cholesterol without any adverse effects. PMID:9154621

An, B K; Nishiyama, H; Tanaka, K; Ohtani, S; Iwata, T; Tsutsumi, K; Kasai, M

1997-05-01

47

Arithmetic in newborn chicks  

PubMed Central

Newly hatched domestic chicks were reared with five identical objects. On days 3 or 4, chicks underwent free-choice tests in which sets of three and two of the five original objects disappeared (either simultaneously or one by one), each behind one of two opaque identical screens. Chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set (experiment 1). Results were confirmed under conditions controlling for continuous variables (total surface area or contour length; experiment 2). In the third experiment, after the initial disappearance of the two sets (first event, FE), some of the objects were visibly transferred, one by one, from one screen to the other (second event, SE). Thus, computation of a series of subsequent additions or subtractions of elements that appeared and disappeared, one by one, was needed in order to perform the task successfully. Chicks spontaneously chose the screen, hiding the larger number of elements at the end of the SE, irrespective of the directional cues provided by the initial (FE) and final (SE) displacements. Results suggest impressive proto-arithmetic capacities in the young and relatively inexperienced chicks of this precocial species. PMID:19364746

Rugani, Rosa; Fontanari, Laura; Simoni, Eleonora; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2009-01-01

48

EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

49

Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-? phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive

Stoycho D. Stoev

2010-01-01

50

Passive protection of specific pathogen free chicks against infectious bursal disease by in-ovo injection of semi-purified egg-yolk antiviral immunoglobulins.  

PubMed

In order to develop an experimental model for passive immunity in SPF chickens, active neutralizing immunoglobulins (Ig) directed against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were extracted from the yolk of eggs laid by conventional layers immunized against IBDV. Concentrated Ig extracts were inoculated via the intra-vitellin route into 7-day-old embryonated SPF hen eggs. Although detrimental to hatchability, Ig inoculation resulted in hatching two series of SPF chicks with passive immunity against IBDV. The neutralizing and ELISA antibody titres at 1 day-old (respectively 12.64 and 13.15 log2; and 4915 and 4277), the kinetics of decay of the anti-IBDV antibodies and the protection afforded by passive antibodies against highly virulent IBDV challenge proved highly consistent with data previously reported on conventional chicks. In-ovo inoculation of purified egg-yolk immunoglobulins may hence be a good experimental model for anti-IBDV maternally-transmitted immunity. This experimental model might possibly be adapted to other pathogens or vaccines for which interference with maternally derived antibodies is a matter of concern at 1 day-old. PMID:9283288

Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Abbassi, H; Rivallan, G; Cotte, J P; Guittet, M

1997-08-01

51

Whooping Crane Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

52

Whooping Crane Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

53

Teen Chick Lit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

Meloni, Christine

2006-01-01

54

Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...

55

Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens.  

PubMed

Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in species-specific natural or near-to-natural environments. An enriched environment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing environment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with concealment curtain. Ten hens were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm2 of floor space per hen. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm2 of floor space per hen. Body weight and egg production were calculated from 25 to 60 wk of age. The peripheral concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, corticosterone, and IgG were analyzed at 30, 40, 50, and 60 wk of age. Compared with the hens housed in the battery cages, the hens housed in the furnished cages were significantly heavier from 30 to 60 wk of age (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) and produced more eggs at 40 wk of age (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on eggshell thickness (P>0.05). The concentrations of serotonin were reduced, whereas corticosterone was increased from 50 to 60 wk of age in the hens housed in the battery cages (P<0.05) but not in those housed in the furnished cages, which may indicate that the hens housed in the battery cages were stressed. Although further studies remain to be completed, the present results suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative for housing laying hens. PMID:19762855

Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

2009-10-01

56

Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.  

PubMed Central

Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissues of 580 hens (433 seropositive) from the seven flocks detected 26 (4.5%) S. enteritidis-infected hens from two flocks. In one flock, 2/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis phage type (PT) 8, which was confined to the ceca, and no Salmonella spp. were isolated from 2520 eggs (one day's lay). In the second flock, where 24/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis PT13, extraintestinal infection was found in nine hens and involved the ovaries and/or oviduct in two hens. Salmonella enteritidis PT13 was isolated from one sample of egg contents and from one sample of cracked shells from among 14,040 eggs (one day's lay) from this flock. The overall prevalence of S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs from the two flocks with infected hens was less than 0.06%. Other Salmonella spp. isolated were S. heidelberg from 58 hens (10%), and S. hadar, S. mbandaka and S. typhimurium from one hen (0.2%) each. The MAT with antigens of S. pullorum had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 24% for detecting S. enteritidis-infected hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423059

Poppe, C; Johnson, R P; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J

1992-01-01

57

Recovery of fertility from adult ovarian tissue transplanted into week-old Japanese quail chicks.  

PubMed

Fertility of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from immature chickens and Japanese quail has been recovered by transplantation. This is of special importance for non-mammalian vertebrates in which cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes are challenging because their oogenesis is characterised by vitellogenesis. This study tested whether fertility of adult quail ovarian tissue could be recovered by transplantation. Ovaries were isolated from mature Japanese quail hens, trimmed, cut into 3- to 4-mm2 pieces and transplanted into ovariectomised, week-old chicks. Recipients were administered an immunosuppressant for two weeks. Ten of 12 recipients survived until sexual maturity and seven laid eggs, but all stopped laying by 17 weeks of age. The age at first egg of recipients laying eggs (75.7±4.2 days) was greater than that of untreated hens (51.8±1.7 days) and egg production of recipients during the laying period (21.7±5.7) was less than that of untreated hens (60.8±3.5). Recipients were paired with males from the WB line for test mating. Only two hens laid eggs during the test period but both produced 100% donor-derived offspring. This research demonstrated that the reproductive potential of ovarian tissue from adult quail hens can be restored by transplantation. PMID:24157187

Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

2015-01-01

58

Chick tooth induction revisited.  

PubMed

Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

2009-07-15

59

Tissue-specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in egg and tissues of newly hatched chicks from wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), free-range guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), hen (Gallus domesticus) and domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and intensively housed hens. Carotenoid concentrations in the egg yolk of free-range guinea fowl, pheasant and wild mallard were similar (61.3-79.2 microg/g). Egg yolks from ducks and intensively housed hens were characterised by the lowest carotenoid concentration comprising 11.2-14.8 microg/g. However, carotenoid concentration in eggs from free-range ducks and hens was less than half of that in free-range guinea fowl or pheasant. Depending on carotenoid concentration in the livers of species studied could be placed in the following descending order: free living pheasant>free-range guinea fowl>free-range hen>intensively housed hen>wild mallard>housed duck>free-range duck. The carotenoid concentrations in other tissues of free-range guinea fowl and pheasant were substantially higher than in the other species studied. Egg yolk of housed hens was characterised by the highest alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. In accordance with the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk, the birds can be placed in the following descending order: intensively housed hen>wild mallard>free-living pheasant>free-range duck>free-range hen=free-range guinea fowl>housed duck. The main finding of this work is species- and tissue-specific differences in carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in the various avian species studied. PMID:15936711

Karadas, Filiz; Wood, Nicholas A R; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nicholas H C

2005-04-01

60

Compartmentalization of acetylcholinesterase in the chick retina.  

PubMed

Using selective inhibitor treatments, we have studied the distribution of asymmetric (A) and globular (G) forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the extra- and intracellular compartments of chick retina, a specialized region of chick central nervous system (CNS). Our results show that the chick retinal collagen-tailed AChE (an example of class II asymmetric molecular forms) is essentially an extracellular form of the enzyme; this is the first demonstration of the extracellular localization of asymmetric AChE in the vertebrate CNS. The active site of most of the hydrophobic, membrane-bound G4-form is also exposed to the external environment. In turn, the smaller molecular weight G-forms (G2 and G1) are localized within the cells, where they may represent intermediate components in the assembly or degradation of the more complex enzymatic molecular species. Histoenzymatic ultrastructural techniques show internal AChE in amacrine as well as in ganglion cell bodies, and external enzyme, specifically associated with synapses and axons, in the inner plexiform layer. The probable cooperation of the extracellular A12-forms and the membrane-bound G species (mainly G4) of the enzyme to the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh) released into the external compartment is suggested and discussed. PMID:2709446

Ramírez, G; Barat, A; Donoso, J A; Fernández, H L

1989-03-01

61

Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?  

PubMed

The plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (Microtinae spp.) and grouse (Tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast depression hypothesis; MDH). The predation facilitation hypothesis (PFH) in turn states that increased searching activity of vole-eating predators during or after the decline year of voles disturbs incubating and brooding grouse females. The behaviours used by grouse to avoid these terrestrial predators make them more vulnerable to predation by goshawks. We tested the main predictions of the MDH and PFH by collecting long-term (21-year) data from black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens and cocks killed by breeding goshawks supplemented with indices of bilberry crop, vole abundance and small carnivores in the vicinity of Oulu, northern Finland. We did not find obvious support for the prediction of the MDH that there is a negative correlation of bilberry crop in year t with vole abundance and with predation index of black grouse hens in year t + 1. We did find obvious support for the prediction of the PFH that there is a positive correlation between predator abundance and predation index of grouse hens, because the stoat Mustela erminea abundance index was positively related to the predation index of black grouse hens. We suggest that changes in vulnerability of grouse hens may mainly be caused by the guild of vole-eating predators, who shift to alternative prey in the decline phase of the vole cycle, and thus chase grouse hens and chicks to the talons of goshawks and other avian predators. PMID:21181416

Tornberg, Risto; Helle, Pekka; Korpimäki, Erkki

2011-07-01

62

Care of Baby Chicks1 Christopher DeCubellis2  

E-print Network

AN-170 Care of Baby Chicks1 Christopher DeCubellis2 1. This document is Series AN-170 one people enjoy ordering chicks from a hatchery or purchasing young chicks from a feed store. These chicks to young chicks in order for them to survive and grow into healthy adults. Care of Chicks Chicks

Watson, Craig A.

63

Morphologic alterations in leg muscles of chicks treated with triorthocresyl phosphate in ovo.  

PubMed

Chick embryos were injected on incubation Day 14 with 62 microliter of triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP)/kg egg. Muscles of the leg were examined from 5 to 25 days after hatching. The sartorius from the thigh and the external gastrocnemius and peroneus longus from the tibial leg region were compared for muscle fiber size and end-plate length over this period. Treated chicks showed no acute toxic effects or overt ataxia and were equal in body weight to controls. At 5, 15, and 25 days after hatching, morphologic alterations consistent with denervation were detected. Muscle fibers were smaller than controls on Day 5 and were hypertrophic on Days 15 and 25. On Day 5 growth of fibers was retarded, an effect consistent with denervation, and the subsequent hypertrophy is predicted as compensation for denervated fibers. Small end plates were seen on Day 15, characteristic of end plates that were delayed in development by denervation. Each of these differences was greater in the tibial muscles than in the more proximally located sartorius. This is consistent with a distal neuropathy, such as that caused by TOCP in adult hens. Some recovery was apparent at the low dose 25 days after hatching. It is suggested that this resulted from reinnervation by repaired axons. This study of the myoneural apparatus and muscle fiber response to TOCP adds evidence to the possibility that the developing chick embryo may develop delayed neuropathy from organophosphorus compounds which produce this effect in adult hens. PMID:2413588

Sheets, L; Norton, S

1985-06-15

64

Chick-N-Que Let's have a  

E-print Network

Chick-N-Que Let's have a Chick-N-Que! It's fun; it's easy; it's good eating; and it's so very, Petersburg. Chick-N-Que #12;1 Let's have a Chick-N-Que! It's fun; it's easy; it's good eating; and it's so by the aroma of pungent sauce. A Chick-N-Que is fun for all ages. It turns an ordinary picnic into a feast

Liskiewicz, Maciej

65

Crop content in nutrient-restricted versus non-restricted organic laying hens with access to different forage vegetations  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how feed intake of organic layers varies according to type of forage vegetation available when hens are fed a normal concentrate for organic layers or a nutrient-restricted diet with whole wheat and oyster shells, assuming that the nutrient-restricted diet would reflect the capacity of the hens to forage.2. Two 23-d experiments

K. Horsted; J. E. Hermansen; H. Ranvig

2007-01-01

66

Olfactory lateralization in the chick.  

PubMed

Chicks using their right nostril (and so with direct olfactory input to the right hemisphere), and presented simultaneously with two objects identical in visual appearance with the rearing object, and differing only in odour, chose that which smelled like the rearing object. Chicks using the left nostril chose equally readily but at random. Earlier work, using similar tests, has shown special interest of the right hemisphere in change in visual properties of familiar stimuli, suggesting that analysis of a wide range of properties of a familiar stimulus may be an important function of the right hemisphere in the chick, with consequent detection of novelty. PMID:8047249

Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

1994-04-01

67

Effects of variations in fish meal quality on performance of laying hens  

E-print Network

(unpublished observation) fenud that a meal made from whois sardines held at rocm temperature for twenty four haus before processing con- tained less arginine than a meal made from fresh fish of the same catch. ~, et al. (19') found that a vacuum-flem~ white...). Additions of sardine, peruvian and menhaden fish meals to all- vegetable protxdxx diets were reparted to increase hatchability, livabil- ity and growth of chicks, as well as improve reproductive perf~e and feed efficiency in ~ hens (Skinner, et al. 1951...

Narasimhamurthy, Pinapaka Venkata Lakshmi

1966-01-01

68

Fingerprinting Passports Henning Richter1  

E-print Network

Fingerprinting Passports Henning Richter1 , Wojciech Mostowski2 , and Erik Poll2 1 Lausitz, The Netherlands {woj,erikpoll}@cs.ru.nl Abstract. Passports issued nowadays have an embedded RFID chip a security risk, in that an attacker could access a person's passport without the owner knowing. While

Poll, Erik

69

Effects of supplementation of multi-enzyme and multi-species probiotic on production performance, egg quality, cholesterol level and immune system in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate enzyme and probiotic feed supplements as alternative feed additives to alleviate the problems associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics from layer diet. A total of 180 Hy-Line W-98 hens, 40 weeks old, were assigned into four treatment groups so that there were 45 laying hens in each group. Four dietary treatments were randomly assigned

Sohail Hassan Khan; Muhammad Atif; Nasir Mukhtar; Abdul Rehman; Ghulam Fareed

2011-01-01

70

Chick heart invasion assay.  

PubMed

Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

2014-01-01

71

Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57  

E-print Network

III IV V VI _____________ UR 3331 CTURE INST Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57 mail: hhhochm ACHING ASS jid (FLREC Fo eed Lab 404A m-3pm, Wedne :55pm (per. 8 (per. 9) ass: 04/17/12 ERIALS: tt (2000): Ele. F per and one ass exc 3. T be CO The inst _____________ RADING PO R 3331+SUR rade Pe 90 - 87 + 85 77

Slatton, Clint

72

Henning Schneider, M.D.  

PubMed

This is a short biography of Henning Schneider, M.D., Professor and Chair Emeritus of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Bern, Switzerland. From 1987-2005, he was also Director of the Women's Hospital in Bern. Dr. Schneider was a founding member and the second President of the International Federation of Placenta Associations (IFPA). A symposium in Professor Schneider's honour was held at IFPA Meeting 2008. PMID:19157539

Miller, R K

2009-03-01

73

Responses of adult laying hens to abstract video images presented repeatedly outside the home cage.  

PubMed

Previous studies reported that domestic chicks showed progressively greater attraction towards biologically neutral video images (screensavers) with repeated exposure [Jones, R.B., Carmichael, N., Williams, C., 1998. Social housing and domestic chicks' responses to symbolic video images. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 56, 231-243; Jones, R.B., Larkins, C., Hughes, B.O., 1996. Approach/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar video images of biologically neutral stimuli. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 48, 81-98]. The potential existence of an adult parallel was examined here by studying the responses of laying hens to similar screensaver videos when these were presented repeatedly in front of their home cage. In Experiment 1, individually housed, 31-week-old laying hens were exposed to either the video image of a computer screensaver (SS) programme (Fish), a blank but illuminated television monitor (B), or a black plastic hide (H) presented approximately 50 cm in front of their home cages for 10 min/day on each of 5 consecutive days. The bird's position in the cage and the orientation of its head were recorded every 15 s during the-10 min exposure period in order to assess approach and interest, respectively. Interest was scored by summing the numbers of observations at which the hen was either facing the front or had its head out of the cage. Birds in the B and H treatment groups showed few deviations from neutrality in their approach or interest. Conversely, although SS birds avoided the video stimulus on the first day their responses had reached neutrality (neither approach nor avoidance) by the third day and they showed significantly more approach than would be expected by chance at the fifth presentation. They also showed significantly more interest than chance on each test day; this score increased progressively and showed no sign of waning even at the fifth presentation. To determine whether or not such interest would be maintained indefinitely, the responses of previously untested hens were examined when the same video (Fish) was presented for 10 min/day on each of 20 consecutive days (Experiment 2). A blank, lit television (B) was again used a control. An unfamiliar video (Doodles) was presented to the SS birds on day 21 to determine the effects of stimulus change. After avoiding the stimuli upon their first presentation, both SS and B birds achieved neutrality by day 3. Approach scores then fell in B birds but rarely deviated from neutrality in SS ones. The SS video attracted markedly more interest than did the blank screen. On this occasion, SS hens showed significantly greater interest than would be expected by chance as early as the third presentation and this was still evident upon the eighth presentation; thereafter it waned gradually. However, interest was reinstated fully when the unfamiliar SS image was shown on day 21. The present findings clearly demonstrate that abstract video images, presented in front of the home cage for 10 min on consecutive days, reliably attracted and sustained the interest of individually housed laying hens for as long as 8 days. These results are consistent with those obtained when chicks were repeatedly exposed to similar screensaver videos, i.e., this phenomenon is not dependent on the stage of development. Our results also confirm the importance of considering the environment outside as well as inside the cage in future environmental enrichment programmes. PMID:10719193

Clarke; Jones

2000-03-22

74

Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.  

PubMed

Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance. PMID:17312759

Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J

2005-09-01

75

Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland

2004-01-01

76

Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.  

PubMed

Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist ?-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks. PMID:25410738

Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

2015-03-01

77

Developmental expression of cannabinoid receptors in the chick retinotectal system.  

PubMed

The cannabinoid system has been suggested to participate in processes such as antinociception, cognition, motor control, and, more recently, development of the nervous system. This study describes the expression of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the developing chick retina and optic tectum by means of conventional immunoperoxidase protocols. CB1 immunoreactivity was initially detected around the embryonic day 4 (E4) in both the retina and tectum. In the retina, CB1 immunoreactivity was first observed in presumptive ganglion cells and, subsequently, in the inner plexiform layer and two populations of neurons of the inner nuclear layer. The post-hatched chick exhibited a pattern of staining that included four sublayers of the inner plexiform layer, a few stained cells in the ganglion cell layer, and labeled neurons both in the inner and central parts of the inner nuclear layer. The latter two types of neurons appear to be amacrine and bipolar cells, respectively. In the tectum, CB1 first appeared in its most superficial zone and later in several tectal laminae, including a white matter layer (stratum album centrale; Cajal's layer 14). There was a remarkable and transient increase of labeling at E10, followed by a continuous reduction of staining until E18. In the post-hatched chick, tectal staining was mostly confined to layers 2-3 and 5-6. Stained perikarya were seldom observed in the tectum at any stage. These data are in agreement with a possible developmental function of CB1, as it is expressed several days before synaptogenesis ensues and exhibits transient expression in the optic tectum. PMID:16099304

Leonelli, Mauro; Britto, Luiz R G; Chaves, Gabriela P; Torrão, Andréa S

2005-05-12

78

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

79

Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

80

Integrating Toxicity Risk in Bird Eggs and Chicks: Using Chick Down  

E-print Network

is among the most sensitive toxicity end points (1-3). Impaired reproduction due to mercury contamination of mercury into growing feathers (21-23). Chick mortality associated with mercury contamination often occursIntegrating Toxicity Risk in Bird Eggs and Chicks: Using Chick Down Feathers To Estimate Mercury

81

Distribution of 15N-chlorocholine chloride in eggs of laying hens.  

PubMed

The distribution of Chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in the eggs of laying hens was studied using 15N-CCC. Twelve layers (37 weeks old) were divided into four groups and used in this study consisting of three feeding phases. In phase one (7 days), all the hens received a CCC-free diet [165 g CP/kg dry matter (DM); 11.58 MJ ME/kg DM]. In phase two (11 days), four levels of 15N-CCC: 0, 5, 50 and 250 ppm were added to the respective diets, while in phase three (7 days), CCC-free feed was again offered. Egg samples were taken and the 15N content of egg yolk and albumin were determined. At the end of phase two, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in 15N content in egg yolk from hens fed the 50 and 250 ppm CCC diets and in albumin from hens fed the 250 ppm CCC diet. The estimated 15N-CCC residue was 1.71, 6.64, 28.80 ppm in egg yolk and 1.58, 1.08 and 4.50 ppm in albumin from hens fed 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively. The CCC residue, from quantitative analysis ranged from 0.21 to 0.93 and 0.93 to 2.43 ppm in yolk of hens fed 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively, whereas a range of 0.40-1.46 ppm, was found in the albumin of hens fed 250 ppm. The difference in measured CCC in yolk and albumin and that estimated from 15N-CCC could have been due to breakdown products of 15N-CCC. Seven days after withdrawal of 15N-CCC, the estimated 15N-CCC residue in egg yolk decreased to 0.43, 2.45 and 15.59 ppm, on 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC dietary treatments, respectively, and to 2.46 ppm in albumin from hens fed 250 ppm CCC. The higher increase in 15N content could have been due to a higher incorporation of 15N-CCC into yolk than albumin during the process of rapid yolk deposition. This experiment showed that consumed CCC is distributed both into yolk and albumin in a dose dependent manner and that CCC is metabolized in laying hens. However, the level of CCC in the diet which could lead to accumulation of detectable CCC levels in eggs as observed in this study, is much higher than the established maximum residual limits in grains. PMID:15379914

Songsang, A; Chakeredza, S; Thinggaard, G; Vearasilp, T; ter Meulen, U

2002-06-01

82

Differential involvement of right and left hemisphere in individual recognition in the domestic chick.  

PubMed

Right hemisphere advantage in individual recognition (as shown by differences between response to strangers and companions) is clear in the domestic chick. Chicks using the left eye (and so, thanks to the complete optic decussation, predominantly the right hemisphere) discriminate between stranger and companion. Chicks using the right eye discriminate less clearly or not at all. The ability of left eyed chicks to respond to differences between strangers and companions stimuli is associated with a more general ability to detect and respond to novelty: this difference between left and right eyed chicks also holds for stimuli which are not social partners. The right hemisphere also shows advantage in tasks with a spatial component (topographical learning; response to change in the spatial context of a stimulus) in the chick, as in humans. Similar specialisations of the two hemispheres are also revealed in tests which involve olfactory cues presented by social partners. The special properties of the left hemisphere are less well established in the chick. Evidence reviewed here suggests that it tends to respond to selected properties of a stimulus and to use them to assign it to a category; such assignment then allows an appropriate response. When exposed to an imprinting stimulus (visual or auditory) a chick begins by using right eye or ear (suggesting left hemisphere control), and then shifts to the left eye or ear (suggesting right hemisphere control), as exposure continues. The left hemisphere here is thus involved whilst behaviour is dominated by vigorous response to releasing stimuli presented by an object. Subsequent learning about the full detailed properties of the stimulus, which is crucial for individual recognition, may explain the shift to right hemisphere control after prolonged exposure to the social stimulus. There is a marked sex difference in choice tests: females tend to choose companions in tests where males choose strangers. It is possible that this difference is specifically caused by stronger motivation to sustain social contact in female chicks, for which there is extensive evidence. However, sex differences in response to change in familiar stimuli are also marked in tests which do not involve social partners. Finally, in both sexes there are two periods during development in which there age-dependent shifts in bias to use one or other hemisphere. These periods (days 3-5 and 8-11) coincide with two major changes in the social behaviour of chicks reared by a hen in a normal brood. It is argued that one function of these periods is to bring fully into play the hemisphere most appropriate to the type of response to, and learning about, social partners which is needed at particular points in development. Parallels are discussed between the involvement of lateralised processes in the recognition of social partners in chicks and humans. PMID:24925239

Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

1994-12-01

83

Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential for dietary garlic to influence egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and overall performance in different layer strains. Thirty-six, 28-wk-old, Hisex Brown,Isa Brown, Lohmann, Starcross, Babcock, and Starcross-579 strains (six hens per strain) were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% sun-dried garlic paste for 6 wk. There were no differences (P > 0.05) among diets or strains in egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed efficiency, and BW gain as averaged over 6 wk. Yolk weight, however, responded quadratically with increasing levels of dietary garlic and differed among strains (P < 0.05). Egg production and yolk weights were significantly higher in the Babcock strain in comparison with other strains. Serum and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary garlic. Serum and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations also differed among different strains (P < 0.05). It was concluded that garlic paste in the diets of laying hens reduced serum and yolk cholesterol concentrations. It was also concluded that dietary garlic paste had no adverse effects on layer performance. PMID:12512577

Chowdhury, S R; Chowdhury, S D; Smith, T K

2002-12-01

84

Cleavage Events and Sperm Dynamics in Chick Intrauterine Embryos  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions. PMID:24244702

Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Young Min; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

2013-01-01

85

Chick ciliary neurotrophic factor is secreted via a nonclassical pathway.  

PubMed

In contrast to mammalian ciliary neurotrophic factors (CNTFs), chick CNTF is secreted, although it lacks an N-terminal signal. We determined that a 52 aa region of chick CNTF containing an internal hydrophobic domain could direct secretion of rat CNTF. Using a stable cell line that overexpressed chick CNTF, we found that chick CNTF immunoreactivity was punctate throughout the cytosol. Cellular fractionation confirmed chick CNTF to be protected by vesicles. Chick CNTF did not colocalize with fibronectin, calreticulin, wheat germ agglutinin binding sites, or with transferrin receptor. The distribution of chick CNTF was altered neither by brefeldin A nor by chloroquine treatment. Although the punctate pattern of chick CNTF immunoreactivity was not due to reuptake, chick CNTF could be found in a cellular compartment labeled after a brief incubation with dextran microbeads. When synthesized in vitro, chick CNTF did not translocate into microsomes. We conclude that chick CNTF is secreted via a nonclassical pathway. PMID:11414784

Reiness, C G; Seppa, M J; Dion, D M; Sweeney, S; Foster, D N; Nishi, R

2001-06-01

86

CHICK RAISING ABILITY IN ADILIE PENGUINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titis paper reports the change in weight of Adlie Penguin (Pygo- scelis adeliae) chicks whose parents were of known age from the creche stage until fledging. Our aim was to assess the abilities of parents of different ages to provide their young with food by comparing the sizes of their broods and the growth patterns of their chicks. We dis-

DAVID G. AINLEY; ROBERTO P. SCHLATTER

87

Prospects for transgenesis in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research to develop a useful method for genetic modification of the chick has been on-going since the first demonstrations in the mouse in the 1980s that genetic modification is an invaluable tool for the study of gene function. Manipulation of the chick zygote is possible but inefficient. Considerable progress has been made in developing potentially pluripotent embryo stem cells and

Helen Sang

2004-01-01

88

Maternal corticosterone further reduces the reproductive function of male offspring hatched from eggs laid by quail hens selected for exaggerated adrenocortical stress responsiveness.  

PubMed

Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can depress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male quail cloacal gland (CG) size and foam production shows androgen dependency, and males selected for exaggerated [high stress (HS)] rather than reduced [low stress (LS)] plasma corticosterone (B) stress response exhibit reduced CG and testes development. High stress hens also deposit more B into egg yolks than LS ones, and quail hens given B produce chicks that have a reduced growth rate and adults with heightened HPA responsiveness. Herein, we gave LS and HS hens no B [empty implants, control (CON)] or B-filled implants and assessed the reproductive performances of these hens and their male offspring. Mortality was similarly elevated in LS and HS B-treated hens, but only HS B-implanted hens showed reduced egg production. In male offspring, CG volume (CVOL), intensity of CG foam production (CFP), and the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam were measured from 4 to 11 wk of age. At 6 wk, BW, and at 15 wk, BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW were also determined. Hen treatments did not affect male chick CVOL at 4 wk, but CVOL differed thereafter as follows: LS CON > LS B = HS CON = HS B at 5 and 6 wk and LS CON > LS B > HS CON = HS B from 7 to 11 wk. By 8 wk, and thereafter, CFP differed as follows: LS CON > LS B > HS CON > HS B. Group differences in the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam generally supported CFP findings from 4 to 8 wk of age. Body weight did not differ by treatment at 6 wk of age. By 15 wk, TWT were similarly depressed in both HS groups. However, similarly higher 15-wk BW in the LS-CON and HS-B groups contributed to TWT relative to BW differences as follows: LS-B > LS-CON > HS-B; LS-CON = HS-CON; LS-B > HS-CON; and, HS-CON = HS-B. Both selection for exaggerated HPA responsiveness and maternal B treatment negatively affected the reproductive function of HS male offspring. PMID:17297171

Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A

2007-03-01

89

The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

90

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SORA AND VIRGINIA RAIL CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sora (Porzana carolina) and Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) chicks were ob- served in the wild and in captivity. In both species the chicks are precocial in ground and aquatic locomotion, semiprecocial in feeding themselves, and altricial in feather develop- ment, flight, and possibly thermoregulation. Sora chicks had more conspicuous head col- oration and begging display than did Virginia Rail chicks,

GERALD W. KAUFMANN

91

ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR  

E-print Network

ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE IN CANADA: FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR 2000 SAGE GROUSE chick survival as a result of limited mesic sites important for brood rearing habitat. Due for chicks, it has been difficult to accurately assess and understand chick survival. A population model

Aldridge, Cameron

92

Fluoride tolerance of laying hens.  

PubMed

1. One thousand Silver Grey Hyline hens were given drinking water containing 5 concentrations of added sodium fluoride (0, 6, 10, 14 and 20 mg/l) over a 17-week growth and 57-week laying period. The natural fluoride content of the water was 0.21 mg/l during the growing period and 0.29 mg/l throughout lay. 2. During the rearing phase, efficiency of food utilisation and mortality were not significantly affected by the fluoride concentration of the water. Weight gain and food intake decreased in the 10 and 14 mg/l fluoride treatments. 3. During the laying period, the fluoride content of the water had a significant effect on egg production, but eggshell breaking strength was not significantly influenced. 4. Post mortem analyses, carried out at the end of lay (74 weeks of age), showed that carcase weight and the fluoride content of the os femur increased significantly as the fluoride concentration in the water increased; the increase in bone fluoride followed a linear pattern. 5. Histopathology showed no evidence of changes in the livers or kidneys; liver weights and breaking strength of the os femur were unaffected by the amount of fluoride consumed. 6. The data showed that under commercial conditions, laying birds can tolerate ingesting 4.453 mg fluoride/day for up to 74 weeks. PMID:9511007

Coetzee, C B; Casey, N H; Meyer, J A

1997-12-01

93

Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens  

PubMed Central

Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 ?g/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 ?g/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

94

Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

1999-01-01

95

Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR. PMID:24650216

2014-01-01

96

Spatiotemporal expression profile of a putative ? propeller WDR72 in laying hens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression profile of a novel gene WDR72 in laying hens. Sixty-week old Hy-line Brown layers with similar laying sequence, egg weight, and shell strength, were selected and divided into 5 groups. The oviduct segments, such as magnum, white isthmus, and uterus, were sampled from each group of hens which were killed at 3 h post-oviposition (3 h P.O.), 4.15-4.5 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., 12 h P.O. and 18 h P.O., respectively. To the 8.5-9 h P.O. hens, additional organs were also sampled besides oviduct tissues. Moreover, another group of hens with weak shell strength were selected and their oviduct segments were sampled at 12 h P.O. Then the expression profile of WDR72 was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed as follows. (1) WDR72 transcripts specifically distributed in parts of organs investigated. At 8.5-9 h P.O., WDR72 appeared to be much more abundantly expressed in hens' oviduct sections, then followed in turn by brain, kidney, lung, glandular stomach and spleen. However, there were almost no WDR72 transcripts expressed in pectoral muscle, liver, heart and jejunum. (2) During the process of an "egg" passing through an oviduct, the expression of WDR72 in the magnum was greatly superior to that in the other two oviduct segments at 3 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., and 12 h P.O.; while it was white isthmus in which WDR72 transcript levels were the highest at 4.15-4.5 h P.O. and 18 h P.O. (3) To any oviduct segment, not only uterus but also magnum and white isthmus, the expression of WDR72 in which was significantly up-regulated at the stages of active calcification. (4) WDR72 transcript levels in any oviduct segments of strong-shell hens were significantly higher than that of weak-shell layers (P < 0.01), which arose the possibility that WDR72 was positively associated with chicken eggshell strength. In conclusion, the expression profile of WDR72 gene in laying hens has been characterized, which would facilitate to further probe into its functions. PMID:23666062

Liu, Zhangguo; Li, Bingyi

2013-09-01

97

Endoderm/mesoderm multiplication rates in stage 5-12 chick embryos  

SciTech Connect

Multiplication rates for the endoderm/mesoderm layer of the head-process to 17-somite-stage chick embryo were studied by implanting essentially identical transplants labeled with tritiated thymidine into paired recipient embryos. One recipient was fixed as soon as the transplant had healed (after 30 min) and the other was reincubated an additional 3.5 to 22.5 hr; the ratios of labeled cells in the paired embryos provided points on a graph that indicated that doubling of endoderm/mesoderm cells in head-process-stage chick embryos occurs at approximately 4.0 and 17.2 hr of reincubation.

Rosenquist, G.C.

1982-01-01

98

Production of rabies neutralizing antibody in hen's eggs using a part of the G protein expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to produce anti-rabies immunoglobulin affordable for people living in developing countries, we have immunized layer chickens with a part of the G protein of rabies virus expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoglobulin (IgY) was purified from the yolks of eggs layed by immunized hens. It was revealed in vitro that the antibody specifically bound to virions as well

Yurie Motoi; Kozue Sato; Hajime Hatta; Kinjiro Morimoto; Satoshi Inoue; Akio Yamada

2005-01-01

99

Effect of perches on liver health of hens.  

PubMed

Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. PMID:24812236

Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

2014-07-01

100

Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.  

PubMed

Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n = 144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P = 0.0013) and AVR2 (P < 0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin × line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r = 0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes. PMID:25630677

Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

2015-02-01

101

Differential expression of connexins during histogenesis of the chick retina.  

PubMed

Gap junction (GJ) channels couple adjacent cells, allowing transfer of second messengers, ions, and molecules up to 1 kDa. These channels are composed by a multigene family of integral membrane proteins called connexins (Cx). In the retina, besides being essential circuit element in the visual processing, GJ channels also play important roles during its development. Herein, we analyzed Cx43, Cx45, Cx50, and Cx56 expression during chick retinal histogenesis. Cx exhibited distinct expression profiles during retinal development, except for Cx56, whose expression was not detected. Cx43 immunolabeling was observed at early development, in the transition of ventricular zone and pigmented epithelium. Later, Cx43 was seen in the outer plexiform and ganglion cell layers, and afterwards also in the inner plexiform layer. We observed remarkable changes in the phosphorylation status of this protein, which indicated modifications in functional properties of this Cx during retinal histogenesis. By contrast, Cx45 showed stable gene expression levels throughout development and ubiquitous immunoreactivity in progenitor cells. From later embryonic development, Cx45 was mainly observed in the inner retina, and it was expressed by glial cells and neurons. In turn, Cx50 was virtually absent in the chick retina at initial embryonic phases. Combination of PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot indicated that this Cx was present in differentiated cells, arising in parallel with the formation of the visual circuitry. Characterization of Cx expression in the developing chick retina indicated particular roles for these proteins and revealed similarities and differences when compared to other species. PMID:18506822

Kihara, A H; Paschon, V; Akamine, P S; Saito, K C; Leonelli, M; Jiang, J X; Hamassaki, D E; Britto, L R G

2008-09-15

102

Theoretical studies of hydrogen-rare gas complexes: HenH and HenH+ clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of LCAO-SCF-MO calculations of the ground states of HenH and HenH+ clusters (n = 1-4) are presented and discussed. A potential energy surface is reported for the collinear He2H+ system and for selected nonlinear arrangements. The relative stability of the various complexes is explored, and some preliminary excited state calculations are reported. Based on these calculations a speculation is

Robert L. Matcha; Edward F. Hayes

1974-01-01

103

Theoretical studies of hydrogen-rare gas complexes: HenH and HenH+ clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of LCAO-SCF-MO calculations of the ground states of HenH and HenH+ clusters (n = 1–4) are presented and discussed. A potential energy surface is reported for the collinear He2H+ system and for selected nonlinear arrangements. The relative stability of the various complexes is explored, and some preliminary excited state calculations are reported. Based on these calculations a speculation is

Robert L. Matcha; Edward F. Hayes

1974-01-01

104

Summation of Large Numerousness by Newborn Chicks  

PubMed Central

Newly hatched domestic chicks, reared with identical objects, when presented with sets of 3 vs. 2 objects disappearing one-by-one behind separate screens, spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set; even when the continuous variables (area or perimeter) were controlled for (Rugani et al., 2009). Here, using a similar paradigm, we investigated the ability of chicks to perform addition on larger sets of objects. Chicks imprinted on five identical objects, were presented at test with 6 vs. 9 objects which disappeared one-by-one (Exp. 1). In Exp. 2, the same overall number of objects (15) was used, but employing an increased ratio, i.e., 5 vs. 10. In both experiments, when continuous variables were not made equal, chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set. However, when the size of the objects was adjusted so as to make the total surface area or perimeter equal for the two sets, chicks did not exhibit any preference. Lack of choice in the control conditions could be due to a combination of preferences; to rejoin the larger numerousness as well as the bigger objects (Rugani et al., 2010a). In Exp. 3, chicks were familiarized, during imprinting, with objects of various dimensions, in an attempt to reduce or suppress their tendency to approach objects larger than the familiar ones. Again chicks failed to choose at test between 5 vs. 10 objects when continuous variables were made equal. Results showed that chicks, after a one-by-one presentation of a large number of objects, rejoined the larger set. In order to choose the larger set, chicks estimated the objects in the two sets and then compared the outcomes. However, differently to what has been described for small numerousness, chicks succeeded only if non-numerical cues as well as numerical cues were available. This study suggests that continuous variables are computed by chicks for sets of objects that are not present at the same time and that are no longer visible at the time of choice. PMID:21941514

Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2011-01-01

105

Behavioral, morphological, and biochemical changes after in ovo exposure to methylmercury in chicks.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant known to induce neurotoxicity in several animal species, including humans. However, studies focusing the effects of MeHg poisoning in chicks were based on phenomenological approaches and did not delve into the molecular mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postnatal consequences of the in ovo exposure to MeHg on behavioral, morphological and biochemical parameters in chicks. At the fifth embryonic day (E5), Gallus domesticus eggs were submitted to a single injection of 0.1 microg MeHg/0.05 ml saline. After treatment, the eggs returned to the incubator until hatching (E21). From first to fifth postnatal days (PN 1-PN 5), the MeHg-treated chicks showed lower frequency of exploratory movements and a significantly higher frequency of wing and anomalous movements. Cerebellar glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of the GSH-related enzymes GSH reductase and GSH peroxidase were significantly higher (70, 72, and 80%, respectively) in MeHg exposed chicks in comparison to controls. Mercury impregnation was densest in the granular layer, followed by the Purkinje and molecular layers of treated chicks. A significant reduction of the number of Purkinje cells, as well as a greater distance between these cells were observed in chicks of MeHg group. Our results disclose that the prehatching exposure to MeHg induced motor impairments, which were correlated to histological damage and alterations on the cerebellar GSH system's development from PN 1 to PN 5. PMID:18684774

Carvalho, Márcia C; Nazari, Evelise M; Farina, Marcelo; Muller, Yara M R

2008-11-01

106

Hen eggwhite-mediated stack crystallization of calcium carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the stack-like crystallization of calcium carbonate in the presence of hen eggwhite under direct drying and vacuum freeze drying was investigated, and marked morphological changes in the calcium carbonate particles were observed depending on the reaction condition used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Nano Mechanical Tester were employed to characterize the samples. Results indicate that gelling eggwhite-mediated the formation of the "stack-like" layered calcium carbonate aggregates composed of considerable nanosheets under direct drying while only rhombohedra calcite crystal (1 0 4) was formed without any additives. An analogous structure to the brick-and-mortar arrangement was attainted by vacuum freeze drying. The average elastic modulus and the hardness of "stack-like" calcium carbonate hybrid material were assessed 0.9952 and 0.0415 GPa with Nano-indenter test, respectively.

Hu, Yanli; Ma, Yongjun; Zhou, Yong; Nie, Fude; Duan, Xiaohui; Pei, Chonghua

2010-03-01

107

Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

108

Ocular Axial Length and Choroidal Thickness in Newly Hatched Chicks and One-year-old Chickens Fluctuate in a Diurnal Pattern that is Influenced by Visual Experience and Intraocular Pressure Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low coherence laser Doppler interferometry (LDI) allows high precision measurements of the axial length of the eye and of the thickness of the individual layers of the ocular fundus. Here, we used LDI to monitor diurnal changes in these dimensions in eyes of newly hatched chicks and one-year-old chickens with normal or altered visual input. In chicks and chickens with

GEORGIOS I. PAPASTERGIOU; GREGOR F. SCHMID; CHARLES E. RIVA; MARK J. MENDEL; RICHARD A. STONE; ALAN M. LATIES

1998-01-01

109

Patterned assembly and neurogenesis in the chick dorsal root ganglion  

PubMed Central

The birth of small-diameter TrkA+ neurons that mediate pain and thermo reception begins approximately 24 hours after the cessation of neural crest cell migration from progenitors residing in the nascent dorsal root ganglion. Although multiple geographically distinct progenitor pools have been proposed, this study is the first to comprehensively characterize the derivation of small diameter neurons. In the developing chick embryo, we identify novel patterns in neural crest cell migration and colonization that sculpt the incipient ganglion into a post-mitotic neuronal core encapsulated by a layer of proliferative progenitor cells. Furthermore, we show that this outer progenitor layer is composed of three spatially, temporally, and molecularly distinct progenitor zones, two of which give rise to distinct populations of TrkA+ neurons. PMID:20017208

George, Lynn; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer; Nelson, Branden R.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Lefcort, Frances

2010-01-01

110

Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-dependent photoresponse characteristics of MnAl2S4 layers have been investigated, for the first time, by use of photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy. Three peaks were observed at all temperatures. The electronic origin of these peaks was associated with band-to-band transitions from the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y) to the conduction-band state ?1( s). On the basis of the relationship between PC-peak energy and temperature, the optical band gap could be well expressed by the expression E g( T) = E g(0) - 2.80 × 10-4 T 2/(287 + T), where E g(0) was estimated to be 3.7920 eV, 3.7955 eV, and 3.8354 eV for the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y), respectively. Results from PC spectroscopy revealed the crystal-field and spin-orbit splitting were 3.5 meV and 39.9 meV. The gradual decrease of PC intensity with decreasing temperature can be explained on the basis of trapping centers associated with native defects in the MnAl2S4 layers. Plots of log J ph, the PC current density, against 1/ T, revealed a dominant trap level in the high-temperature region. By comparing PC and the Hall effect results, we confirmed that this trap level is a shallow donor 18.9 meV below the conduction band.

Hong, K. J.; Jeong, T. S.; Youn, C. J.

2014-09-01

111

Professor Jitendra Malik Arthur J. Chick Professor, Department of EECS  

E-print Network

Professor Jitendra Malik Arthur J. Chick Professor, Department of EECS University of California and Awards National Academy of Engineering, 2011. Arthur J. Chick Endowed Professor of EECS, UC Berkeley

O'Brien, James F.

112

Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.  

PubMed

Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

2014-04-01

113

Quail-chick chimeras and eye development.  

PubMed

The quail-chick chimera is a stable and precise labeling technique that allows tracing of definite cells and their progeny without interfering with normal development of two related avian species. This technique utilizes the transplantation of quail tissues into chick embryo or vice versa. The region of interest (graft) is removed from the donor and replaced in the stage-matched host embryo. The quail-chick chimeras can be analyzed by immunolabeling donor-derived cells with species-specific antibodies, or by differential staining of the nucleus. The use of the quail-chick chimera technique is valuable to eye development studies since its formation involves coalition of tissues from different embryonic origins: the ectoderm, neuroectoderm, and neural crest cells derived from the interaction between the ectoderm and neural ectoderm. This chapter describes the protocols for using quail-chick chimeras to identify neural crest- and ectoderm-derived components of the eye. This technique can be used in combination with molecular biology techniques in functional studies to determine the cellular and tissue interactions involved in eye development. PMID:25245699

Agrawal, Sinu Jasrapuria; Lwigale, Peter Y

2015-01-01

114

Ejecting chick cheats: a changing paradigm?  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, sophisticated parasite egg mimicry. In a striking contrast to hosts sometimes rejecting even highly mimetic eggs, the same species typically fail to discriminate against highly dissimilar parasite chicks. Understanding of this enigma is still hampered by the rarity of empirical tests - and consequently evidence - for chick discrimination. Recent work on Australian host-parasite systems (Gerygone hosts vs. Chalcites parasites), increased not only the diversity of hosts showing chick discrimination, but also discovered an entirely novel host behavioural adaptation. The hosts do not desert parasite chicks (as in all previously reported empirical work) but physically remove living parasites from their nests. Here, I briefly discuss these exciting findings and put them in the context of recent empirical and theoretical work on parasite chick discrimination. Finally, I review factors responsible for a relatively slow progress in this research area and suggest most promising avenues for future research. PMID:21668974

2011-01-01

115

Original article Use of an experimental chicks model  

E-print Network

Original article Use of an experimental chicks model for paratuberculosis enteritis (Johne. To investigate this problem conventional chicks immun- odepressed by a Cyclophosphamide injection and concurrent.ri,s and kept for 4 months. The immunodepressed chicks eliminated mycobacteria with their faeces from the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Improved Preparation of Chick Embryonic Samples for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

E-print Network

Improved Preparation of Chick Embryonic Samples for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Xiaowei Zhang,1 T voxels for three stages of chick embryos (day 4, day 5.5, and day 9), and com- pared to histological words: magnetic resonance microscopy; heart develop- ment; embryo; contrast; chick The developmental

117

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS  

E-print Network

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS By EUGENE E. WOEHLER AND JOHN M. GATES at the Wisconsin State Game Fann since 1962 bas enabled sexing of 900-1,000 day-old chicks per man) described a practicable method of sexing day-old pheasants. Among chicks classed as male or female, accuracy

118

Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

Olsen, G.H.

2004-01-01

119

A simple pattern method for the serum neutralization test with herpes simplex virus in chick embryo monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple method for the serum neutralization with herpes simplex virus was developed utilizing the ability of this virus to form plaques in chick embryo monolayers. A constant virus-varying serum system was adopted. The new device was the use of eight small agar cover slips (ACS), prepared by punching out of a solidified thin layer of an agar overlay

Makoto Umeda; Sadako Taniguchi; Kazuji Arai; Kamesaburo Yoshino

1963-01-01

120

Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.  

PubMed

Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system. PMID:23873573

Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

2013-08-01

121

Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

122

MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

123

Alterations of the retina in chick embryos induced by systemic ?-bungarotoxin application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a-bungarotoxin onto the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos between the 11th and 18th day of incubation leads to alterations of retinal development. The most significant qualitative change is the appearance of retinal rosettes formed by receptor cells. These rosettes are infoldings of the receptor cell layer. Quantitatively, an enlargement in volume of the receptor and outer nuclear

Karl Zilles; Christa Bauschulte; Cord-Michael Becker

1985-01-01

124

Identification of GABA receptors in chick cornea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cornea has an important role in vision, is highly innervated and many neurotransmitter receptors are present, e.g., muscarine, melatonin, and dopamine receptors. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the retina and central nervous system, but it is unknown whether GABA receptors are present in cornea. The aim of this study was to determine if GABA receptors are located in chick cornea. Methods Corneal tissues were collected from 25, 12-day-old chicks. Real time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine whether alpha1 GABAA, GABAB, and rho1 GABAC receptors were expressed and located in chick cornea. Results Corneal tissue was positive for alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptor mRNA (PCR) and protein (western blot) expression but was negative for GABAB receptor mRNA and protein. Alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptor protein labeling was observed in the corneal epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Conclusions These investigations clearly show that chick cornea possesses alpha1 GABAA, and rho1 GABAC receptors, but not GABAB receptors. The purpose of the alpha1 GABAA and rho1 GABAC receptors in cornea is a fascinating unexplored question. PMID:22605922

Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Chebib, Mary

2012-01-01

125

Whooping Crane Chick L3-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s.  ...

126

Whooping Crane Chick L9-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

127

Whooping Crane Chick L10-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

128

Whooping Crane Chick L5-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

129

Whooping Crane Chick L7-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

130

Whooping Crane Chick L1-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

131

Whooping Crane Chick L8-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

132

Whooping Crane Chick L6-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

133

Whooping Crane Chick L4-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

134

Whooping Crane Chick L2-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s.    ...

135

Whooping Crane Chick L3-10  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

136

AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

137

The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

2005-01-01

138

Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

2013-01-01

139

Research Notes Topical Application of Garlic Reduces Northern Fowl Mite Infestation in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern fowl mites (NFM) are external parasites that can lower egg production and cause anemia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was con- ducted with New Hampshire Red and Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens. Hens were individually caged and provided a complete laying diet and water ad libitum. Hens were assigned to groups in a way that

G. P. Birrenkott; G. E. Brockenfelt; J. A. Greer; M. D. Owens

140

Effects of Feeding Tallow and Plant Fat to Laying Hens on Performance, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celebi, S. and Macit, M. 2009. Effects of feeding tallow and plant fat to laying hens on performance, egg quality and fatty acid composition of egg yolk. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 36: 49–52.To determine the effects of sources of supplemental fat 200 Isa Brown layers were equally divided in 5 groups and assigned randomly to be fed ad libitum a

Saban Celebi; Muhlis Macit

2009-01-01

141

HAEMOPROTEUS BALEARICAE AND OTHER BLOOD PARASITES OF FREE-RANGING FLORIDA SANDHILL CRANE CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pra- tensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell

Robert J. Dusek; Marilyn G. Spalding; Donald J. Forrester; Ellis C. Greiner

142

Class 14 November 14, 2009 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo  

E-print Network

Class 14 November 14, 2009 1 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 1) 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 2) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 2 Chick neurulation 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 3 12.2 Neurulation in a chick

Devoto, Stephen H.

143

Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.  

PubMed

1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

Ayerza, R; Coates, W

2002-05-01

144

A study on the interaction of xylanase and phytase enzymes in wheat-based diets fed to commercial white and brown egg laying hens.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to investigate potential interactions between phytase and xylanase enzymes in wheat-based laying diets. Hens (480 ISA-White and 480 ISA-Brown) were distributed into 160 experimental units and fed one of 10 diets containing 75 to 77% wheat from 33 to 64 wk of age with a diet change at 49 wk. Two diets were adequate in P content (0.3 and 0.25% available P in the 2 phases) with or without xylanase (0 or 2,000 U/kg; Avizyme 2300, Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom), and 8 diets had reduced P (0.2 and 0.15% available P) with or without xylanase and phytase (0, 300, 500, and 700 ppu/kg; Phyzyme 5000G, Danisco Animal Nutrition). Egg production was higher for ISA-Brown than for ISA-White hens, and ISA-Brown hens were larger. Eggs from ISA-Brown hens had lower albumen height; higher egg, shell, and albumen weights; and lower yolk weight than those from ISA-White hens. Egg production was not affected by the diet. In P-reduced diets without xylanase, phytase significantly increased BW gain in the first period with no change in feed intake or feed efficiency. In P-adequate diets, xylanase increased egg and albumen weight and albumen height. In P-reduced diets with xylanase, increasing levels of phytase increased egg and albumen weight. This trial demonstrated no negative interactions between these enzymes for production traits and no interactions between the diet and strain of hen. These data suggest that poultry producers can use these enzymes individually or together in feed for the Brown and White egg layers used in this study without concern for the strain of hen. PMID:16523630

Silversides, F G; Scott, T A; Korver, D R; Afsharmanesh, M; Hruby, M

2006-02-01

145

Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development  

PubMed Central

Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

2015-01-01

146

Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.  

PubMed

Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

2015-04-01

147

Individual sibling recognition in experimental broods of common tern chicks.  

PubMed

Studies of kin recognition in birds have usually examined parent-offspring recognition, while studies of sibling recognition are relatively rare. Using choice experiments, we studied the development of sibling recognition among common tern, Sterna hirundo, chicks and tested the cues used for recognition. We collected newly hatched common tern chicks and raised them in a laboratory in 10 artificial broods of three. Chicks showed a significant preference for broodmates ('siblings') over familiar nonsiblings (nonsiblings from neighbouring broods) when first tested at 4 days posthatching, earlier than previously reported. Preferential approach to siblings was most common in broods with low levels of intrabrood aggression. Responsiveness of test chicks was highest when test chicks and stimulus chicks could both see and hear each other and lowest when they could only hear each other. Sibling-biased approach did not depend on stimulus and test chicks seeing each other, only on test chicks seeing (and probably hearing) stimulus chicks. Surprisingly, no preference was shown for siblings over strange nonsiblings, suggesting that a preference for siblings may involve learning the identity of not only siblings, but also of chicks from neighbouring broods. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10458889

Palestis; Burger

1999-08-01

148

Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

Whittier, J.B.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2005-01-01

149

The inner perivitelline layer sperm-hole assay: use of filter paper rings for the isolation of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc and new observations on its morphology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sperm must penetrate the hen’s ovum (egg yolk) for fertilization. The inner perivitelline layer (IPL) is a fibrous protein mesh surrounding the ovum that the sperm attach to and then digest a hole through at the onset of the fertilization process. This process of sperm attachment and digestion of ...

150

Effect of natural zeolite on yolk:albumen ratio in hen eggs.  

PubMed

1. The egg yolk: albumen (Y:A) ratio during the laying year was investigated in a commercial strain (Hisex) when natural zeolite was added to a layer's diet. 2. Dietary natural zeolite (NZ) increased both egg weight and albumen weight, while yolk weight was not significantly affected. 3. The Y:A ratio was less (more albumen) in eggs laid by hens on zeolite treatments. It was concluded that by feeding NZ it is possible to alter the Y:A ratio. PMID:9800035

Yannakopoulos, A L; Tserveni-Gousi, A S; Christaki, E

1998-09-01

151

A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens  

PubMed Central

Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation. PMID:21345201

2011-01-01

152

Regulation of GABA content by glucose in the chick retina.  

PubMed

Some visual information is processed in the retina by ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling. Once retinal degeneration and visual impairment caused by diabetic retinopathy (DR) are affecting an increasing number of people worldwide, and the disease is characterized by hyper- and hypoglycemic events, the authors aimed to investigate how retinal GABA cell content is affected by variations in glucose availability. Using the ex vivo chick retinas exposed to different glucose concentrations, we observed that amacrine cells from both inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) as well as their processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) released GABA through GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) after 30 min of glucose deprivation. Extending this insult to 60 min triggered a permanent loss of GABA-positive amacrine cells, caused swelling of IPL and cell death. High glucose (35 mM) for 30 min induced an increment in GABA immunolabeling in both outer and inner retina. Further, glucose deprivation effects could not be reverted by basal glucose levels and high glucose did not prevent GABA loss upon a glucose deprivation insult. Therefore, GABA cell content is differently affected by short-term variations in glucose availability. While high glucose modulates outer and inner GABAergic circuits, glucose deprivation affects mainly the inner retina. Also, consecutive alteration in glucose supply was not able to rescue basal GABA content. Therefore, glucose oscillations interfering with GABAergic retinal functioning during early stages of retinopathies should be further investigated. PMID:23920155

Miya-Coreixas, Vivian Sayuri; Maggesissi Santos, Raquel; Carpi Santos, Raul; Gardino, Patrícia Franca; Calaza, Karin

2013-10-01

153

Histological changes during development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo exposed to a static magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Few studies have been performed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes that exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) can cause to the processes of cell migration and differentiation in the cerebellum during development. Thus, the authors have studied the development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo (n = 144) under a uniform SMF (20 mT). All of their observations were done on folium VIc of Larsell`s classification. The cerebella of chick embryos, which were exposed solely on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 13 of incubation [short exposure (S)1; n = 24], showed an external granular layer (EGL) that was less dense than the EGL in the control group (n = 24). The molecular layer (ML) exhibited a low number of migratory neuroblastic elements. Moreover, the internal granular layer (IGL) was immature, with the cellular elements less abundant and more dispersed than in controls. In chick embryos exposed on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 17 (S2; n = 24), the outstanding feature was the regeneration of the different layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex of chick embryos exposed continuously to an identical field from the beginning of the incubation up to day 13 [long exposure (L)1; n = 24] or day 17 (L2; n = 24) of incubation showed a higher number of alterations than that of group S1. Electron microscopy confirmed the findings from light microscopy and, at the same time, showed clear signs of cell degeneration and delay in the process of neuronal differentiation. This was more apparent in groups L1 (100%) and L2 (100%) than in groups S1 (95.4%) and S2 (65.2%). In conclusion, the present study showed that SMF can induce irreversible development effects on the processes of cell migration and differentiation of the chick cerebellar cortex.

Espinar, A.; Carmona, A.; Guerrero, J.M. [Univ. of Seville School of Medicine (Spain)] [Univ. of Seville School of Medicine (Spain); [Virgen Macarena Hospital, Seville (Spain); Piera, V. [Univ. of Rovirai Virgili School of Medicine, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences] [Univ. of Rovirai Virgili School of Medicine, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences

1997-03-01

154

Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick  

PubMed Central

The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

2014-01-01

155

Mycotoxin-contaminated diets and deactivating compound in laying hens: 1. effects on performance characteristics and relative organ weight.  

PubMed

The current experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets with aflatoxin (AFLA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and dietary inclusion of deactivation compound on layer hen performance during a 10-wk trial. The experimental design consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial with 4 toxin levels: control, low (0.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.0 mg/kg DON), medium (1.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.5 mg/kg DON), and high (2.0 mg/kg AFLA + 2.0 mg/kg DON) with or without the inclusion of deactivation compound. Three hundred eighty-four 25-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 1 of the 8 treatment groups. Birds were fed contaminated diets for a 6-wk phase of toxin administration followed by a 4-wk recovery phase, when all birds were fed mycotoxin-free diets. Twelve hens from each treatment were subjected to necropsy following each phase. Relative liver and kidney weights were increased (P < 0.05) at the medium and high toxin levels following the toxin phase, but the deactivation compound reduced (P < 0.05) relative liver and kidney weights following the recovery period. The high toxin level decreased (P < 0.05) feed consumption and egg production during the toxin period, whereas the deactivation compound increased (P < 0.05) egg production during the first 2 wk of the toxin phase. Egg weights were reduced (P < 0.05) in hens fed medium and high levels of toxin. An interaction existed between toxin level and deactivation compound inclusion with regard to feed conversion (g of feed/g of egg). High inclusion level of toxins increased feed conversion compared with the control diet, whereas deactivation compound inclusion reduced feed conversion to a level comparable with the control. These data indicate that deactivation compound can reduce or eliminate adverse effects of mycotoxicoses in peak-performing laying hens. PMID:22912441

Lee, J T; Jessen, K A; Beltran, R; Starkl, V; Schatzmayr, G; Borutova, R; Caldwell, D J

2012-09-01

156

Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks.  

E-print Network

t 1 BRARY, A & COLLEGE, CAhTPUS. :XAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 462 NOVEMBER, 1932 DIVISION OF POULTRY HUSBANDRY Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements... and it is probable that in many cases excessive amounts of minerals are being fed. Experiments were conducted in 1930 and 1931 to determine the lime and phosphoric acid requirements for growing chicks in order that definite recommendations regarding the use...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1932-01-01

157

Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

2012-01-01

158

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

159

Right hemisphere advantage for social recognition in the chick.  

PubMed

Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was studied in pair-reared chicks tested binocularly or with only one eye in use. Chicks were tested on day 3 in pairs composed of either cagemates or strangers. Social discrimination, as measured by the ratio "number of pecks at the strangers/total number of pecks" was impaired in right-eyed chicks with respect to left-eyed and binocular chicks. Male chicks showed higher levels of social pecking than females, and chicks that used both eyes showed higher pecking than monocular chicks. There were no significant differences in the total number of pecks (i.e. pecks at companions plus pecks at strangers) between right- and left-eyed chicks: the impairment in social discrimination of right-eyed chicks seemed to be due partly to a reduction in pecking at strangers and partly to an increase in pecking at companions. It is suggested that neural structures fed by the left eye (mainly located at the right hemisphere) are better at processing and/or storing of visual information which allows recognition of individual conspecifics. This may be part of a wider tendency to respond to small changes in any of a variety of intrinsic stimulus properties. PMID:1407491

Vallortigara, G

1992-09-01

160

Antecedents to Social Separation Effects in Domestic Chicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports two concurrent experiments which measured chicks' degree of imprinting to mechanical cohabitants and the relationship between preseparation behavior and reactions to the removal of the cohabitant. (JMB)

Rajecki, D. W.; And Others

1979-01-01

161

Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

2003-01-01

162

Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.  

PubMed

Bird embryogenesis takes place in a relatively protected environment that can be manipulated especially well in domestic fowl (chickens) where incubation has long been a commercial process. The embryonic developmental process has been shown to begin in the oviduct such that the embryo has attained either the blastodermal and/or gastrulation stage of development at oviposition. Bird embryos can be affected by "maternal effects," and by environmental conditions during the pre-incubation and incubation periods. "Maternal effects" has been described as an evolutionary mechanism that has provided the mother, by hormonal deposition into the yolk, with the potential to proactively influence the development of her progeny by exposing them to her particular hormonal pattern in such a manner as to influence their ability to cope with the expected wide range of environmental conditions that may occur post-hatching. Another important aspect of "maternal effects" is the effect of the maternal nutrient intake on progeny traits. From a commercial broiler chicken production perspective, it has been established that greater cumulative nutrient intake by the hen during her pullet rearing phase prior to photostimulation resulted in faster growing broiler progeny. Generally, maternal effects on progeny, which have both a genetic and an environmental component represented by yolk hormones deposition and embryo nutrient utilization, have an important effect on the development of a wide range of progeny traits. Furthermore, commercial embryo development during pre-incubation storage and incubation, as well as during incubation per se has been shown to largely depend upon temperature, while other environmental factors that include egg position during storage, and the amount of H2O and CO2 lost by the egg and the subsequent effect on albumen pH and height during storage have become important environmental factors to be considered for successful embryogenesis under commercial conditions. Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens. PMID:25158087

Yahav, S; Brake, J

2014-01-01

163

Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, Junior Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Ad? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1980 Maj or Subj ect: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, , Junior Approved as to style and content by: '(Member ) (Member (Head of Dep tment) August 1980 ABSTRACT...

Brister, Roy David

1980-01-01

164

Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.  

PubMed

This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

2009-01-01

165

Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

Cayan, H; Erener, G

2015-04-01

166

Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

2015-01-01

167

Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

1999-01-01

168

Neuropathological effects of triphenyl phosphite on the central nervous system of the hen (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

The neurotoxic effects of single subcutaneous injections of 1000 mg triphenyl phosphite (TPP)/kg body weight were investigated in White Leghorn hens. At 7 days postexposure, birds began to show signs of mild to moderate ataxia that progressed to severe ataxia and paralysis at 21 days. Inhibition of whole brain neuropathy target esterase was 85% at 48 hr and 73% by 21 days postexposure. After postexposure periods of 7, 14, and 21 days, hens were killed and their brains and spinal cords were examined for degenerating axons and terminals using the Fink-Heimer silver impregnation method. A small amount of degeneration was noted at 7 days. By 21 days, dense degeneration was noted in the spinal gray matter and funiculi. Degeneration was also present in the granular cell layer of cerebellar folia I-VI and in nuclei and fiber tracts of the medulla. Moderate to dense degeneration was also seen in several forebrain and midbrain areas including the paleostriatum, ansa lenticularis, the dorso-intermediate thalamic nucleus, lateral spiriform, pedunculopontine tegmental, and lateral mesencephalic nuclei and in the deeper layers of the optic tectum. These results indicate that, in addition to affecting the spinal cord and brainstem, exposure to TPP also damages higher order centers responsible for processing and integrating sensorimotor, visual, and auditory information. PMID:1601212

Tanaka, D; Bursian, S J; Lehning, E J

1992-01-01

169

Assessing thermal comfort of broiler chicks during brooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

170

Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

171

Gamma(2)-melanocyte stimulating hormone decreases food intake in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of gamma melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) in appetite regulation is controversial in mammals and to our knowledge unreported within the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered ?2-MSH on food intake using Cobb-500 chicks as models. In Experiment 1, chicks that received ICV ?2-MSH decreased their food intake throughout

Marissa L. Smith; Nicole A. Kohart; Brandon A. Newmyer; Mark A. Cline

2009-01-01

172

Spatially resolved kinematic observations of the planetary nebulae Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed integral field spectroscopy of the planetary nebulae Hen 3-1333 (PNG332.9-09.9) and Hen 2-113 (PNG321.0+03.9), which are unusual in exhibiting dual-dust chemistry and multipolar lobes but also ionized by late-type [WC 10] central stars. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H? emission line were used to determine their primary orientations. The integrated H? emission profiles indicate that Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113 expand with velocities of ˜32 and 23 km s-1, respectively. The Hubble Space Telescope observations suggest that these planetary nebulae have two pairs of tenuous lobes extending upwardly from their bright compact cores. From three-dimensional geometric models, the primary lobes of Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113 were found to have inclination angles of about -30° and 40° relative to the line of sight, and position angles of -15° and 65° measured east of north in the equatorial coordinate system, respectively.

Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A.

2015-04-01

173

Spatially resolved kinematic observations of the planetary nebulae Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113  

E-print Network

We have performed integral field spectroscopy of the planetary nebulae Hen 3-1333 (PNG332.9-09.9) and Hen 2-113 (PNG321.0+03.9), which are unusual in exhibiting dual-dust chemistry and multipolar lobes but also ionized by late-type [WC 10] central stars. The spatially resolved velocity distributions of the H$\\alpha$ emission line were used to determine their primary orientations. The integrated H$\\alpha$ emission profiles indicate that Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113 expand with velocities of ~ 32 and 23 km/s, respectively. The Hubble Space Telescope observations suggest that these planetary nebulae have two pairs of tenuous lobes extending upwardly from their bright compact cores. From three-dimensional geometric models, the primary lobes of Hen 3-1333 and Hen 2-113 were found to have inclination angles of about -30$^{\\circ}$ and 40$^{\\circ}$ relative to the line of sight, and position angles of -15$^{\\circ}$ and 65$^{\\circ}$ measured east of north in the equatorial coordinate system, respectively.

Danehkar, Ashkbiz

2015-01-01

174

Changes induces by haloperidol (antidepressant drug) on the developing retina of the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

Morphological and histological studies were done on the retina of chick embryos of 6th, 10th and 16th days of incubation by a single dose of haloperidol (0.25 mg/egg), injected on day zero and 5 of incubation. To get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development retina. Sign of malformation in the chick embryo after administration of haloperidol were seen as absent of the ear vesicles, eyes or decreased size of them. Retardation of growth of the retina at 6th, 10th and 16th days treated chick embryo were observed as evidenced of reduction of the size of the retina, associated with sign of degeneration of the retina cells. Conclusion The injection of haloperidol drug give rise to several side effects as retardation of growth and degeneration of the cells. The decrease of the thickness of the layers and less density of the cells was related to direct effect of the drug on the cells of this organ. Also on the DNA formation and on the retardation of cellular mitotic activates, therefore the retina appeared decrease in thickness and less cell density with degeneration its cells. PMID:23961047

Abd-Elmagid, Badria Fathy; Al-Ghamdi, Fawzyah Abdullah

2009-01-01

175

Parental preference for red mouth of chicks in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Parental preferences during feeding and care-giving may select for ornamental traits in young, such as bright coloration. For chicks of coots, there is experimental evidence for this idea. We examined the hypothesis that bright yellow, orange and red mouths of chicks of songbirds have been favoured by feeding preferences in parents. In a field experiment, the orange–yellow mouths of great tit nestlings were dyed brightly red, and the feeding response of parents recorded. In nest boxes with extra daylight through a window, experimental chicks were on average given twice as much food (biomass) as control chicks (sham dyed). In normal nest boxes, the tendency was similar, but not significant. Thus, at least in good light, great tit parents prefer to feed young with red mouths, a preference for colourfulness that helps explain the evolution of bright gapes in chicks of songbirds (passerine birds).

Götmark, F.; Ahlström, M.

1997-01-01

176

Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.  

PubMed

The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ?, values for the major, ?L, and minor, ?s, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

2015-04-01

177

Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).  

PubMed

Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ? 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ? 0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ? 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O

2007-03-01

178

Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens.  

PubMed

In each of five sequential trials, laying hens (56-72 wk of age) were challenged with Salmonella and Campylobacter, and 1 wk postinoculation, the challenged hens (n = 3) were commingled with nonchallenged hens (n = 12) in conventional wire cages, on all-wire slats, or on all-shavings floor housing systems. After 12 days, challenged and nonchallenged hens were euthanatized for sample collection. Ceca were aseptically collected from all hens, and the spleen, liver/gallbladder (LGB), lower (LRT) and upper (URT) reproductive tracts, and ovarian follicles (mature and immature) were collected from only the challenged hens after commingling. Samples were divided equally and cultured separately for Salmonella and Campylobacter. Differences in the horizontal transmission of the challenge Salmonella to nonchallenged hens housed in cages (12%), on slats (15%), and on shavings (14%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the challenged pen-mate hens over the five trials. However, with the inclusion of residual environmental Salmonella, the recovery of Salmonella from nonchallenged hens housed in cages was lowest at 15%, intermediate for hens on slats at 20%, and highest for hens on shavings at 38%. Among challenged hens housed in cages, Salmonella was recovered from only 27% of the cecum and LRT samples. From challenged hens housed on slats, Salmonella was recovered from 38% of the cecum, 12% of the spleen, 19% of the LGB, 44% of the LRT, and 19% of the URT samples. From challenged hens housed on shavings, Salmonella was recovered from 31% of the cecum; 15% of the spleen, LGB, and URT; and 31% of the LRT samples. Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter among nonchallenged pen-mate hens was significantly lower for hens housed in cages at 28% than for hens on shavings at 47%, with hens on slats being intermediate at 36%. For challenged hens housed in cages, Campylobacter was recovered from 27% of the cecum, 13% of the LRT, 7% of the URT, and 17% of the follicle samples. Among the challenged hens housed on slats, Campylobacter was recovered from 44% of the cecum, 6% of the spleen, 19% of the LGB, 12% of the LRT, 6% of the URT, and 14% of the follicle samples. Among challenged hens housed on shavings, Campylobacter was recovered from 46% of the cecum, 8% of the LRT and URT, and 40% of the follicle samples. The overall results of this study indicate that the caged housing system provided the lowest horizontal transmission level of Salmonella and Campylobacter among egg-laying hens. PMID:22312977

Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Buhr, R J

2011-12-01

179

Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.  

PubMed

Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. PMID:23294362

Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

2013-01-01

180

Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of Common Loon chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly

Kevin P. Kenow; Michael W. Meyer; Francois Fournier; William H. Karasov; Abdulaziz Elfessi; Steve Gutreuter

181

Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2011-01-01

182

NON-BREEDING NAZCA BOOBIES (SULA GRANTI) SHOW SOCIAL AND SEXUAL INTEREST IN CHICKS  

E-print Network

NON-BREEDING NAZCA BOOBIES (SULA GRANTI) SHOW SOCIAL AND SEXUAL INTEREST IN CHICKS: BEHAVIOURAL `unemployed' (non-breeding birds or recently failed breeders), and make visits of 1-60 min to unguarded chicks unemployed birds are male, due to a sex ratio bias, most NAVs are male. Very young chicks and chicks nearing

Anderson, David J.

183

Effects of Feed Restriction and Realimentation on Digestive and Immune Function in the Leghorn Chick  

E-print Network

Chick C. A. Fassbinder-Orth*1 and W. H. Karasov *Department of Zoology and Department of Wildlife cockerel chicks undergoing food restriction and realimentation. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Refed chicks exhibited 1 d of hyperphagy and an increase in apparent digestive efficiency following

Mladenoff, David

184

Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

185

Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

186

Identification of Mammosomatotrophs in the Turkey Hen Pituitary: Increased Abundance during  

E-print Network

turkey hens is associated with recruitment of lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. In this study we have- mosomatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of egg-laying turkey hens and incubating hens, and 2) verify PRL of the anterior pituitary gland, in the ventral half of the cephalic lobe, and at the junction of cephalic

Ramachandran, Ramesh

187

Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

188

Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

189

Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

2014-01-01

190

Association of Campylobacter jejuni with laying hens and eggs.  

PubMed Central

Laying hens were individually caged at 20 weeks of age and tested for fecal excretion of Campylobacter jejuni (minimum level of detection was 100 cfu/g) during a 42-week period. Peak rates of C. jejuni isolation (approximately 25% of hens positive) occurred at two different times, in October and in late April to early May. Before being segregated in late September, birds were allowed to consume fecal matter, litter, and communal drinking water, all likely sources of C. jejuni. The increased excretion rate in late April may have been due to a climatic change. A small portion (8.1%) of the hens chronically excreted (positive less than 30% of the sampling times) the organism, whereas C. jejuni was not detected in 33% of the hens, even though birds were likely exposed to the organism before being segregated. No correlation could be made between rates of C. jejuni excretion and egg production. Of 266 eggs from hens fecally excreting C. jejuni, the organism was isolated from two shell surfaces but no egg contents. Egg penetration studies revealed that the organism would not penetrate into the contents of the eggs but could be isolated occasionally from the inner shell and membranes of refrigerated eggs. PMID:6712220

Doyle, M P

1984-01-01

191

Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

1999-07-01

192

The use of proportion by young domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).  

PubMed

We investigated whether 4-day-old domestic chicks can discriminate proportions. Chicks were trained to respond, via food reinforcement, to one of the two stimuli, each characterized by different proportions of red and green areas (¼ vs. ¾). In Experiment 1, chicks approached the proportion associated with food, even if at test the spatial dispositions of the two areas were novel. In Experiment 2, chicks responded on the basis of proportion even when the testing stimuli were of enlarged dimensions, creating a conflict between the absolute positive area experienced during training and the relative proportion of the two areas. However, chicks could have responded on the basis of the overall colour (red or green) of the figures rather than proportion per se. To control for this objection, in Experiment 3, we used new pairs of testing stimuli, each depicting a different number of small squares on a white background (i.e. 1 green and 3 red vs. 3 green and 1 red or 5 green and 15 red vs. 5 red and 15 green). Chicks were again able to respond to the correct proportion, showing they discriminated on the basis of proportion of continuous quantities and not on the basis of the prevalent colour or on the absolute amount of it. Data indicate that chicks can track continuous quantities through various manipulations, suggesting that proportions are information that can be processed by very young animals. PMID:25539771

Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

2015-05-01

193

Guar meal ameliorates Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Guar meal contains relatively high levels of saponins, which are known to have antiprotozoal activity and may be effective against coccidiosis. A 2x2 factorial experiment investigated the impact of guar meal (0 or 5%) corn-soy-based starter broiler diets on chicks unchallenged or challenged with Eimeria tenella. At 1 day of age, 120 unsexed RossxRoss broiler chicks were randomly distributed among four treatment groups. Chicks were challenged with 5x10(3) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella in 0.5 ml at 10 days of age by oral gavage. Weekly body weight, body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were recorded for chicks fed from 0 to 21 days of age. Oocysts shed per gram feces were recorded from 6 to 10 days post-challenge. Results showed that challenged chicks fed 0% guar meal had significantly higher oocysts per gram shed in feces than the other groups. No significant differences among treatment groups in mortality rate were observed. Body weights of unchallenged and challenged chicks fed 0% guar meal were significantly higher than those fed 5% guar meal at 2 weeks of age. Results indicated that including 5% guar meal in the diet of chicks challenged with E. tenella decreased oocysts shed per gram feces and prevented bloody diarrhea, but without affects on body weight and feed conversion ratio at 11 days post-challenge. PMID:18715718

Hassan, Sherif M; El-Gayar, Amal K; Cadwell, David J; Bailey, Christopher A; Cartwright, Aubrey L

2008-10-20

194

Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

1999-01-01

195

High fiber low energy diet for molt induction in laying hens: the impact of alfalfa on physiology, immunology and behavior  

E-print Network

to lymphocyte ratios (H: L) to full-fed hens whereas the feed withdrawal hens displayed elevated (P ? 0.05) H: L ratios. The feed withdrawal hens displayed reduced (P ? 0.05) levels of serum IgY early in the trial when compared to the alfalfa and full-fed hens...

Dunkley, Claudia Sharene

2009-05-15

196

Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Cassava Yeast as Probiotic Source on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of cassava yeast as a probiotic source on laying hens performance and egg quality. Two hundred and sixteen Roman breed laying hens (26 week of age), were used. The laying hens were randomly allocated to 24 pens containing 9 laying hens each with 6 replicates and assigned to receive

Songsak Chumpawadee; Anut Chantiratikul; Suwannee Sataweesuk

2009-01-01

197

Interaction of human and chick DNA repair functions in UV-irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum-chick erythrocyte heterokaryons  

SciTech Connect

Fusion of chick erythrocytes with human primary fibroblasts results in the formation of heterokaryons in which the inactive chick nuclei become reactivated. The expression of chick DNA repair functions was investigated by the analysis of the DNA repair capacity after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of such heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick erythrocytes with normal human or xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells of complementation groups A, B, C and D. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in normal human nuclei in these heterokaryons is suppressed during the first 2-4 days after fusion. The extent and duration of this suppression is positively correlated with the number of chick nuclei in the heterokaryons. Suppression is absent in heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chicken embryonic fibroblasts with XP cells (complementation group A and C). Restoration of DNA repair synthesis is found after fusion in XP nuclei of all complementation groups studied. It occurs rapidly in XP group A nuclei, starting one day after fusion and reaching near normal human levels after 5-8 days. In nuceli of the B, C and D group increased levels of UDS are found 5 days after fusion. At 8 days after fusion the UDS level is about 50% of that found in normal human nuclei. The pattern of UDS observed in the chick nuclei parallels that of the human counterpart in the fusion. In heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick fibroblasts with XP group C cells UDS remains at the level of chick cells. These suggest that reactivation of chick erythrocyte nuclei results in expression of repair functions which are able to complement the defects in the XP complementation groups A, B, C and D.

Bootsma, D. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam, Netherlands); Keijzer, W.; Vander Veer, E.; Rainald, G.; De Weerd-Kastelein, E.A.

1982-01-01

198

Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.  

PubMed

Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

2015-03-01

199

Social hierarchies in very young chicks.  

PubMed

1. Three behavioural tests involving social competition were used to determine rank orders in groups of 8 male chicks aged between 4 and 18 days posthatching. 2. The group structure was found to consist of one or two dominant animals which consistently held a position at the top of the rank order, with a more flexible order beneath this. 3. Compared to the top-ranking birds, the middle- and lower-ranking birds showed more variability in their ranking positions across the behavioural tests and the testing periods. 4. Treatment of the lowest ranking individual in each group with testosterone led to this individual's rise in the rank order, most often to the top rank. PMID:2049630

Rogers, L J; Astiningsih, K

1991-03-01

200

Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

1986-01-01

201

Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.  

PubMed

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

2013-09-01

202

Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye.  

PubMed

We have developed a lightweight plastic goggle with rigid contact lens inserts that can be applied to the eyes of newly hatched chicks to explore the range and accuracy of the developmental mechanism that responds to retinal defocus. Convex and concave lenses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and +30 D were applied to one eye on the day of hatching. The chick eye responds accurately to defocus between -10 and +15 D, although hyperopia develops more rapidly than myopia. Beyond this range there is first a levelling off of the response and then a decrease. The resulting refractive errors are caused mainly by increases and decreases in axial length, although high levels of hyperopia are associated with corneal flattening. If +/- 10 D defocusing lenses are applied nine days after hatching the resulting myopia and hyperopia are equal to about 80% of the inducing power. After one week of inducing myopia and hyperopia with +/- 10 D lenses, the inducing lenses were reversed. In this case, the refractive error did not reach the power of the second lens after another week of wear. Instead, astigmatism in varying amounts (0-12 D) was produced, being greater when reversal was from plus to minus. Finally, astigmatism can also be produced by applying 9 D toric inducing lenses on the day of hatching. The astigmatism produced varies from 2 to 6 D, and the most myopic meridian coincides with the power meridian of the inducing lens. This astigmatism appears to be primarily due to corneal toricity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1293533

Irving, E L; Sivak, J G; Callender, M G

1992-10-01

203

Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.  

PubMed

Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24h (4 treatments×6 replicates per treatment×20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

2015-03-15

204

Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the developing chick embryo.  

PubMed

Before day 9 of incubation, chick embryos contain no measurable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity. Following day 9 of incubation, chick embryo liver ADH activity increases as a linear function of liver mass. A single dose of ethanol given at the start of incubation is cleared only slowly prior to day 9 of incubation but is completely cleared by day 13. Chick embryo liver ADH has two detectable isozymes throughout development. The percentage contribution of each isozyme to total ADH activity does not change significantly during development. The Km apparent of chick liver ADH is significantly increased shortly after hatching relative to the Km apparent of embryonic ADH. Ethanol exposure during incubation has no effect on the development of ADH activity or isozyme distribution. PMID:6365426

Wilson, R W; Kalmus, G W; Pennington, S N

1984-01-01

205

23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

206

Identification of the endothelin-1 receptor in the chick heart  

SciTech Connect

This study suggests that binding sites for endothelin-1 (ET-1) are distinct from those for dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and that ET-1 has its own specific receptors in chick cardiac membranes.

Miyazaki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Watanabe, H.; Hayashi, T.; Murakami, K.; Takahashi, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kimura, S.; Goto, K.; Masaki, T.

1989-01-01

207

Competitive Exclusion of Heterologous Campylobacter spp. in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken and human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were used to provide oral challenge of day-old broiler chicks. The isolation ratio of the competing challenge strains was monitored and varied, depending upon the isolates used. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay of the flagellin gene (flaA) was used to discriminate between the chick-colonizing isolates. Our observations indicated that the selected C.

HUI-CHENG CHEN; NORMAN J. STERN

2001-01-01

208

Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.  

PubMed

Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

1994-04-01

209

Effect of probiotic ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on performance of broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred, one-day-old male broiler chicks (Faobrow CD), were randomly assigned to 5 treatments (20 birds\\/treatment). Treatment groups were; Control diet without yeast addition (treatment 1), baker yeast 0.5% (treatment 2), baker yeast 1% (treatment 3), baker yeast 1.5% (treatment 4), baker yeast 2 % (treatment 5). Chicks were reared for 21 days. Body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion

A. M. Shareef; A. S. A. Al-Dabbagh

2009-01-01

210

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

211

DNA Repair in Human/Embryonic Chick Heterokaryons  

PubMed Central

Cultured human and embryonic chick fibroblasts possess different enzyme-mediated processes to repair cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers induced in their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. While dimers are corrected in human cells by excision repair, a photoenzymatic repair process exists in embryonic chick cells for the removal of these potentially deleterious UV photoproducts. We have utilized a sensitive enzymatic assay to monitor the disappearance, i.e. repair, of dimer-containing sites in fused populations of human and chick cells primarily consisting of multinucleate human/chick heterokaryons. Fused cultures were constructed such that UV photoproducts were present only in chick DNA when evaluating excision repair and only in human DNA when evaluating photoenzymatic repair. Based on the kinetics of site removal observed in these cultures we are led to conclude the following: Within heterokaryons per se the photoreactivating enzyme derived from chick nuclei and at least one excision-repair enzyme (presumably a UV endonuclease) derived from human nuclei act on UV-damaged DNA in foreign nuclei with an efficiency equal to that displayed toward their own nuclear DNA. Hence, after cell fusion these chick and human repair enzymes are apparently able to diffuse into foreign nuclei and once therein competently attack UV-irradiated DNA independently of its origin. In harmony with the situation in nonfused parental cultures, in heterokaryons the chick photoenzymatic repair process rapidly removed all dimer-containing sites from human DNA including the residual fraction normally acted upon slowly by the human excision-repair process. PMID:4474028

Paterson, M. C.; Lohman, P. H. M.; Westerveld, A.; Sluyter, M. L.

1974-01-01

212

Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks  

PubMed Central

Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2?=?0.7664, P?=?0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2?=?0.6406, P?=?0.0001) and food intake (R2?=?0.784, P?=?0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

2014-01-01

213

West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

2013-01-01

214

Bone strength and keel bone status of two layer strains kept in small group housing systems with different perch configurations and group sizes.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate whether an arrangement of perches at two different heights within individual compartments of small group systems (back perch elevated (BE), front perch elevated (FE) or both perches heightened (FBE)) combined with an enlarged group size would increase humerus and tibia bone breaking strength and impact keel bone status. Bone strength and keel bone status of two layer strains (LSL, LB) kept in small group systems (SG 40-60 (40, 60 hens), SG 20-30 (20, 30 hens) with different perch configurations) and furnished cages (FC, 10, 20 hens, perches in standard position) were compared in two trials. Investigations were carried out in the laying months 6 and 12, comprising a total of 576 hens. When all compartments of SG 40-60 had been incorporated with perches at two different heights, humerus and tibia bone strength in LSL layers significantly increased compared to FC, whereas keel bone status was negatively impacted. Within SG 40-60, BE and FE perches significantly increased humerus strength in LSL layers compared to FBE perches. LB layers had significantly higher bone strength in groups of 20 compared to 30 hens in SG 20-30, whereas no effect of group size was detected for LSL hens. Keeping hens in SG 40-60 with modified perch positions was associated with increased bone strength but brought about the problem of inferior keel bone status. PMID:19681397

Scholz, Britta; Rönchen, Swaantje; Hamann, Henning; Dist, Ottmar

2009-01-01

215

Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

216

A Reading of Henning Mankell's TheFifthWoman  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has been a golden age of detective fiction in the four Scandinavian countries: Sweden; Denmark; Norway; and Iceland. If Henning Mankell stands in the first rank of Nordic mystery writers, it is because he takes the type of book known in Sweden as a \\

JOHN LINGARD

217

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink G. B. Henning  

E-print Network

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink noise G. B. Henning The Sensory Research Unit- tectable than any of its components. However, in contrast-discrimination experiments, with a pedestal the discrimination performance of the pulse train relative to that obtained with its sinusoidal components. We

218

Total version of the domination game Michael A. Henning a  

E-print Network

Total version of the domination game Michael A. Henning a Sandi Klavzar b,c,d Douglas F. Rall e [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 24 (2010) 979­991]. We study the total version of the domination game and show that these two versions differ significantly. We present a key lemma, known as the Total Continuation Principle

Klavzar, Sandi

219

Total Domination Game Played in Forests Michael A. Henning a  

E-print Network

Total Domination Game Played in Forests Michael A. Henning a Sandi Klavzar b,c,d Douglas F. Rall e The recently introduced total domination game is studied. This game is played on a graph G by two players vertex totally dominates at least one vertex not totally dominated by the vertices previously chosen

Klavzar, Sandi

220

UTILITY OF POULT-HEN COUNTS TO INDEX  

E-print Network

Marcos, TX 78666, USA Abstract: Many states use poult-hen counts to index wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) population parameters such as reproduction, recruitment, and density. Texas Parks and Wildlife be obtained. Proceedings of the National Wild Turkey Symposium 9:159­168 Key words: density, Kansas, Meleagris

221

By Michael Timm hen heavy rains and flooding  

E-print Network

9 9 By Michael Timm W hen heavy rains and flooding collapsed an East Side manhole, turning an urban agreement about a pre- cipitation increase in late winter and spring. "Most of flooding takes place- creases in stormwater runoff could overwhelm existing infrastructure, resulting in greater flood risk

Sheridan, Jennifer

222

Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

2011-09-01

223

Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester on chick liver.  

PubMed

Fertilized hen eggs were externally treated with 3.1 mg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D ester) before starting incubation. Liver lipid composition, (14C)2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution and covalent binding to proteins and lipids of chicks hatched from these eggs were studied. Furthermore, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-phosphatase activities as well as reduced glutathione content were determined. The herbicide produced a significant decrease on the total lipids, specially on phospholipids, both in total liver and microsomes. (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution in liver demonstrated that the herbicide passed through the plasmatic membrane and it was present in all the studied fractions. Herbicide bound covalently to hepatic proteins and lipids, being the binding to proteins tenfold higher than to lipids. Because these results might be of potential relevance to the understanding of the 2,4-D toxicity, further studies on the mechanisms of these reactions are necessary. On the other hand, the microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases activities remained unchanged, even though in vitro studies 2,4-D ester caused a decrease of the enzyme activities with an I50 value of 0.2 mM. No significant change in reduced glutathione content between control and treated livers was observed. The catalase activity increased two-fold whereas glucose 6-phosphatase activity decreased 46% with respect to the corresponding control values. These results indicate that 2,4-D ester may have effects on the metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:8368864

Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Fabra de Peretti, A; Castro de Cantarini, S; Duffard, R

1993-08-01

224

Epithelial cell tumors of the hen reproductive tract.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of preclinical models that simulate the development of ovarian tumors in humans. At present, the egg-laying hen appears to be the most promising model to study the spontaneous occurrence of ovarian tumors in the clinical setting. Although gross classification and histologic grade of tumors have been used prognostically in women with ovarian tumors, there is currently no single system that is universally used to classify reproductive tumors in the hen. Four hundred and one 192-wk-old egg-laying hens were necropsied to determine the incidence of reproductive tumors using both gross pathology and histologic classification. Gross pathologic classifications were designated as follows: birds presenting with ovarian tumors only (class 1), those presenting with oviductal and ovarian tumors (class 2), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract (class 3), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract and other distant organs (class 4), those with oviductal tumors only (class 5), those with oviductal tumors that metastasized to other organs with no ovarian involvement (class 6), and those with ovarian tumors that metastasized to other organs with no oviductal involvement (class 7), including birds with gastrointestinal tumors and no reproductive involvement (GI only) and those with no tumors (normal). Histopathologic classifications range from grades 1 to 3 and are based on mitotic developments and cellular differentiation. An updated gross pathology and histologic classification systems for the hen reproductive malignancies provides a method to report the range of reproductive tumors revealed in a flock of aged laying hens. PMID:24758120

Harris, Elizabeth A; Fletcher, Oscar J; Anderson, Kenneth E; Petitte, James N; Kopelovich, Levy; Mozdziak, Paul E

2014-03-01

225

Vitamin A nutrition of growing cockatiel chicks (Nymphicus hollandicus).  

PubMed

The experiments examined the physiological response of growing cockatiel chicks to varying levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) or beta-carotene and the rate of liver VA uptake. Adult cockatiels breeding pairs (n=10 pairs) were fed a VA-deficient diet for approximately 90 days prior to onset of egg laying. Breeding pairs were then allowed to feed their chicks diets containing either 0 IU VA/kg, 4000 IU VA/kg, or 2.4 mg beta-carotene/kg. After 5 weeks, chicks fed 0 IU VA developed poor feathering, facial dermatitis and reduced body weight (p<0.05). Liver VA was higher in chicks fed 4,000 IU VA or 2.4 mg beta-carotene vs. those fed 0 IU VA (p<0.05). Duodenal beta-actin and 15,15'-dioxygenase mRNA expression was similar to that of growing chickens, and greatest for cockatiel chicks fed 0 IU VA (p<0.01). Chicks fed 0 IU VA had keratinization of the bursa and oral mucosa, and reduced bursa development and lymphocyte density (p<0.05). Finally, when chicks fed 0 IU VA were orally gavaged with 20 IU VA/g body weight, maximal liver retinol uptake occurred between 0 and 24 h and reached a plateau at 36 h. These data demonstrate that VA deficiency can be prevented with 4,000 IU VA/kg diet or 2.4 mg beta-carotene/kg diet, although beta-carotene conversion to VA may be lower in cockatiels than chickens. PMID:16401189

Koutsos, E A; Klasing, K C

2005-12-01

226

Leucocyte profiles and corticosterone in chicks of southern rockhopper penguins.  

PubMed

The immune system is essential for health and survival of vertebrates, yet still little is known about the ontogeny of the immune system in wild birds. The southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) is a semi-altricial seabird with a long developmental period and reversed hatching asynchrony, favouring the survival of B-chicks. We compared leucocyte counts and baseline corticosterone levels of southern rockhopper penguin chicks under different preconditions such as sex and origin from an A- or B-egg from 4 to 51 days of age. We conducted an experiment to compare leucocyte profiles and baseline corticosterone levels in A- and B-chicks in single-egg clutches as well as in B-chicks from normal two egg-clutches (one A- and one B-egg). None of these treatments influenced leucocyte counts or corticosterone levels, indicating a similar investment in the immune system. Our main finding was an increase of leucocytes/10,000 erythrocytes with age, which was mainly caused by an increase in lymphocyte numbers. This suggests differential investment into acquired immunity at this stage of development. As the granulocyte/lymphocyte (G/L) ratio did not change with age or body condition, G/L ratios seem not to reflect stress caused by poor provisioning of penguin chicks. This was also reinforced by the decrease of plasma corticosterone levels with age. Body condition was negatively correlated with monocyte numbers, suggesting a poorer health status of penguin chicks in poorer body condition. Yet, there was no link between body condition and other leucocyte parameters, indicating that chicks in a good body condition did not additionally invest into their immune system. PMID:20721561

Dehnhard, Nina; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J; Quillfeldt, Petra

2011-01-01

227

Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

228

Some "Scientific" Observations on Mother Birds Whose Chicks Can't Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in allegory form are the reactions of seven mother birds upon discovering that their chicks, although apparently healthy, are not flying (that is, have learning disabilities) at the time considered normal for chicks. (CB)

Avis, Rara

1972-01-01

229

Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.  

PubMed

The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation. PMID:2801995

Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

1989-10-01

230

Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1991-03-15

231

Effects of dietary phosphorus and high ambient temperature on egg shell quality in hens  

E-print Network

Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C, R. Creger Egg shell quality and associated egg production traits were determined on laying hens fed three different diets anc1 maintained at two ambient temperatures. Commier- c ial laying hen diets were fed... temperature. mortality decreased with increasing phos- phorus content oi the diet. The activity of serum alkaline phosphatase and creat'ne phosphokinase was inversely related to the phosphorus content of the di. et. It was concluded that hens fed a diet...

Bailey, Christopher Anthony

1979-01-01

232

Hen eggs poisoned with sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) for control of stoats (Mustela erminea) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of stoats (Mustela erminea) using sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) injected into hen eggs was investigated in pen and field trials. For captive stoats, the LD50 of 1080 in hen eggs was 0.49 mg\\/kg and the LD90 was 0.70 mg\\/kg. In a field efficacy trial using 1080?poisoned hen eggs in bait stations, consumption of eggs was reduced by 91.9% in the

E. B. Spurr

2000-01-01

233

Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.  

PubMed

Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

2013-09-01

234

Effect of administration of Lactobacillus salivarius and lactic microflora in chick digestive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive exclusion against Salmonella by Lactobacillus salivarius and lac- tic microbial associations, was checked in chicks intestinal tract and compared with faecal microbial content from adult chickens. Moreover the weight increase of differently treated chicks was evaluated. The treatment of chicks with faecal suspension gave an high protec- tion factor towards Salmonella, but inhibited weight increase of animals. The addition

C. ZACCONI; G. SCOLARI; P. G. SARRA

235

Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

1998-01-01

236

Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus  

E-print Network

Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus Carly M. Nickerson, Laurie L from the black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus "chick-a-dee" call. Each individual note notes of the "chick-a-dee" call of the black- capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus . A. Note

Dawson, Michael

237

Food allocation in crimson rosella broods: parents differ in their responses to chick hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allocation in many asynchronously hatching bird species favours large, competitively superior chicks. In contrast, food is usually distributed equally within broods of crimson rosellas, Platycercus elegans, implying that parents do not simply feed the most competitive chick. We used two temporary removal experiments to manipulate hunger of: (1) individual first- or last-hatched chicks, or (2) the whole brood. When

Elizabeth A. Krebs; Robert D. Magrath

2000-01-01

238

Exclusion of ground predators improves Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus chick survival  

E-print Network

Exclusion of ground predators improves Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus chick survival OLIVIA chick survival between hatching and fledging. Most studies have focused on nest failures, and the factors affecting post-hatching survival of chicks are poorly known. In an experimental approach, we

Richner, Heinz

239

A subset of clones in the chick telencephalon arranged in rostrocaudal arrays  

E-print Network

A subset of clones in the chick telencephalon arranged in rostrocaudal arrays Francis G. Szele different rules during development for determining the position of sibling cells. For example, in the chick of clonal distribution in the chick telencephalon is similar to that of the hindbrain or to the more

Tabin, Cliff

240

Influence of experimental hypothyroidism on chick myogenesis F. BACOU, Monique JALLAGEAS J. NOUGUES, P. VIGNERON  

E-print Network

Influence of experimental hypothyroidism on chick myogenesis F. BACOU, Monique JALLAGEAS J. NOUGUES on chick myogenesis of hypothyroid status induced in ovo by methimazole was histologically (number studied the role of the thyroid hormone on myogenesis during embryonic life in the chick. By inhibiting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

Asymmetric expression of Syndecan-2 in early chick embryogenesis Takahiro Fukumoto, Michael Levin*  

E-print Network

Asymmetric expression of Syndecan-2 in early chick embryogenesis Takahiro Fukumoto, Michael Levin streak between st. 1 and 3 in the chick embryo, and is restricted to the rostral and caudal tips transcript in the chick embryo and indicate that in contrast to protein-level asymmetries, which underlie

Levin, Michael

242

The effects of the gut microflora on the digestibility of starch and proteins in young chicks  

E-print Network

NOTE The effects of the gut microflora on the digestibility of starch and proteins in young chicks- tional (CV) young chicks. A nutritional balance was conducted to assess the digestibility coefficients.01) improved in GF chicks. 1. Introduction KUSSAIBATI et al. (1982) demonstrated that apparent or true

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Effects of early odor exposure in domestic chicks Richard H. Portera Michel Picardb  

E-print Network

Effects of early odor exposure in domestic chicks Richard H. Portera Michel Picardb a Laboratoire d on subsequent responses by chicks to that same scent were assessed. When tested with an orange-treated and an unscented container, chicks that had been previously exposed to orange odor more rapidly approached both

Boyer, Edmond

244

The chick embryo past, present and future as a model system in developmental biology  

E-print Network

Preface The chick embryo ­ past, present and future as a model system in developmental biology the debate between Preformation and Epigenesis was starting to gather momentum and the chick embryo was often to contribute to the debate, William Harvey (1578­1657) observed chick embryos at early stages of development

Stern, Claudio

245

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Bulgaria Cicer arietinum (chick pea), is one of the elements of the Neolithic founder crop assemblage, that chick pea did not appear in the archaeobotanical record during the first stages of the Bulgarian

Marinova, Elena

246

Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?  

E-print Network

500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate­high metabolism

Williams, Jos. B.

247

Correlating Global Gene Regulation to Angiogenesis in the Developing Chick Extra-Embryonic Vascular System  

E-print Network

Correlating Global Gene Regulation to Angiogenesis in the Developing Chick Extra-Embryonic Vascular of the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM), a highly vascularized tissue, using pan genomic microarrays Chick Extra- Embryonic Vascular System. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007856 Editor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

lodohormones in the serum of chick embryos and post-hatching chickens as influenced  

E-print Network

lodohormones in the serum of chick embryos and post-hatching chickens as influenced by incubation in developing chick embryos of the Rhode Island Red strain incubated at different temperatures in a forced, levels as compared to embryos without perforation. The presence of high serum T3 levels in chick embryos

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Expression of novel potassium channels in the chick basilar papilla Karen Mason  

E-print Network

Expression of novel potassium channels in the chick basilar papilla Karen Mason , Franklin V the channels responsible for several currents in the chick basilar papilla. Here we describe an inward- rectifying K channel, cKir2.3, present in both hair cells and support cells in the apical end of the chick

Rubel, Edwin

250

Control (CL) and quality (QL) chicks were fed ad libitum on isoenergetic diets  

E-print Network

Control (CL) and quality (QL) chicks were fed ad libitum on isoenergetic diets containing 20% crude by two-way Anova. QL chicks exhibited slightly higher body and breast muscle weights than the CL (P > 0. Consequently, their dietary requirement was lower. In chicks fed on an adequate lysine intake, muscle protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Gene expression pattern Sox-9 and cDachsund-2 expression in the developing chick telencephalon  

E-print Network

Gene expression pattern Sox-9 and cDachsund-2 expression in the developing chick telencephalon, and of the nuclear factor, cDachsund-2, were examined in the developing chick telencephalon. Both genes were in the neostriatum and in subdivisions of the hyperstriatum embryonically and in posthatch chicks. q 2002 Elsevier

Tabin, Cliff

252

Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

1990-01-01

253

Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

2013-01-01

254

Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

2007-06-01

255

Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  

PubMed

Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P < 0.001] than their respective controls. Among H-DXL hens, egg weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions. PMID:23300291

Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

2013-02-01

256

Predicting and scaling hens' preferences for topographically different responses  

PubMed Central

Six hens were exposed to several concurrent (second-order) variable-interval schedules in which the response requirements on the alternatives were varied. The response requirements were one key peck versus five key pecks, one key peck versus one door push, and five key pecks versus one door push. Response- and time-allocation ratios undermatched the obtained reinforcement ratios but were well described by the generalized matching law. Time and response bias estimates from two pairs of response requirements were used to predict bias in the third pairing. The predicted values were close to those obtained; this result supports the notion that both numerically and topographically different responses act as constant sources of bias within the generalized matching law. The differences between the response and time biases could be accounted for by the different times needed to complete each response requirement. The results also suggest that the door push is a useful operant for research with domestic hens. PMID:16812754

Sumpter, Catherine E.; Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William

1995-01-01

257

Tenderisation of spent hen meat using ginger extract.  

PubMed

1. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of ginger extract (GE) on tenderness of spent hen meat. 2. Spent hen meat chunks at either the pre- or post-chilled stage were marinated with different concentrations (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% v/w) of GE and were evaluated after 24 h of treatment. 3. GE treatment increased the pH, moisture, cooking yield, total pigments, water holding capacity, collagen solubility, protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter and decreased the shear force values. 4. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in GE treated samples. 5. Tenderness scores were higher in samples treated at post-chilled stage. Of the different concentrations of GE examined, 3% was found optimum for tenderisation. PMID:11469554

Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K

2001-07-01

258

Ontogeny of bipedal locomotion: walking and running in the chick.  

PubMed Central

1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the production of an energy-efficient bipedal walk is an innate attribute of a precocial bird. 2. The locomotor characteristics of hatchling chicks were quantified using kinetic (ground reaction forces) and kinematic (stride length, leg support duration) measurements as the animals moved overground unrestrained. All measurements were made over a range of velocities and at regular intervals throughout the first 2 weeks of life. 3. Ground reaction force records showed that, like all terrestrial walking vertebrates, chicks undergo cyclical increases and decreases in the body's potential and kinetic energy with each step. The out-of-phase exchange of potential with kinetic energy is an efficient mechanism for the conservation of energy during walking. However, comparisons between chicks at posthatching (P) days 1-2 and P14 revealed that P1-2 chicks are unable to conserve energy because they walk with disproportionately small potential energy oscillations. During running, however, the oscillations between potential and kinetic energy are similar for both P1-2 and P14 animals. 4. P1-2 chicks also walk with a shorter stride length than P14 chicks. Examination of limb support durations shows that younger animals (P1-2, P3) spend less time in single limb support than P14 animals during walking but not running. 5. The results show that even highly precocial bipeds need to acquire the ability to walk in a controlled and energy efficient manner, although they can innately run as well as an adult. This disparity could be due to the distinct actions of the legs in these two behaviours, and the requirement for longer durations of single leg support during walking. These differences relate to constraints inherent to bipedal locomotion and many of the locomotor changes occurring in the first weeks after hatching may therefore be analogous to similar changes seen during human locomotor development. PMID:8782119

Muir, G D; Gosline, J M; Steeves, J D

1996-01-01

259

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

1. The influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the antioxidant status in the absence or presence of endotoxin exposure was studied with male broiler chicks. 2. In experiment 1, a total of 240 1-d-old broilers were allotted into 4 dietary groups (0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g pure CLA/kg) to study the influence of CLA on growth performance and antioxidant defence systems. The results showed that growth performance was not altered by 42 d of CLA consumption. Increased total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activities in liver, serum and muscle were observed in chicks given 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. Dietary CLA at 10.0 g/kg also markedly elevated liver catalase (CAT) activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased in liver, serum and muscle in chicks given 5.0 and 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. 3. In experiment 2, a total of 120 1-d-old broilers were fed on a control diet (without CLA) or 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. Half of the birds fed on each diet were injected intraperitoneally with 0.25 mg/kg body weight of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. Decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), TSOD activity and increased ceruloplasmin and MDA concentrations were seen in the challenged chicks. Dietary CLA prevented the loss of body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of chicks followed repeated endotoxin exposure. CLA partially inhibited the increase of serum ceruloplasmin and MDA at 17 and 21 d of age and notably suppressed the decrease of serum TSOD activity at 21 d of age. 4. These results suggested that dietary CLA enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes including TSOD and CAT. Supplementation of CLA has been shown to ameliorate the antioxidant balance and performance of chicks during oxidative stress. PMID:18409096

Zhang, H J; Tian, Y D; Guo, Y M; Yuan, J M

2008-03-01

260

Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light  

PubMed Central

In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of ‘normal’ eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 ± 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg ± 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P ? 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 ± 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 ± 0.018 (SE) mm2 day?1 for normal chicks, P ? 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 ± 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm?2 in the central cornea and 393 ± 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm?2peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P ? 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth. PMID:19245502

Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

2009-01-01

261

Thermal panting and respiratory alkalosis in the laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Changes in respiratory rate (f), rectal temperature (Tr) and blood acid?base values were measured in laying hens exposed to ambient temperatures (Ta) of 32, 35, 38 or 41 °G.2. At Ta 32 °G there was no panting. At Ta 35 °G panting occurred without any increase in Tr but there was a slight alkalosis (pH 7.55).3. At Ta 38

H. El Hadi; A. H. Sykes

1982-01-01

262

Phase feeding of protein and energy for laying hens  

E-print Network

. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Introduction. Literature Review. Experimental Procedure. Results and Discussion. 22 Summary and Conclusions. Bibliography LIST OP TABLES Table Page Composition of the experimental diets Experimental design showing... the dietary treatments schedule. . . . . 16 Protein and energy values used in calculating the diets. . . . 18 Sources of variation and degrees of freedom 20 Percent mortality, average body weight, hen-day production and egg weight as influenced by diet...

Zotz, Joseph Ernest

1967-01-01

263

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing (n-1-/sup 14/C) octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

Franchini, A.; Piretti, M.V.; Tubertini, O.; Govoni, S.; Sapigni, R.

1984-12-01

264

Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

1985-01-01

265

Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.  

PubMed

Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken. PMID:23542656

Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

2013-07-01

266

[Respiration and glycolysis in the liver of developing chick embryos and chicks].  

PubMed

Oxygen uptake in liver slices remains constant between the 12th and the 17th days of embryonic development, being equal to that in 30-60-day chicks. During the transition from allantoic respiration to the pulmonary one, oxygen consumption decreases, the decrease being observed up to the end of embryonic period. After hatching, oxygen consumption increases 4-5-fold to the 6-7th and decreases up to the initial level at the 10th day. Respiration of mitochondria isolated from the liver and concentration of cytochromes in mitochondria remain constant. The value P/O is the lowest, whereas catalase activity is the highest during hatching. The intensity of anaerobic glycolysis changes similarly to that of respiration. PMID:1217311

Golovachev, A F; Nadal'yak, E A

1975-01-01

267

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.  

PubMed

Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

2008-02-01

268

Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks.  

PubMed

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume = 13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. PMID:15650085

Dusek, Robert J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Forrester, Donald J; Greiner, Ellis C

2004-10-01

269

Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

2004-01-01

270

Factors affecting the solution of a parental dilemma in albatrosses: at what age should chicks be left unattended?  

E-print Network

Factors affecting the solution of a parental dilemma in albatrosses: at what age should chicks, by swapping chicks between nests. Parents given chicks 6 days older than their own shortened brooding by only 1.2 days, and parents given chicks 6 days younger than their own exte- nded brooding by 1.4 days

271

Namibian chicks set out on their first journey By Dr Richard B. Sherley (Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town)  

E-print Network

Namibian chicks set out on their first journey By Dr Richard B. Sherley (Animal Demography Unit fledgling African Penguins from colonies in the Western Cape. In 2011, five hand-reared chicks were tracked and in 2012 three hand-reared chicks were released from Robben Island, shortly behind three wild chicks

de Villiers, Marienne

272

Effect of an acidifying diet combined with zeolite and slight protein reduction on air emissions from laying hens of different ages.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a reduced-emission (RE) diet containing 6.9% of a CaSO(4)-zeolite mixture and slightly reduced CP to 21-, 38-, and 59-wk-old Hy-Line W-36 hens (trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) on egg production and emissions of NH(3), H(2)S, NO, NO(2), CO(2), CH(4), and non-CH(4) total hydrocarbons as compared with feeding a commercial (CM) diet. At each age, 640 hens were allocated, randomly to 8 environmental chambers for a 3-wk period. On an analyzed basis, the CM diet contained 18.0, 17.0, and 16.2% CP and 0.25, 0.18, and 0.20% S in trials 1, 2, and 3, and the RE diet contained 17.0, 15.5, and 15.6% CP and 0.99, 1.20, and 1.10% S in trials 1, 2, and 3. Diets were formulated to contain similar Ca and P contents. Average daily egg weight (56.3 g), average daily egg production (81%), average daily feed intake (92.4 g), and BW change (23.5 g), across ages, were unaffected by diet (P > 0.05) over the study period. Age effects were observed for all performance variables and NH(3) emissions (P < 0.05). In trials 1, 2, and 3, daily NH(3) emissions from hens fed the RE diets (185.5, 312.2, and 333.5 mg/bird) were less than emissions from hens fed the CM diet (255.1, 560.6, and 616.3 mg/bird; P < 0.01). Daily emissions of H(2)S across trials from hens fed the RE diet were 4.08 mg/bird compared with 1.32 mg/bird from hens fed the CM diet (P < 0.01). Diet (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.05) affected emissions of CO(2) and CH(4). A diet effect (P < 0.01) on NO emissions was observed. No diet or age effects (P > 0.05) were observed for NO(2) or non-CH(4) total hydrocarbons. Results demonstrated that diet and layer age influence air emissions from poultry operations. PMID:17179435

Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

2007-01-01

273

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

274

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

275

Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

276

Infectious bronchitis in laying hens: The relationship between haemagglutination inhibition antibody levels and resistance to experimental challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three separate and unrelated experiments, in which vaccinated hens were challenged with virulent infectious bronchitis virus, the ability of individual hens to maintain egg production was related to their serum haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre at the time of challenge.It was found that, regardless of the vaccination programme used, the ability of laying hens to withstand infectious bronchitis virus challenge,

P. G. Box; H. C. Holmes; P. M. Finney; R. Froymann

1988-01-01

277

Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

Hoffman, D.J.

1978-01-01

278

PENICILLIN MYCELIUM RESIDUE FEEDING IN WHITE LEGHORN CHICKS  

E-print Network

PENICILLIN MYCELIUM RESIDUE FEEDING IN WHITE LEGHORN CHICKS A.D. ANJUM, M.Z. KHAN M.A. TOOR M ALIMENTATION DE POULETS LEGHORN BLANC AVEC UN RESIDU DE FABRICATION DE LA PENICILLINE. - La compétition'alimentation du poulet en croissance. Introduction. Penicillin Mycelium Residue (PMR) is a semisolid mass left

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN OSPREY CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and

John E. Elliott; Laurie K. Wilson; Charles J. Henny; Suzanne F. Trudeau; Frederick A. Leighton; Sean W. Kennedy; Kimberly M. Cheng

2001-01-01

280

Sensory Organ Generation in the Chick Inner Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a total of eight sensory organs in the chick inner ear. Each sensory organ has a distinct structure tailored for its function, and its morphology is well characterized. However, the origin of these sensory organs and the lineage relationships among them are largely unknown. In this report, we show that BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein), a secreted protein of

Doris K. Wu; Seung-Ha Oh

1996-01-01

281

Induced Refractive Anomalies Affect Chick Orbital Bone Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have shown that it is possible to induce ametropias (myopia and hyperopia) in the eyes of young animals by distorting early visual experience through the use of negative and positive defocussing lenses mounted over the eye. Defocus lenses (+15 and ?15 diopters) were mounted unilaterally over one eye of day old broiler chicks using a contact lens—goggle and velcro

K. T. WILSON; J. G. SIVAK; M. G. CALLENDER

1997-01-01

282

Systemic sclerosis stimulates angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin biopsies from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were investigated for their angiogenic activity by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Ten samples of SSc and 10 of normal skin from age- and sex-matched subjects were grafted onto the CAM, and the angiogenic response in pathological and control implants was assessed on histological sections by a planimetric point-count

D. Ribatti; F. P. Cantatore; A. Vacca; M. D'Amore; R. Ria; L. Roncali; V. Pipitone

1998-01-01

283

Chick clique: persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a preventative health cell phone application that helps motivate teenage girls to exercise by exploiting their social desire to stay connected with their peers. We targeted girls because they are more likely to become less active throughout adolescence and are more likely to use dangerous techniques for losing weight. The intent of Chick Clique is to provide

Tammy Toscos; Anne M. Faber; An Shunying; Mona Praful Gandhi

2006-01-01

284

The acquisition of neural fate in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural development in the chick embryo is now understood in great detail on a cellular and a molecular level. It begins already before gastrulation, when a separation of neural and epidermal cell fates occurs under the contol of FGF and BMP\\/Wnt signalling, respectively. This early specification becomes further refined around the tip of the primitive streak, until finally the anterior–posterior

Lars Wittler; Michael Kessel

2004-01-01

285

Women Talk: Chick Lit TV and the Dialogues of Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subgenre of the chick-lit television series, best exemplified in programs such as Sex and the City, Lipstick Jungle, and The Cashmere Mafia, has often been the subject of postfeminist critique. This article examines this subgenre as intertextually related cluster texts that function through internal and intertextual dialogism. It explores these programs' focus on discursivity, multiplicity, and performativity in order

Kyra Hunting

2012-01-01

286

INTERRELATION OF METHIONINE, CHOLINE, BETAINE AND ARSENOCHOLINE IN THE CHICK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preceding report (Grau and Almquist, '43) we have shown that the choline-deficient chick can utilize homocystine in lieu of cystine, but not in lieu of methionine. Results of additional studies, which include the effect of methionine, betaine and arsenocholine as substitutes for choline, may now be presented. The general procedure and the basal diet have been described in

H. J. ALMQUIST; C. K. GEAU

287

Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

Rossman, Gabriel

2004-01-01

288

Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

Downie, J. R.

1979-01-01

289

Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

2012-01-01

290

The Oldest Bird in the Northern Hemisphere Raises a Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Laysan albatross named Wisdom, is at least 60 years old and was spotted in February 2011 raising a chick at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Islands. The bird has sported and worn out 5 bird bands since she was first banded by U.S. Geological Survey scientist Chandler Robbi...

291

Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and

Krimpen van M. M; T. Veldkamp; G. P. Binnendijk; Veer de R

2010-01-01

292

Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

2014-11-01

293

Effect of Feeding Artichoke Leaves Meal on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Mandarah Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main target of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Artichoke Leaves Meal (ALM) on productive and reproductive performance of Mandarah hens. In this study, a total number of 300 Mandarah hens and 30 Mandarah cocks, 28 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 10 groups and fed on the experimental diets, six levels of ALM (2,

Nadia L. Radwan; Zeinab M. A. Abdo; R. A. Hassan

2007-01-01

294

Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens  

E-print Network

capacity of the anterior pituitary gland is hypothesized to be increased in incubating turkey hens (ElChanges in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens of this study was to compare the immuno- cytochemical changes in pituitary lactotrophs and somato- trophs

Ramachandran, Ramesh

295

RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM SEGMENTS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF BROILER BREEDER HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three groups of 60+ week old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of their reproductive tracts. In the first group, after processing through defeathering, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from eighteen hens, six from each of three adjac...

296

Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in two strains of laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress is a problem for both egg production and hen well-being. Given a stressor, genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens’ responses and their adaptation. This study examined heat stress responses of two strains of White Leghorns: Dekalb XL (DXL), a commercial strain individually ...

297

Changes in pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs associated with ovarian regression in the turkey hen ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with incubation behavior and ovarian regression in turkey hens. Preliminary data show that tamoxifen, a partial estradiol receptor antagonist, may effect ovarian regression. The objectives of the study were to induce ovarian regression in egg-laying turkey hens by administration of tamoxifen, to determine whether incubation behavior would be effected by tamoxifen treatment and to examine the

Ramachandran Ramesh; John A. Proudman; Wayne J. Kuenzel

1995-01-01

298

Corticosterone metabolites in laying hen droppings-Effects of fiber enrichment, genotype, and daily variations.  

PubMed

There is growing interest and concern for animal welfare in commercial poultry production. To evaluate stress and welfare in an objective and noninvasive way, fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in droppings can be analyzed. However, the influence of diet, genotype, and daily variations in FCM and production of droppings in laying hens has been poorly investigated. This study examined the effect of insoluble fiber by adding 3% ground straw pellets to the feed to Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in furnished cages between 20 and 40 wk of age. In total, 960 hens were included in the study. Droppings were collected 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days and analyzed by corticosterone immunoassay. Biological validation confirmed the ability of the assay to detect changes in FCM levels. Inclusion of straw pellets in the feed increased FCM concentration in both hen genotypes and increased excretion rate of FCM in LB hens. The LB hens also produced greater amounts of droppings than LSL hens. Both FCM levels and production of droppings varied during the day, although no distinct diurnal rhythm was found. These findings demonstrate that when using FCM to evaluate stress and welfare in laying hens, many factors (e.g., diet, genotype used, and so on) need to be taken into account to allow accurate interpretation of the results. In addition, under certain conditions, excretion rate of FCM might be more appropriate to use compared with FCM concentration. PMID:25125557

Alm, M; Holm, L; Tauson, R; Wall, H

2014-10-01

299

The effect of mushroom and pokeweed extract on salmonella, egg production, and weight loss in molting hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of mushroom and pokeweed extract alone or in combination with alfalfa meal on Salmonella spp. population, egg production, and weight loss in laying hens during a 10-d molting period. The trial used 54 active laying hens approximately 77 wk of age that were naturally infected with Salmonella spp. The layers were subjected to 1 of 9 treatment groups, replicated 3 times with 2 hens per replicate cage. The treatment conditions were as follows: 1) full-fed + H(2)0 (FFW), 2) full-fed + mushroom (FFM), 3) full-fed + pokeweed (FFP), 4) nonfed + H(2)0 (NFW), 5) nonfed + mushroom (NFM), 6) nonfed + pokeweed (NFP), 7) full-fed alfalfa meal + H(2)0 (FFAW), 8) full-fed alfalfa meal + mushroom (FFAM), and 9) full-fed alfalfa meal + poke-weed (FFAP). The results showed that the base-10 logarithm values of Salmonella from the ceca significantly increased (P hens and induce a comparable molt with feed withdrawal. PMID:19038799

Willis, W L; Goktepe, I; Isikhuemhen, O S; Reed, M; King, K; Murray, C

2008-12-01

300

The effects of taurine on the performance of laying hens  

E-print Network

distillers dried solubles and. fermentation res1dues are still believed. to contain unidentified factors (UF) and are used when econom1cally feasible in formulating poultry rations. Taurine is believed to be one of these unidentified factors... rate increase, however, was not as pronounced. as with fish solubles. Schaefer et al . (1955 ) found. that chick diets supple- mented with bacterial fermentation products compared favorably with diets containing fish meal or distillers solubles...

Reger, Mark Myron

1971-01-01

301

Effects of stocking density and group size on the performance of white and brown Hyline layers in semi-arid conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of housing two Hyline strains of commercial laying hens White Hyline (W-98) and Brown Hyline (Hyline Brown) at densities of 2, 3 or 4 per cage (1100, 733 or 550 cm2/hen, respectively) was investigated over 3 months. Hyline Brown layers gained more weight, laid more but lighter eggs, utilized feed more efficiently and had a lower mortality than W-98 layers. Housing birds 2 or 3 per cage resulted in greater body weight gain, higher egg production, heavier eggs, better feed conversion ratio and a lower mortality than housing them 4 per cage. There were significant interactions between strain and stocking density for egg production, egg weight, egg output and mortality. It is suggested that for egg production in semi-arid areas Hyline Brown hens could be used and housed at a density of 733 cm2/hen. PMID:17265779

Benyi, K; Norris, D; Tsatsinyane, P M

2006-01-01

302

Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

Herzallah, Saqer

2013-01-01

303

The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora. PMID:25049560

Zheng, L.; Oh, S. T.; Jeon, J. Y.; Moon, B. H.; Kwon, H. S.; Lim, S. U.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

2012-01-01

304

Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to three strains of laying hens.  

PubMed

1. One hundred and twenty 16-week-old, single combed pullets of three strains were fed on a diet containing 160 g protein/kg with or without 50 g clinoptilolite/kg in a trial with 20 hens per treatment. Sterile river sand replaced clinoptilolite in the control diet in order to keep the diets isonergetic. 2. The hens were individually caged in a naturally-ventilated laying house and fed on one of the two diets for ten 28-d periods. 3. No significant dietary effects between treatments were observed with respect to body weight, age at first egg, egg weight, Haugh scores or food intake/hen. 4. Significant dietary effects in favour of clinoptilolite feeding were noticed with the number of eggs laid per hen, shell thickness, efficiency of food utilisation, droppings moisture content and mortality. 5. Significant differences between strains were observed with respect to all measurements taken except food intake/hen d. PMID:2545313

Olver, M D

1989-03-01

305

Crop Immune Response Post-Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge in Eight Commercial Egg-Layer Strains and Specific Pathogen Free White Leghorn Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the crop immune response against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)-challenge in eight commercial egg-layer strains (5 white-egg layer & 3 brown-egg layer) and specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn (WL) hens. Pre- and post-SE-challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops were ev...

306

The distribution and accumulation of phthalates in the organs and tissues of chicks after the administration of feedstuffs with different phthalate concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE) in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat), skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into four groups (50 chicks each). All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS) for broiler chicks (starter - BR1; grower - BR2

A. Jarosova; J. Harazim; L. Kratka; V. Stancov

307

Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W., Jr.

1991-01-01

308

Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

2010-12-01

309

Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.  

PubMed

1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size. PMID:22978584

Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

2012-01-01

310

Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.  

PubMed

The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions. PMID:17369539

Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

2007-04-01

311

Experimental infection of chickens with an Australian strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus 3. persistent infection and transmission by the adult hen.  

PubMed

Vertical transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection was demonstrated in embryonated eggs from an adult hen with persistent REV viraemia but no serum antibody. Pooling of infected embryos from this hen with those from antibody-positive hens appeared to inhibit the infectivity of congenitally-transmitted REV. REV was detected in vaginal swabs from this hen on 11 occasions over a period of 26 weeks of adult life and infectious REV was shed from the eye, mouth and in the droppings. Direct contact between the hen and other adult hens and roosters resulted in the transmission of REV infection, with or without genital contact. These newly-established REV infections were not persistent. Transmission did not occur between the infected hen and others separated by a wire mesh barrier. PMID:18770151

Bagust, T J; Grimes, T M; Ratnamohan, N

1981-07-01

312

Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

1993-01-01

313

Collagen synthesis in the muscle of developing chick embryos.  

PubMed Central

Radioactive protein was prepared from the leg muscle of chick embryos, 11, 14, 16 and 17 days old, each injected with radioactive proline and incubated for 30, 60 or 90 min afterwards. The radioactive protein was incubated with collagenase purified by chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 column. Under this condition, only collagen is digested into products soluble in trichloroacetic acid. The relative rate of collagen synthesis was determined by comparing the amount of radioactivity released into the supernatant fraction and that in the residue, by the method of Diegelmann & Peterkofsky [(1972) Dev. Biol. 28, 443--453]. The results show that the rate of collagen synthesis remains at approx. 10% of the rate of synthesis of other non-collagenous proteins during the development of chick embryonic muscle from 11 to 17 days. This suggests that the synthesis of collagen and that of other proteins are co-ordinately regulated at these stages of development. PMID:199158

Nwagwu, M; Reid, S A

1977-01-01

314

Amount of vitamin D required in commercial chick rations  

E-print Network

AIQWP tP VITAXTN D RE~&UXRZD I? GRILL ~Xi RhTT. ~ lame Baaee1l Oeaeh klE)UHT g? VIXEN D B~U24Z I? CCLLERCLkL CHICK RITI4% kMOONf O' VITALS 9 MS'lUIBZD IN CQSEROIAI CHICK RLTIOIS 4 %heels Seheltte4 to the Pawl' of ths ~ealtssal aal wshsaleal... College ef Tcaas Ps&lal FslfLQasmt of ths Royahwssmta fee ths Degree ef ttsster Of Soieoee The wLthsa desires 4s ee3cnselsdgs hLs eygseeietioa to Dr. 9. 8, Freya Ohief sf the l@visica ot Ohswistx8 ia the Tones kgrio@ltnrel gnyertweat gteeicece shone...

Couch, James Russell

1934-01-01

315

Newly Hatched Chicks Solve the Visual Binding Problem.  

PubMed

For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

Wood, Justin N

2014-05-19

316

Morphological correlates of persistent potentiation in the chick brain slice.  

PubMed

In an in-vitro slice preparation of the chick brain it is possible to induce persistent potentiation of responses to single electrical stimuli by giving two bursts of 300 stimuli at 5 Hz separated by ten minutes of control stimulation at 0.1 Hz. We investigated the morphological correlates of this potentiation in a group of 2 day old chicks using quantitative electron microscopical techniques. It was found that in slices which showed a clearly potentiated response there was a significant increase in the size of the postsynaptic densities of synapses on spines in the left hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV). No such increases were seen in a control group nor in slices which failed to potentiate. These results provide further evidence for the lability of synapses in the IMHV. PMID:1893094

Bradley, P M; Burns, B D; Titmuss, J; Webb, A C

1991-04-01

317

Suspected sodium toxicity in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks.  

PubMed

Sodium toxicity was suspected in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks fed herring frozen in brine (seawater). Affected chicks were lethargic with stiff legs that extended to the posterior, and breathing was labored. Chicks regurgitated food or refused to eat. All chicks that were fed herring exclusively and eight of the 10 chicks fed a mixed diet (herring and salmonids) died, whereas all chicks fed only salmonids survived. Renal lesions ranged from mild to marked generalized nephrosis, which was characterized by degeneration and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and dilation of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. These observations suggest that fish frozen in brine is unsuitable food for hand-rearing of young herons. PMID:1417607

Bennett, D C; Bowes, V A; Hughes, M R; Hart, L E

1992-01-01

318

Ethanol-induced inhibition of chick brain growth.  

PubMed

Retarded fetal brain growth is associated with a high incidence of mental retardation among the offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Research using an embryonic chick model suggests that ethanol exposure suppresses fetal development including suppression of brain growth. Total brain cyclic AMP content and endogenous brain protein kinase specific activity are not altered by ethanol; however, ethanol exposure does significantly stimulate kinase catalytic activity measured in the presence of saturating amounts of exogenous cyclic AMP. PMID:6091489

Boyd, J W; Kalmus, G W; Pennington, S N

1984-01-01

319

Three-dimensional OCT imaging of the embryonic chick heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful new high resolution imaging modality which can provide new insight into normal and abnormal cardiac development in animal models. Here we demonstrate for the first time the application of OCT for three-dimensional imaging of the developing cardiovascular system of the chick embryo. Using this three-dimensional data, we compared cross-sectional OCT images with histological cross-sections and we generated volumetric reconstructions of the early heart tube.

Choma, Michael A.; Yelbuz, T.; Thrane, Lars; Kirby, Margaret L.; Izatt, Joseph A.

2003-07-01

320

A detailed paraxial schematic eye for the White Leghorn chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the normal ocular development of the chick (Gallus gallus domesticus, White Leghorn) up to 15 days of age using both longitudinal and cross-sectional methods. The change in refractive error,\\u000a corneal curvature and axial ocular distances were used to construct schematic eyes. Equations are presented which allow prediction\\u000a of refractive error changes associated with changes in vitreous chamber depth. The

Natalia V. Avila; Sally A. McFadden

2010-01-01

321

Localization of ornithine decarboxylase in the chick embryo during organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and thus in cell growth, was determined in the 4.5-day-old chick embryo, using two independent methods of analysis. ODC protein was identified by indirect immunofluorescence with a monospecific ODC antibody, and catalytically active ODC was identified by autoradiography with a-(5-3H) difluoromethylornithine. Both methods revealed a basically similar distribution

Bertil Löwkvist; Hadar Emanuelsson; Lo Persson; Frank Sundler; Anders Lundquist; Olle Heby

1987-01-01

322

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

323

Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease  

PubMed Central

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

2014-01-01

324

Responses of chicks to dietary supplements of copper sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen groups of 20 1?d?old male chicks of a hybrid laying strain were reared for 25 d and given free access to diets supplemented with o, 100, 200 or 350 p.p.m. copper (as CuSO4.5H2O), with or without antibiotic. The unsupplemented diet, based on cereals, fish and soyabean meals, contained 9.6 p.p.m. copper. Live?weight gains, food intakes and hepatic copper concentrations

M. S. Smith

1969-01-01

325

Structure of pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of fertile hens' eggs induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.  

PubMed Central

The fine structure of the chorioallantoic membrane of the fertile hen's egg infected with herpes simplex virus Types 1 and 2 was examined. Lesions induced by Type 1 virus were small, confined to the chorionic layer of the membrane and proliferative in nature with slight cellular infiltration into the mesoderm after incubation up to 7 days. With the Type 2 virus-induced pocks, reaction occurred throughout the thickness of the chorioallantoic membrane, and haemorrhages, necroses, ulceration and cellular infiltration of the mesoderm were prominent features. Inoculation of the membranes with Type 2 virus resulted in a large number of infected chorion cells compared with Type 1, whilst the cells of the mesoderm and blood vessels became infected with Type 2 virus but not Type 1. Two types of intranuclear granules, lattice structures in both nuclei and cytoplasm and virus particles with variously structured cores were found specifically in Type 2 infected cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6257269

Rodgers, F. G.

1980-01-01

326

Predicting Starling Chick Carcass PCB Concentrations from PCB Concentrations in Ingested Animal Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Preremediation studies at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) revealed statistically significant accumulations\\u000a of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and effects in starling chicks (Sturnus vulgaris) from contaminated sites, including decreased nest attentiveness, decreased fledging success, and an increase in chick mortality.\\u000a Although the expected route of exposure for starling chicks is thought to be via diet, this has not previously

S. M. Arena; R. S. Halbrook; C. A. Arenal

1999-01-01

327

Bilateral neuro-retinitis following chick embryo cell anti-rabies vaccination – a case report  

PubMed Central

Background The Optic nerve is rarely involved after sheep brain anti-rabies vaccination in the form of retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis. Bilateral neuroretinitis after chick embryo cell antirabies vaccination has not been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 56 year old male who developed bilateral neuro-retinitis following three injections of antirabies vaccine prepared from the chick embryo. Conclusion The chick embryo cell antirabies vaccine can cause bilateral neuroretinits which has not been reported previously. PMID:16105182

Saxena, Rohit; Sethi, Harinder Singh; Rai, Harminder Kumar; Menon, Vimla

2005-01-01

328

Effect of age and dietary histidine on histamine metabolism of the growing chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of age and of varying the dietary histidine level, with special emphasis on histamine metabolism, was studied in male, white Leghorn chicks. The birds were fed a 19% amino acid diet with histidine supplied from 0 to 0.8% of diet. In Experiment 1, 7-day-old chicks were fed the experimental diets for 7 days. In Experiment 2, chicks were

Teru Ishibashi; Olga Donis; Dennis Fitzpatrick; Nam Soo Lee; Oxana Turetsky; Hans Fisher

1979-01-01

329

In vitro Formation of Piperidine, Cadaverine and Pipecolic Acid in Chick and Mouse Brain during Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated for the first time in vitro formation of cadaverine and pipecolid acid from L-lysine in (a) chick embryos and chick embryo heads at 3–7 days of incubation (d.i.) and 5–7 d.i., respectively; (b) brain of chick embryos from 11 d.i. to 30 days after hatching (d.a.h.) for cadaverine and from 20 d.i. to 30 d.a.h. for pipecolic

Y. Nomura; T. Schmidt-Glenewinkel; E. Giacobini

1978-01-01

330

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROTEIN NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND IMMUNOCOMPETENCE IN NORTHERN BOBWHITE CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRCr.--We investigated the effects of dietary protein quality on the development and functioning of the immune system in four-week-old Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks. Chicks were fed isocaloric diets containing 8, 15, or 33% protein over a three-week period. Significant reductions in the rate of body growth were evident in chicks receiving 8 and 15% protein. Development of the bursa

ROBERT L. LOCHMILLER; MICHELLE R. VESTEY; JON C. BOREN

331

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone-stimulation of food intake is mediated by hypothalamic effects in chicks.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a 12 amino acid peptide, is expressed in the avian brain and inhibits luteinizing hormone secretion. Additionally, exogenous injection of GnIH causes increased food intake of chicks although the central mechanism mediating this response is poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of our study was to elucidate the central mechanism of the GnIH orexigenic response using 12 day post hatch layer-type chicks as models. Firstly, via mass spectrometry we deduced the chicken GnIH amino acid sequence: SIRPSAYLPLRFamide. Following this we used chicken GnIH to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2.6 and 7.8?nmol causes increased food intake up to 150?min following injection with no effect on water intake. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells was quantified in appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei following ICV GnIH and only the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) had an increase of c-Fos positive neurons. From whole hypothalamus samples following ICV GnIH injection abundance of several appetite-associated mRNA was quantified which demonstrated that mRNA for neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased while mRNA for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was decreased. This was not the case for mRNA abundance in isolated LHA where NPY and POMC were not affected but melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA was increased. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted after ICV GnIH injection which demonstrated a variety of behaviors unrelated to appetite were affected. In sum, these results implicate activation of the LHA in the GnIH orexigenic response and NPY, POMC and MCH are likely also involved. PMID:25305807

McConn, Betty; Wang, Guoqing; Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Osugi, Tomohiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Cline, Mark A

2014-12-01

332

Transient muscarinic calcium mobilisation in transdifferentiating as in reaggregating embryonic chick retinae.  

PubMed

Two independent in vitro regeneration systems of the embryonic chick retina (E4-5) were used to study the mobilisation of intracellular calcium by the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate, as measured by Fura-2 fluorescence changes. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) explants under the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor transdifferentiate into a retina-like tissue with normal laminar organisation, while rosetted spheres reaggregated from fully dispersed cells of the embryonic retina will achieve only an inferior tissue organisation, characterised by regions of an inverted retina [Layer et al., Neuroreport 12 (2001) A39-46]. ACh induced a pronounced Ca(2+) response in young explants, and a similar but less pronounced response in reaggregates; this response decreased almost entirely after 1 week in culture. In contrast, a Ca(2+) response to glutamate became detectable later, continuously increasing during this period. The response to ACh was strictly mediated by muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs), since it was inhibited by preincubation with atropine, but not tubocurarine; correspondingly, it was mimicked by muscarine, but not nicotine. Studies with mAChR blockers, preferentially acting on the m1-, m2-, or m3-receptor subtypes, suggested that the muscarine-induced Ca(2+) response is mediated by m1- and/or m3-type mAChRs, but not by the m2-type. These results show that (i) similar to the in vivo retina, in both a transdifferentiating and a reaggregating system an early muscarinic Ca(2+) response is active, which (ii) roughly parallels periods of cell proliferation, and (iii)-as evidenced by the reaggregates-does not depend on any tissue pre-organisation. In contrast, a response to glutamate becomes prominent only when tissue differentiation commences. This is the first demonstration of a physiological response in regenerating chick retinas, supporting their validity as models both of retinal development and regeneration. PMID:12855195

Naruoka, Hidenori; Kojima, Ryosuke; Ohmasa, Motoko; Layer, Paul G; Saito, Takehiko

2003-07-12

333

Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick  

SciTech Connect

Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

Lee, S.R.

1984-01-01

334

Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)  

PubMed Central

In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

2013-01-01

335

Central administration of mesotocin inhibits feeding behavior in chicks.  

PubMed

Mesotocin (MT) is a neurohypophysis hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates including chickens, and homologous of oxytocin (OT) in mammals. Oxytocin (OT) is a well known reproductive hormone in mammals, but the physiological roles of MT in chickens have not been clarified well. OT is thought to regulate feeding behavior because central and peripheral injections of OT inhibit feeding behavior in mammals. In avian, on the other hand, the effect of MT on feeding regulation has not yet been clarified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine whether MT is related to the regulation of feeding in chicks (Gallus gallus). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MT significantly decreased food intake in chicks while intraperitoneal injection had no effect. Behavioral observations revealed that ICV injection of MT significantly increased wing-flapping and preening, and tended to increase voluntary movement, implying that the anorexigenic effect of MT might be related to the stress response. However, neither plasma corticosterone concentration nor the mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the diencephalon was affected by ICV injection of MT. Moreover; ICV injection of CRH did not affect MT mRNA expression in the diencephalon. In sum, central injection of MT is associated with an anorexigenic response that does not appear CRH dependent in chicks. PMID:24183984

Masunari, Kazuya; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Cline, Mark A; Tachibana, Tetsuya

2013-11-10

336

The development of responses to novel-coloured objects in male and female domestic chicks.  

PubMed

Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel colour was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar colour were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex difference was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in colour prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of colour. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935

Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M

1994-04-01

337

Age-related differences of hexachlorocyclohexane effect on hepatic oxidative stress parameters of chicks.  

PubMed

Acute hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH; 50 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) treatment in young (30-day-old) chicks resulted in elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPX) only in nuclear fractions of livers while the same treatment in immature (7-day-old) chicks resulted in elevation of LPX in various liver subcellular fractions. Treatment of various subcellular fractions of livers with HCH in vitro stimulated increased LPX in young chicks than in immature ones. Hepatic cytoplasmic CN-sensitive and -resistant superoxide dismutase activities in immature chicks were inhibited significantly by HCH but no effect was observed in case of young chicks. The pesticide treatment in both immature and young chicks did not influence hepatic catalase activity. The level of glutathione in the liver of young chicks increased in response to the pesticide treatment but remained unaffected in the case of immature chicks. The results of the present study show that HCH-induced changes in hepatic oxidative stress parameters in chicks are age dependent. PMID:9378513

Samanta, L; Chainy, G B

1997-05-01

338

The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

1993-01-01

339

Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

340

Skeletal Muscle Calcium Metabolism and Contractile Force in Vitamin D-deficient Chicks  

PubMed Central

The myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency has not been well characterized, and it is not known if weakness is a result of a specific effect of vitamin D deficiency on skeletal muscle. Chicks were raised from hatching on a vitamin D-deficient diet, and by 3 wk of age were hypocalcemic and appeared weak. Tension generated by triceps surae during repetitive stimulation of posterior tibial nerve was significantly less than that developed by chicks given vitamin D3 supplements (309 g tension/g wet weight of triceps surae, SD 60, for vitamin D-deficient chicks; 470, SD 77, for vitamin D3-treated chicks, P < 0.01). Histochemical and electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscles of these chicks showed no abnormalities, and there were no electrophysiologic evidences of motor nerve or neuromuscular junction dysfunction. The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle of the vitamin D-deficient chicks (5.75 ?mol/g wet weight, SD 0.17) was not significantly different from that in vitamin D-treated chicks (5.60, SD 0.50). There was no correlation between strength and serum calcium, serum inorganic phosphate, or skeletal muscle inorganic phosphate. Relaxation of tension after tetanic stimulation was slowed in the vitamin D-deficient chicks (20.6 ms, SD 1.7, vs. 15.4, SD 1.3, in vitamin D-treated chicks and 15.3, SD 1.0, in normal control chicks), and in vitro 45Ca++ transport by sarcoplasmic reticulum from the vitamin D-deficient chicks was reduced. Calcium content of mitochondria prepared from leg muscles of vitamin D-deficient chicks (24 nmol/mg mitochondrial protein, SD 6) was considerably lower than that of mitochondria from normal control chicks (45, SD 8) or from chicks treated with vitamin D for 2 wk or more (66-100, depending upon level and duration of therapy). Treatment of the vitamin D-deficient chicks from hatching with sufficient dietary calcium to produce hypercalcemia did not significantly raise skeletal muscle mitochondrial calcium content (31 nmol/mg mitochondrial protein, SD 7) and did not prevent weakness. These studies demonstrate objective weakness as a result of myopathy in vitamin D-deficient chicks, and provide evidence that vitamin D deficiency has effects on skeletal muscle calcium metabolism not secondary to altered plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate. PMID:227925

Pleasure, D.; Wyszynski, B.; Sumner, A.; Schotland, D.; Feldmann, B.; Nugent, N.; Hitz, K.; Goodman, D. B. P.

1979-01-01

341

Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.  

PubMed

Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100?µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565?EU/m³, range: 362-1491?EU/m³) than in cage housing (98?EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156?EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n?=?8, 78-576?EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5?µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems. PMID:22029777

Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

2011-10-01

342

Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens  

PubMed Central

The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells. PMID:20885842

Tran, Thi Q.L.; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine

2010-01-01

343

Acceptable Protein and Solvent Behavior in Primary Hydration Shell Simulations of Hen Lysozyme  

PubMed Central

The “primary hydration shell” method in molecular dynamics simulations uses a two- to three-layer thick shell of explicitly represented water molecules as the solvent around the protein of interest. We show that despite its simplicity, this computationally cheap model is capable of predicting acceptable water and protein behavior using the CHARMM22/CMAP potential function. For protein dynamics, comparisons are made with Lipari-Szabo order parameters. These have been derived from NMR relaxation parameters for pico-nano second motions of the NH groups in the main-chain and NH2 groups in Asn/Gln side chains in hen lysozyme. It is also shown that an even simpler, and therefore faster, water-shell model leads to results in similarly good agreement with experiments, and also compared with simulations using a full box of water with periodic boundary conditions or with an implicit solvation model. Thus, the primary hydration shell method should be useful in making larger systems accessible to extensive simulations. PMID:17259273

Hamaneh, Mehdi Bagheri; Buck, Matthias

2007-01-01

344

Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities.  

PubMed

The public perceives that the nutritional quality of eggs produced as free range is superior to that of eggs produced in cages. Therefore, this study compared the nutrient content of free-range vs. cage-produced shell eggs by examining the effects of the laboratory, production environment, and hen age. A flock of 500 Hy-Line Brown layers were hatched simultaneously and received the same care (i.e., vaccination, lighting, and feeding regimen), with the only difference being access to the range. The nutrient content of the eggs was analyzed for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, ?-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The same egg pool was divided and sent to 4 different laboratories for analysis. The laboratory was found to have a significant effect on the content of all nutrients in the analysis except for cholesterol. Total fat content in the samples varied (P < 0.001) from a high of 8.88% to a low of 6.76% in laboratories D and C, respectively. Eggs from the range production environment had more total fat (P < 0.05), monounsaturated fat (P < 0.05), and polyunsaturated fat (P < 0.001) than eggs produced by caged hens. Levels of n-3 fatty acids were also higher (P < 0.05), at 0.17% in range eggs vs. 0.14% in cage eggs. The range environment had no effect on cholesterol (163.42 and 165.38 mg/50 g in eggs from caged and range hens, respectively). Vitamin A and E levels were not affected by the husbandry to which the hens were exposed but were lowest at 62 wk of age. The age of the hens did not influence the fat levels in the egg, but cholesterol levels were highest (P < 0.001) at 62 wk of age (172.54 mg/50 g). Although range production did not influence the cholesterol level in the egg, there was an increase in fat levels in eggs produced on the range. PMID:21673178

Anderson, K E

2011-07-01

345

Role of loose feathers on the development of feather pecking in laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The effect of the presence of loose feathers (on the floor) on the behaviour and plumage condition of laying hens (Lohmann Silver, LS) was studied during the rearing and laying periods. 2. From one day old, 60 birds in each of 4 straw-bedded pens (n = 240 in total) with 6.5 birds/m(2) were either kept under conventional rearing and management conditions (CT: control group with feathers on the floor; n = 120) or in pens from which the feathers were collected from the floor 4 times/week (FR: feathers removed; n = 120). Fifty birds from each of these 4 groups (n = 200 in total) were randomly selected at the age of 16 weeks and allocated to 4 identical pens in a poultry layer house (PH; with perches and 1/3 slatted floor) with access to an outside area (winter garden, WG) at a stocking density of 6 birds/m(2) in both PH and WG. 3. Observations on feather pecking and other behaviours (feeding, drinking, preening, standing, sitting, foraging, moving and dust bathing) were carried out at 8 ages: 6, 10, 15 (rearing period), 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 weeks (laying period). Feather scoring was carried out at 15, 32 and 39 weeks of age. 4. There were no differences in feather pecking rates, forms (gentle, severe and aggressive pecks) as well as in the plumage condition between groups at the end of the rearing period. 5. Birds in the FR group exhibited lower rates and less severe feather pecking during the laying period. Accordingly, birds in the control group had worse feather condition at 32 and 39 weeks of age. Feather pecking rates within groups were, in general, greater in the afternoon compared to the morning periods. Birds in the control group were more active in walking. 6. Wings, rump, tail and back were the main targets for feather pecking. The majority of feather pecking occurred on the floor (66%) followed by feeding area (26%), perches (4%) and slats (4%). 7. Our results suggest that loose feathers on the floor may play an important role in the development and severity of feather pecking behaviour in laying hens and support the hypothesis (McKeegan and Savory, 1999) that feather pecking can be viewed as redirected foraging behaviour. PMID:18568748

Ramadan, S G A; von Borell, E

2008-05-01

346

Search for the genes involved in oocyte maturation and early embryo development in the hen  

PubMed Central

Background The initial stages of development depend on mRNA and proteins accumulated in the oocyte, and during these stages, certain genes are essential for fertilization, first cleavage and embryonic genome activation. The aim of this study was first to search for avian oocyte-specific genes using an in silico and a microarray approaches, then to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the expression of some of these genes during follicular maturation and early embryogenesis. Results The in silico approach allowed us to identify 18 chicken homologs of mouse potential oocyte genes found by digital differential display. Using the chicken Affymetrix microarray, we identified 461 genes overexpressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and 250 genes overexpressed in the germinal disc (GD) of the hen oocyte. Six genes were identified using both in silico and microarray approaches. Based on GO annotations, GC and GD genes were differentially involved in biological processes, reflecting different physiological destinations of these two cell layers. Finally we studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the expression of 21 chicken genes. According to their expression patterns all these genes are involved in different stages of final follicular maturation and/or early embryogenesis in the chicken. Among them, 8 genes (btg4, chkmos, wee, zpA, dazL, cvh, zar1 and ktfn) were preferentially expressed in the maturing occyte and cvh, zar1 and ktfn were also highly expressed in the early embryo. Conclusion We showed that in silico and Affymetrix microarray approaches were relevant and complementary in order to find new avian genes potentially involved in oocyte maturation and/or early embryo development, and allowed the discovery of new potential chicken mature oocyte and chicken granulosa cell markers for future studies. Moreover, detailed study of the expression of some of these genes revealed promising candidates for maternal effect genes in the chicken. Finally, the finding concerning the different state of rRNA compared to that of mRNA during the postovulatory period shed light on some mechanisms through which oocyte to embryo transition occurs in the hen. PMID:18312645

Elis, Sebastien; Batellier, Florence; Couty, Isabelle; Balzergue, Sandrine; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Monget, Philippe; Blesbois, Elisabeth; Govoroun, Marina S

2008-01-01

347

Characterization of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment in laying hens fed an extruded flax enrichment source.  

PubMed

The time required to reach a plateau of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in plasma and egg yolk and dynamics of the enrichment process were examined in laying hens. A group of 75 Lohmann White Leghorn layers (65 wk) were fed one of 3 diets: control, moderate, or high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet for 18 d. Diets provided similar ME and CP and contained 0, 7.5%, or 15% LinPRO (source of n-3 PUFA), respectively. Prior to dietary treatment, baseline values were established for the BW, fatty acid composition in egg yolk on a whole-egg basis, and in plasma. These measurements were repeated at 6, 12, and 18 d of feeding. Enzymatic conversion rates of linolenic acid (LNA) to long-chain fatty acids were calculated. Data were analyzed with Proc Mixed of SAS, and broken stick analysis was used to determine n-3 PUFA plateau using the NLIN procedure of SAS (P < 0.05). The total egg yolk n-3 PUFA reached a plateau of 343.7 mg/egg and 272.9 mg/egg after 6.6 and 5.9 d on the high and moderate diets, respectively. In blood plasma, the n-3 PUFA concentrations reached saturation in 7.2 d with 0.93 mg/mL and 0.67 mg/mL on high and moderate diets, respectively. The transfer efficiency of total n-3 PUFA from the diet to the egg yolk was calculated as 55.6% in control birds, 30.5% in moderate birds, and 22.2% in high birds, demonstrating reduced transfer efficiency of n-3 PUFA as inclusion in the feed increases. Final egg yolk n-3 PUFA concentrations had a CV of 16.5% compared with 28.5% for plasma. After 12 d, the long-chain n-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were significantly higher in egg yolk from hens on the moderate and high enriched diets compared with those from hens fed the control diet, whereas in plasma values did not differ. Broken stick analysis of egg enrichment indicated that high birds reached the target threshold of 300 mg of total n-3 PUFA/egg in 5 d. A significant increase in EPA, DPA, and DHA and reduction in arachidonic acid content in egg yolks from hens fed enriched diets compared with the control diet confirms competition for enzymes during postabsorptive modification of these fatty acids. This work contributes to the understanding of individual hen effects on n-3 PUFA absorption and the effect of level of dietary enrichment with an extruded flax product on final yolk n-3 PUFA concentration. PMID:22700520

Nain, S; Renema, R A; Korver, D R; Zuidhof, M J

2012-07-01

348

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus development, antipredation strategy, Centrocercus urophasianus, Greater Sage-Grouse, habitat, parental

Beck, Jeffrey L.

349

RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

350

Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

1999-01-01

351

Proceedings of the 2003 Winter Simulation Conference S. Chick, P. J. Sanchez, D. Ferrin, and D. J. Morrice, eds.  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2003 Winter Simulation Conference S. Chick, P. J. S´anchez, D. Ferrin, and D. J and Holland (1997), Cheng and Holland (1998), Cheng and Holland (2003), Chick (2001), Zouaoui and Wilson (2001

Henderson, Shane

352

PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION Physiological Changes to Transient Exposure to Heat Stress Observed in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hy-Line W-36, W-98, and Brown hens lay approximately the same number of eggs\\/hen housed to 80 wk; however, little is known about differences in per- formance during heat stress (HS). Two experiments were performed. The first experiment evaluated intestinal cal- cium uptake (CaT), heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) liver expression, and endocrine status in the 3 strains under heat stress in

D. J. Franco-Jimenez; M. M. Beck

353

The Little Red Hen: A Story of Productive Resources and Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Little Red Hen" is a classic story. Many children have not had the opportunity to see where a commercial loaf of bread comes from, or to feel the bounce of rising dough in a kitchen. "The Little Red Hen" not only helps to introduce the process, but gives the students an opportunity to reflect how they might feel if they did the work on a…

Kehler, Abbejean

2005-01-01

354

The rapidly evolving planetary nebula Hen 3-1357  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hen 3-1357 (known as the 'Stingray Nebula') is the youngest Planetary Nebula known in the sky. It has become ionized within the past few decades and its central star seems to be still rapidly evolving in the H-R diagram towards hotter effective temperatures. With this proposal we want to determine the current effective temperature of the central star and the characteristics of the stellar wind thirteen years after its discovery with IUE. This will enable us to determine whether the rapid spectral changes observed in the last few years are the consequence of an episodic post-AGB mass loss event or the result of a continuous evolution in the H-R digram. In any of these cases, the observations will help us to understand this short and, thus, still poorly known transition phase which leads to the formation of a new PN.

Gry, C.

355

Relative bioavailability of tropical volcanic soil-bound chlordecone in laying hens (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils and of food chains. CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through polluted soil ingestion. Tropical volcanic soils display variable capacities of pollutant retention: CLD is less available and more persistent in andosol than in nitisol. The impact of soil type on CLD bioavailability to hens was tested through a relative bioavailability study. The deposition of CLD in egg yolk and in abdominal fat was measured in 42 individually housed laying hens fed with diets containing graded levels of CLD from polluted andosol, nitisol, or spiked oil during 23 days. Within each ingested matrix, the concentration of CLD in yolk and in abdominal fat linearly increased with the amount of ingested CLD (P < 0.001). However, the response to andosol diets and to nitisol diets was not different from the response to oil diets (P > 0.1), indicating that CLD was equally bioavailable to laying hens, irrespective of the matrix. This suggests that the hen's gastrointestinal tract efficiently extracts CLD from the two tropical volcanic soils, regardless of their retention capacity. Thus, hens reared on polluted soils with CLD may lay contaminated eggs. PMID:22684877

Jondreville, Catherine; Bouveret, Cécile; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

2013-01-01

356

Mercury dynamics in young Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from a polluted environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mercury concentrations and amounts in tissues of 19 starved young Common Tern chicks (median age 4 days) and in eggs from the same colony. Concentrations and burden were similar between eggs and newly hatched chicks. Mercury concentrations were highest in down, which contained at least 38% of the body mercury. The mercury burden of the whole body and

Peter H. Becker; Robert W. Furness; Diana Henning

1993-01-01

357

Use of Implanted Radiotransmitters to Estimate Survival of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced chick survival has been implicated in declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Because monitoring survival of unmarked sage-grouse chicks is difficult, radiotelemetry may be an effective technique to estimate survival rates, identify causes of mortality, and collect ecological data. Previous studies have used subcutaneous implants to attach radiotransmitters to hatchlings of several species of birds with precocial young.

MICHAEL A. GREGG; MIKE R. DUNBAR; JOHN A. CRAWFORD

2007-01-01

358

Nest location affects chick growth rates in Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule?Body mass of Whiskered Tern chicks from the central parts of subcolonies grew at a higher rate in comparison to chicks hatched in the peripheral zones. Growth rates of both body mass and head length correlated positively with nest density. We suggest that spatial distribution of pair quality within the colony of Whiskered Terns follows a central–periphery gradient.

Piotr Minias; Bartosz Lesner; Tomasz Janiszewski

2012-01-01

359

Receptor tyrosine phosphatase zeta/beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord  

E-print Network

chick spinal cord. RPTPZ/b was expressed throughout the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing spinal a single ,9 kbp RPTPZ/b transcript expressed in the embryonic chick spinal cord, indicating that the shorter alternative-splice products of RPTPZ/b found in rodent spinal cord and brain

Richardson, William D.

360

Effects of Feed Restriction and Realimentation on Digestive and Immune Function in the Leghorn Chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

How regulatory changes of digestive and immune functions of the gut influence each other has not been sufficiently studied. We tested for simultaneous changes in the digestive physiology and mucosal immune function of the guts of White Leghorn cockerel chicks undergoing food restriction and realimentation. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control = fed ad libitum 7 to

C. A. Fassbinder-Orth; W. H. Karasov

361

Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of Cattle Egret chicks in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria, was investigated in 1998 and 2006, when 145 and 23 regurgitates were collected, respectively. In 1998, 1 698 individual prey items were identified. Insects formed the bulk of the diet of chicks: 94% in terms of frequency, 71% in terms of mass. Orthopterans were dominant, especially in terms

Rachida Gherbi-Salmi; Salaheddine Doumandji; Claire Voisin

2012-01-01

362

Comparative effect of oral ingestion of methyl mercury on chicks and rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments with day-old chicks and one experiment with weanling rats were conducted to determine: (1) whether low levels of mercury found in some feedstuffs would result in hazardous accumulations of mercury in their tissues, and (2) the effects of feeding various dietary levels of methyl mercury to chicks and rats. Data show that feeding animal protein (fish meal) containing

J. H. Jr. Soares; D. Miller; H. Lagally; B. R. Stillings; P. Bauersfeld; S. Cuppett

1973-01-01

363

Analysis of aggregation, a worked example: numbers of ticks on red grouse chicks  

E-print Network

ricinus on red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus chicks to temporal (year), spatial (altitude and location linear mixed model, Ixodes ricinus, Lagopus lagopus scoticus, Poisson- lognormal distribution, variance. ricinus on chicks of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus as an example. The Poisson distribution

Lambin, Xavier

364

Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks.  

PubMed

Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for investigating links between recognition, learning, and their fitness consequences. One major evolutionary puzzle has continued to capture the attention of naturalists for centuries: why do hosts of brood parasites generally fail to recognize parasitic offspring after they have hatched from the egg, even when the host and parasitic chicks differ to almost comic degrees? One prominent theory to explain this pattern proposes that the costs of mistakenly learning to recognize the wrong offspring make recognition maladaptive. Here we show that American coots, Fulica americana, can recognize and reject parasitic chicks in their brood by using learned cues, despite the fact that the hosts and the brood parasites are of the same species. A series of chick cross-fostering experiments confirm that coots use first-hatched chicks in a brood as referents to learn to recognize their own chicks and then discriminate against later-hatched parasitic chicks in the same brood. When experimentally provided with the wrong reference chicks, coots can be induced to discriminate against their own offspring, confirming that the learning errors proposed by theory can exist. However, learning based on hatching order is reliable in naturally parasitized coot nests because host eggs hatch predictably ahead of parasite eggs. Conversely, a lack of reliable information may help to explain why the evolution of chick recognition is not more common in hosts of most interspecific brood parasites. PMID:20016486

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2010-01-14

365

Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2011-03-22

366

Effects of Methionine, Menhaden Oil and Ethoxyquin on Serum Cholesterol of Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine whether either a dietary anti- oxidant or a fish oil supplement would affect the hypercholesterolemic action of a suboptimal level of dietary methionine in chicks. A 23 factorial experiment was con ducted with chicks fed a purified diet high in tallow, low in methionine and supple mented with methionine, ethoxyquin, and menhaden oil. Eight

ELDON G. HILL

367

Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

McLachlan, John C.

1981-01-01

368

A family of molecules related to collapsin in the embryonic chick nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signaling molecules with either attractive or repulsive effects on specific growth cones are likely to play a role in guiding axons to their appropriate targets. A chick brain glycoprotein, collapsin, has been shown to be a good candidate for a repulsive guidance cue. We report here the discovery of four new molecules related to collapsin in chick brains. All contain

Yuling Luo; Iain Shepherd; Jie Li; Michael J Renzi; Susannah Chang; Jonathan A Raper

1995-01-01

369

Chick (Gallus domesticus) Approach Preferences for Natural and Artificial Sound Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-day-old chicks were found to prefer an ancestral maternal call over a brief repetitive pure tone burst when stationary models emitted the calls; however, other chicks prefered the repetitive tone over the maternal call when the models emitting the calls were moving. (JMB)

Fischer, Gloria J.

1976-01-01

370

Nutritional, Genetic and Morphological Studies of an Abnormal Cartilage Formation in Young Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the occurrence of an abnormal cartilage formation in the bones of young chicks have been studied. The condition occurs in chicks fed a purified diet and is prevented by the use of natural feed ingredients. The incidence of this abnormality can be increased by genetic selection. The abnormal cartilage formation is characterized by an accumulation of immature chondrocytes

R. M. LEACH; J. R. ANDM; C. NESHEIM

371

ChickScope: An Interactive MRI Classroom Curriculum Innovation for K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ChickScope, a 21-day chick embryonic development project, to demonstrate the remote control of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instrument through the World Wide Web. Topics include remote instrumentation and the Web, teacher-based implementation, impact in elementary and secondary school classrooms, and future directions. (Author/LRW)

Bruce, B. C.; Carragher, B. O.; Damon, B. M.; Dawson, M. J.; Eurell, J. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Lauterbur, P. C.; Marjanovic, M. M.; Mason-Fossum, B.; Morris, H. D.; Potter, C. S.; Thakkar, U.

1997-01-01

372

J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):1220, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

E-print Network

determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from Meleagris gallopavo intermedia desde el tiempo en que nacen hasta que pueden pernoctar en a´rboles. El las relaciones entre habitat y sobrevivencia. Key words: chick, Kaplan-Meier, Meleagris gallopavo

Wallace, Mark C.

373

Differential Expression of LIM Homeobox Genes among Motor Neuron Subpopulations in the Developing Chick Brain Stem  

Microsoft Academic Search

During development of the chick brain stem, cranial motor neuron subpopulations differentiate at distinct axial levels and extend their axons along specific pathways into the periphery. Differences in phenotype and axonal trajectory of these neuronal populations might be governed by the expression of different repertoires of transcription factors. In 2- to 7-day chick embryos, we find that genes of the

Alfredo Varela-Echavarr??a; Samuel L. Pfaff; Sarah Guthrie

1996-01-01

374

EFFECTS OF THE GENES FOR DWARFISM (dw) AND NAKED NECK (Na) ON CHICK GROWTH  

E-print Network

of lipid degradation. INTRODUCTION A sex-linked recessive gene for dwarfism in chickens was firstEFFECTS OF THE GENES FOR DWARFISM (dw) AND NAKED NECK (Na) ON CHICK GROWTH AND LIPID METABOLISM (1-dwarf (Dw) were reared in individual cage to five weeks of age. Chicks carrying the sex-linked recessive dw

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

2014-01-01

376

Effect of dietary phytase transgenic corn on physiological characteristics and the fate of recombinant plant DNA in laying hens.  

PubMed

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

2014-01-01

377

The effect of an ethanol extract of catnip (Nepeta cataria) on the behavior of the young chick.  

PubMed

The alcohol extract of catnip has a biphasic effect on the behavior of young chicks. Low and moderate dose levels (25--1800 mg/kg) cause increasing numbers of chicks to sleep, while high dose levels (i.e. above 2 g/kg) cause a decreasing number of chicks to sleep. PMID:421844

Sherry, C J; Hunter, P S

1979-02-15

378

The role of invertebrates in the diet, growth and survival of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of diet on the growth, survival and movement of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus chicks was examined. We compared two areas of moorland in Scotland: a dry heath with a low density of red grouse and poor chick survival; and a wetter heath\\/bog with relatively higher red grouse numbers and higher rates of chick survival. There were no

K. J. Park; P. A. Robertson; S. T. Campbell; R. Foster; Z. M. Russell; D. Newborn; P. J. Hudson

2001-01-01

379

Sensitivity of inbred Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations F. H. ABDOU, M. SOLTAN, M. ABD ELLATIF H. AYOUB  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of inbred Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations F. H. ABDOU, M. SOLTAN, M. ABD ELLATIF of Fayoumi chicks to seasonal variations. The results indicate that the inbred lines were more sensitive that sensitivity of inbred lines decreased as chicks advanced in age. Therefore, these findings are important

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Pakistan Vt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS  

E-print Network

Pakistan Vêt. ./., 22(4): 2002 A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS responsible for yolk rétention in broiler chicks. l: our dilieront expcrimonts were conducted to tlnd ont thé ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

MEMORY CONSOLIDATION OF ONE-TRIAL LEARNING IN CHICKS* BY EVELYN LEE-TENG AND S. MURRAY SHERMANt  

E-print Network

MEMORY CONSOLIDATION OF ONE-TRIAL LEARNING IN CHICKS* BY EVELYN LEE-TENG AND S. MURRAY SHERMANt investigates the kinetics of memory consolidation of one-trial learning in day-old chicks, using electroconvulsive shock (ECS) as the treatment. Newly hatched chicks were used partly for comparative purposes

Sherman, S. Murray

382

Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2010-01-01

383

Effects of hCG and of season on in vitro steroidogenesis by 18-day chick embryo gonads.  

E-print Network

Effects of hCG and of season on in vitro steroidogenesis by 18-day chick embryo gonads. Arlette'Embryologie, CNRS et Collège de France, 94130 Nogent sur Marne Summary. Fragmented 18-day chick embryo gonads were from radioactive precursors by chick embryo gonads has been largely demonstrated in recent years

Boyer, Edmond

384

The Extracellular ATP Receptor, cP2Y1, Inhibits Cartilage Formation in Micromass Cultures of Chick  

E-print Network

The Extracellular ATP Receptor, cP2Y1, Inhibits Cartilage Formation in Micromass Cultures of Chick have investigated the func- tion of the G protein-coupled receptor for extra- cellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1) during develop- ment of the chick limb. cP2Y1 is strongly expressed in undifferentiated limb

Burnstock, Geoffrey

385

Mass and date at departure affect the survival of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus chicks after leaving the colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

I compared the timing of colony departure and body mass of 53 Ancient Murrelet Synth- liboramphus antiquus chicks that were retrapped as adults in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, with those of 3992 chicks not retrapped. If the probability of recapture is a measure of survival, survival was related to both mass and date. Chicks that left the colony at 26

ANTHONY J. GASTON

1997-01-01

386

The effect of an ethanol extract of catnip ( Nepeta cataria ) on the behavior of the young chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The alcohol extract of catnip has a biphasic effect on the behavior of young chicks. Low and moderate dose levels (25–1800 mg\\/kg) cause increasing numbers of chicks to sleep, while high dose levels (i.e. above 2 g\\/kg) cause a decreasing number of chicks to sleep.

C. J. Sherry; P. S. Hunter

1979-01-01

387

Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

2007-01-01

388

The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research  

PubMed Central

A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

2014-01-01

389

Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick  

SciTech Connect

First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

Kim, Y. S.

1989-01-01

390

Comparative Values of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

. In practically all cases, rations containing sardine meal pro- duced larger gains in live weight and required a smaller amount of feed per gram of gain than other rations not containing this Feed, regardless of whether dried skimmed milk was a constituent... of the ration or not. However, a slightly larger percentage of the chicks died in groups receiving sardine meal, with the exception ~f t,he group fed sardine meal, dried skimmed milk, and soybean oil meal. This mortality was not excessive except when sardine...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

1939-01-01

391

Developmental Changes of Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Insulin-like Growth Factors, Thyroid Hormones, and Glucose Concentrations in Chick Embryos and Hatched Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of em- bryogenesis and posthatch development. Plasma samples were obtained daily from 10 d of embryogenesis (10E) through 13 d posthatch and also at 17 and 21 d posthatch.

J. W. Lu; J. P. McMurtry; C. N. Coon

392

The effect of the age of a hen on fertility and hatchability of eggs and on livability and growth of chicks  

E-print Network

with ogo eben identical matiugs are used The mean hatching record of tbe second ye?I' is else scbstantt?Qy higher than that of tbe first yoga Ream mort?lity rates in case of the ir1mtical a?tinge ou tso mxccessive years differ so widely...

Crossland, Aubrey Lee

1935-01-01

393

Gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone stimulates feeding behavior in chicks.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides containing a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 motif (RFamide peptides) are suggested to be involved in the control of feeding behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is the first identified avian RFamide peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release from the pituitary. The GnIH precursor encodes one GnIH and its related peptides (GnIH-RP-1 and -RP-2) that shared the same C-terminal motif, Leu-Pro-Xaa-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Xaa = Leu or Gln) (LPXRFamide). GnIH neurons are localized in the paraventricular nucleus, with their fibers visible in multiple brain locations including the median eminence and brainstem. In this study, we therefore investigated the action of GnIH and its related peptides on feeding behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GnIH, GnIH-RP-1 and GnIH-RP-2 significantly stimulated food intake in chicks. The chicken pentapeptide LPLRFamide, a degraded C-terminus of GnIH and GnIH-RP-1, did not stimulate feeding thereby demonstrating the importance of the N-terminus of GnIH and its related peptides for the orexigenic effect. Anti-GnIH antiserum suppressed appetite induced by fasting, but did not modify feeding under ad libitum conditions. The present study suggests that GnIH and its related peptides act as endogenous orexigenic factors in the brain of chicks. PMID:15979587

Tachibana, Tetsuya; Sato, Momoka; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2005-07-19

394

Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages  

PubMed Central

Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

395

Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.  

PubMed

These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

2011-07-01

396

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

397

Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

1996-01-01

398

Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM1, AFM2, AFP1) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB1, and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB1 dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB1 (18); AFG1, AFM2, and AFL (0); AFG2 (1.3); AFM1 (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB1 had AFG1 (16); AFG2 (72); AFM1 (0); AFM2 (18); AFP1 (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB1 had AFG1 (512); AFG2 (7); AFM1 (4,775); AFM2 (0); AFP1 (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1). PMID:25352677

Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

2014-12-01

399

Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in Cecal Contents of Laying Hens Fed Various Molting Diets Using Bacterial Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laying hens are typically induced to molt in order to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12-14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella Enteriditis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes ...

400

Effect of Feeding Hens Regular or Deodorized Menhaden Oil on Production Parameters, Yolk Fatty Acid Profile, and Sensory Quality of Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investi- gate whether feeding menhaden oil (MO) to hens affects egg weight, and whether using deodorized MO (DMO) could ameliorate decreased sensory quality of eggs (char- acteristic for hens fed high fish oil diets). Two-hundred twenty-four Single Comb White Leghorn hens were allo- cated to seven dietary treatments comprising either no fish oil, DMO, or

R. Gonzalez-Esquerra; S. Leeson

401

Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

1998-01-01

402

Social Facilitation Revisited: Increase in Foraging Efforts and Synchronization of Running in Domestic Chicks  

PubMed Central

Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation. PMID:21811436

Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

2011-01-01

403

Insectivory versus piscivory in Black Terns: Implications for food provisioning and growth of chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) is known for insectivory in their breeding range, but they are piscivorous in winter and feed some fish to chicks. Fish have potentially high value for chick provisioning because of their larger mass, but the relative value of fish and insect diets for chick growth is unknown. In 1999-2000, we documented use of fish and insects for provisioning chicks at four Black Tern colonies in Maine and examined chick growth rates at two colonies (Douglas Pond and Carlton Pond) that differed in fish and insect use. Deliveries of fish and insects to broods were documented using video cameras and observations from blinds, while concurrently measuring chick growth in nest enclosures. Fish use was substantial (>25% of deliveries) at three of four colonies. Fish comprised 29% of items and 56% of metabolizable energy delivered to chicks at Douglas Pond compared to 13% of items and 22% of metabolizeable energy at Carlton Pond. Food delivery rate was inversely related to the proportion of large fish. In brood diets at Douglas and Carlton Ponds and increased with brood age at Carlton Pond only, apparently due to high insect use. Chick growth rate did not vary with respect to fish and insect composition of diets. It is concluded that adults were able to raise chicks through age 12 d at comparable growth rates with insect-or fish-dominated diets. Use of fish may be more energy efficient for adults, and the capability to use both fish and insects may reduce potential variability in food availability during the breeding season.

Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

2005-01-01

404

Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.  

PubMed

Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

2015-01-01

405

Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) on the performance of three strains of laying hens.  

PubMed

1. One hundred and twenty 16-week-old single combed pullets of three strains were fed on a diet containing 135 g protein/kg with or without 50 g clinoptilolite/kg in a trial with 20 hens per treatment. Sterile river sand replaced clinoptilotile in the control diet in order to keep the diets isoenergetic. The hens were individually caged in a naturally ventilated laying house and fed one of the two diets for ten 28-d periods. 2. Significant dietary effects of feeding clinoptilolite were observed with number of eggs laid per hen, shell thickness, efficiency of food utilisation and droppings moisture content. No significant dietary effects between treatments were observed with body weight, age at first egg, egg weight. Haugh units, food intake/hen and rate of amino acid absorption of radioactive lysine and methionine into the bloodstream. Significant differences between strains were observed with regard to all parameters except food intake/hen. There were no significant strain X clinoptilolite interactions. PMID:9158901

Olver, M D

1997-05-01

406

The symbiotic star Hen 2-468 detected with Swift/XRT/UVOT during its current outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symbiotic star Hen 2-468 is undergoing its second (recorded) outburst as reported by Munari et al. (Atel #6841). We report the detection of Hen 2-468 in X-rays and UV with Swift during a ToO observation taken on 12/26/2014 with 9 ks exposure time.

Luna, G. J. M.; Nunez, N.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

2015-01-01

407

Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

408

LIVE ATTENUATED AND KILLED SALMONELLA VACCINES CAUSE AN INCREASE IN CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AMONG LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of 16 and 32 week old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines and two weeks later CMI was assessed using splenic mononuclear cel...

409

ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, EXCRETION, AND METABOLISM OF A SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF O-ETHYL O-4-NITROPHENYL PHENYLPHOSPHONOTHIOATE IN HENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The disposition and metabolism of a single oral 10 mg/kg (LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled (14C)EPN (O-ethyl O-4 nitrophenyl (14C) phenylphosphonothioate) were studied in adult hens. The birds were protected from acute toxicity with atropine sulfate. Three treated hens were kill...

410

Effects of Environmental and Social Factors on Incubation Behavior, Endocrinological Parameters, and Production Traits in Turkey Hens (Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hens raised in three different environ- ments were assessed for changes in egg production performance, the rate of incubation behavior expression, and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin for 20 wk following the laying of the first egg. The environments were individual (IFP) or collective floor pens (CFP) and individual battery cages (Cp and Cnp). The hens from

G. BEDECARRATS; D. GUEMENE; M. A. RICHARD-YRIS

411

DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN VARIOUS LYMPHOID-ORIGINS OF BROILER BREEDER HENS AFTER ORAL OR INTRA-VAGINAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two studies were conducted to determine if Campylobacter jejuni could rapidly spread and reside in the internal organs of adult broiler breeder hens. In study 1, university housed broiler breeders at 22 weeks of age were obtained and placed in individual cages. Each hen was intra-vaginally inocula...

412

EVIDENCE FOR THE PENETRATION OF THE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE HEN'S OVUM BY A TRYPSIN-LIKE ACROSOMAL ENZYME  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of fertilization, most mammalian spermatozoa must penetrate through a series of egg investments before reaching the vitelline membrane. By contrast, cock spermatozoa have only to penetrate the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum. The composition of the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum at the time of ovulation has been described by Bellairs, Harkness & Harkness (1963)

B. HOWARTH; S. T. DIGBY

1973-01-01

413

Myricetin prevents fibrillogenesis of hen egg white lysozyme.  

PubMed

Myricetin is a natural flavonol found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, and herbs as well as other plants. Recent studies have identified potential antiamyloidogenic activity for this compound. In this study, the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation by hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the antifibril-forming activity of myricetin were investigated. We demonstrate that myricetin significantly inhibits the fibrillation of HEWL and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect toward HEWL fibrillation was stronger than that exerted by the previously characterized fibril-forming inhibitor quercetin, which has high structural similarity with myricetin. Spectrofluorometric and computational studies suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibitory action of myricetin at a molecular level is to reduce the population of partially unfolded HEWL intermediates. This action is achieved by the tight binding of myricetin to the aggregation-prone region of the ?-domain of HEWL and linking to the relatively stable ?-domain, thus resulting in the inhibition of amyloid fibril formation. PMID:25196984

He, Jianwei; Wang, Yu; Chang, Alan K; Xu, Linan; Wang, Na; Chong, Xiaoying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Jones, Gary W; Song, Youtao

2014-10-01

414

Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.  

PubMed

In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

Furusawa, N

2000-12-01

415

Stress Detection and Classification of Laying Hens by Sound Analysis  

PubMed Central

Stress adversely affects the wellbeing of commercial chickens, and comes with an economic cost to the industry that cannot be ignored. In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility. The proposed system is structured hierarchically with three binary-classifier support vector machines. First, it selects an optimal acoustic feature subset from the sound emitted by the laying hens. The detection and classification module detects the stress from changes in the sound and classifies it into subsidiary sound types, such as physical stress from changes in temperature, and mental stress from fear. Finally, an experimental evaluation was performed using real sound data from an audio-surveillance system. The accuracy in detecting stress approached 96.2%, and the classification model was validated, confirming that the average classification accuracy was 96.7%, and that its recall and precision measures were satisfactory. PMID:25656176

Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

2015-01-01

416

Stress detection and classification of laying hens by sound analysis.  

PubMed

Stress adversely affects the wellbeing of commercial chickens, and comes with an economic cost to the industry that cannot be ignored. In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility. The proposed system is structured hierarchically with three binary-classifier support vector machines. First, it selects an optimal acoustic feature subset from the sound emitted by the laying hens. The detection and classification module detects the stress from changes in the sound and classifies it into subsidiary sound types, such as physical stress from changes in temperature, and mental stress from fear. Finally, an experimental evaluation was performed using real sound data from an audio-surveillance system. The accuracy in detecting stress approached 96.2%, and the classification model was validated, confirming that the average classification accuracy was 96.7%, and that its recall and precision measures were satisfactory. PMID:25656176

Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

2015-04-01

417

Elastic constants in orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals.  

PubMed

The ultrasonic sound velocities of cross-linked orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals, including a large amount of water in the crystal, were measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. As a result, seven elastic constants of orthorhombic crystals were observed to be C11 = 5.24 GPa, C22 = 4.87 GPa, C12 = 4.02 GPa, C33 = 5.23 GPa, C44 = 0.30 GPa, C55 = 0.40 GPa, and C66 = 0.43 GPa, respectively. However, C13 and C23 could not be observed because the suitable crystal planes could not be cut from bulk crystals. We conclude that the observed elastic constants of the cross-linked crystals are coincident with those of the intrinsic crystals without cross-linking. Moreover, the characteristics of the elastic constants in orthorhombic HEWL crystals are due to the fact that the shear elastic constants, C44, C55, and C66, are softer than in tetragonal crystals. That is, the shear components, C44, C55, and C66, are one half of those of the tetragonal crystals. PMID:24580264

Kitajima, N; Tsukashima, S; Fujii, D; Tachibana, M; Koizumi, H; Wako, K; Kojima, K

2014-01-01

418

Mercury dynamics in young Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from a polluted environment.  

PubMed

: We studied mercury concentrations and amounts in tissues of 19 starved young Common Tern chicks (median age 4 days) and in eggs from the same colony. Concentrations and burden were similar between eggs and newly hatched chicks. Mercury concentrations were highest in down, which contained at least 38% of the body mercury. The mercury burden of the whole body and of the tissues as well as the concentration in down increased with age and body mass, indicating the importance of down as an elimination pathway. Conversion ratios between mercury concentrations in tissues and the whole chick body varied according to the contamination level. PMID:24203117

Becker, P H; Furness, R W; Henning, D

1993-03-01

419

Effects of dietary carbohydrate source on growth, plasma metabolites and lipogenesis in rats, pigs, and chicks.  

PubMed

Rats, chicks, and pigs were fed diets containing fructose or glucose. Plasma triglyceride levels were elevated in rats but not in chicks or pigs fed diets containing fructose. The rate of fatty acid synthesis in rat liver but not in chick liver was elevated when fructose-containing diets were fed. Conversely, the rate of fatty acid synthesis in rat adipose tissue but not in pig adipose tissue tended to be depressed when fructose-containing diets were fed. These results indicate that there are species-specific as well as organ-specific metabolic responses to various dietary carbohydrates. PMID:1187697

Waterman, R A; Romsos, D R; Tsai, A C; Miller, E R; Leveille, G A

1975-10-01

420

Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay.  

PubMed

High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens negatively impact egg production and cause egg contamination. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H5N2 HPAIV. However, Asian H5N1 HPAIV infection has some characteristics of increased pathogenicity compared to other H5 HPAIV such as more rapid drop and complete cessation in egg production. Sham (vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age), inactivated H5N1 Once (1X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 28 weeks of age only) and inactivated H5N1 Twice (2X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age) vaccinated adult White Leghorn hens were challenged intranasally at 31 weeks of age with 6.1 log10 mean embryo infectious doses (EID50) of clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 HPAIV (A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-675/2011) which was homologous to the inactivated vaccine. Sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality within 3 days post-challenge; laid soft and thin-shelled eggs; had recovery of virus from oral swabs and in 53% of the eggs from eggshell surface (35%), yolk (24%), and albumin (41%); and had very high titers of virus (average 7.91 log10 EID50/g) in all segments of the oviduct and ovary. By comparison, 1X- and 2X-H5-Vax challenged hens survived infection, laid similar number of eggs pre- and post-challenge, all eggs had normal egg shell quality, and had significantly fewer contaminated eggs with reduced virus quantity. The 2X-H5-Vax hens had significantly higher HI titers by the day of challenge (304 GMT) and at termination (512 GMT) than 1X-H5-Vax hens (45 GMT and 128 GMT). The current study demonstrated that AIV infections caused by clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 variants can be effectively controlled by either double or single homologous vaccination. PMID:25657093

Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

2015-03-10

421

THE STRUCTURE OF THE MAMMILLARY LAYER OF THE DOMESTIC HEN'S EGG-SHELL  

E-print Network

containing cobalt sulphate (o.o18M) and sodium bicarbonate (o.2IM) at pH 7.5 (PEARSE ig6o) and incubated adsorption of cobalt ions were carried out in the cobalt solutions without sodium bicarbonate. The pH value of these solutions was adjusted to !.5 with o.IM sodium hydroxide. Tests were also carried in the cobalt bicarbonate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

2007-03-01

423

Validation of impaired renal function chick model with uranyl nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is a highly toxic element when soluble salts are administered parenterally, whereas the index of toxicity is very low when ingested. In the salt form, uranium is one of the oldest substances used experimentally to induce mammalian renal failure. Renal damage occurs when uranium reacts chemically with the protein of columnar cells lining the tubular epithelium, leading to cellular injury and necrosis. Uranyl nitrate (UN) is the most common uranium salt utilized for nephrotoxic modeling. The development of an impaired renal function (IRF) chick model required a suitable nephrotoxic compound, such as UN, for validation, yet toxicity data for chickens were notably absent in the literature. The objective of the present study was to validate the IRF model with UN, based upon preliminary nephrotoxic dosages developed in this laboratory.

Harvey, R.B.; Kubena, L.F.; Phillips, T.D.; Heidelbaugh, N.D.

1986-01-01

424

The influence of the housing system on Salmonella infections in laying hens: a review.  

PubMed

From 2012 onwards, housing of laying hens in conventional battery cages will be forbidden in the European Union and only enriched cages and non-cage housing systems such as aviaries, floor-raised, free-range and organic systems will be allowed. Although this ban aims at improving the welfare of laying hens, it has also initiated the question whether there are any adverse consequences of this decision, especially with respect to the spread and/or persistence of zoonotic agents in a flock. A zoonotic agent that is traditionally associated with the consumption of eggs and egg products is Salmonella enteritidis. This paper provides a summary of the current knowledge regarding the direct and indirect effects of different housing systems on the occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. PMID:20875073

Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Dewulf, J

2011-08-01

425

Reconstitution and structure of a bacterial Pnkp1-Rnl-Hen1 RNA repair complex.  

PubMed

Ribotoxins cleave essential RNAs for cell killing, and RNA repair neutralizes the damage inflicted by ribotoxins for cell survival. Here we report a new bacterial RNA repair complex that performs RNA repair linked to immunity. This new RNA repair complex is a 270-kDa heterohexamer composed of three proteins-Pnkp1, Rnl and Hen1-that are required to repair ribotoxin-cleaved RNA in vitro. The crystal structure of the complex reveals the molecular architecture of the heterohexamer as two rhomboid-shaped ring structures of Pnkp1-Rnl-Hen1 heterotrimer fused at the Pnkp1 dimer interface. The four active sites required for RNA repair are located on the inner rim of each ring. The architecture and the locations of the active sites of the Pnkp1-Rnl-Hen1 heterohexamer suggest an ordered series of repair reactions at the broken RNA ends that confer immunity to recurrent damage. PMID:25882814

Wang, Pei; Selvadurai, Kiruthika; Huang, Raven H

2015-01-01

426

Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

2001-01-01

427

Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed Central

Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

1995-01-01

428

Keel fracture assessment of laying hens by palpation: inter-observer reliability and accuracy.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the interobserver reliability (agreement) and accuracy of keel palpation for the purpose of detecting old fractures in an end-of-lay flock of commercial laying hens. The low level of invasiveness and the relative speed at which this evaluation can be carried out lends itself well to use in a welfare audit, but only if the results are reliable and accurate from various assessors. The palpation technique first described by Wilkins and others (2004) was used to manually palpate for keel fractures. The technique was modified in that only keel fractures were considered. Eight assessors with varying laying hen experience palpated 100 live ISA Brown hens that had been in lay for 49 weeks. The hens were then euthanased and examined by dissection to establish whether there had been a keel fracture present (yes/no). The accuracy for individual assessors ranged from 87.1 to 96.8 per cent, with a mean of 91.8 per cent among all eight assessors. The interobserver reliability among all eight assessors was moderate (?=0.44). Accuracy and ? values were 84.8 per cent and 0.41 for the first 50 hens, and 99.5 per cent and 0.47 for the last 50 hens, respectively, indicating that there was increased accuracy and agreement as the assessors became more experienced at palpation. This level of agreement, and the high level of accuracy, would make this technique an acceptable measure of keel fracture prevalence in a welfare audit. PMID:24162507

Petrik, M T; Guerin, M T; Widowski, T M

2013-11-23

429

Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.  

PubMed

The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems. PMID:25306464

Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

2014-12-01

430

The effect of estrogen on the early cytotoxic response to IB virus infection in hen oviduct.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether the egg-laying phase and estrogen affect the induction of cytotoxic cells in response to avian infectious bronchitis (IB) virus at early stage of infection in the oviduct. Attenuated IB virus (aIBV group) or its vehicle (control group) was introduced to the oviductal magnum lumen of White Leghorn hens in the laying and molting phase, as well as molting hens injected with estradiol benzoate (M-EB hens) or corn oil (M-oil hens). Oviductal isthmus and uterus were collected 24h after injection. The frequency of CD8(+) and TCR??(+) T cells expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, followed by image analysis. The expression of the genes of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), natural killer cell receptor (BNK), cytotoxic substances (granzyme, perforin), and cytokines (CXCL12, CX3CL1, and IFN?) were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The frequency of CD8(+) and TCR??(+) T cells in the isthmus, and CD8(+) cells in the uterus was significantly higher in the aIBV group compared to the control group of laying and M-EB hens. The expression of all the genes examined in this study in the isthmus, and CX3CL1 and IFN? expression in the uterus was significantly higher in the aIBV group in the laying and M-EB hens. These results suggested that infection with IB virus causes an immune response involving the influx of cytotoxic cells and upregulation of cytokines in the isthmus and uterus at early stage of infection. This response was stronger during the laying phase compared to the molting phase, probably due to the effect of estrogen. PMID:25593044

Nii, Takahiro; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

2015-03-15

431

The hormonal control of begging and early aggressive behavior: Experiments in black-headed gull chicks  

E-print Network

- footed booby (Sula nebouxii), a facultative siblicidal species, dominant chicks did not show higher). However, in the closely related Nazca booby (Sula granti), plasma levels of testosterone, but not those

432

Influences of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defense system of the chick.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defense system (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase) were investigated in the chick. Two-week-old chicks were reared using a vitamin E-free, low-selenium, semipurified basal diet alone or supplemental with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) and/or selenium (.10 ppm). Whereas vitamin E sustained chick growth, survival, and protection from exudative diathesis (ED), it did not significantly affect the enzymatic components of the oxidant defense system. Dietary selenium promoted chick growth and protection against ED in the absence of vitamin E and sustained glutathione peroxidase activity in several tissues. The latter effect was associated with decreases in reduced glutathione concentrations observed in liver and blood. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in liver and brain in selenium deficiency. Glutathione reductase activities in liver, kidney, lung, and brain were not affected by diet. PMID:7322995

Combs, G F

1981-09-01

433

Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

1997-01-01

434

Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

1997-01-01

435

Provisioning of Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus chicks at nests in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Slavonian Grebe nests are used as a focal point for feeding chicks in the early stages of growth, with considerable variation in feeding rates diurnally and across the duration of post?hatch nest use.

Ian A. Dillon; Mark H. Hancock; Ron W. Summers

2010-01-01

436

A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation. PMID:24068190

Borges, R.M.; Horne, J.H.; Melo, A.; Vidal, J.T.; Vieceli, F.M.; Melo, M.O.; Kanno, T.Y.N.; Fraser, S.E.; Yan, C.Y.I.

2013-01-01

437

Deafferentation-Induced Neuroplasticity in Chick Auditory Neurons: A Matter of Life or Death  

E-print Network

neuronal damage and recovery. In this series of studies, the avian auditory system is used as a model in which to evaluate the CNS response to disruptions in auditory signaling. Neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), receive...

Karnes, Hope Elizabeth

2009-06-17

438

Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

439

Methionine and choline relationship in the nutrition of the commercial laying hen  

E-print Network

University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. R. Creger A study was conducted to determine the effects on hen-day production, feed conversion, egg weights and body weights in SCWL hens fed a milo-soybean meal basal diet (. 23/ methionine and 1492 mg.../kg choline) and supplemented with either . 07/ or . 14/ methionine and 4?0 or 840 mg/kg choline for 1Z ZB-day periods. The supplementation of . 07/ or . 14K methionine and 420 or 840 mg/kg choline to the basal diet, regardless of the level, resulted in a...

Brooks, Leon George

1983-01-01

440

Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen  

E-print Network

, in the diet of laying hens to determine their effect on cholesterol mobilization in the egg yolk, and any other effects these products may have on cholesterol metabolism in the laying hen. Three hundred and eighty four White Leghorn pullets were used.... The pullets were divided into four replicated dietary treatments of ninety-six birds each. All treatment groups were fed on all vegetable protein basal diets. Group 1 pullets received the basal diet with 3. 0X added vegetable fat. Group 2 pullets received...

Husseini, Munther Dawod

1975-01-01

441

The effect of age, bird density and dietary phosphorus on the reproductive performance of turkey hens  

E-print Network

be involved. Wilcox et al. (1961) fed Broad Breasted Bronze (BBB), Beltsville Small White (BSW) and Broad White (BW) turkey hens a practical diet with a phosphorus level of 0. 34 percent and calcium level of 0. 62 percent. These workers found... no statistical effect on egg production or apparent fertility of eggs and only a slight effect on hatchability of fertile eggs as a result of the low phosphorus diet. Jensen et al. (1963), working with BBB hens, fed a practical type diet with a calcium levels...

Portal, Celina

1972-01-01

442

Secondary effects of the pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on chicks of spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if application of the biological pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (B.t.k.) had secondary effects on spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis) chicks in the southern boreal forest of Ontario, Canada. B.t.k. kills larvae of Lepidoptera that might otherwise be food. This may affect types of food ingested and influence chick growth rates by reducing the availability of a high-protein food. Amount of ingested grit, which is diet-dependent, may also be influenced, which could alter exposure to anthropogenic toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), associated with the grit. Chick growth rate from 0 to 14 days of age was determined, and gizzard contents were analyzed for types of foods and levels of macronutrients and trace metals in chicks raised in a plot treated with B.t.k. compared to chicks raised on a control plot. Chick growth rates were significantly different (p < 0.05); chicks from the treatment plot increased body mass 30% less as compared to chicks raised on the control plot. Control chicks contained on average 2.5-fold the mass (in g) of grit and nearly twofold the mass of food, which included larvae, in their gizzards compared to those exposed to B.t.k. whose diets were dominated by spiders and ants. Concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), sulfur (S) and the trace metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) did not differ between experimental and control birds (p > 0.05). In contrast, control chicks had higher levels of aluminum (Al), Cd, cobalt (Co), and Pb in their gizzards than chicks from the sprayed area (p < 0.05), attributed to greater amounts of consumed grit. Although birds from the sprayed area had lower levels of the toxic metals Pb and Cd in their gizzards, a protein-deficient diet could have been a factor that contributed to decreased rates of growth in B.t.k.-exposed birds as compared to those birds held on nonsprayed sites. Reduced growth during the first 2 weeks of avian development has important consequences at the population level, and it is recommended that this secondary effect be considered for all species who rely on Lepidoptera larvae as a food resource prior to wide spread application of B.t.k. for insect control. PMID:11503075

Norton, M L; Bendell, J F; Bendell-Young, L I; LeBlanc, C W

2001-10-01

443

All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.  

PubMed

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories. PMID:17681433

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

2008-01-01

444

Effects of methylmercury exposure on the behavior of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.  

PubMed

Behavioral effects resulting from exposure to dietary methylmercury (MeHg) have been reported in studies of several wildlife species. However, quantifying the impact of contaminant exposure on wild populations is complicated by the confounding effects of other environmental stressors. We controlled confounding stressors in a laboratory study to quantify the level of dietary MeHg exposure associated with negative effects on the fitness of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. We evaluated the effect of MeHg on loon chick behavior by employing several assays, including measures of righting reflexes, responsiveness to taped parental calls, reaction to frightening stimuli, and estimates of time activity budgets. Evidence suggested that as chicks aged, those exposed to nominal dietary dose levels of 0.4 and 1.2 microg Hg/g wet-weight in food (average estimated delivered dietary level of 0.55 and 1.94 microg Hg/g, respectively) were less likely (p < 0.01) to right themselves after being positioned on their backs during outdoor trials (> or =37 days old) compared to chicks on the control diet. We detected differences (p < 0.05) in several response variables with respect to source of eggs. Chicks from nests on low-pH lakes tended to spend more time on resting platforms, spent less time in the shade, were more likely to walk across a platform upon release and do it quicker, were less responsive to a frightening stimulus, and exhibited less intense response to parental wail calls than did chicks from neutral pH-lakes. Rapid MeHg excretion during feather growth likely provides loon chicks protection from MeHg toxicity and may explain the lack of behavioral differences with dietary intake. Lake source effects suggest that in ovo exposure to MeHg or other factors related to lake pH have consequences on chick behavior. PMID:20217222

Kenow, Kevin P; Hines, Randy K; Meyer, Michael W; Suarez, Sarah A; Gray, Brian R

2010-06-01

445

Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.  

PubMed

Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited. PMID:21591754

Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P

2011-06-15

446

The heat increment of feeding in house wren chicks: magnitude, duration, and substitution for thermostatic costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat increment of feeding (HIF), a transient postprandial increase in metabolic rate, is the energy cost of processing\\u000a a meal. We measured HIF in house wren chicks (Troglodytes aedon) ranging in mass from 1.6 to 10.3?g. This mass range (age 2–10 days) spanned a transition from blind, naked, ectothermic\\u000a chicks through alert, endothermic birds with nearly complete feathering. We

Mark. A. Chappell; Gwendolyn C. Bachman; Kimberly A. Hammond

1997-01-01

447

Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.  

PubMed

Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of coniine-induced teratogenesis between these two species. PMID:9001585

Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

1996-12-31

448

EFFECTS OF GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL INSECTICIDES ON SURVIVAL AND BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE OF PHEASANT (PHASIANUS COLCHICUS) CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) chicks were exposed via contact and\\/or ingestion to formulations of three insecticides (Lorsban 4E, chlorpyrifos; Cygon 480E, dimethoate; and Furadan 480F, carbofuran) applied to pasture plots at one and four times the rate recommended for control of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in prairie Canada. Chicks (3 d old) were exposed for 48 h in pens with

Pamela A. Martin; Daniel L. Johnson; Douglas J. Forsyth

1996-01-01

449

Predicting starling chick carcass PCB concentrations from PCB concentrations in ingested animal matter.  

PubMed

Preremediation studies at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) revealed statistically significant accumulations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and effects in starling chicks (Sturnus vulgaris) from contaminated sites, including decreased nest attentiveness, decreased fledging success, and an increase in chick mortality. Although the expected route of exposure for starling chicks is thought to be via diet, this has not previously been documented at CONWR. The purpose of this study was to develop an equation to predict starling chick carcass PCB concentrations from PCB concentrations in ingested animal matter. During 1995 and 1996, stomach contents from 14 and 22 starling chicks collected from contaminated and reference sites, respectively, were evaluated. Animal, plant, and mineral matter in the stomach contents were separated and animal matter from stomachs of individuals from the same nest were combined, dried, and percent dry weight calculated. Composite samples of animal matter were then analyzed for the presence of PCBs (Aroclor 1254). Stomach contents were primarily composed of animal matter (76%), and the percent animal matter in the stomachs did not differ significantly among locations (range = 38.4% to 100%). The mean PCB concentration in composite samples of animal matter from stomachs of chicks collected from contaminated sites (1.82 +/- 1.17 mg/kg) was significantly greater than the concentrations in composite samples from two reference locations (<0. 24 mg/kg). PCB concentrations in stomach contents were correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.91, p < 0.005) with concentrations in carcasses of chicks from which the stomachs had been collected. The regression Y = 6.19 x X(1,398), where Y = starling chick carcass PCB concentration and X = starling stomach animal matter PCB concentration, indicated that PCB concentrations in consumed animal matter accounted for 82% of the variability in starling carcass concentrations.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p548.html

Arena, S M; Halbrook, R S; Arenal, C A

1999-11-01

450

Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

2011-01-01

451

Evidence for a receptor for ceruloplasmin on chick aortic and heart cell membranes  

E-print Network

EVIDENCE FOR A RECEPTOR FOR CERULOPLASMIN ON CHICK AORTIC AND HEART CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by MICHAEL DUANE STEVENS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Biochemistry EVIDENCE FOR A RECEPTOR FOR CERULOPLASMIN ON CHICK AORTIC AND HEART CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by MICHAEL DUANE STEVENS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Me (Member...

Stevens, Michael Duane

1982-01-01

452

The Influence of Diet on Mercury Intake by Little Tern Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed mercury levels in the feathers of little tern (Sternula albifrons) chicks from hatching to fledging and in their prey captured by adults in three main foraging habitats: lagoon, salinas,\\u000a and adjacent sea. These data were used to model mercury concentration in chick feathers through food ingestion, in order to\\u000a explore the effects that changes in diet would have

Vitor H. Paiva; Paula C. Tavares; Jaime A. Ramos; Eduarda Pereira; Sandra Antunes; Armando C. Duarte

2008-01-01

453

Comparative response of broiler chicks to a high fibre diet supplemented with four antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth performance and nutrient retention of broiler chicks fed a high fibre diet supplemented with procaine penicillin, tylosin, streptomycin sulphate, or neomycin-oxytetracycline mixture was studied. A total of 150 seven-day-old broiler chicks were fed for 28 days on five experimental diets. The antibiotics were added to a high fibre (250 g kg?1 Palm Kernel Meal) basal diet, at a

A. A. Onifade; G. M. Babatunde

1997-01-01

454

Supplemental value of dried yeast in a high-fibre diet for broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supplemental effect of dried yeast on growth, feed intake, feed conversion and apparent nutrient retention of broiler chicks fed a high-fibre diet was studied for 28 days. One hundred and fifty 7-day-old broiler chicks were fed five high-fibre diets containing 250 g kg?1 palm kernel meal. The diets were supplemented with increasing levels of dried yeast: 0, 1.5 g

A. A. Onifade; G. M. Babatunde

1996-01-01

455

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

456

Are acoustical parameters of begging call elements of thin-billed prions related to chick condition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks of burrowing petrels use begging calls to advertise their hunger levels when parents arrived at the nest. In a previous\\u000a study, adult thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri responded to higher begging call rates of their single chick by regurgitating larger meals. We tested whether acoustic parameters\\u000a of begging call elements may also be involved in signalling. To describe variation in

Petra Quillfeldt; Maud Poisbleau; Roger Mundry; Juan F. Masello

2010-01-01

457