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Body Compositional Changes and Growth Alteration in Chicks from Hens Fed Conjugated Linoleic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to hens on progeny chick development and composition at hatch (NHC) and\\u000a three weeks of age (TWC) were assessed. CLA (0 or 0.5%, composed of mixed isomers of cis-9,trans-11 or trans-10,cis-12-CLA) was fed to hens with either safflower (SO) or olive oil (OO) (3 or 3.5%) to assure successful hatch for 2 weeks

Vanessa A. Leone; Sharon P. Worzalla; Mark E. Cook



Toxic effects of high concentrations of zinc oxide in the diet of the chick and laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of high dietary concentrations of zinc oxide on chicks and hens were studied in four experiments.2. Chicks given 2 000, 4 000 or 6 000 mg zinc\\/kg diet from 2 to 6 weeks of age grew poorly, many showing gizzard erosion and lesions of the exo?crine pancreas. Dissecting aneurysms occurred in a few birds receiving 6 000

W. A. Dewar; P. A. L. Wight; R. Anne Pearson; M. J. Gentle




Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the opsonins present in the serum of developing chick embryos against certain strains of gram-negative bacteria. Comparison has been made with opsonins in serum from adult normal hens and from specifically immunised birds against the same bacterial strains. It has been shown that only 7S globulins are transferred across the yolk sac membrane, the

K Karthigasu; CR Jenkin; KJ Turner



Effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens.  


Copper sulfate is often added to broiler and laying hen diets at prophylactic dosages due to its antimicrobial and growth promoting effects despite reduced P digestibility, whereas P use from other Cu sources is unknown. Therefore, male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 0 or 250 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate (Cu SUL), Cu citrate (Cu CIT), Cu lysinate (Cu LYS), or CuCl from 9 to 22 d of age (8 cages/diet, 6 birds/cage) to determine the effect of each Cu source on performance characteristics, bone mineralization, and P retention. Body weight gain was not different among treatments (P > 0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu LYS resulted in chicks having greater toe and tibia ash weights as compared with chicks fed Cu SUL (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different from those of birds fed Cu CL, Cu CIT, and 0 ppm Cu diets. Supplementation with Cu LYS resulted in birds with greater toe ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu CIT, Cu SUL, and the 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different than those of birds fed the CuCl diet. Birds fed the Cu LYS diet had greater tibia ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu SUL and 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but were not significantly different than birds fed the Cu CL or Cu CIT diet. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu SUL or Cu CIT reduced apparent P retention by 0.029 and 0.053 percentage-units of the diet, respectively (P < or = 0.05) as compared with the 0 ppm diet; whereas the apparent P retention when 250 ppm Cu LYS or Cu CL was fed was not different from the 0 ppm Cu diet (P > 0.05). Feeding of different Cu sources in a subsequent experiment had no influence on P retention in laying hens (P > 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu CIT or Cu SUL resulted in decreased apparent P retention. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu CL or Cu LYS, however, improved apparent P retentions as compared with Cu CIT or Cu SUL. PMID:15206627

Banks, K M; Thompson, K L; Rush, J K; Applegate, T J



The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens  

E-print Network

THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

Banta, Edward Mack



Lack of response of bone mineralization of chicks fed egg yolks from hens on dietary 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol.  


White Leghorn hens, age 34 wk, fed 0 to 3 micrograms/kg of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) as the only source of dietary vitamin D3 with 2.5 or 3.5% calcium failed to achieve normal embryonic survival and hatchability of their fertile eggs. Improved egg production was observed over a 24-wk period as the level of 1,25(OH)2D3 was increased. Eggs of hens fed the vitamin D-deficient diet showed significantly lower (P less than .01) egg weight and shell strength with a higher percent of soft shell eggs than those of hens fed 1,25(OH)2D3 or vitamin D3. To study the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 cannot be transferred into the egg yolk, yolks from the hens receiving varying levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D3 were fed to day-old chicks. A standard vitamin D3 assay was developed and bone ash was determined on fat-free tibial bone. Significantly lower (P less than .01) vitamin D activity per gram of yolk was observed in yolks from hens fed 0 to 3 micrograms of 1,25(OH)2D3 than in yolks of hens fed vitamin D3. These results demonstrate that insufficient 1,25(OH)2D3 is incorporated in the egg yolk to support normal embryonic survival and hatchability. This may be due to a decrease in available receptor sites in the egg yolk or to the inability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to cross the vitelline membrane. PMID:2833736

Ameenuddin, S; Sunde, M L; DeLuca, H F



New insights on infectious bronchitis virus pathogenesis: characterization of Italy 02 serotype in chicks and adult hens.  


Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide disease affecting chickens of all ages and causing important economic losses in poultry industry. Despite being one of the predominant IB virus (IBV) serotype in several European countries, slightly is known about pathogenesis and pathogenicity of Italy 02 serotype. In this study chicks and old hens were infected by oculo-nasal route with Italy 02 serotype. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic findings were evaluated, viral nucleic acid detection was assessed by in situ hybridization (ISH) in several tissues and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in trachea, kidney and nasal and cloacal swabs. Italy 02 serotype was demonstrated to cause severe respiratory and renal damage in one-day old chicks but not in adult hens in which only respiratory disease and drop in egg production was observed. The use of ISH technique demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in nasal turbinates prior to trachea, but more consistent and longer replication periods in enterocytes of lower gastrointestinal tract. The detection of viral nucleic acid in gut by RT-PCR was consistent and more persistent viral shedding was detected in faeces than in nasal exudates. We describe a complete update of IBV distribution in tissues by the use of molecular techniques and we also provide and in-depth pathological characterization of the new Italy 02 IBV serotype. Furthermore, new data about IBV pathogenesis essential in field control is afforded. PMID:22172297

Dolz, Roser; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Pérez, Mónica; Pujols, Joan; Majó, Natŕlia



Changes in Substrate Access Did Not Affect Early Feather-Pecking Behavior in Two Strains of Laying Hen Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather pecking, commonly found in flocks of laying hens (Gallus gallus), is detrimental to bird welfare. Thought to cause this problem is the normal housing of layers without a floor substrate. Some evidence suggests that early substrate access decreases later feather pecking. However, there has been little research on the immediate effects of a change in substrate availability on bird

Laura M. Dixon; Ian J. H. Duncan



Characteristics of Eggs, Embryos, and Chicks from Broiler Breeder Hens Selected for Growth or Meat Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic selection among 3 commercial broiler crosses had affected egg, embryo, and chick quality characteristics. It was thought that different selection strategies had affected the development of the chick embryo. Eggs were obtained from 3 maternal strains mated to a common sire strain, and all were similar in flock age

N. S. Joseph; E. T. Moran


Bioeconomic Performance of Pullets and Layer Hens Fed Soybean Grains-Based Diets in Hot and Humid Climate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of toasted soybean grains on bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens in hot and humid environment. A total of 972 three-week-old Harco chicks were divided into 12 groups. At starter, pullet and laying phases, birds were fed four diets containing 0% (R0), 5% (R5), 10% (R10), and 15% (R15) of soybean grains. Results showed similar feed intake, body weight gain, laying rate, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate between dietary treatments at each phase. The egg weight increased significantly in diet R15 (P < 0.05). The use of soybean grains reduced the feed prices. Feeding cost decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during growth and laying phases in soybean grains added diets. Feeds efficiency increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase of dietary soybean grains rate. Properly toasted soybean grains can be therefore included up to 15% in heavy line layer hens' diet in tropical conditions. PMID:23738130

Houndonougbo, M. F.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Daga Dadjo, F.; Adjaho, S. L.



Practical application of ELISA for detection of vertical transmission of leukosis virus in commercial layer hens.  


The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of congenital transmission of exogenous lymphoid leukosis virus (LLV) was examined using both vaginal swabs and albumen samples obtained from two layer flocks. Approximately 100 hens were studied in each flock by the ELISA and phenotypic mixing tests. ELISA testing on vaginal swabs identified 25/27 (92.5%) hens excreting LLV in their vaginal swabs and 16/17 (94.1%) of these hens that transmitted LLV to their embryos. Application of the ELISA to albumen samples was found to be as sensitive as testing vaginal swabs for detection of infected hens but also avoided 67 "false positive" reactors detected by the ELISA on vaginal swabs. Testing of albumens by the ELISA is thus recommended for use within commercial leukosis control programmes. PMID:18766810

Ignjatovic, J; Bagust, T J



Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.  


Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters. PMID:23300307

Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L



Vaccination of commercial layer chicks against infectious bursal disease with maternally derived antibodies.  


Day-old commercial layer chicks with maternally derived antibody to infectious bursal disease (IBD) were reared in four pens on a commercial farm, and chicks from the same flock were reared at the laboratory and examined for the decay of the maternal antibody and the development of susceptibility to IBD. The chicks in the pens on the farm were vaccinated with different combinations of commercial inactivated and live vaccines against IBD, transferred to the laboratory, and challenged with virulent IBD virus to assess the efficacy of the vaccination programmes. The chicks from one pen, given a live IBD vaccine only, did not develop antibodies and were fully susceptible to challenge by seven weeks old; only one to two weeks later than the unvaccinated control chicks reared at the laboratory. The chicks in the other three pens were inoculated with an inactivated vaccine, and the chicks in two of these pens were inoculated later with a live vaccine. All these chicks developed IBD antibodies and were protected by between 91 and 100 per cent against challenge. There was no demonstrable benefit in administering a live vaccine either alone or in addition to an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine. PMID:7817504

Goddard, R D; Wyeth, P J; Varney, W C



Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype  

PubMed Central

White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration. PMID:25049597

Küçüky?lmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Ç?nar, Mustafa; Çatl?, Abdullah U?ur; Binta?, Erol; Çöven, Fethiye



In Vitro Fermentation Response of Laying Hen Cecal Bacteria to Combinations of Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics with Alfalfa or a Layer Ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with alfalfa on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal con- tents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3,000 concentra- tion with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes filled with ground alfalfa or a layer ration with or without fructooligosaccharide

L. M. Donalson; W. K. Kim; V. I. Chalova; P. Herrera; J. L. McReynolds; V. G. Gotcheva; D. Vidanovic; C. L. Woodward; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke



Outbreak of avian tuberculosis in 48-week-old commercial layer hen flock.  


This report describes an outbreak of tuberculosis in a flock of 38,500 48-wk-old layer hens. Clinical characteristics of the process included a gradual drop in egg production and feed intake, as well as an increased mortality rate. Two well-defined clinical features were observed. On the one hand, a number of birds displayed good body condition and continued to lay but presented granulomatous nodular lesions, particularly in the infraorbital sinus, liver, and intestine. In contrast, other hens were emaciated and presented granulomatous lesions of various sizes throughout the internal organs. The lesions observed in the various organs of all the affected birds consisted of granulomas containing acid/alcohol-fast bacilli. The presence of Mycobacterium avium was confirmed through polymerase chain reaction techniques. This report describes the epidemiologic and histopathologic characteristics of the outbreak. PMID:12495075

González, Marta; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Gimeno, Isabel; Flores, Juana M; Pizarro, Manuel



Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...


Sources of Hens Though it's sometimes possible to buy five-month old pullets (young hens) that are ready to  

E-print Network

adversely and may reduce laying. As hens age, they gradually lay fewer eggs. A 10-hen flock will ease off) that are ready to start laying eggs, it's more likely you'll need to raise your own hens from baby chicks dozen eggs or more and eat 90-100 pounds of feed during the same time. Housing Mature laying hens should

New Hampshire, University of


Effects of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccination in layer hens subjected to S. Enteritidis challenge and various feed withdrawal regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis infection and serum S. Enteritidis antibodies after experimental S. Enteritidis challenge and feed withdrawal were investigated in S. Enteritidis-vaccinated and unvaccinated hens. The results were used to determine whether formalin-inactivated S. Enteritidis vaccination can protect layer hens from S. Enteritidis challenge during feed withdrawal periods. S. Enteritidis infection rates were evaluated from

Zhenzi Piao; Yukiko Toyota-Hanatani; Hiroaki Ohta; Kazumi Sasai; Hiroyuki Tani; Eiichiroh Baba



Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.  


Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won



Zinc bacitracin enhances colonization by the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli in experimentally infected layer hens.  


Brachyspira pilosicoli strain CPSp1 isolated from a chicken in a broiler breeder flock in Queensland was used to experimentally infect 40 individually caged 22-week-old laying hens. Another 10 birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All chickens received a commercial layer diet, but 10 infected birds had 50 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB) incorporated in their food. Birds were kept for 7 weeks, and faecal moisture, egg numbers, egg weights and body weights were recorded weekly. B. pilosicoli was isolated from the faeces of only three of the 30 inoculated birds receiving the diet without ZnB, whereas seven of the 10 inoculated birds receiving ZnB in their diet were colonized. This difference in colonization rate was highly significant (P = < 0.001). Dietary ZnB at 50 parts/10(6) therefore predisposed to colonization by B. pilosicoli. Despite colonization, no significant production differences were found between the birds in the three groups. PMID:12396353

Jamshidi, A; Hampson, D J



Changes in eggshell conductance, water loss and hatchability of layer hens with flock age and moulting.  


1. Changes in water loss, eggshell conductance and hatchability with flock age were monitored in layer hens in a commercial hatchery. 2. Optimal water loss for maximal hatchability of layer eggs was found to be 12 to 13% of initial egg mass at d 18 of incubation. 3. Mass specific water vapour conductance (GH(2)Osp) increased linearly with flock age from 0.31 mg/(d.g.Torr) at the beginning of the first breeding season to 0.40 mg/(d.g.Torr) at its end after 77 weeks (=4.21 and 5.44 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 4. After forced moulting GH(2)Osp increased from 0.35 to 0.41 mg/(d.g.Torr) (=4.76 and 5.58 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 5. The coefficients of variation of GH(2)Osp increased with flock age from 14% at the beginning of the breeding season to 31% at the end of the second breeding season. 6. In order to preserve normal incubation water loss for maximising hatchability, the humidity setting of an incubator should increase gradually, with flock age, from 53% RH to 66% RH in the first laying season and from 61% RH to 67% RH after forced moulting. 7. A 3.5-fold increase (from 2 to 7%) in the difference between mean and median GH(2)Osp of egg batches with flock age was found, indicating increasing frequency of microscopic cracks in eggshells with flock age. This has to be taken into account when setting the humidity regime in the incubator. PMID:19093240

Meir, M; Ar, A



Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P < 0.05) villus height and villus surface area compared with the control birds. Seaweed supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria [e.g., Bifidobacterium longum (4- to 14-fold), Streptococcus salivarius (4- to 15-fold)] and importantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of the chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CC and SG treatments than in the control. In conclusion, dietary supplementation using red seaweed inclusions can act as a potential prebiotic to improve performance, egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan



Effects of Mycotoxin Contaminated Diets on Immunosuppression or Interference with Other Physiological Parameters in Commercial-Strain Laying Chicks, Pullets or Hens  

E-print Network

(DC), in young pullets and replacement laying hens on performance, reproductive, serological, and histopathological parameters. In trial 1, experimental treatments consisted of control, low toxin (1 µg DON/g + 1 µg AFB1/g), and high toxin (2 µg DON/g...

Iselt, Stephanie Mae



The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

~t~ra~ 8 Mechmi4 !be,Re of reXas G~~~~~~ sSla:i2t 7,' $ The Quantities of Vitam~n f Required By Growing Chicks AGRICULTURAZl AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF' TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President 'IF the ( must ment ing 2 per : chick varie 6118 W from... for I that ie vitamin A in the feed of the hen laying the eggs from which chicks are hatched and the vitamin A intake of the chicks , be adequate if good results are to be obtained. These e'xperi- ;s showed that chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)



The effect of the age of a hen on fertility and hatchability of eggs and on livability and growth of chicks  

E-print Network

$X o o 1 s ~ o e ~ a e e s o e * o e + o ~ e g V+ CC@CllllRLCSS t 0 I ~ 0 4 I 0 4 4 0 I 0 i 1 0 I \\ i I 0 1 0 5 W4 BiL~ e ~ s e e 0 i I ~ e 0 i 0 f i o e ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 5 THE EFFECT OF THE JLGE OF E HER QH PZlTXLITX 459 HLTCHiBXLITX OF ECCS k%9 Ol... LLortal- ity Per cent lkortal- ity 0 1 9 B Table X shoes that the nusher of ohioics hatched froa the hens three years of age deorensecL fcoa the nusbar that hatched froa the hens one and tso years of age ~ This is largely oaused by the hone three...

Crossland, Aubrey Lee



Avian maternal response to chick distress  

PubMed Central

The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy. PMID:21389025

Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.



Heritability of individual egg hatching success versus hen hatchability in layers.  


The purpose of the study was to test the genetics of individual egg hatchability. Hatching outcome (0,1) of each of the eggs (126,430) laid during hatching seasons of 5 generations of a Rhode Island White population was analyzed with models that attributed the direct additive effect either to an egg or to a hen. A Gibbs sampling procedure, accounting for dichotomous nature of the trait, was employed for variance component estimation. The egg/embryo direct additive component was negligibly small (h(2) = 0.007) from the point of view of the accuracy of the hatchability proof. The hen direct additive component, though more than 12 times higher (h(2) = 0.087) than that of the egg, was still more than 2 times smaller than the component because of her permanent environment (p(2) = 0.221). More accurate definition of hens' environmental needs may prove to be more effective for hatching outcome improvement than increasing the accuracy of the reproduction proof, because current selection has to be performed before the individual hatchability record is known. PMID:23300295

Rozempolska-Rucinska, I; Zieba, G; Lukaszewicz, M



Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.  


A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H




Microsoft Academic Search

Fixation of embryonic chick cells (heart, neural retina, and limb bud) in the presence of lanthanum ions shows the presence of an electron-opaque layer, about 50 A thick, external to the cell membrane. This layer, designated LSM (for lanthanum-staining material), is not removable by trypsin, pronase, EDTA, DNase, a-amylase, neuraminidase, or N-acetyl-L- cysteine. However, phospholipase C, in concentrations as low




Plumage condition in laying hens: genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects in two purebred layer lines  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking is a major welfare issue in laying hen industry that leads to mortality. Due to a ban on conventional cages in the EU and on beak trimming in some countries of the EU, feather pecking will become an even bigger problem. Its severity depends both on the victim receiving pecking and on its group mates inflicting pecking (indirect effects), which together determine plumage condition of the victim. Plumage condition may depend, therefore, on both the direct genetic effect of an individual itself and on the indirect genetic effects of its group mates. Here, we present estimated genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects on plumage condition of different body regions in two purebred layer lines, and estimates of genetic correlations between body regions. Methods Feather condition scores (FCS) were recorded at 40 weeks of age for neck, back, rump and belly and these four scores were added-up into a total FCS. A classical animal model and a direct–indirect effects model were used to estimate genetic parameters for FCS. In addition, a bivariate model with mortality (0/1) was used to account for mortality before recording FCS. Due to mortality during the first 23 weeks of laying, 5363 (for W1) and 5089 (for WB) FCS records were available. Results Total heritable variance for FCS ranged from 1.5% to 9.8% and from 9.8% to 53.6% when estimated respectively with the classical animal and the direct–indirect effects model. The direct–indirect effects model had a significantly higher likelihood. In both lines, 70% to 94% of the estimated total heritable variation in FCS was due to indirect effects. Using bivariate analysis of FCS and mortality did not affect estimates of genetic parameters. Genetic correlations were high between adjacent regions for FCS on neck, back, and rump but moderate to low for belly with other regions. Conclusion Our results show that 70% to 94% of the heritable variation in FCS relates to indirect effects, indicating that methods of genetic selection that include indirect genetic effects offer perspectives to improve plumage condition in laying hens. This, in turn could reduce a major welfare problem. PMID:24885199



Major derivatives of the ectoderm germ layer Primary neurulation: neural tube formation in the chick embryo (Part 1)  

E-print Network

in the chick embryo (Part 1) #12;Primary neurulation: neural tube formation in the chick embryo (Part 2) #12;Neurulation in an amphibian embryo, showing early, middle, and late neurulae in each case (Part 1) #12;Neurulation in an amphibian embryo, showing early, middle, and late neurulae in each case (Part 2) #12


Persistent effect of broody hens on behaviour of chickens.  


We reported previously that behavioral development of chicks was promoted remarkably by the presence of a broody hen. Here we report that these effects at an early age persist after maturity. A total of 60 female chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: six pens with five chicks (brooded group) each were reared by a broody hen and six pens with five chicks (non-brooded group) each were provided with an infrared heating lamp. We evaluated the persistent effects of broody hens by measures of behavior, physical condition and production at 9, 16, 35 and 55 weeks of age. The numbers of threatening, aggressive pecking, fighting and severe feather pecking behaviors were higher in non-brooded than in brooded chickens (all P?hens at an early stage of chicks' lives has a persistent effect on behavior. Although brooded chickens showed more brooding and lower egg production than non-brooded chickens, feather pecking and aggressive interaction were decreased in brooded hens. PMID:25039794

Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yuji; Fujino, Saori; Kamimura, Eriko; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio



Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.  


This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D



Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long




E-print Network

ABSTRACT Penned hen .pheasants were administered 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg atrazine orally each week for 15 at the 100 mg treatment level. Perhaps atrazine acted as a stimulant at that low level. No other sublethal effects of atrazine on penned hen pheasants and their chicks were detected. INTRODUCTION The herbicide


Potential for amelioration of aflatoxin B1-induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of White Leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to vitamin E.  


This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) on the immunotoxic effects induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the progeny of breeder hens. For this purpose, 192 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens were divided into 12 groups (A-L) and then fed test diets for either 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Group A was kept on basal feed (2900 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) and served as control, while group B was offered a feed supplemented with Vit E at 100?mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0?mg/Kg AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered the same dietary levels of AFB1 along with 100?mg/Kg Vit E supplementation. Hatching eggs were shifted to an incubator on a weekly basis to get progeny chicks. Hatched chicks in each group were maintained on basal ration and then subjected to different immunological assays. Lymphoproliferative responses (against PHA-P), antibody titers (against SRBC), oxidative damage to RBC, as well as phagocytic and nitrite production potential of the peritoneal macrophages from the chicks, were all adversely impacted by hen exposure to the higher doses of AFB1 or by increased intake (time) by the hens at a given dose of the toxin. No consistent ameliorative effects from Vit E were noted in these studies, i.e. effects seen against lower AFB1 doses were no longer apparent with the highest doses of AFB1. As such, for now it can be concluded that, with this particular single dose level of Vit E, AFB1-associated immunotoxic effects in progeny chicks can potentially be mitigated by dietary intake of Vit E by their hen dams. However, this is clearly an outcome that is driven by the level of the mycotoxin present in the feed. Future studies need to examine what impact higher Vit E doses than those employed herein might have in these ameliorative outcomes. PMID:23782308

Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Ul Hassan, Zahoor; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif



Dietary phosphorus and food allowance of dwarf breeders affect reproductive performance of hens and bone development of their progeny.  


1. An experiment was conducted with 144 caged hens to study the effects of different dietary concentrations of phosphorus and of food restriction on the reproductive performance of dwarf breeder hens and on the growth and the bone development of their progeny. 2. Severe food restrictions at 105 g/hen day compared to 115 g/hen day, decreased hen body weight and hen day egg production. Fertility was unaffected and hatchability slightly depressed by the more severe restriction. 3. Egg and one-day-old chick weights were decreased by limiting the food intake of the breeders but the negative effect disappeared at slaughter (7 weeks). 4. Shell quality decreased as the dietary phosphorus increased and was not affected by food allowance. Albumen quality was slightly impaired in severely restricted hens. 5. Serum inorganic phosphorus in hens and yolk phosphorus increased with increasing dietary phosphorus. Tibial breaking strength and tibial percentage ash of the progeny at hatching was markedly improved in proportion to maternal phosphorus and food intake. This improvement in bone quality was not maintained at 7 weeks. 6. The number of chicks affected by twisted legs (valgus) and dyschondroplasia were similar whatever the maternal diet. The frequency of valgus was higher in males than in females. 7. It is concluded that maternal food intake and phosphorus supply are of importance for the initial bone development of the progeny. PMID:1623422

Triyuwanta; Leterrier, C; Nys, Y



Evaluation of carryover effects of dietary lysine intake by Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens.  


Two experiments were conducted to examine the progeny performance of broiler breeder (BB) hens fed diets differing in digestible lysine (dLys). A total of 240 Cobb 500 BB pullets and 40 cockerels, 20 wk of age, were used for each of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, treatment diets were fed from 35 to 45 wk of age. Treatment 1 and 2 diets were formulated with common feed ingredients and BB had dLys daily intakes of 1,200 (IDL-1,200) and 1,010 mg/hen per d (ID-1,010), respectively. Treatments 3 and 4 were composed of semipurified diets formulated to dLys intakes of 1,010 (SPL-1,010) and 600 mg/hen per d (SP-600), respectively. In experiment 1, chick weight at hatch was lower (P < 0.05) for those that came from the SP-600 and SPL-1,010-fed hens, but 42 and 56 d BW was similar for all treatments. Improvements (P < 0.10) in feed conversion ratio were seen at 42 and 56 d for chicks from ID-1,010-fed hens compared with IDL-1,200 hens. For experiment 2, diets were fed to BB hens from 24 to 42 wk of age. Treatment 1 was composed of corn-soybean meal and formulated to a dLys intake of 1,000 mg/hen per d (CS-1,000). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 had inclusion of 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with dLys intake levels of 1,000 (DDGS-1,000), 800 (DDGS-800), and 600 (DDGS-600) mg/hen per d, respectively. Progeny performance was evaluated from eggs collected at wk 26, 31, and 36. Chick hatch weight was similar for all 3 hatches. Chicks from 26-wk-old BB hens and fed DDGS-600 diets resulted in lower (P < 0.05) BW, carcass weight, and breast weight, and higher (P < 0.05) back half (drumsticks and thighs) yield, at 42 d of age. Growout studies performed on eggs laid during wk 31 and 36 revealed no effect on growth or carcass parameters. In conclusion, the results from experiments 1 and 2 may not be comparable, and therefore, the impact on progeny performance needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23436521

Mejia, L; McDaniel, C D; Kidd, M T; Lopez, K; Corzo, A



Safety and efficacy of a maternal vaccine for the passive protection of broiler chicks against necrotic enteritis.  


Necrotic enteritis is a potentially fatal multifactorial disease of chickens, which under commercial conditions is often associated with increased levels of mortality and reduced bird performance. The safety and efficacy of a Clostridium perfringens type A alpha-toxoid (Netvax™) formulated as an oil emulsion was investigated, following maternal immunization of broiler breeder hens, housed under commercial conditions, by the intramuscular route. A total of 11,234 hens were vaccinated across two integrated poultry sites. The vaccine was safe with no systemic reactions or adverse effects on bird performance detected. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in anti-alpha toxin antibody in the hen that was maintained throughout the study, and subsequently transferred to their progeny throughout the laying period via egg yolk. Chicks hatched from eggs produced from vaccinated hens were shown to have reduced mortality specifically related to progeny flocks where gross gut lesions associated with necrotic enteritis were observed in control chicks. Further, whilst C. perfringens was isolated from control chicks with necrotic enteritis lesions, no such isolations were made at these time points from chicks from vaccinated hens. These results indicate that, under commercial conditions, maternal vaccination with Netvax™ can help to control losses related to necrotic enteritis. PMID:21154059

Crouch, C F; Withanage, G S K; de Haas, V; Etore, F; Francis, M J



Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.  


Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N



Copper sulfate toxicosis in commercial laying hens.  


A flock of 51-week-old leghorn hens experienced a 16% drop in egg production in a single week. The layer ration contained 1477 ppm copper from the addition of copper sulfate. Severe oral ulcers were present in the pharynx. Oral ulcers, reduced feed intake, and a drop in egg production occurred when a ration containing 1437 ppm copper was evaluated experimentally. PMID:8713042

Gilbert, R W; Sander, J E; Brown, T P



Black Noddy with Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Black Noddy (with a chick) is one of eight seabird species whose population density was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project. ...


Hypothalamic vasotocin and tyrosine hydroxylase levels following maternal care and selection for low mortality in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking and cannibalism are major concerns in poultry farming, both in terms of animal welfare and farm economics. Genetic selection and introduction of (aspects of) maternal care have been suggested as potential interventions to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. Altered brain development has been proposed to reflect welfare states in animals, and can provide more insight into the underlying processes involved in feather pecking. Both vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin) and dopaminergic neural circuitry have roles in control of social behaviors as well as in the stress response, and may be linked to feather pecking. Thus, the hypothalamus of adult laying hens selected for low early mortality (LML), which show low feather pecking, was examined and compared with a control line of adult laying hens selected for production characteristics only (CL). The effect of foster hen rearing on the two genetic lines and their hypothalamic morphology was also investigated. Results We demonstrated an increase in the number of neurons positive for the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus in the LML hens compared to CL hens. Hen-reared chicks showed more vasotocin -positive neurons in the medial pre-optic area compared to the hens raised without a hen. No correlations were found between behavior in an open field at 5–6 weeks of age, and the histology of the same hens at adulthood. Conclusion The hypothalamic dopaminergic and vasotinergic systems are altered in hens following genetic selection or maternal care, indicating a potential role for these systems in feather pecking. PMID:25080935



Maternal dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic triacylglycerol and tissue fatty acids in hatched chicks.  


The effects of feeding CLA to hens on newly hatched chick hepatic and carcass lipid content, liver TAG accumulation, and FA incorporation in chick tissues such as liver, heart, brain, and adipose were studied. These tissues were selected owing to their respective roles in lipid assimilation (liver), as a major oxidation site (heart), as a site enriched with long-chain polyunsaturates for function (brain), and as a storage depot (adipose). Eggs with no, low, or high levels of CLA were produced by feeding hens a corn-soybean meal-basal diet containing 3% (w/w) corn oil (Control), 2.5% corn oil + 0.5% CLA oil (CLA1), or 2% corn oil + 1.0% CLA oil (CLA2). The egg yolk content of total CLA was 0.0, 1.0, and 2.6% for Control, CLA1, and CLA2, respectively (P< 0.05). Maternal dietary CLA resulted in a decrease in chick carcass total fat (P < 0.05). Liver tissue of CLA2 chicks had the lowest fat content (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 8.2, 5.8, and 5.1 mg/g for Control, CLA1, and CLA2 chicks, respectively(P < 0.05). The chicks hatched from CLA1 and CLA2 incorporated higher levels of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the liver, plasma, adipose, and brain than Control (P< 0.05). The content of 18:0 was higher in the liver, plasma, adipose, and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 than Control (P< 0.05), but no difference was observed in the 18:0 content of heart tissue. A significant reduction in 18:1 was observed in the liver, plasma, adipose, heart, and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 chicks (P< 0.05). DHA (22:6n-3) was reduced in the heart and brain of CLA1 and CLA2 chicks (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in carcass weight, dry matter, or ash content of chicks (P> 0.05). The hatchabilities of fertile eggs were 78, 34, and 38% for Control, CLA1, and CLA2, respectively (P< 0.05). The early dead chicks were higher in CLA1 and CLA2 than Control (18 and 32% compared with 9% for Control), and alive but not hatched chicks were 15 and 19% for CLAl and CLA2, compared with 8% for Control (P < 0.05). Maternal supplementation with CLA leads to a reduction in hatchability, liver TAG, and carcass total fat in newly hatched chicks. PMID:15884760

Cherian, Gita; Ai, Wu; Goeger, Mary P



Movements of British hen harriers circus cyaneus outside the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen Harrier chicks were wing?tagged in four regions in Scotland and in North Wales between 1990 and 1995, and resighted or recovered dead as fully grown birds during the non?breeding season (August to April) throughout Britain and Ireland, and on the Continent, until April 1997. Results were analysed in terms of the percentages of birds that carried out long?distance movements

Brian Etheridge; Ron W. Summers



Effects of incubational humidity and hen age on embryo composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.  


There is a paucity of information regarding the influence of incubational humidity on the characteristics of broiler embryos from young hens that often produce chicks of marginal quality. Therefore, the effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) in young broiler breeders and incubator humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on embryonic growth between 16 and 21 d of incubation, hatching chick weight, and embryo and chick body compositions were evaluated. Hatching broiler chick BW at 21 d was lower for 26-wk-old breeders compared to those at 28 and 30 wk, and the lowest RH decreased relative wet embryo weight. Embryonic growth, on wet and DM bases, was increased in eggs from the youngest hens. Embryo moisture content (EM) was lower at 16, 17, and 19 d of incubation in eggs from breeders at 26 wk when compared to those at 28 wk of age. The effects of RH on embryo crude protein and fat composition were not consistent and varied with breeder age and length of incubation. It was demonstrated that broiler breeder age affects embryogenesis and hatching chick BW. Furthermore, EM was influenced by breeder age, and changes in incubational RH between 43 and 63% affected embryogenesis without having associated effects on EM or consistent effects on embryo crude fat and protein content. Nevertheless, a depression in embryogenesis with a reduction in incubational RH to 43% may accentuate poor posthatch performance of chicks from young breeders. PMID:11558915

Peebles, E D; Burnham, M R; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D



Central administration of galanin stimulates feeding behavior in chicks.  


Galanin is recognized as one of the orexigenic peptides in the brain of mammals and fishes. The amino acid sequence of chicken galanin and its distribution in the brain are similar to those of mammals, suggesting that the brain galanin might be related to feeding regulation in chicks. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of galanin affected feeding behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus). The injection of galanin increased food intake of layer and broiler chicks. We also found that the galanin-induced feeding behavior was attenuated in layer chicks by the co-injection of yohimbine and beta-funaltrexamine, which are the antagonists of adrenergic alpha-2 receptor and opioid mu-receptor, respectively. It is therefore possible that the orexigenic effect of galanin is mediated by these receptors. PMID:18725311

Tachibana, Tetsuya; Mori, Miyabi; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Ueda, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Kunio; Hiramatsu, Kohzy



Diamine oxidase in the hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult hens diamine oxidase (histaminase) activity was found in gastrointestinal tract (with the highest value in ileum), liver and spleen. Intestinal diamine oxidase is predominantly a particle-bound enzyme. In the intestine oxidation of putrescine leads to ?-pyrroline formation, in liver both ?1-pyrroline and ?-aminobutyric acid are formed. The inhibitor properties of hen intestinal and rat intestinal diamine oxidases are

T. Biega?ski; Maria A. Ulatowska



Hen Harrier (male) (Circus cyaneus)  

E-print Network

Hen Harrier (male) (Circus cyaneus) Habitat selection of hunting Hen Harriers (Circus cyaneus) & Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus) on the East Frisian Islands Manuela Schröder1, Nadine Oberdiek1. Bruzinski Marsh Harrier (female) (Circus aeruginosus) Source: References: Jacobs, J. (1974

Kleyer, Michael


Cryopreservation of chick islets.  


The avian endocrine pancreas shares some similarities with those of mammals. Previously we have reported a technique of isolation of B islets from chick pancreas and also demonstrated their possible use for hypoglycemic drug screening as efficiently as mammalian islets. Here we describe a novel cryopreservative medium for the cryopreservation of chick islets. Isolated chick islets were suspended in a cryo medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Minimum Essential Medium: Ham's F12 (1:1), Fetal Bovine Serum (20%), Dimethylsulfoxide (10%) with different concentrations (50 microg/ml to 500 microg/ml) of riboflavin or nicotinamide. The viability of revived islets after three and half months was checked by trypan blue dye exclusion and functionality was assessed by insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge. The maximum recovery of viable islets and insulin secretion was obtained in response to glucose challenge at 250 microg/ml concentration of Riboflavin or Nicotinamide. This is a first report on cryopreservation of chick islets exhibiting cryoprotective role of water soluble vitamins without vitamin C. PMID:21410017

Datar, S P; Bhonde, R R



Teen Chick Lit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

Meloni, Christine



Whooping Crane Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...


Whooping Crane Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...


Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.  


This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks. PMID:24773606

Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y



Uterine adenocarcinoma with transcoelomic metastases in breeder hens (Gallus domesticus).  


Hens involved in a Newcastle disease study were euthanased at regular intervals according to a designed protocol. Of these, 7.14 % (n = 42) of the 82-week-old specific pathogen-free breeder hens were found to have well-delineated firm white to yellowish nodules of varying sizes in the abdominal cavity. Histologically, the nodules were identified as an adenocarcinoma originating in the uterus. Transcoelomic spread was evidenced by the presence of similar neoplastic cells embedded in the serosa and outer longitudinal muscle layer of the intestines as well as the liver. PMID:21826839

Bwala, D G; Duncan, N M; Bisschop, S P R



Elaborate architecture of the hierarchical hen’s eggshell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggshells are one of the most common and well-studied biomaterials in nature and exhibit unique properties of gas conduction.\\u000a However, the morphologies of eggshells at the submicro-\\/nano-scale and their impact on eggshell functions remain unclear.\\u000a In this work, the architecture of hen’s eggshell at different length scales has been systematically investigated by scanning\\u000a electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental SEM (ESEM).

Jie Zhou; Shutao Wang; Fuqiang Nie; Lin Feng; Guangshan Zhu; Lei Jiang



Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen’s egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen’s egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients’ IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun



Chick tooth induction revisited.  


Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung



Recovery of fertility from adult ovarian tissue transplanted into week-old Japanese quail chicks.  


Fertility of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from immature chickens and Japanese quail has been recovered by transplantation. This is of special importance for non-mammalian vertebrates in which cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes are challenging because their oogenesis is characterised by vitellogenesis. This study tested whether fertility of adult quail ovarian tissue could be recovered by transplantation. Ovaries were isolated from mature Japanese quail hens, trimmed, cut into 3- to 4-mm(2) pieces and transplanted into ovariectomised, week-old chicks. Recipients were administered an immunosuppressant for two weeks. Ten of 12 recipients survived until sexual maturity and seven laid eggs, but all stopped laying by 17 weeks of age. The age at first egg of recipients laying eggs (75.7±4.2 days) was greater than that of untreated hens (51.8±1.7 days) and egg production of recipients during the laying period (21.7±5.7) was less than that of untreated hens (60.8±3.5). Recipients were paired with males from the WB line for test mating. Only two hens laid eggs during the test period but both produced 100% donor-derived offspring. This research demonstrated that the reproductive potential of ovarian tissue from adult quail hens can be restored by transplantation. PMID:24157187

Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G



Scanning electron microscopic studies on the development of the chick retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed retinae of chick embryos and chicks of the first week after hatching were fractured and examined with the scanning electron microscope. The matrix cells of the retina proliferate up to the beginning of the second week. The migrating cells are oriented in cell cords. This columnar organization prevails up to the development of the plexiform layers formed as a

K. Meller; W. Tetzlaff



Tissue-specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in egg and tissues of newly hatched chicks from wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), free-range guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), hen (Gallus domesticus) and domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and intensively housed hens. Carotenoid concentrations in the egg yolk of free-range guinea fowl, pheasant and wild mallard were similar (61.3-79.2 microg/g). Egg yolks from ducks and intensively housed hens were characterised by the lowest carotenoid concentration comprising 11.2-14.8 microg/g. However, carotenoid concentration in eggs from free-range ducks and hens was less than half of that in free-range guinea fowl or pheasant. Depending on carotenoid concentration in the livers of species studied could be placed in the following descending order: free living pheasant>free-range guinea fowl>free-range hen>intensively housed hen>wild mallard>housed duck>free-range duck. The carotenoid concentrations in other tissues of free-range guinea fowl and pheasant were substantially higher than in the other species studied. Egg yolk of housed hens was characterised by the highest alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. In accordance with the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk, the birds can be placed in the following descending order: intensively housed hen>wild mallard>free-living pheasant>free-range duck>free-range hen=free-range guinea fowl>housed duck. The main finding of this work is species- and tissue-specific differences in carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in the various avian species studied. PMID:15936711

Karadas, Filiz; Wood, Nicholas A R; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nicholas H C



Cecal spirochetosis in commercial laying hens.  


Cecal spirochetosis in chickens has been associated with enteric disease and reduced egg production in the United States and Europe. This report describes spirochete overgrowth of cecal mucosa in chickens from a flock of 100,000 commercial layers experiencing diarrhea and a 5% drop in egg production. Spirochetes were demonstrated in the ceca by darkfield and light microscopy. Apical surfaces of cecal enterocytes were covered by a dense layer of spirochetes aligned parallel to each other and perpendicular to the mucosal surface. Weakly beta-hemolytic, indole-negative spirochetes were isolated from the ceca on BJ media under anaerobic conditions at 42 C. Chicken cecal spirochetosis may represent an economically significant enteric disease of laying hens which has heretofore been infrequently recognized. PMID:7702527

Trampel, D W; Jensen, N S; Hoffman, L J



GROWTH IN HEN HARRIERS (Circus cyaneus cyaneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual dimorphism of adult Hen Harriers (Circus cyaneus cyaneus) was described and compared to other European harriers by Nieboer (1973). Scharf and Hamer- strom (1975) and Picozzi (1982) describe adult sexual dimorphism in live, wild-caught populations comparing Hen Harriers with Northern Harriers (C. c. hudsonius). The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism and growth of Hen Harrier nestlings identified by sex



Transfer of immunoglobulins and antibodies in the hen's egg  

PubMed Central

The presence of immunoglobulins and antibodies were investigated in the fertile hen's egg during embryogenesis. The egg yolk, egg albumin, amniotic and allantoic fluids, chick embryo serum and intestinal contents were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin and level of antibodies. Immunoglobulin G was not detected in fresh egg albumin, but appeared in the albumin from the 4th day of embryogenesis and persisted through the 16th day. The antibody profile of egg albumin during embryogenesis attained two peaks, which were separated by a trough on the 8th day of embryogenesis. The immunoelectrophoretic pattern of albumin IgG was different from that of egg yolk IgG. The IgG of chick embryo serum was of ?2 mobility on the 12th day of incubation and shifted gradually to the full range of ?1 and ?2 mobilities on the 20th day of incubation. Egg-transmitted antibodies appeared on the 12th day of incubation and attained peak values on the 16th day of incubation. Moderate antibody levels were detected in the amniotic and allantoic fluids from the 12th to the 18th days of incubation. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 7 PMID:4098593

Kramer, T. T.; Cho, H. C.



Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  


In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

Krřkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing



Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements  

E-print Network

the length of the radius averaged 3 ' 23 mm. The mean bone breaking strength of the radii of caged layers one per cage at the end of the fourth period and fed the basal diet was li86 kgb (Table 5) ~ Vitamin D supplemented birds had a bone strength of 2...). ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 Average hen day production and egg character- istics of caged layers housed one bird per cage for 12 (28-day) periods (Experiment I) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ?2 Mean length, diameter and breaking strength of caged layers housed three birds...

Moore, David Joe



Effect of selenium and vitamin E content of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the yolk and the developing chick.  


1. The effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation of the maternal diet on their transfer to the egg yolk and tissues of the newly hatched chick and on the development of the antioxidant system in the chick liver in early postnatal life were investigated. 2. One hundred Cobb broiler breeder hens were divided into 10 equal groups and housed in pens at 25 weeks of age. Each hen received 1 of the treatment diets which included 0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg selenium, 40, 100, 200 mg/kg vitamin E or their combination. After 6 weeks, the hens were artificially inseminated once per week. From week 8, eggs were collected and placed in an incubator. After hatching, chicks from each group were reared (under standard commercial conditions) to 10 d of age. The chicks were fed on a standard starter commercial broiler diet. At the time of hatching, and at 5 and 10 days old, 4 chicks from each group were sacrificed and blood, liver and brain were collected for the subsequent biochemical analyses. 3. The inclusion of organic selenium or vitamin E in the commercial diet significantly increased their concentration in the egg and in the liver of 1-d-old chicks obtained from the eggs enriched with these substances. A positive effect of such dietary supplementation was seen at d 5 and d 10 of postnatal development. 4. There was a positive effect of selenium supplementation of the maternal diet on glutathione concentration in the liver of 1-d-old and 5-d-old chicks. A combination of a dietary selenium supplementation with high vitamin E doses further increased glutathione concentration in the liver. Dietary selenium supplementation significantly increased selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activity in the liver of the 1-d-old and 5-d-old chicks and decreased liver susceptibility to peroxidation. 6. It is concluded that the nutritional status of the laying hen determines the efficiency of the antioxidant system throughout embryonic and early postnatal development of the offspring. PMID:10890223

Surai, P F



Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1–1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of duck, whereas the vaginal thickness and weight were greater in duck than the hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina.

Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh



Adherence of Enterococcus hirae to the duodenal epithelium of chicks with diarrhoea.  


A flock of commercial layer chicks in Hokkaido, Japan experienced mortality of 3.53% over the first 7 days of life. Affected chicks were depressed, anorexic and had diarrhoea. The striking pathological feature was dense colonization of epithelial surface of the duodenum by Enterococcus hirae. There was no obvious damage to the enterocytes associated with bacterial adherence. Enterococcus hirae organisms were isolated in large numbers from the small intestines, together with Escherichia coli. PMID:18483900

Kondo, H; Abe, N; Tsukuda, K; Wada, Y



Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.  


1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters. PMID:19373721

Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh



Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.  


Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance. PMID:17312759

Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J



Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland



Evaluation of the effects of cage height and stocking density on the behaviour of laying hens in furnished cages.  


1. Limited information is available on how changes in horizontal and vertical space within enriched or furnished layer cages (as defined by Directive 1999/74/EC) influence hen behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of varying minimum cage heights and space allowances on the behaviour of laying hens housed in furnished cages. It was conducted on two flocks of medium brown hybrid hens housed in furnished cages with access to perches and nest boxes on a semi-commercial scale at ADAS Gleadthorpe. 2. Flock 1 consisted of two layer strains (ISA Brown and Babcock 380), housed at two minimum cage heights (38 and 45 cm) and 5 stocking densities between 609 and 870 cm2/bird, with 12 replicates of each of the 20 strain/cage height/stocking density treatment combinations. Stocking density was varied by varying the number of birds per cage from 10 to 7 in standard full-width cages or housing 7 hens in a narrower cage. As a consequence stocking density, group size and trough width per bird co-varied for 4 out of 5 stocking density treatments. 3. Behaviour of flock 1 was sampled at 33 to 36, 46 and 68 weeks of age. At each age one top-tier, one middle-tier and one bottom-tier cage was sampled for each treatment. 4. Few behavioural differences due to cage treatments were detected. Hens at 870 cm2 had shorter feeding bouts than hens at 609 and 762 cm2. Yawning was more common in the cages with greater cage height. 5. Video recordings of flock 1 examined cage height effects on hens' use of vertical space and provided additional data on stretching and self-maintenance activities. No differences in behaviour between 38 and 45 cm cages were found except that scratching head was more common in cages with greater cage height. 6. Flock 2 consisted of two layer strains (Shaver Brown and Hy-Line Brown), housed at 38 and 45 cm and 609, 762 and 1016 cm2/bird, with 18 replicates of each of the 12 strain/cage height/stocking density treatment combinations. Stocking density was varied by housing 10, 8 or 6 hens in standard full-width cages. Behaviour of flock 2 was sampled at 30, 48, 60 and 67 weeks from video recordings. Three cages per treatment from middle-tiers only were sampled at each age. 7. Hens housed at 609 cm2/hen had the longest mean feeding bout, greater than for hens at 762 cm2/hen but not hens at 1016 cm2/hen. More unsuccessful attempts to reach the feeder and sideways and backwards displacements from the feeder occurred at 762 and 609 cm2/hen than at 1016 cm2/hen. A maximum of 8 hens were observed feeding synchronously. 8. These results suggest that changes in horizontal and vertical space over the ranges we studied had little effect on behaviour other than feeding behaviour. Specifying a minimum useable trough space per hen, rather than calculating feeder space from total length of feeder per cage, irrespective of accessibility, might help avoid crowding at the feeder and associated disturbance of feeding bouts. PMID:17364534

Albentosa, M J; Cooper, J J; Luddem, T; Redgate, S E; Elson, H A; Walker, A W



Effect of Sulphur on Chick Nutrition.  

E-print Network

XAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, I)IKECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 633 IAY 11 EFFECT OF' SULPHUR ON CHICK NUTRITION R. M. SHERWOOD, J. R. COUCH, LEE JAMES, 1 1 AND C. W. CARTER Division of Poultry Husbandry T... on the requirmatis of chicks itnmins A, D and riboflaTSrz. le result of these experiments, are in agreement with the work of rs, in fhat chicks fed sulphur away from sunlight require roar s as much vitamin D carrier as chicks fed no sulphur. On the other chicks...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)



Climatic adaptation of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred Warren Isabrown female day old chicks were raised for 18 weeks in 3 distinct artificial climates described as temperate (20°C, 60% RH), hot dry (32°C, 40% RH) and hot humid (32°C, 90% RH). At 18 weeks each group was divided into 3 and re-allocated to 3 similar air-conditioned laying rooms as during the growing period. Different diets were

J. Njoya; M. Picard



Changes in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Henning Harms, Wlner Matuschek, Volker Mellert  

E-print Network

Changes in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Pollutants Henning Harms~rtany Abstract: Acoustic properties of porous material are slightly changed by a coating layer, which is thin compared to the acoustic wavelength. These changes tiect mairdy the spherical-wave reflection coefficient

Vormann, Matthias


[A new method for quantitative measurement of the cadmium absorbed by chick embryos].  


We attempted to determine the quantity of cadmium incorporated in hens eggs after immersion in cadmium solutions, and the cadmium concentration measured in embryos. We discussed equipment allowing simultaneous treatment of up to 42 samples, and called it " digestor ". It consisted of two gas-heated sand baths, two stands for cooling down solutions and an evacuation system for toxic vapours. Our method was based on wet mineralisation. It consisted of desintegrating experimental chick embryos in a HNO3/H2O2 mixed solution. After heating and evaporating, the quantity of cadmium in the remnant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The reliability of such a technique was tested by studying as controls controls 17 days-old chick embryos injected with a known quantity of Cd(NO3). It showed no loss of cadmium. We also compared our procedure with a dry ashing method. The latter showed unacceptable losses and insufficient precision for the problems we wanted to investigate. Our method gave us much more precise results. The equipment we developed has functioned wholly satisfactorily and allowed us to investigate for instance cadmium distribution and concentration in embryonic organs of 17 days-old chicks. It could also be useful for researches concerning other biological samples analyzed for different heavy metals. PMID:6724786

Gottofrey, J



Henning Schmidgen Die Helmholtz-Kurven  

E-print Network

3 Henning Schmidgen Die Helmholtz-Kurven Auf der Spur der verlorenen Zeit Merve Verlag Berlin #12. Beide sind Mitte des 19. Jahr- hunderts entstanden, beide tragen sie die Signatur »Helmholtz«, und bei

Schubart, Christoph


Perch width preferences of laying hens.  


1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units. PMID:19735010

Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L



Protein, grain and sources of methionine in the nutrition of the laying hen and broiler chick  

E-print Network

Cornr K% 4 1764 219 1718 191 65 29 239 . 70. 73 1739 236 69. 92 1790 226 6'f . 14 15$ Proteia 4 1532 1704 f Nilo 4 MHA ]. 5$ Protein 5 ' 1541 1739 / Milo 8. FM 57. 63 1. 696 57. 66 1. 796 58. 99 l. '(78 58. 59 1. 778 59. 85 1, 669 59. 65 1.... 27 60. 25 1. 728 8. 33 2. 17$ Protein ]0. 100$ MHA 16$ Protein 1549 1706 1535 1706 157 69. 29 70. 66 60. 02 1. 691 58. 99 1. 714 12. 50 4. 164 Protein 154. 1 j0. 075$ MHA 1731 190 70. 59 59. 19 1. 682 10. 41 15$ Protein 1540 1660 120 67. 50...

Ernst, Herbert Lloyd



The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...


Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens.  


An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather damage. Day-old pullets were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (3 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 8 replicates (pens) per treatment. At 17 wk of age, pens with hens were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments according to a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (4 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 6 replicates per treatment. Compared with 0% dilution level, feed intake of laying hens of 10, 15, and 20% dilution levels increased by 8.4% (9.5 g/hen per d), 16.5% (18.1 g/hen per d), and 20.9% (23.6 g/hen per d), respectively. The ME(n) intake was similar for all dilution levels. Hens fed standard-NSP laying diets had similar insoluble NSP intake for all dilution levels (9.3 g/hen per d). Insoluble NSP intake of hens fed high-NSP laying diets increased from 15.6 g/hen per day (0% dilution) to 18.9 g/hen per day (20% dilution). Providing high- vs. standard-NSP layer diet decreased relative proventriculus contents (1.1 vs. 0.3 g/kg of BW) and increased empty gizzard weight (14.3 vs. 24.4 g/kg of BW). Hens that were fed standard-NSP diets had more feather damage compared with hens fed high-NSP diets (0.58 vs. 0.30 arbitrary units). Increasing the insoluble NSP intake resulted in decreased proventricular weight and increased gizzard weight and its contents, which are indicators of improved functioning of the gut, thereby linearly reducing feather damage. Providing diluted rearing diets increased feed intake from the first weeks of life onwards. It was hypothesized that pullets were increasingly "imprinted" on feed as pecking substrate if dilution level increased. This may decrease feather pecking and could explain the improved feather condition at 49 wk of age when 15% diluted rearing diet was fed. PMID:19276419

van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A



Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens.  


Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens severely reduced egg production particularly at the time of peak production. Hens were able to consume large numbers of Musca domestica, the intermediate host of Choanotaenia infundibulum following the use of an aerosol insecticide to control flies. A considerable discharge of cestodes followed the use of "Lintex" in the feed resulting in a marked improvement in egg production. The use of an insect growth regulator in the feed showed promise in controlling the breeding of flies. PMID:994133

Abrams, L



Ontogeny of conditioned inhibition in domestic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used the combined-cue test to measure age-dependent changes in learned stimulus inhibitory control in 40 young Vantress * Arbor Acre chicks trained to key peck for heat reinforcement. Both 1- and 4-day-old chicks were given either 96 or 384 discrete trials in a successive discrimination test, and then their response latencies to the novel combined cue (S+, S-) and the

James F. Zolman; Christie L. Sahley; Joyce A. Hall



Responses of the reproductive vascular system during the egg?formation cycle of unanaesthetised laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Vascular adjustments to the process of egg formation were examined in the unanaesthetised laying hen, by the radioactive microspheres method.2. Three? to four?fold increases in blood flow were found in segments surrounding the egg during its passage along the oviduct, possibly due to an enhanced metabolic activity in the muscle layer of the oviduct.3. Shell?gland blood flow was minimal

D. Wolfenson; Yael F. Frei; A. Berman



Broken bones in domestic fowl: Handling and processing damage in end?of?lay battery hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 3115 end?of?lay battery hens and carcases were sampled at set points in the sequence of events that occurred between depopulation of the battery cages at the layer farms and the end of the evisceration line in two processing plants. Live birds were killed in a convulsion?free manner and carcases were dissected to determine the incidence of broken bones.2. Of

N. G. Gregory; L. J. Wilkins



Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.  


The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks. Q2 chicks showed lower post-hatch growth compared to Q1 chicks but effects on flock performance at slaughter weight were limited because early mortality in Q2 chicks was high (62.50% at 7 days). We concluded that chick qualitative scores and the incidence of Q2 chicks may be informative for the quality of incubation, but are not predictive for post-hatch flock performance. Culling Q2 chicks after hatch is well-founded in terms of both animal welfare and profitability. PMID:22717141

van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H



Causes of disease in two commercial flocks of laying hens.  


Laboratory examination of all birds that were culled or died during an eight-month period in two commerical laying flocks was performed to reveal the causes of disease and their prevalence. The average weekly total of diseased birds was greater in one flock (60-69) than the other (27-37). This resulted mainly from a high incidence in the former flock of leucoses and sarcomas, although losses due to fatty liver syndrome, prolapse and cannibalism and cage layer fatigue were also marginally greater in this flock than the second. Haemangiomas occurred more frequently in the flock with the higher disease level. A total of 273 hens of the 2,000 examined from this flock had single or multiple haemangiomas. Special features of the major causes of disease were outlined and discussed. A conclusion made from this study was that histopathological examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis of avian tumours. PMID:1180772

Grimes, T M



Alleviation of hysteria in laying hens with dietary tryptophan.  


A commercial layer breeder flock that was suffering from hysteria was fed a diet containing 5 grams tryptophan/kg for six days. The incidence of episodes of hysteria declined from five times/hour on day 0 to once/hour on day 6 and none on day 8. Feed consumption increased from 107 g to 145 g/hen/day and egg production increased 23% during the six day feeding period. The tryptophan concentration in plasma doubled (from 95.6 to 188.2 mumol/mL). Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine also increased. Birds that were not in lay, by postmortem examination, had significantly higher plasma valine concentrations (476.4 vs 372.7 mumol/mL). Tryptophan, serotonin and related metabolites increased in both the hypothalamic region and the remainder of the brain following tryptophan feeding, and subsequently declined. High levels of dietary tryptophan may be useful in alleviating hysteria in poultry. PMID:2357668

Laycock, S R; Ball, R O



Effect of vaccination of hens with an avirulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium on immunity of progeny challenged with wild-Type Salmonella strains.  

PubMed Central

The avirulent Salmonella typhimurium chi3985 was used to vaccinate white leghorn chickens at 16 and 18 weeks of age, and the effect of maternal antibody on Salmonella colonization of progeny of vaccinated hens was assessed with S. typhimurium F98 or chi3985. Progeny of hens that had been vaccinated at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age with chi3985 were used to determine the effect of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy. Vaccination of hens induced long-lasting Salmonella-specific antibodies which were transferred into eggs and were detected as immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the egg yolk. Maternal antibody was detected in the progeny of vaccinated birds as IgG and IgA in serum and intestinal fluid, respectively. The titer of maternally transmitted IgG or IgA was highest in the first week of life of the progeny and declined with age. Maternal antibodies prevented colonization of the chicks by S. typhimurium chi3985 and reduced colonization by S. typhimurium F98. Overall, chicks from vaccinated hens had significantly higher antibody responses than did the progeny of nonvaccinated hens after oral infection with Salmonella strains. Maternal antibody reduced the efficacy of vaccination of progeny with chi3985 at 1 and 3 weeks of age. But vaccination at 2 and 4 weeks of age induced excellent protection against challenge with S. typhimurium F98 or S. enteritidis 27A PT 8 in birds from vaccinated hens and in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Vaccination of chickens at 2 and 4 weeks of age has been shown to protect the birds against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. A combination of vaccination of adult animals and use of the progeny of vaccinated birds will enhance effective control of Salmonella infections in the poultry industry. This will complement the present control of Salmonella-associated food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis in eggs because the avirulent S. typhimurium vaccine strain chi3985 induced excellent protection against S. enteritidis in chickens. PMID:8641804

Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R



Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.  


The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D



Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.  


The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K



Ocular Axial Length and Choroidal Thickness in Newly Hatched Chicks and One-year-old Chickens Fluctuate in a Diurnal Pattern that is Influenced by Visual Experience and Intraocular Pressure Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low coherence laser Doppler interferometry (LDI) allows high precision measurements of the axial length of the eye and of the thickness of the individual layers of the ocular fundus. Here, we used LDI to monitor diurnal changes in these dimensions in eyes of newly hatched chicks and one-year-old chickens with normal or altered visual input. In chicks and chickens with




Patterned assembly and neurogenesis in the chick dorsal root ganglion  

PubMed Central

The birth of small-diameter TrkA+ neurons that mediate pain and thermo reception begins approximately 24 hours after the cessation of neural crest cell migration from progenitors residing in the nascent dorsal root ganglion. Although multiple geographically distinct progenitor pools have been proposed, this study is the first to comprehensively characterize the derivation of small diameter neurons. In the developing chick embryo, we identify novel patterns in neural crest cell migration and colonization that sculpt the incipient ganglion into a post-mitotic neuronal core encapsulated by a layer of proliferative progenitor cells. Furthermore, we show that this outer progenitor layer is composed of three spatially, temporally, and molecularly distinct progenitor zones, two of which give rise to distinct populations of TrkA+ neurons. PMID:20017208

George, Lynn; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer; Nelson, Branden R.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Lefcort, Frances



Extrapituitary TSH in early chick embryos: Pit-1 dependence?  


The expression of the thyrotropin (TSH) gene in the pituitary gland is thought to be dependent upon the pituitary-specific transcription factor, Pit-1. TSH immunoreactivity is, however, widespread in extrapituitary tissues, and the possibility that this may reflect a widespread distribution of Pit-1 was therefore investigated in embryonic chicks, prior to the ontogenic differentiation of the pituitary gland. TSH immunoreactivity in chick embryos at the end of the first trimester of the 21d incubation period was present in discrete cells in the developing brain (particularly in ependymal cells lining the diocoele and mesocoele and in cells lining the otic vesicle), spinal cord (ependymal cells), liver (hepatocytes), lungs (in the linings of the bronchi), gut (in the linings of the proventriculus) and limb bud (in skin, muscle, bone and nerve fibers). In some of these tissues (particularly in brain and spinal cord ependymal cells, cells in the otic vesicle and in liver hepatocytes), the distribution of TSH immunoreactivity was overlapped by the distribution of immunoreactive Pit-1, suggesting Pit-1 involvement in TSH expression in these sites. However, in other tissues (e.g., the trigeminal nerve in the head and the marginal mantle layer of the spinal cord), Pit-1 immunoreactivity was intense but TSH immunoreactivity was marginal. Conversely, other tissues (e.g., cells in the skin, blood vessels, limb bud, bronchus, proventriculus, and cardiopleural cavities) had intense TSH staining but little, if any, Pit-1 immunoreactivity. The expression of the TSH gene in these tissues would thus appear to be Pit-1 independent. These results demonstrate the presence of Pit-1 in pituitary and extrapituitary tissues of the domes tic fowl and suggest the involvement of Pit-1 in the extrapituitary expression of TSH in chick embryos may be tissue-specific. PMID:11931353

Murphy, Amy E; Harvey, Steve



Early lysine deficiency in young broiler chicks.  


The carry-over effect of a pre-starter diet (0 to 3 days of age) deficient in lysine on subsequent growth and body composition (3 to 10 days) was examined in two experiments on male broiler chicks raised in cages. In experiment 1, lysine deficiency was applied from 3 to 10 days after providing a balanced pre-starter control feed (D+, 1.40% lysine) or a lysine deficient feed (D-) during the first 3 days. Three levels of deficiency (A = 0.63%, B = 0.72%, C = 0.82%) were tested. Growth and feed intake were higher in D+ than in D- chicks ( P < 0.001). However, the feed conversion ratio from 3 to 10 days of age was higher in D+ chicks ( P < 0.001); pre-starter and starter feeds interacted ( P < 0.04) with the feed conversion of treatment D+/A = 2.07 being better than treatment D+/A = 2.61 ( P < 0.05). This suggests that chicks deficient from hatching exhibit a relatively lower sensitivity to lysine deficiency than chicks started on a control diet. In experiment 2, performance, slaughter parameters and body composition were analysed at 3 and 10 days of age, in chicks having received a lysine deficient feed (D0, 0.72% lysine), a control feed (D+, 1.40% lysine) or having been pair fed with control feed adjusted to D0 intake (PF) from 0 to 3 days of age, and then fed D0 ad libitum from 3 to 10 days of age. At 3 days, PF chicks had a higher body weight ( P < 0.05) than D0, and thus a better feed conversion. Body composition in relative values was little or not affected by dietary treatments, but the breast muscle weight at 3 days was higher in D+ and PF chicks compared with D0 ( P < 0.05) and this effect was even accentuated at 10 days of age. The present work confirms that early nutrition can have subsequent consequences on the adjustment of fast growing broiler chicks to their nutritional conditions. It also suggests that breast muscle development is a more reactive parameter than whole body composition in this kind of experiments. PMID:22444415

Bastianelli, D; Quentin, M; Bouvarel, I; Relandeau, C; Lescoat, P; Picard, M; Tesseraud, S



Responses of laying hens to diets containing up to 2% DL-methionine or equimolar (2.25%) 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid.  


Diets supplemented with up to .6% DL-Met (DLM) or .68% 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB, Alimet) acidify the urine and reduce the incidence of urolithiasis in pullets and laying hens. Excessive acidification potentially may reduce eggshell quality and bone mineralization by interfering with Ca metabolism and may severely challenge the liver and kidneys, which are the primary organs responsible for attenuating metabolic acidosis. To evaluate these possibilities, 30-wk-old Single Comb White Leghorn hens in full production (five hens per replicate, six replicates per diet treatment) were fed for 30 d a 15.7% CP corn and soybean meal-based control layer ration alone or supplemented with DLM (.5, 1, 1.5, or 2%) or equimolar HMB (.56, 1.13, 1.69, or 2.25%). None of the diets caused mortality or gross hepatic or renal damage. Hens fed diets supplemented with the highest levels of DLM and HMB exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, hen-day egg production, and liver mass and had lower plasma concentrations of alanine amino-transferase and isocitrate dehydrogenase when compared with hens fed the control diet. Kidney mass was not significantly affected by high levels of DLM or HMB, but plasma uric acid was significantly higher in hens fed 2% DLM compared with hens fed the control diet. The highest levels of DLM and HMB did not significantly alter total plasma Ca or inorganic phosphate concentrations, nor were percentage eggshell or femur mineralization (femur ash mass:defatted bone mass, femur ash mass:bone volume) significantly reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8146073

Wideman, R F; Ford, B C; Dibner, J J; Robey, W W; Yersin, A G



[The effect of palm oil and safflower oil in the feed of parent fattening hens on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny].  


The aim of two experiments with broiler breeder hens was to evaluate the effect of diets containing palm butter or safflower oil (25 g and 50 g/kg feed, resp.) on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny. Especially the incorporation of oleic and linoleic acid in egg yolk reflected the dietary fatty acid source. Eggs were collected and stored in the incubator at a hen age of 31, 40, 50, and 60 weeks. Hatched chicks were reared over 5 weeks. The number of fertile eggs (Experiment 1 and 2, 75 and 88%, resp.) differed between the experiments (P < or = 0.05). Neither embryonic mortality nor hatchability (Experiment 1 and 2, 76 and 78%, resp.) were significantly affected by fatty acid composition of yolk. No clear maternal dietary effect was recorded on chicken weight at hatching (Experiment 1 and 2, 43.3 g and 43.7 g, resp.) and at 35 days of age (Experimental 1 and 2, 1676 g and 1764 g, resp.) The fatty acid composition in the analysed egg yolk sac of chicks showed a different fatty level but corresponded to fatty acid composition of breeding eggs before incubation. According to a decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk due to increased incorporation of linoleic acid, the content of this fatty acid was also diminished in phospholipids of the brain of chicken on days 1 and 5 after hatching. PMID:10674173

Halle, I



Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.  


This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and ?-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum ?-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. PMID:24864286

Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V



Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

Olsen, G.H.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-dependent photoresponse characteristics of MnAl2S4 layers have been investigated, for the first time, by use of photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy. Three peaks were observed at all temperatures. The electronic origin of these peaks was associated with band-to-band transitions from the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y) to the conduction-band state ?1( s). On the basis of the relationship between PC-peak energy and temperature, the optical band gap could be well expressed by the expression E g( T) = E g(0) - 2.80 × 10-4 T 2/(287 + T), where E g(0) was estimated to be 3.7920 eV, 3.7955 eV, and 3.8354 eV for the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y), respectively. Results from PC spectroscopy revealed the crystal-field and spin-orbit splitting were 3.5 meV and 39.9 meV. The gradual decrease of PC intensity with decreasing temperature can be explained on the basis of trapping centers associated with native defects in the MnAl2S4 layers. Plots of log J ph, the PC current density, against 1/ T, revealed a dominant trap level in the high-temperature region. By comparing PC and the Hall effect results, we confirmed that this trap level is a shallow donor 18.9 meV below the conduction band.

Hong, K. J.; Jeong, T. S.; Youn, C. J.



Research note: responses of laying hens on saline drinking water to dietary supplementation with various zinc compounds.  


Production variables, eggshell defects, eggshell quality, the concentration of calcium-binding protein (CaBP), and the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the shell gland mucosa were determined in hens receiving town water (10 mg Na/L), or town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L (796 mg Na/L). Five treatments were examined. Control hens received town water and a proprietary layer mash containing .17% Na. The remaining four treatments received the water containing NaCl (2 g/L). Hens of Treatment 2 were fed the proprietary layer mash and those of Treatments 3, 4, and 5 received, respectively, the layer mash containing supplements of Zn-methionine (Zinpro-200; .5 g/kg), Zn sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O; .46 g/kg), or chelated Zn-EDTA (.54 g/kg) to supply the same concentration of Zn (.1 g/kg). The treatments were applied for 6 wk. Hens receiving the saline drinking water without any dietary Zn supplement produced significantly (P < .05) more eggs with shell defects than hens receiving the town water. This increase in the incidence of eggshell defects was associated with significant reductions in eggshell breaking strength, the concentration of CaBP, and the activity of CA. Supplementing the saline drinking water with any of the three Zn compounds significantly reduced the incidence of eggshell defects and in some cases improved shell breaking strength, the concentration of CaBP, and the activity of CA. PMID:8464801

Balnave, D; Zhang, D



Development of calcium phosphate based apatite from hen’s eggshell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite with Ca\\/P molar ratio, 1.67, was synthesized using hen’s eggshell as calcium source and phosphoric\\u000a acid by precipitation method. Conventional EDTA titration and gravimetric methods were adopted to estimate the amount of calcium\\u000a and phosphorous, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to\\u000a investigate the formation of the HAP phase. Thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was

K. Prabakaran; A. Balamurugan; S. Rajeswari



Density and breaking strength of bones of mortalities among caged layers.  


The incidence of deaths attributable to cage layer osteoporosis (CLO) and the associated parameters of bone strength were studied in a flock of 5000 commercial laying hens over one laying cycle. Of the 9.7 per cent mortality rate, 35 per cent were attributed to CLO, and the mean age of death of the CLO hens (45.5 weeks) was significantly earlier than that of the non-CLO hens (51.6 weeks). There was a significant linear relationship between the density and breaking strength of whole bones with no difference between the CLO and non-CLO hens. However, the density and breaking strength of the bones of the non-CLO hens were consistently greater than those of the CLO hens. The density and breaking strength of the bones of both groups of birds increased with age. PMID:8685544

McCoy, M A; Reilly, G A; Kilpatrick, D J



Otoconial formation in the chick: changing patterns of tetracycline incorporation during embryonic development and after hatching.  


The antibiotic tetracycline (TC) is incorporated into calcifying tissues and serves as a fluorescent marker for identifying calcifying sites in bone and otoconia. Fluorescent labeling was performed at different stages in chick embryos and newly hatched chicks. The stagewise changes in the intensity, location and time course of fluorescent labeling were assessed. TC/egg (1-2 mg) was injected into the yolk sacs of embryos on the 4th, 8th and 11th embryonic days (ED), and the embryos were then killed at specified times after injection. In newly hatched chicks, TC was injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.06 mg TC/g body weight for 7 days and the chicks were killed on the 8th day after hatching. Embryos injected on the 4th ED and killed on the 6th ED showed intense fluorescence in the saccular otoconial layer. All maculae from embryos killed after injection on the 4th ED showed uniformly intense fluorescence throughout the otoconial layer. By the 9th ED, otoconia in all three maculae (saccular, utricular, and lagenar) fluoresced. Maculae from embryos killed after injection on the 8th ED showed uniformly intense fluorescence throughout the otoconial layer or intense localized fluorescence mainly in the upper half of the otoconial layer. All maculae from embryos killed after injection on the 11th ED showed moderate to weak fluorescence primarily in the lower half of the otoconial layer. All maculae from posthatched chicks showed very weak fluorescence throughout the otoconial layer. Otoconia at the periphery of the maculae generally showed weak fluorescence in embryos that had been injected on the 4th and 8th ED, but not in embryos injected on the 11th ED. TC, which competes for calcium binding sites, may inhibit the formation of some otoconia. The formation of giant otoconia may reflect subtle changes in the crystallization microenvironment on these occasions. In brief, the results suggest that: (a) otoconial formation in the saccule precedes that of the utricle and lagena; (b) otoconial formation occurs during the early period (beginning the 6th ED); (c) otoconial formation is stratified, with those in the upper layer forming first and those in the lower layer forming last. PMID:9083816

Kido, T




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...


Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...


Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation  

E-print Network

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Dietary Safflower Phospholipid Reduces Liver Lipids in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to deter- mine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control,



Preferential feeding behaviour of hens in different gaseous atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The object of this study was to identify the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hypoxia (induced by argon) which hens could detect and by preference avoid.2. Hens were housed in an apparatus consisting of an upper roosting chamber connected to two descending passages which led to separate identical feeding chambers. The gas concentration in both these feeding chambers

A. B. Mohan Raj; N. G. Gregory



Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.  


The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen storage, TBARS increased continuously, but not to an extent that would prevent its use as food. The sausages from the ISA Warren genotype had marginally higher TBARS levels during storage. Total colony counts decreased with storage time, with slightly lower values found in the non-spiced sausage material from the ISA Warren hens. In conclusion, when intending to use spent hens as food, ISA Warren are clearly superior to Dekalb White in meat and sausage yield. When processing the meat to sausages, the higher shear energy is probably advantageous. PMID:25288104

Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E



Detoxication of Dietary Tannic Acid by Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to learn more about the mechanism for detoxication of dietary tannins in aves, tannic (digallic) acid (TA) was fed to young chicks at 0.5 and 1.0% of their diet together with supplemental methionine (as the hydroxy analogue, Ca salt) (MHA), choline, betaine, arginine and ornithine individually and in various combinations. In the absence of these nutrients, TA



The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.



Neurotrophin3 Antibodies Disrupt the Normal Development of the Chick Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

When chick embryos are treated with a monoclonal antibody specifically blocking the activity of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), the development of the retina is profoundly affected. Fewer axons are found in the optic nerve, and the retina shows abnormalities in all layers. Early during retinogenesis, the proportion of divid- ing cells is higher in NT-3-deprived embryos compared with age-matched controls and that

Paola Bovolenta; Jose ´-Maria Frade; Elisa Marti; Maria-Angeles Rodriguez-Pena; Yves-Alain Barde; Alfredo Rodriguez-Tebar



Disorders of Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Old Egg-Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol me tabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320



Class 14 November 14, 2009 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo  

E-print Network

Class 14 November 14, 2009 1 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 1) 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) (Part 2) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 2 Chick neurulation 12.2 Neurulation in a chick embryo (dorsal view) #12;Class 14 November 14, 2009 3 12.2 Neurulation in a chick

Devoto, Stephen H.



Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pra- tensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell

Robert J. Dusek; Marilyn G. Spalding; Donald J. Forrester; Ellis C. Greiner


Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.  


1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

Ayerza, R; Coates, W



Effects of electrical water bath stunning current frequencies on the spontaneous electroencephalogram and somatosensory evoked potentials in hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effectiveness of water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a constant root mean square (rms) current of 100?mA per bird delivered for 3?s using 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500?Hz sine wave alternating current (AC) was investigated in layer hens. The quantitative changes occurring in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to determine the

A. B. M. Raj; M. O’Callaghan



A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens.  


Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation. PMID:21345201

Thomas, Ekelijn; Bouma, Annemarie; Klinkenberg, Don



Extracellular norepinephrine in the medial hypothalamus increases during feeding in chicks: a microdialysis study.  


Norepinephrinergic function in the medial hypothalamus is important for the regulation of feeding behavior in chicks as well as in rats. This study was conducted to clarify the variation of extracellular norepinephrine (NE) in the medial hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), during feeding behavior of layer-type chicks. To measure extracellular NE and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of NE, we used microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. After the collection of baseline samples, food-deprived animals were allowed access to the food for 3 h. Extracellular NE significantly increased during the first hour of access to food, and then returned to baseline levels. MHPG also increased during the feeding, but its increase continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. This study suggests that the variation of NE in the medial hypothalamus may be involved in the control of feeding in layer-type chicks. PMID:11118942

Tachibana, T; Utimura, D; Kato, H; Kubo, T; Sugahara, K



Prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in Canada.  

PubMed Central

In Canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. The mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. An increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. This paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. These are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. Methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9220131

Samson, J



Coronary Arteriogenesis and Differentiation of Periarterial Purkinje Fibers in the Chick Heart  

PubMed Central

In the following review, we outline the cellular ontogeny and time course of coronary artery development within the vertebrate heart. Our eventual focus will be the potential role of arteriogenesis in the differentiation of a subset of specialized conduction cells in the chick heart. We begin by briefly outlining early heart formation, showing how the outermost layer of the looped, tube heart—the epicardium—is of extracardiac origin and provides the progenitor cells to the entire vascular bed. Subsequently, we summarize the events of coronary arterial development that follow epicardialization. Finally, we discuss work in the chick that indicates how arteries form pioneering, directional conduits through ventricular tissue, adjacent to which myocardial cells differentiate to form the most peripheral component of the avian conduction system—a network of periarterial Purkinje fibers. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:262–70) PMID:12484610

Harris, Brett S.; O'Brien, Terrence X.; Gourdie, Robert G.



Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.



Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan



Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.  


The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan



Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens  

E-print Network

. Conzparative Inflzcences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens 13 Table 6C November 2, 1920, to October 1, 1921-334 Days /Fish Meal or Tankape ... .I00 Ibs.1 & F Cottonseed 29.7 1 I Meal .......... .:. ...... .none/ Fish Meal or Tankage... ...................................................... 5 Experiment 1-Comparative Value of Meat Scrap. Tankzge 2nd Cotton- ................................ . seed Meal for Laying Hens 6 ............................ Time. Objects. Stock Used. Feeds Used G Prices of Feeds...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)



Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance  

E-print Network

egg-type laying hens fed diets in which the calcium source, calcium level and combination of calcium sources varied in order to determine which source and combination produced the best egg shell quality. The substitution of one...-third of the supplemental calcium as large particle calcium carbonate in a complete laying hen diet was found to significantly improve egg shell quality. Percent egg production, feed conversion and egg weights were not significantly affected by the source or particle...

Brister, Roy David



Dietary phosphorus and food allowance of dwarf breeders affect reproductive performance of hens and bone development of their progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An experiment was conducted with 144 caged hens to study the effects of different dietary concentrations of phosphorus and of food restriction on the reproductive performance of dwarf breeder hens and on the growth and the bone development of their progeny.2. Severe food restrictions at 105 g\\/hen day compared to 115 g\\/hen day, decreased hen body weight and hen

Leterrier C. Triyuwanta; Y. Nys



Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.



Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.  


This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michčle



Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos  

E-print Network

Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos Octavian Voiculescu helped the chick embryo to become a powerful system to study gene regulation and function during development. Although this is a simple procedure for embryos of 2-d incubation, earlier stages (from laying

Stern, Claudio



E-print Network

ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE IN CANADA: FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR 2000 SAGE GROUSE) 492-9457 December, 2000 #12;ii ABSTRACT The Alberta sage grouse population has also performed a 2-stage pilot experiment, focusing on attaching transmitters to sage grouse chicks. I

Aldridge, Cameron


Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...


Assessing thermal comfort of broiler chicks during brooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...


Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets.  


Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples. PMID:3958804

Campbell, G L; Classen, H L; Ballance, G M



Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Sources Using Broiler Chick Bioassays1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to test the potencies of nine sources of cholecalciferol using a chick bioassay. The tested products were compared with a Sigma Reference Standard (SRS). All of the diets fed to the chicks were prepared from corn-soybean meal. Each of the products was in premix form containing cholecalcif- erol. Their physical characteristics reflected the methods used to

A. B. Kasim; H. M. Edwards



Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.



[Modifications in chick embryo peripheral blood following graft of hen spleen fragments. I. Effects on blood volume].  


After adjusting to embryonic material a method, generally used in Man, for the blood volume measurement (dilution of radio-iodinated 131I human albumin) it was possible to determine that the grafting on the chorioallantois membrane of homologous adult spleen fragments provoke a blood volume augmentation in the host embryo. The rate of this increasing, which seems to be partly caused by a blood dilution, and the spleen enhancement intensity are highly linked. PMID:142562

Gérard, H; Kohler, F



Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).  


Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ? 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ? 0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ? 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O



Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin



Noggin4 expression during chick embryonic development.  


We describe here the expression pattern of Noggin4 during the early development of the chick embryo (Gallus gallus). The expression of this gene starts with the onset of gastrulation (stage HH4), in two bilateral bands along the primitive streak, with a local maximum around Hensen's node. By the end of gastrulation, Noggin4 transcripts are distributed diffusely throughout the epiblast, with the highest concentration in the head ectoderm. Interestingly, the expression of Noggin4 during the first half of gastrulation demonstrates a clear left-right asymmetry in Hensen's node, being much more intensive in its right anterior portion. During neurulation, Noggin4 is expressed mainly in the neuroectoderm, with the most intensive expression in the head and lateral neural folds. In mesoderm derivatives, expression is seen in somites but not in the notochord. In general, primarily ectodermal and diffusive expression of Noggin4 in chick embryo, with a maximum in the anterior neurectoderm, resembles that of its ortholog in Xenopus, which indicates a conservative function of this gene in evolution. PMID:22811274

Borodulin, Alexander V; Eroshkin, Fedor M; Bayramov, Andrey V; Zaraisky, Andrey G



Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun




E-print Network


Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...


Identification of Mammosomatotrophs in the Turkey Hen Pituitary: Increased Abundance during  

E-print Network

turkey hens is associated with recruitment of lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. In this study we have- mosomatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of egg-laying turkey hens and incubating hens, and 2) verify PRL of the anterior pituitary gland, in the ventral half of the cephalic lobe, and at the junction of cephalic

Ramachandran, Ramesh


Determination of 14C residue in eggs of laying hens administered orally with [14C] sulfaquinoxaline.  


Ten layer hens were dosed for 5 consecutive days with 6.2 mg kg(-1) [14C] sulfaquinoxaline (SQX). Eggs were collected from the hens during the 5-day dosing period and during a 10-day post-dose withdrawal period. Egg yolk and albumen were separated and assayed for total radioactive residues (TRR) using a combustion oxidizer and liquid scintillation counting techniques. Significant amounts of radioactivity were detected on the second day of dosing (greater than 24h after the initial dose) in both egg yolk and albumen. First eggs were collected about 8 h after dosing; the second-day eggs were collected during 8-h period after the second dose. Radioactive residues reached a maximum on the fifth day of dosing in albumen, whereas on the second day of withdrawal in egg yolk, the peak TRR levels in albumen were about threefold higher than in yolk. Thereafter, the TRR levels declined rapidly in albumen and were detectable up to withdrawal day 6, whereas the TRR levels in egg yolk declined more slowly and were detectable up to withdrawal day 10. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the parent drug sulfaquinoxaline was the major component in both the egg albumen and yolk. Additionally, this work suggests that egg yolk is the appropriate matrix for monitoring SQX residues PMID:15204532

Shaikh, B; Rummel, N; Smith, D



Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.  


1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X



The effect of age, bird density and dietary phosphorus on the reproductive performance of turkey hens  

E-print Network

for BSW hens TABLE 2. Hen-day production of BSW hens and average egg weight as affected by dietary phosphorus levels, age and bird density 12 TABLE 3. Analysis of variance for hen-day production of young BSW hens with one, two or three birds per cage... were divided into three groups and housed in individual cages (61 cm. x 41 cm. x 61 cm. ). Each group was represented by five cages and housed either 1, 2 or 3 birds per cage, respectively (Figure 1). The birds were fed a practical type diet...

Portal, Celina



Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.  


Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won



Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.  


In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova. PMID:24554734

Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri



All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy



Light-evoked changes in chick optic lobe GABA system.  


In young chicks the effects of 3 min stroboscope stimulation on GABA and free glutamic acid content and on GAD and GABA-T activity in optic lobes were studied. A significant depletion in GABA and glutamic acid levels was found to occur. In addition a sustained increase in GABA-T and GAD activity was observed. In conclusion present experiments are in favour of an inhibitory role played by GABA in chick optic tectum during stroboscope stimulation. PMID:451334

Nisticň, G; Ientile, R; Rotiroti, D; Di Giorgio, R M



Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks  

PubMed Central

Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2?=?0.7664, P?=?0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2?=?0.6406, P?=?0.0001) and food intake (R2?=?0.784, P?=?0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua



West Nile virus in American White Pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival.  


West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64-75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

Sovada, Marsha A; Pietz, Pamela J; Hofmeister, Erik K; Bartos, Alisa J



West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.



Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun



Twins of rayless graphs Anthony Bonato Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel  

E-print Network

Twins of rayless graphs Anthony Bonato Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Philipp Spr¨ussel Abstract Two non-isomorphic graphs are twins if each is isomorphic to a sub- graph of the other. We prove that a rayless graph has either infinitely many twins or none. 1 Introduction Up to isomorphism, the subgraph

Diestel, Reinhard


Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...


Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink G. B. Henning  

E-print Network

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink noise G. B. Henning The Sensory Research Unit- tectable than any of its components. However, in contrast-discrimination experiments, with a pedestal the discrimination performance of the pulse train relative to that obtained with its sinusoidal components. We


Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  


A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J



Responses of the reproductive vascular system during the egg-formation cycle of unanaesthetised laying hens.  


1. Vascular adjustments to the process of egg formation were examined in the unanaesthetised laying hen, by the radioactive microspheres method. 2. Three- to four-fold increases in blood flow were found in segments surrounding the egg during its passage along the oviduct, possibly due to an enhanced metabolic activity in the muscle layer of the oviduct. 3. Shell-gland blood flow was minimal in the absence of an egg and increased gradually to a maximum (5-fold) about 5 h after entrance of the egg into the shell gland. This parallels the rate of calcification of the egg shell. 4. Changes in blood flow in the ovarian follicles and other parts of the oviduct were small while the egg was in the shell gland. This might be typical for the reproductive system of the fowl, which undergoes little structural alteration during egg formation. PMID:7139390

Wolfenson, D; Frei, Y F; Berman, A



Effects of Gushukang, a Chinese herbal medicine, on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in laying hens.  


In this study, we evaluated the effects of the herb medicine formula Gushukang (GSK) on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in end-of-lay hens. One thousand 55-wk-old ISA caged layers were allotted randomly to 2 groups. The control group was given the basal diet, and the GSK group was given the basal diet supplemented with additional GSK (1 g/kg) for 10 wk. Egg production, shell quality, bone radiographic density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were determined. The results showed that GSK significantly increased the egg laying rate and decreased the percentage of cracked eggs (P < 0.05).The serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the GSK-treated group compared with the control group, whereas bone characteristics were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The results suggested that GSK can improve egg production and prevent bone loss by inhibiting bone turnover. PMID:19834084

Zhou, Z-L; Deng, Y-F; Tao, Q-S; Hu, Y-F; Hou, J-F



Epithelial cell tumors of the hen reproductive tract.  


There is a paucity of preclinical models that simulate the development of ovarian tumors in humans. At present, the egg-laying hen appears to be the most promising model to study the spontaneous occurrence of ovarian tumors in the clinical setting. Although gross classification and histologic grade of tumors have been used prognostically in women with ovarian tumors, there is currently no single system that is universally used to classify reproductive tumors in the hen. Four hundred and one 192-wk-old egg-laying hens were necropsied to determine the incidence of reproductive tumors using both gross pathology and histologic classification. Gross pathologic classifications were designated as follows: birds presenting with ovarian tumors only (class 1), those presenting with oviductal and ovarian tumors (class 2), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract (class 3), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract and other distant organs (class 4), those with oviductal tumors only (class 5), those with oviductal tumors that metastasized to other organs with no ovarian involvement (class 6), and those with ovarian tumors that metastasized to other organs with no oviductal involvement (class 7), including birds with gastrointestinal tumors and no reproductive involvement (GI only) and those with no tumors (normal). Histopathologic classifications range from grades 1 to 3 and are based on mitotic developments and cellular differentiation. An updated gross pathology and histologic classification systems for the hen reproductive malignancies provides a method to report the range of reproductive tumors revealed in a flock of aged laying hens. PMID:24758120

Harris, Elizabeth A; Fletcher, Oscar J; Anderson, Kenneth E; Petitte, James N; Kopelovich, Levy; Mozdziak, Paul E



The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.



Effect of lighting program and nutrition on reproductive performance of molted single comb White Leghorn hens.  


Two adjoining rooms in a light-tight, fan-ventilated, insulated house were used for a study involving 320 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 60 wk of age, placed two per cage. These hens were subjected to an induced molt which compared two lighting programs, two molt rations, two levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), and two levels of ascorbic acid (AA) in a factorial arrangement. There were four treatments. Treatment 1 compared the Washington lighting program (WSU), consisting of an 8-h light photoperiod for 28 days beginning 7 days before fast with the North Carolina program (NCSU), consisting of a 24-h light photoperiod for 7 days prior to fast followed by 12 h light/day for 21 days. After 28 days, light duration was increased to 16 h/day in stages for both programs. Treatment 2 consisted of feeding cracked corn (CC) or 16% protein molt ration (MR) for 2 weeks: Treatment 3, feeding of 14% layer mash with either .60% or .65% TSAA; and Treatment 4, addition of either 0 or 50 ppm AA to the 14% layer mash. After molting, egg production was increased in the NCSU lighting program and .65% TSAA treatments. Feed conversion was improved by the NCSU lighting treatment. Deaths were fewer in diets with 50 ppm AA. Egg weight, specific gravity, and shell weight were not affected by any treatment. A significant light X molt diet interaction occurred due to better performance of MR birds compared with CC birds in the NCSU lighting program, whereas on the WSU lighting program, CC produced better performance. These data indicated that combining features of various molt programs may not produce optimum results. PMID:3684852

Andrews, D K; Berry, W D; Brake, J



NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals coordinate laminar formation in the developing chick optic tectum.  


The optic tectum comprises multiple layers, which are formed by radial and tangential migration during development. Here, we report that Neuropilin 1 (NRP1)-mediated Sema3A signals are involved in the process of tectal laminar formation, which is elaborated by tangential migration. In the developing chick tectum, NRP1, a receptor for Sema3A, is expressed in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive intermediate layers IV and V. Sema3A itself is a diffusible guidance factor and is expressed in the overlying layer VI. Using stable fluorescent labeling of tectal cells, we show that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are formed by the neurons that have been dispersed by tangential migration along the tectal efferent axons. When Sema3A was mis-expressed during laminar formation, local Sema3A repelled the tangential migrants, thus eliminating MAP2-positive neurons that expressed NRP1. Furthermore, in the absence of the MAP2-positive neurons, tectal layers were disorganized into an undulated form, indicating that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are required for proper laminar formation. These results suggest that NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals provide repulsive signals for MAP2-positive neurons to segregate tectal layers, which is important in order to coordinate laminar organization of the optic tectum. PMID:25183873

Watanabe, Yuji; Sakuma, Chie; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki



Effect of melamine-contaminated diet on tissue distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid, blood variables, and egg quality in laying hens.  


1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melamine-contaminated feed (100 mg/kg) on the distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid in the tissues of laying hens. The effect of a 5-week melamine administration in feed on the egg quality and blood variables of layers was also investigated. 2. A total of twenty 36-week-old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The layers were equally divided into an experimental melamine group (n = 10) and a control group without melamine (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, samples of liver, kidney, breast and thigh muscles were collected from all hens and analysed for the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. 3. Layers receiving the melamine-contaminated diet laid eggs with decreased eggshell strength. The decrease in shell strength was found in weeks 3 and 4 compared to the initial state (week 0) and week 1. 4. Hens receiving the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited a higher total red blood cell count and lower mean corpuscular haemoglobin compared to the control group. However, melamine at 100 mg/kg feed had no effects on the blood variables of layers. 5. Melamine was detected in all analysed tissues of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet, with its mean concentrations decreasing in the following order: kidney (7.43 mg/kg) > breast muscle (3.88 mg/kg) > liver (3.11 mg/kg) > thigh muscle (1.91 mg/kg). The kidney and liver of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited the presence of cyanuric acid. 6. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that the biotransformation of melamine into cyanuric acid proceeded mainly in the liver, and cyanuric acid was eliminated in urine. PMID:24730385

Suchý, P; Novák, P; Zapletal, D; Straková, E



Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))



Recovery and growth of Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in chicks.  


An experimental study was performed to observe the recovery and growth of a minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). Metacercariae of H. taichui were isolated from Jullien's mud carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, which were collected in the Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Two hundred metacercariae were orally force-fed to each chick. The intestine of the chicks were examined from day 1 to day 54 post-infection (PI). The incidence of infection was 84.9% (28/33) and the mean intensity was 19.9 (656/33), with the range 0-59. The worm recovery rate was the highest at day 11 PI (29.5%). On day 3 PI, mature adult worms were recovered and 1-200 eggs were observed in the uterus of the worms. The worms grew rapidly in the chicks and the genital organs were fully developed in 14 days. This parasite can survive in chicks up to day 48 PI. It is concluded that they are a suitable definitive host for infection with H. taichui. PMID:15115077

Kumchoo, Kanda; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Chai, Jong-Yil; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Rojanapaibul, Amnat



Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.  


Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. PMID:9838175

Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P



Dietary influence of digestible lysine concentration on Cobb 500 hen broiler breeder reproductive performance.  


A study was conducted to examine the reproductive parameters of Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens fed 2 different types of diets varying in digestible lysine concentration. In total, 240 Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual cages and given experimental diets from 35 to 45 wk of age. Treatments 1 and 2 were diets formulated using only commercially available feed ingredients and consisted of digestible lysine intakes of 1,200 (IDL) and 1,010 mg/hen per day (ID). Treatments 3 and 4 consisted of semipurified diets with the inclusion of l-glutamic acid to maintain isonitrogenous conditions with digestible lysine intakes of 1,010 (SPL) and 600 mg/hen per day (SP). Hens fed the SPL and SP diets had lower hen-day egg production than hens fed the ID diet, with hens receiving the IDL diet yielding intermediate values. Hens fed the SP diet had the lowest (P < 0.05) egg weight, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments for egg specific gravity. Fertility and hatchability of eggs set were lowest (P < 0.05) for hens fed the SPL dietary treatment. No differences were observed for early and middle embryonic mortality, contaminated, or pipped eggs. Late embryonic mortality was observed to be higher (P < 0.05) in hens fed the SP diet. A decrease in the daily intake of digestible lysine appeared to improve broiler breeder reproductive performance when hens were fed a semipurified diet. In contrast, the same effect was not observed when hens were fed a standard industry-type diet that contained less lysine. PMID:22252356

Mejia, L; McDaniel, C D; Corzo, A



The size and migratory origins of the population of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus wintering in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The majority of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus that spend the winter in England are derived from the British breeding population.Aims To investigate the popular hypothesis that Hen Harriers which over-winter in England are derived principally from breeding populations in mainland Europe.Methods Demographic data were used to estimate numbers of Hen Harriers in Britain at the end of the breeding

Andrew D. M. Dobson; Michčle Clarke; Nils Kjellen; Roger Clarke



Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height.  


1. The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31 and 36 cm). Day- and night-time perching behaviour was observed on 4 consecutive days with a different cage height each day: 150, 55, 50 and 45 cm. 2. Given that a minimum perch-roof distance of 19 to 24 cm was available, hens preferred to roost on the highest perches at night. 3. Lowering cage height not only forced hens to use lower perches, but also reduced time spent on the perches during the day (two-hen and 14-hen test) and night (14-hen test). Moreover, it affected daytime behavioural activities (more standing and less preening) on the perches in the two-hen tests (but not in the 14-hen tests). 4. During the day lower perches were used more for standing and walking, higher perches more for sitting and sleeping. This behavioural differentiation was most pronounced in the highest cages. 5. Perch preference and perching behaviour depend on both the floor-perch distance and the perch-roof distance. Higher cages provide more opportunity for higher perches (which hens prefer), for better three-dimensional spacing (and consequently reduced density at floor level) and for behavioural differentiation according to perch height. PMID:18704782

Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; Leroy, T; Cox, M; Vranken, E; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Berckmans, D; Odberg, F; Sonck, B



Cardiac responses to first ever submergence in double-crested cormorant chicks ( Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rates were recorded from double-crested cormorant chicks during their first ever and subsequent voluntary head submergences and dives, as well as during longer dives made after the chicks were accustomed to diving. Despite variation between chicks, the cardiac response to first ever and subsequent voluntary submergence (head submergences and dives) was similar to the response observed in adult cormorants.

Manfred R Enstipp; Russel D Andrews; David R Jones



Food allocation in crimson rosella broods: parents differ in their responses to chick hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allocation in many asynchronously hatching bird species favours large, competitively superior chicks. In contrast, food is usually distributed equally within broods of crimson rosellas, Platycercus elegans, implying that parents do not simply feed the most competitive chick. We used two temporary removal experiments to manipulate hunger of: (1) individual first- or last-hatched chicks, or (2) the whole brood. When

Elizabeth A. Krebs; Robert D. Magrath



Analysis of aggregation, a worked example: numbers of ticks on red grouse chicks  

E-print Network

563 Analysis of aggregation, a worked example: numbers of ticks on red grouse chicks D. A. ELSTON ricinus on red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus chicks to temporal (year), spatial (altitude and location. ricinus on chicks of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus as an example. The Poisson distribution

Lambin, Xavier


Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus  

E-print Network

Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus Carly M. Nickerson, Laurie L from the black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus "chick-a-dee" call. Each individual note notes of the "chick-a-dee" call of the black- capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus . A. Note

Dawson, Michael



E-print Network

the behaviour and the individuals performing the behaviour. Non-parental Adult Visitors (`NAVs') are typically fledging are not visited, because young chicks are always attended by protective parents, and old chicks, but seldom causes the chick's death directly. However, landbirds take blood-meals from the scratches during

Anderson, David J.



Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the seed extract (aqueous) on the visceral organs of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Group A, B, C received the aqueous extract of Fenugreek

Farman Ullah Khan; F. R. Durrani; Asad Sultan; Rifat Ullah Khan; Shabana Naz


Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.  


Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi



Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.



Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.



Cardiac outflow and wall motion in hypothermic chick embryos.  


Cardiac outflow in the early developmental stage of a chick embryo is known to be highly variable depending on environmental temperature. To investigate the effects of environmental hypothermia on the blood flow in the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts, microscopic flow images were consecutively captured from chick embryos at HH stage 17 (2.5 days of incubation) at room temperature. Instantaneous velocity field information of blood flow in OFT was obtained using a micro-particle image velocimetry technique. The cyclic variations of the OFT vessel diameter and wall thickness were simultaneously measured. The experimental results show that environmental hypothermia causes bradycardia with a decrease in peak velocity during systole and the occurrence of backflow during diastole in the OFT. These abnormal phenomena seem to be attributed to the suppression of myocardial wall motion under hypothermic conditions. PMID:21971263

Lee, Sang-Joon; Yeom, Eunseop; Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kweon-Ho



Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light  

PubMed Central

In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of ‘normal’ eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 ± 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg ± 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P ? 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 ± 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 ± 0.018 (SE) mm2 day?1 for normal chicks, P ? 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 ± 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm?2 in the central cornea and 393 ± 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm?2peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P ? 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth. PMID:19245502

Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard



[Influence of long-term chitosan feeding of laying hens].  


Under insufficient vitamin content in a diet of laying hens in compliance with lowered vitamins A, E and carotenoids content in an egg yolk acid- and water-soluble chitosan feeding (10 and 20 mg per 1 kg body mass) within 6-9 months did not render appreciable influence on these vitamins egg content. Long-term inclusion of a sorbent in a forage was not reflected in vitamin B2 level in a whole egg, blood serum and tissues of hens. Chitosan intake didn't lead to total lipids and phospholipids concentration in a whole egg. Under 15 per cent decrease of the sum of polyunsaturated fat acids its administration lead to 24 per cent increase of omega-3 polyunsaturated fat acids in the whole egg. PMID:18030812

Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Filimonova, I V; Kodentsova, O V; Kulakova, S N



[Hypothalamo-hypophyseal relationships in the chick embryo].  


When a chick embryo, deprived of its hypothalamo-pituitary complex by partial decapitation, is bearing a grafted hypophysis, this gland is unable to induce a normal development of the thyroid. The volume of this gland is reduced and, consequently, the fixation of iodine is decreased from the age of 16 days. Some authors think that there are no hypothalamo-pituitary correlations in the chick embryo. On the contrary, these observations lead to admit their appearance towards the end of the incubation. PMID:129263

Maraud, R; Audine, M; Stoll, R



Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.



Selective reduction of a disulphide bridge in hen ovotransferrin.  

PubMed Central

Brief treatment of iron-saturated hen ovotransferrin with dithiothreitol selectively cleaves the disulphide bridge between residues 478 and 671, which is in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The reduced alkylated protein is less stable than the native protein, and its iron-binding properties are different. A fluorescent derivative was prepared by coupling N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulpho-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to the thiol groups. Images Fig. 3. PMID:4026802

Williams, J; Moreton, K; Goodearl, A D



The polyA regions of hen oviduct RNA  

PubMed Central

Total RNA from hen oviduct has been hydrolysed with a mixture of T1 and pancreatic ribonucleases. Poly(A) tracts in the digestion product have been isolated by binding to oligo(dT) cellulose. Of the four major ribonucleotides, the product has been shown to contain only adenylic acid. When separated on polyacrylamide gels, the poly(A) gave two peaks corresponding to average apparent lengths of 270-280 and 540-550 nucleotides. Images PMID:10793711

Dornan, Valerie; Cook, E.A.; Carey, N.H.



Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks.  


We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume = 13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. PMID:15650085

Dusek, Robert J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Forrester, Donald J; Greiner, Ellis C



Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, D.J.; Greiner, E.C.



Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.  


This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells. PMID:24570429

Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C



California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  


Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T



The Oldest Bird in the Northern Hemisphere Raises a Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Laysan albatross named Wisdom, is at least 60 years old and was spotted in February 2011 raising a chick at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Islands. The bird has sported and worn out 5 bird bands since she was first banded by U.S. Geological Survey scientist Chandler Robbi...


Women Talk: Chick Lit TV and the Dialogues of Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subgenre of the chick-lit television series, best exemplified in programs such as Sex and the City, Lipstick Jungle, and The Cashmere Mafia, has often been the subject of postfeminist critique. This article examines this subgenre as intertextually related cluster texts that function through internal and intertextual dialogism. It explores these programs' focus on discursivity, multiplicity, and performativity in order

Kyra Hunting




E-print Network

PENICILLIN MYCELIUM RESIDUE FEEDING IN WHITE LEGHORN CHICKS A.D. ANJUM, M.Z. KHAN M.A. TOOR M ALIMENTATION DE POULETS LEGHORN BLANC AVEC UN RESIDU DE FABRICATION DE LA PENICILLINE. - La compétition'alimentation du poulet en croissance. Introduction. Penicillin Mycelium Residue (PMR) is a semisolid mass left

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Pericellular Coat of Chick Embryo Structural Role of Hyaluronate Chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrocytes produce large pericellular coats in vitro that can be visualized by the exclusion of particles,e.g., fixed erythrocytes, and that are removed by treatment with Streptomyces hyaluronidase, which is specific for hyaluronate. In this study, we examined the kinetics of formation of these coats and the relationship of hyaluronate and proteoglycan to coat structure. Chondrocytes were isolated from chick tibia



Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

Hoffman, D.J.



Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.



Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

Downie, J. R.



[Hepatotropism of Tyzzer bacteria in experimentally infected chick embryos].  


Tyzzer's organism from mice propagated more remarkably in hepatocytes than in yolk-sac epithelial cells producing confluent necrosis of the liver after intravenous as well as intravitelline inoculation. Some lesions with bacterial growth were also produced in the heart muscles and kidneys. The organisms from mouse, rat, hamster and kitten were shown to be equally pathogenic for chick embryos. PMID:129246

Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, S; Takenaka, S; Nakayama, M; Tamura, T



[Development of an embryonic thyroid grafted into a chick embryo].  


A morphological and physiological study of an embryonic thyroid grafted in a chick embryo showed that it developed according to the endocrine status of the host. Its relative age appreciated at various stages of embryonic life is different from that of a gland developing normally during similar lengths of time. PMID:2938692

Piet, M; Stoll, R; Maraud, R



[Development of germ cells in chick ovarian medulla].  


Ovaries from chick embryos and chicken have been investigated with a view to the evolution of germ cells in the medullary. They can enter meiosis and reach pachytene. They seem to be eliminated by the way of the lacunas. Some observations can be utilized in a discussion about the initiation of the meiosis and the evolution of the ovocytes. PMID:131621

Kopp, F; Stahl, A



Congenital abnormalities in nickel poisoning in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the teratogenic potential of nickel chloride given to developing chick embryos. Nickel chloride was dissolved in saline and injected into chicken eggs at dosages ranging from 0.02 to 0.7 mg per egg. The injections were made into the air sacs of eggs at days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of incubation. Control eggs were

Shamshad H. Gilani; Michael Marano



Induced Refractive Anomalies Affect Chick Orbital Bone Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have shown that it is possible to induce ametropias (myopia and hyperopia) in the eyes of young animals by distorting early visual experience through the use of negative and positive defocussing lenses mounted over the eye. Defocus lenses (+15 and ?15 diopters) were mounted unilaterally over one eye of day old broiler chicks using a contact lens—goggle and velcro




Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks  

E-print Network

of young Snowy Plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, here- after, plovers) were studied to evaluate331 Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks CAROL A * Corresponding author; E-mail: Abstract.--Movements of adult Snowy Plovers (Charadrius

Colwell, Mark



E-print Network

a peligros naturales y antropoge´nicos para la especie amenazada Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus en el a, and response to natural and anthropogenic danger for the threatened Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) in coastal northern California, USA. Plover chicks were most likely to die in the first

Colwell, Mark


Haematological and morphological responses of broiler chicks to hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome

M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell



Ontogenetical development of the chick and duck subcommissural organ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogenetical development of the subcommissural organ (SCO) was investigated in chick embryos collected daily from the 1st to the 21st day of incubation. Some duck embryos, and adult chickens and ducks were also studied. Immunocytochemistry using an anti-Reissner's fiber (RF) serum as the primary antibody was the principal method used.

K. Schoebitz; O. Garrido; M. Heinrichs; L. Speer; E. M. Rodríguez



Bacteria divert resources from growth for magellanic penguin chicks  

E-print Network

the treatment ceased, did not alter haematological indices indicative of health status, had no influence obtained for poultry with antimicrobials promoting growth and chick nutrient assimilation rates. Gram. 1999). Effects of bacteria on birds are thus mainly known for poultry, where continuous efforts are put

Potti, Jaime


Memory Stages and Brain Asymmetry in Chick Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stages of formation of memory and the roles of different forebrain structures in memory formation were investigated by injecting various agents into the brains of chicks close to the time of peck-avoidance training. With L-glutamate injected bilaterally into the hyperstriatum 5 min pretraining, retention was good 1 min posttraining but significantly impaired at 5 min and each subsequent time point

Teresa A. Patterson; Maria C. Alvarado; Irene T. Warner; Edward L. Bennett; Mark R. Rosenzweig



Opiate binding sites in the chick, rabbit and goldfish retina.  


The characteristics of opiate binding sites in the retina of the chick, rabbit and goldfish have been investigated. In the newly hatched chick retina, 131 fmol/mg of binding sites for [D-Ala2-D-Leu5]-[3H]enkephalin are present; competition studies with the delta selective peptide [D-Thr-Leu5]-enkephalin (DTLET) and the mu selective peptide morphiceptin show that all of the [D-Ala2-D-Leu5]-[3H]-enkephalin binding sites are of the delta subtype. Dihydro[3H]morphine binds poorly to the chick retina; 13.2 fmol/mg of this binding is displaceable by morphiceptin and corresponds to mu binding sites. Benzomorphan sites are defined as sites occupied by [3H]diprenorphine which is displaceable by low concentrations of ethylketocyclozacine but not by high concentrations of D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin and morphiceptin. At least 88 fmol/mg of benzomorphan sites are present in the chick retina. [3H]diprenorphine binding to the rabbit and fish retina was measured. The rabbit retina bound 60 fmol/mg, and the fish retina 42 fmol/mg of [3H]diprenorphine. These findings are discussed in the light of the studies on the localization and physiological effects of enkephalin in the retina. PMID:2992696

Slaughter, M M; Mattler, J A; Gottlieb, D I



Mesonephric origin of the gonadal primitive medulla in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the gonadal primitive medulla in embryonic chick gonads was studied with the light microscope, using serial longitudinal sections from 72 h to 108 h of incubation. The sex of embryos was established from karyotypes. At 72 h, the germinal epithelium in the genital ridges was thickened. The nephrogenic cord was not differentiated into nephrons underneath, although the

Nicole Carlon; Josette Pizant; André Stahl



Lectin histochemistry of microvascular endothelium in chick and quail musculature.  


The lectin binding pattern of muscular microvessels in chick, quail and chick/quail chimeras was analysed. Paraffin wax sections of muscles from embryonic and adult animals were used. The biotin-labelled lectins were detected by avidin-alkaline phosphatase complex. The following lectins bound to muscular microvessels including arterioles, capillaries and venules of both species: SNA-I (Sambucus nigra agglutinin), MAA (Maackia amurensis agglutinin), AIA (Artocarpus integrifolia agglutinin), VAA-I, VAA-II and VAA-III (Viscum album agglutinin I-III), WGA (wheat germ agglutinin), LEA (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin). Endomysium and basement membranes of muscle fibres were also stained to a variable extent and intensity. Only SNA-I stained almost exclusively the endothelium of blood vessels. WFA (Wisteria floribunda agglutinin) bound to the quail endothelium only. MPA (Maclura pomifera agglutinin) marked vessels in adult muscles of chick and quail, but embryonic vessels were stained in quail only. Our results show that lectin histochemistry is a useful tool for visualisation of microvasculature in avian species. In particular, WFA and MPA can be used to determine the origin of endothelia in chick/quail chimeras. PMID:11789988

Nanka, O; Peumans, W J; Van Damme, E J; Pfüller, U; Valásek, P; Halata, Z; Schumacher, U; Grim, M



Variations of metabolism and feed efficiency in laying R.I.R.-hens in relation to prenatal environmental  

E-print Network

Variations of metabolism and feed efficiency in laying R.I.R.-hens in relation to prenatal in a significantly higher net energy gain nor in a higher feed efficiency above maintenance. Laying RIR hens from production, feed consumption, heat production, hematocrit and serum TSH levels in laying RIR hens (Michels et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 64, 611618 (2001) Increased Proliferative Activity and Programmed Cellular Death in the Turkey Hen  

E-print Network

Cellular Death in the Turkey Hen Pituitary Gland Following Interruption of Incubation Behavior1 R. Ramesh,2 in turkey hens is charac- terized by ovarian regression, hyperprolactinemia, and persis- tent nesting. Nest-deprivation of incubating turkey hens results in disruption of broodiness accompanied by a precipitous de- cline in plasma

Ramachandran, Ramesh


Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.  


Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y



Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten



Complete genome sequence of Gallibacterium anatis strain UMN179, isolated from a laying hen with peritonitis.  


Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K; Trampel, Darrell W; Seemann, Torsten



Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.  


Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S


223 @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network  

E-print Network @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark,, 302-831-1231. #12; @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St

Firestone, Jeremy

224 @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network  

E-print Network @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE interests in your follow-up note. #12; @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

Firestone, Jeremy

225 @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network  

E-print Network @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE, or slightly below the middle #12; @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401... But it says here..." When you accept a job offer, it is important to inform the CSC of your decision, because

Firestone, Jeremy


Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens  

E-print Network

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

Zhang, Cheng



Acceleration of maturation of FSH and LH responses to photostimulation in prepubertal domestic hens by oestrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg laying begins in domestic hens, reared on short daylengths, at about day 147 of age and is advanced by photostimulation after but not before about day 42 of age. The development of this response at day 42 may be facilitated by oestrogen. This hypothesis was investigated in prepubertal hens, reared on short daylengths, by comparing the effects of oestrogen

I. C. Dunn; P. D. Lewis; P. W. W ilson; P. J. S harp




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three groups of 60+ week old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of their reproductive tracts. In the first group, after processing through defeathering, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from eighteen hens, six from each of three adjac...


A study of the pathogenesis of egg drop syndrome in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally reared and SPF laying hens were infected with egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus and killed at intervals during the first 13 days post inoculation (pi). Tissues were collected and studied using histo?pathological and immunoperoxidase techniques.EDS viral antigen and intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the surface epithelium of the nasal cavity of conventional hens 2 to 6 days pi.

Joan A. Smyth; M. A. Platten; J. B. McFerran



The hen's egg: Shell cracking at oviposition in battery cages and its inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that there is much variation between individual hens and between strains of hen in (a) the incidence of egg?shell cracking and (b) the height through which the egg is dropped at oviposition. Pilot experiments are described from which it is concluded that: i. most cracks that occur in a battery cage are produced when the egg drops

T. C. Carter



Evaporative Cooling of Ventral Regions of the Skin in Heat-Stressed Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laying hens held in battery cages in natu- rally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their per- formance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of

D. Wolfenson; D. Bachrach; M. Maman; Y. Graber; I. Rozenboim


The importance of pre-thicket conifer plantations for nesting Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus are threatened across much of their range and their conser- vation requires appropriate habitat management. The locations of 148 Hen Harrier nests found in the Republic of Ireland during national breeding surveys in 2000 and 2005 were used to assess nest-site selection. The distribution of these nests was compared to distri- butions of randomly located points




Interactions among arsenic, zinc, and taurine in chicks  

SciTech Connect

A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment was done using day-old cockerel chicks to ascertain whether Zn and taurine (Tau), through changing methionine (Met) or sulfate metabolism, affect signs of As deprivation. The dietary variables were supplements of As, 0 or 2; Zn, 10 or 40; and Tau, 0 or 0.84%. The basal diet contained (per g): 15 ng As, 7 Zn, and 5.65 mg Met. For comparison purposes two additional groups of chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 As, 40 Zn, 0 Tau, and 0.5 Met. After 26 days, Tau supplementation alleviated many perturbations caused by an apparent methionine deficiency. For example, final body wt was increased from 596 g to 741 g. However, Tau was much less effective than Met in inhibiting the elevation in plasma Mo caused by Met lack. An interaction between Tau and Zn affected several indices including liver Zn concentration. Tau decreased the liver Zn concentration when dietary Zn was 40 An interaction between Tau and As affected plasma urea. Supplemental As elevated urea in chicks fed 0 Tau, but depressed urea in chicks fed 0.84% Tau. Kidney arginase tended to follow a similar trend. The findings show that Tau can fulfill some of the Met requirements of chicks and that Tau interacts with Zn and As. Some findings also support the hypothesis that As has a physiological role that affects arginine and Met metabolism.

Uthus, E.O.; Nielsen, F.H.



Effects of electrical water bath stunning current frequencies on the spontaneous electroencephalogram and somatosensory evoked potentials in hens.  


1. The effectiveness of water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a constant root mean square (rms) current of 100 mA per bird delivered for 3 s using 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500 Hz sine wave alternating current (AC) was investigated in layer hens. The quantitative changes occurring in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to determine the effectiveness of stunning. The changes occurring in the EEG were evaluated using Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) and the SEPs were averaged to determine whether they were present or abolished. 2. The results of FFT indicated that stunning of chickens with a constant rms current of 100 mA per bird using 100 or 200 Hz induced epileptiform activity in all the hens, immediately followed by a reduction in the total (2 to 30 Hz) and relative (13 to 30 Hz) power contents in the EEG frequency bands indicative of unconsciousness and insensibility. The SEPs were abolished in the majority of hens stunned with 100 Hz and all the hens stunned with 200 Hz. 3. By contrast, stunning using 400, 800 or 1500 Hz failed to induce epileptiform activity in all the birds, the total and relative power contents in the EEG frequency bands showed a substantial increase, rather than reduction, and the SEPs were also retained in the majority of chickens. It is therefore suggested that stunning using these frequencies failed to stun them satisfactorily. In these birds, occurrence of a painful arousal, rather than unconsciousness, could not be ruled out. 4. It is therefore suggested that water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a minimum rms current of 100 mA per bird delivered using 100 or 200 Hz would be adequate to ensure bird welfare under commercial conditions, provided both the carotid arteries in the neck are severed at slaughter. On humanitarian and bird welfare grounds, a rms current of greater than 100 mA per bird should be applied whilst using frequencies of 400 Hz or more of sine wave AC for water bath electrical stunning of chickens. PMID:15222420

Raj, A B M; O'Callaghan, M



The effect of mushroom and pokeweed extract on salmonella, egg production, and weight loss in molting hens.  


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of mushroom and pokeweed extract alone or in combination with alfalfa meal on Salmonella spp. population, egg production, and weight loss in laying hens during a 10-d molting period. The trial used 54 active laying hens approximately 77 wk of age that were naturally infected with Salmonella spp. The layers were subjected to 1 of 9 treatment groups, replicated 3 times with 2 hens per replicate cage. The treatment conditions were as follows: 1) full-fed + H(2)0 (FFW), 2) full-fed + mushroom (FFM), 3) full-fed + pokeweed (FFP), 4) nonfed + H(2)0 (NFW), 5) nonfed + mushroom (NFM), 6) nonfed + pokeweed (NFP), 7) full-fed alfalfa meal + H(2)0 (FFAW), 8) full-fed alfalfa meal + mushroom (FFAM), and 9) full-fed alfalfa meal + poke-weed (FFAP). The results showed that the base-10 logarithm values of Salmonella from the ceca significantly increased (P hens and induce a comparable molt with feed withdrawal. PMID:19038799

Willis, W L; Goktepe, I; Isikhuemhen, O S; Reed, M; King, K; Murray, C



Virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from laying hens in Apulia, Southern Italy.  


1. Escherichia coli isolated from lesions (Avian Pathogenic E. coli?-?APEC) of layer hens affected by colibacillosis and from intestinal contents of clinically-healthy birds (Avian Faecal E. coli?-?AFEC) were serotyped. All the isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence genes to determine which genes were more closely related to those from lesions. 2. A number of different serogroups were detected, O78 being predominant among the isolates from colibacillosis. 3. E. coli isolated from lesions were not linked to a specific pathotype (set of common virulence genes). 4. The presence of the virulence genes, with the exception of astA, was associated more generally with APEC strains. 5. Statistically, genes such as cva/cvi, tsh, iss, irp2 and iucD were more related to isolates from colibacillosis. 6. It is suggested that the detection of these genes in a rapid and inexpensive test for field practitioners could provide useful information about the potential virulence of E. coli isolated in commercial layer flocks. PMID:23130581

Circella, E; Pennelli, D; Tagliabue, S; Camarda, A



The relationship between isofenphos cholinergic toxicity and the development of polyneuropathy in hens and humans.  


Species differences have been observed between hen and human clinical manifestations of isofenphos toxicities. Hens treated with the insecticide isofenphos (90 mg/kg p.o.) developed severe cholinergic toxicity followed by mild organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). However, a patient developed severe OPIDP, which was preceded by very mild cholinergic signs, after an attempted suicide with a commercial formulation containing isofenphos and phoxim, an insecticide not causing OPIDP (estimated doses were 500 and 125 mg/kg, respectively). To explain this difference the following hypotheses were tested: (1) phoxim is a promoter of isofenphos-induced OPIDP; (2) whereas neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is thought to be the target of OPIDP, activation of isofenphos by liver microsomes causes the formation of more potent NTE inhibitor(s) in humans than in hens; (3) in contrast to hen NTE, the sensitivity of the human enzyme to such inhibitor(s) is higher than that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the target of cholinergic toxicity. Results showed that phoxim (22.5 mg/kg p.o.) was not a promoter of OPIDP in hens and that the ratio AChE inhibition:NTE inhibition by microsome-activated isofenphos was similar for both hen and human enzymes. The schedule of antidotal treatment in hens is the likely explanation for the observed difference from the patient. Peak AChE inhibition was maintained in hen brain up to 6 days after a single dose of isofenphos, suggesting prolonged pharmacokinetics. However, the AChE reactivator pyridine-2-aldoxime (2-PAM) was given to hens before isofenphos and then every 8 h, whereas continuous 2-PAM infusion was provided to the patient. When 2-PAM was given to hens every hour after isofenphos (90 mg/kg p.o.), the birds remained asymptomatic. Since other organophosphates may have a prolonged pharmacokinetics, testing procedures for the potential of these insecticides to cause OPIDP may underestimate the risk for humans. PMID:12107655

Moretto, Angelo; Lotti, Marcello



Growth rate of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks under intensive management in Botswana.  


Thirty-seven ostrich chicks raised artificially had their weights, lengths of metatarsus and heights measured weekly from hatching to the 16th week. Despite weight loss during the first week due to utilization of egg yolk by the chicks, the chicks showed and exponential growth up to the twelfth week with an overall mean weekly weight gain of 1.3 kg. Female chicks showed a superior mean weekly gain of 1.6 kg compared to 1.2 kg for males. The metatarsal length grew rapidly at a weekly rate of 2.5 cm, but began to decline in the 11th week even though the weights and heights of the chicks were still increasing. The correlation coefficient between body weight and metatarsal length was 0.97. Individual chicks also maintained their respective heavy or light weight hierarchies throughout the study period. Thus isolation of chicks into groups by weight and raising them separately could have a role in the artificial rearing of ostrich chicks. Furthermore, ostrich chick rearing may be improved by regularly weighing chicks as a means of detecting changes in the growth patterns. PMID:9719849

Mushi, E Z; Isa, J F; Chabo, R G; Segaise, T T



Citric acid improves phytate phosphorus utilization in crossbred and commercial broiler chicks.  


Previous research in our laboratory has shown that citric acid (CA) improves phytate P utilization in New Hampshire x Columbian (NHC) crossbred chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if CA is also effective in commercial broiler chicks (Ross x Ross). In 3 experiments, 4 replicate groups of 5 male NHC chicks and male commercial chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diets varying in CA and nonphytate P (NPP) from 8 to 22 d of age. In experiment 1, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement was used to evaluate the effect of 2 levels of CA (0 and 3%) and NPP (0.13 and 0.28%) in NHC chicks and commercial chicks. The commercial chicks, but not the NHC chicks, fed the 0.13% NPP diet had to be removed from the experiment after 3 to 5 d due to very poor growth and severe leg problems. Chick weight gain and tibia ash were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by CA in both types of chicks. In experiment 2, the same 2 x 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement was again used except that the NPP levels were 0.18 and 0.28%. Tibia ash was increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the addition of CA in both breeds of chicks; response was greater at 0.18% NPP than at 0.28% NPP. In experiment 3, graded levels of CA (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%) were evaluated in commercial chicks fed diets containing 0.18% NPP. Tibia ash increased linearly (P < 0.05) as CA increased from 0 to 4%. The average increase in bone ash resulting from 3% CA supplementation in experiments 2 and 3 was 41%. These results indicate that CA markedly improved phytate P utilization in NHC and Ross x Ross commercial broiler chicks. PMID:16206557

Rafacz-Livingston, K A; Martinez-Amezcua, C; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H; Snow, J



Effects of diet composition on vanadium toxicity in laying hens.  


Vanadium added to laying rations as NH4 VO3, VOCl2 or VOSO4 at levels of 20 to 80 ppm resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in albumen quality as measured by Haugh units. Dietary vanadium also resulted in reduced egg production, egg weight, body weight, feed consumption, and poorer shell quality as measured by specific gravity. Ascorbic acid at .4 to .5% effectively protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium, but not the reduction of egg weight. Replacement of soybean meal by 20% dietary cottonseed meal also protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium. Added at levels of 4 to 8 times the molecular concentration of vanadium, EDTA had no consistent effect on vanadium toxicity. Dehydrated grass, at levels of 6 to 12%, maintained egg production but had no effects on the reduction in albumen quality caused by 40 ppm vanadium. Replacement of soybean meal with herring fish meal and part of the grain with sucrose intensified the depression of albumen quality, egg production, and loss of body weight caused by added vanadium. Neither varying dietary protein levels from 12 to 25% using soybean meal nor the addition of 20 ppm chromium had any effect on the toxicity of added vanadium. It appears that vanadium expresses its toxicity in laying hens by several routes since the protective effects of different dietary changes and additives differentially affected the loss of albumen quality, egg production, body weight, and egg weight. PMID:6791152

Ousterhout, L E; Berg, L R



Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.  


Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo



Phase feeding of protein and energy for laying hens  

E-print Network

to the birds fed 16 percent protein at either 982 or 10)2 Calories per pound. The lowest average egg size was obtained in the group of birds receiving the 16 percent protein, 952 Calorie diet. The data presented in Table 5 show that the largest eggs were... than the birds receiving the other dietary treatments (Table 6). Pro- tein intake per hen-day appeared. to be somewhat restrict- ed when 16 percent protein was fed at energy levels of 946, 982 and 10/2 Calories per pound. The most apparent...

Zotz, Joseph Ernest



Suspected sodium toxicity in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks.  


Sodium toxicity was suspected in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks fed herring frozen in brine (seawater). Affected chicks were lethargic with stiff legs that extended to the posterior, and breathing was labored. Chicks regurgitated food or refused to eat. All chicks that were fed herring exclusively and eight of the 10 chicks fed a mixed diet (herring and salmonids) died, whereas all chicks fed only salmonids survived. Renal lesions ranged from mild to marked generalized nephrosis, which was characterized by degeneration and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and dilation of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. These observations suggest that fish frozen in brine is unsuitable food for hand-rearing of young herons. PMID:1417607

Bennett, D C; Bowes, V A; Hughes, M R; Hart, L E



Expression and function of BMP3 during chick limb development.  


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play diverse roles in many aspects of skeletal development and bone homeostasis. During endochondral ossification, tight regulation of BMP activity is required to assure proper survival, proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells into chondrocytes and osteoblasts. BMP3, a structurally divergent member of the BMP family, acts as a negative regulator of bone formation by limiting BMP signal transduction. In this study, we focus on the chick limb where we find BMP3 has a unique localization pattern with strong expression in the developing perichondrium. Overexpression of BMP3 in chick wing bud at the onset of chondrogenesis, using replication competent retrovirus, reduces BMP signaling leading to increased cell proliferation and delayed cell differentiation, resulting in expanded skeletal elements and joint fusions. Our results suggest that BMP3 expression in the perichondrium may serve to regulate cartilage cell proliferation by modulating the levels of BMP signaling, thus ensuring proper endochondral ossification. PMID:18489005

Gamer, Laura W; Ho, Victoria; Cox, Karen; Rosen, Vicki



Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis  

PubMed Central

The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records. PMID:14736405

Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel



All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy



A Chick Model of Retinal Detachment: Cone Rich and Novel  

PubMed Central

Background Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD) model in the chick. Methodology/Principal Findings Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG). Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP), proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas. Conclusions/Significance Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies. PMID:22970190

Cebulla, Colleen M.; Zelinka, Chris P.; Scott, Melissa A.; Lubow, Martin; Bingham, Amanda; Rasiah, Stephen; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Fischer, Andy J.



Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease  

PubMed Central

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu



Expression of the Tgf?2 gene during chick embryogenesis.  


We performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) ?2 during chick embryogenesis from stage 6 to 30 (Hamburger and Hamilton, J Morphol 1951;88:49-92) using in situ hybridization. During cardiogenesis, Tgf?2 was expressed in the endothelial/mesenchymal cells of the valvulo-septal endocardial cushion tissue and in the epicardium until the end of embryogenesis. During the formation of major arteries, Tgf?2 was localized in smooth muscle progenitors but not in the vascular endothelium. During limb development, Tgf?2 was expressed in the mesenchymal cells in the presumptive limb regions at stage 16, and thereafter it was localized in the skeletal muscle progenitors. In addition, strong Tgf?2 expression was seen in the mesenchymal cells in the pharyngeal arches. Tgf?2 mRNA was also detected in other mesoderm-derived tissues, such as the developing bone and pleura. During ectoderm development, Tgf?2 was expressed in the floor plate of the neural tube, lens, optic nerve, and otic vesicle. In addition, Tgf?2 was expressed in the developing gut epithelium. Our results suggest that TGF?2 plays an important role not only in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions but also in cell differentiation and migration and cell death during chick embryogenesis. We also found that chick and mouse Tgf?2 RNA show very similar patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Chick embryos can serve as a useful model to increase our understanding in the roles of TGF?2 in cell-cell interactions, cell differentiation, and proliferation during organogenesis. PMID:22190426

Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Ando, Katsumi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Yuji



Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.



Regulation of extraembryonic calcium mobilization by the developing chick embryo.  


During development, the chick embryo mobilizes the calcium it needs from two extraembryonic sources, first the yolk and then the eggshell. Since previous studies have strongly suggested that vitamins D and K may regulate chick embryonic calcium metabolism, we have examined here how these vitamins might be involved in regulating the calcium mobilization processes. We used as our experimental system chick embryos which were maintained in long-term in vitro culture in the absence of the eggshell. Our results showed that exogenous vitamin D3, in the form of the active 1,25-dihydroxylated metabolite, was hypercalcaemic in both control embryos and the calcium-deficient, shell-less embryos. Since the eggshell was absent in the latter, the vitamin D-induced hypercalcaemia must involve mobilization of calcium from the yolk and, or, the embryonic skeleton. The latter was unlikely since concomitant hyperphosphataemia was not observed. By radiolabelling the yolk with 45Ca2+ and subsequently monitoring its distribution, we showed that vitamin D3 stimulated yolk calcium mobilization. However, exogenous vitamin D3 did not appear to influence the calcium uptake activity of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the tissue responsible for translocating eggshell calcium. On the other hand, when embryos were rendered vitamin K deficient by the administration of its antagonist, Warfarin, CAM calcium activity was significantly depressed, an effect which was remedied by vitamin K supplementation. We conclude that, during normal chick embryonic development, vitamin D is primarily involved in regulating yolk calcium mobilization whereas vitamin K is required for eggshell calcium translocation by the CAM. PMID:3794604

Tuan, R S; Ono, T



Responses of chicks to dietary supplements of copper sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen groups of 20 1?d?old male chicks of a hybrid laying strain were reared for 25 d and given free access to diets supplemented with o, 100, 200 or 350 p.p.m. copper (as CuSO4.5H2O), with or without antibiotic. The unsupplemented diet, based on cereals, fish and soyabean meals, contained 9.6 p.p.m. copper. Live?weight gains, food intakes and hepatic copper concentrations

M. S. Smith



Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.



Evaporative cooling of ventral regions of the skin in heat-stressed laying hens.  


Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of water from the ventral regions of the bird. The type of plumage in the ventral regions and the exposed skin of the apteria enable more efficient wetting than is possible with dorsal cooling. A ventral cooling regime, comprising an initial period of frequent wettings followed by intermittent wetting for 10 s every 30 min was able to maintain normothermia of laying hens subjected to a 10-h period of heat exposure. Dorsal cooling was less efficient; body temperature and respiration rate were higher and skin temperatures were lower than in ventrally cooled hens. During 10 d of heat exposure, ventrally cooled hens maintained egg weight and shell index (mg/cm2), whereas their food intake decreased moderately. In contrast, egg weight, shell index, and food intake all decreased markedly in uncooled or dorsally cooled hens. Transient alterations in plasma concentrations of corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were noted in uncooled and dorsally cooled hens but not in ventrally cooled hens. Results indicate that ventral cooling is an efficient method to alleviate heat stress in laying hens during summer. Successful implementation of ventral cooling in poultry houses will depend on optimal installation of sprinklers and on minimal wetting of manure. PMID:11469662

Wolfenson, D; Bachrach, D; Maman, M; Graber, Y; Rozenboim, I



Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure.  


Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3mg/kg, 28.4mg/kg and 42.6mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species. PMID:22554862

Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A M; Joshi, C G; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan



Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)  

PubMed Central

In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia



Control of effect on the nucleation rate for hen egg white lysozyme crystals under application of an external ac electric field.  


The effect of an external ac electric field on the nucleation rate of hen egg white lysozyme crystals increased with an increase in the concentration of the precipitant used, which enabled the design of an electric double layer (EDL) formed at the inner surface of the drop in the oil. This is attributed to the thickness of the EDL controlled by the ionic strength of the precipitant used. Control of the EDL formed at the interface between the two phases is important to establishing this novel technique for the crystallization of proteins under the application of an external ac electric field. PMID:21651297

Koizumi, H; Uda, S; Fujiwara, K; Nozawa, J



Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone-stimulation of food intake is mediated by hypothalamic effects in chicks.  


Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a 12 amino acid peptide, is expressed in the avian brain and inhibits luteinizing hormone secretion. Additionally, exogenous injection of GnIH causes increased food intake of chicks although the central mechanism mediating this response is poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of our study was to elucidate the central mechanism of the GnIH orexigenic response using 12 day post hatch layer-type chicks as models. Firstly, via mass spectrometry we deduced the chicken GnIH amino acid sequence: SIRPSAYLPLRFamide. Following this we used chicken GnIH to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2.6 and 7.8?nmol causes increased food intake up to 150?min following injection with no effect on water intake. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells was quantified in appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei following ICV GnIH and only the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) had an increase of c-Fos positive neurons. From whole hypothalamus samples following ICV GnIH injection abundance of several appetite-associated mRNA was quantified which demonstrated that mRNA for neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased while mRNA for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was decreased. This was not the case for mRNA abundance in isolated LHA where NPY and POMC were not affected but melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA was increased. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted after ICV GnIH injection which demonstrated a variety of behaviors unrelated to appetite were affected. In sum, these results implicate activation of the LHA in the GnIH orexigenic response and NPY, POMC and MCH are likely also involved. PMID:25305807

McConn, Betty; Wang, Guoqing; Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Osugi, Tomohiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Cline, Mark A



Indirect cannibalism by crčche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crčche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.



Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

Benson, J.; Suryan, R.M.; Piatt, J.F.



Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks.  


The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks during a single visit to the farm. Two logistic regression models (specific to each production) were used to assess the association between management practices and the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of the flock. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 30.9% (95% CI: 21.0; 40.9) and 31.7% (95% CI: 24.0; 39.4) for cage-layers and broiler flocks, respectively. For layer flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when pets were present on the production site. When droppings were evacuated by conveyor belt with deep pit storage, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination decreased significantly. Feed meal was found to be associated with a higher risk of L. monocytogenes contamination than feed crumb. For broiler flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when farmers did not respect the principle of two areas (clean and dirty) at the poultry house entrance. A first disinfection by thermal fogging and the absence of pest control of the poultry house before the arrival of the next flock was found to increase the risk of contamination. When litter was not protected during storage and when farm staff also took care of other broiler chicken houses, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination increased significantly. In the case of the watering system, nipples with cups were found to decrease the risk of contamination. PMID:21176855

Aury, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Toquin, Marie-Thérčse; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Nôtre, Yolčne; Allain, Virginie; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe; Chemaly, Marianne



Induced refractive anomalies affect chick orbital bone structure.  


Experiments have shown that it is possible to induce ametropias (myopia and hyperopia) in the eyes of young animals by distorting early visual experience through the use of negative and positive defocussing lenses mounted over the eye. Defocus lenses (+15 and -15 diopters) were mounted unilaterally over one eye of day old broiler chicks using a contact lens-goggle and velcro combination. Refractive states and ocular dimensions were measured by retinoscopy and ultrasound during the experiment. On the seventh day the birds were killed after which the eyes were removed, weighed and measured with calipers. The remaining heads were cleaned of all soft tissue to leave only the bones of the skull. Axial and equatorial orbital dimensions were then measured with vernier calipers. The frontal bone was prepared for histological analysis and sections were used to determine the relative proportions of formed bone to primitive mesenchymal cells. Prior to treatment there were no differences in refractive states or dimensions of the two eyes. After one week of defocus, the treated eyes were longer or shorter as well as more myopic or hyperopic than the contralateral eye by amounts close to the powers of the defocussing lenses (-12.3 and +11.8 diopters). Orbital sizes varied substantially. Orbital axes of myopic eyes were significantly (P < or = 0.05) longer (on average 0.77 +/- 0.23 mm) than the contralateral control orbits. The orbital axes associated with the hyperopic eyes were significantly (P < or = 0.05) shorter (on average 0.69 +/- 0.18 mm) than the contralateral control orbits. Similarly, significant differences (P < or = 0.05) were recorded for a variety of equatorial measures (naso-temporal, superior inferior, oblique (nasal-superior, temporal-superior). Histological analysis reveals that the frontal bone of the myopic chick is in a more mature state of development compared to the frontal bone of the hyperopic chick. The eyes and orbits of chicks with induced ametropias that were allowed to the recover were not significantly different from the control eyes and orbits. This study clearly shows that, in chicks, ocular refractive development is associated with orbital development and that experiments related to growth factors and retinal processing of defocus information should also consider growth and development of tissue beyond the ocular globe. PMID:9245896

Wilson, K T; Sivak, J G; Callender, M G



Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens  

PubMed Central

The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells. PMID:20885842

Tran, Thi Q.L.; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine



Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.



The relationship between isofenphos cholinergic toxicity and the development of polyneuropathy in hens and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species differences have been observed between hen and human clinical manifestations of isofenphos toxicities. Hens treated with the insecticide isofenphos (90 mg\\/kg p.o.) developed severe cholinergic toxicity followed by mild organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). However, a patient developed severe OPIDP, which was preceded by very mild cholinergic signs, after an attempted suicide with a commercial formulation containing isofenphos and phoxim,

Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti



The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes  

E-print Network

THE GROWTH OF TILAPIA AUREA IN PONDS RECEIVING LAYING HEN WASTES A Thesis by ROBERT PAUL BURNS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of. MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1978 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE GROWTH OF TILAPIA AUREA IN PONDS RECEIVING LAYING HEN WASTES A Thesis by ROBERT PAUL BURNS Approved as to style and content by: (Cha' man o ittee) Memb r Member) Head of Department...

Burns, Robert Paul



Egg Shell Quality and Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Aged Laying Hens1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-binding protein D28K (calbindin) synthesis, vitamin D metabolism and shell quality were investigated in young and aged laying hens fed diets con taining either cholecalciferol (CC) or its 1-hydroxylated de rivatives. Duodenal calbindin concentration was similar in the young and in the aged laying hens. Exogenous 1-hy droxylated CC derivatives increased duodenal calbindin concentration, regardless of age. Shell weight and



Ovoglycoprotein, a protein of hen's-egg white  

PubMed Central

1. A description is given of the isolation of a glycoprotein from hen's-egg white; it has been called ovoglycoprotein. 2. It contains 13·6% of hexose, 13·8% of hexosamine and 3% of sialic acid. 3. Hexose occurs as mannose and galactose in the ratio 2:1, hexosamine as glucosamine and sialic acid as N-acetylneuraminic acid. 4. It has S20,w 2·47s and a minimum molecular weight, calculated from the tryptophan content, of 24400. 5. At pH3·9 in acetate buffer, I0·1, which is in the isoelectric region, it is resolved into two components, one of which moves slowly towards the anode while the other moves slowly towards the cathode. PMID:5837783

Ketterer, B.



Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.



Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of Cattle Egret chicks in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria, was investigated in 1998 and 2006, when 145 and 23 regurgitates were collected, respectively. In 1998, 1 698 individual prey items were identified. Insects formed the bulk of the diet of chicks: 94% in terms of frequency, 71% in terms of mass. Orthopterans were dominant, especially in terms

Rachida Gherbi-Salmi; Salaheddine Doumandji; Claire Voisin



Use of Implanted Radiotransmitters to Estimate Survival of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced chick survival has been implicated in declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Because monitoring survival of unmarked sage-grouse chicks is difficult, radiotelemetry may be an effective technique to estimate survival rates, identify causes of mortality, and collect ecological data. Previous studies have used subcutaneous implants to attach radiotransmitters to hatchlings of several species of birds with precocial young.




Development of rhythmic melatonin synthesis in cultured pineal glands and pineal cells isolated from chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick pineal gland exhibits circadian rhythms in melatonin synthesis under in vivo and in vitro conditions. A daily rhythm of melatonin production was first detectable in pineal glands isolated from chick embryos at embryonic day 16 and incubated under a LD cycle. All pineal glands isolated from 17-day-old and older embryos were rhythmic while no gland isolated at embryonic

D. Lamošová; M. Zeman; M. Macková; E. Gwinner



Teratogenic and lethal effects of long-term hyperthermia and hypothermia in the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teratogenic effect of maternal hyperthermia is well known in laboratory animals and is presumed to exist also in humans. The aim of our study was to describe the embryotoxic effect of long-term higher and lower incubation temperatures on the chick embryo. Chick embryos were incubated within days 1 to 9 at 12 different incubation temperatures ranging from 31 to

Miroslav Peterka; Renata Peterková; Zbyn?k Likovský



Nest location affects chick growth rates in Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule?Body mass of Whiskered Tern chicks from the central parts of subcolonies grew at a higher rate in comparison to chicks hatched in the peripheral zones. Growth rates of both body mass and head length correlated positively with nest density. We suggest that spatial distribution of pair quality within the colony of Whiskered Terns follows a central–periphery gradient.

Piotr Minias; Bartosz Lesner; Tomasz Janiszewski



lodohormones in the serum of chick embryos and post-hatching chickens as influenced  

E-print Network

lodohormones in the serum of chick embryos and post-hatching chickens as influenced by incubation-draught laboratory incubator. A low incubation temperature resulted in a longer incubation period, whereas eggs in developing chick embryos of the Rhode Island Red strain incubated at different temperatures in a forced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Distribution of Glial-Associated Proteins in the Developing Chick Auditory Brainstem  

E-print Network

Distribution of Glial-Associated Proteins in the Developing Chick Auditory Brainstem Matthew J ABSTRACT: In the avian brainstem, nucleus mag- nocellularis (NM) projects bilaterally to nucleus lamina of the chick auditory brainstem using glial-specific antibodies and histological markers. We found

Cramer, Karina


Experimental coccidiosis provoked by Eimeria acervulina in chicks simultaneously fed on ochratoxin A contaminated diet.  


The progression of coccidiosis provoked by Eimeria acervulina was followed in chicks fed on OTA-contaminated as well as on OTA-free diets. More heavy progress of duodenal coccidiosis, including mortality, occurred in OTA-treated chicks as can be seen from the higher value of lesion (3.50) and oocyst (31.65) indices. A stronger decrease of serum total protein was found in OTA-treated chicks (22.80 g/l) than in chicks infected with E. acervulina(24.20 g/l), but that decrease was strongest in chicks treated with OTA and simultaneously infected with E. acervulina (19.71 g/l). The serum concentration of uric acid was significantly increased in all chicks exposed to OTA, most notably in those additionally infected with E. acervulina (1020.6 (micro mol/L), whereas the serum enzyme activity of AST was increased only in chicks infected with E. acervulina and highest in those fed OTA contaminated diet (122.2 U/L). OTA induced degenerative changes in kidneys, liver and heart as well as a depletion of lymphoid tissue in the lymphoid organs and a decrease of body weight. Coccidiosis induced only a slight growth depression and duodenal hemorrhages in addition to characteristic duodenal damages. The impairment of kidney function, histopathological changes and general growth depression were stronger when chicks infected with E. acervulina were also given OTA. PMID:16997337

Koynarski, V; Stoev, S; Grozeva, N; Mirtcheva, T; Daskalov, H; Mitev, J; Mantle, P



The effect of prenatal hypoxia and malnutrition on memory consolidation in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of hypoxia and malnutrition to cognitive impairments was investigated in chicks incubated in conditions of reduced gas exchange. Previous research has shown that reducing gas exchange during incubation by wrapping half the eggshell with an impermeable membrane results in impaired cognitive ability in young chicks. The results were interpreted within a three stage sequential model of memory using

Candice L. Rodricks; Ilona A. Rose; Emily J. Camm; Graham Jenkin; Suzanne L. Miller; Marie E. Gibbs



The role of helpers in feeding chicks in cooperatively breeding green (red-billed) woodhoopoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made of ten green (red-billed) woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus flocks during the breeding season in order to quantify the relationship between flock size and the amount of food delivered to chicks. The study period was kept short specifically to minimize the effects of environmental stochasticity. Neither woodhoopoe feeding visit rates nor the total amount of food brought to chicks

Morné A. Plessis



Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens) Leaf Meal as Protein Supplement for Pullet Chicks and Growing Pullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine the optimum dietary inclusion rate of Cetrosema pubescens leaf meal (CLM) for pullet chicks (PC) and growing pullets (GP). Eighty four Black Nera pullet chicks were weighed and randomly allotted to four dietary treatments which contained 0, 2, 4 and 6% CLM for A, B, C and D, respectively in a completely randomized design.

F. C. Nworgu; F. O. Fasogbon



J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):1220, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

E-print Network

12 J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):12­20, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks Brian L. Spears,1 determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from, survival, telemetry, turkey Increasing population recruitment through reproductive success is often key

Wallace, Mark C.


Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  


The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E



Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks.  


Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for investigating links between recognition, learning, and their fitness consequences. One major evolutionary puzzle has continued to capture the attention of naturalists for centuries: why do hosts of brood parasites generally fail to recognize parasitic offspring after they have hatched from the egg, even when the host and parasitic chicks differ to almost comic degrees? One prominent theory to explain this pattern proposes that the costs of mistakenly learning to recognize the wrong offspring make recognition maladaptive. Here we show that American coots, Fulica americana, can recognize and reject parasitic chicks in their brood by using learned cues, despite the fact that the hosts and the brood parasites are of the same species. A series of chick cross-fostering experiments confirm that coots use first-hatched chicks in a brood as referents to learn to recognize their own chicks and then discriminate against later-hatched parasitic chicks in the same brood. When experimentally provided with the wrong reference chicks, coots can be induced to discriminate against their own offspring, confirming that the learning errors proposed by theory can exist. However, learning based on hatching order is reliable in naturally parasitized coot nests because host eggs hatch predictably ahead of parasite eggs. Conversely, a lack of reliable information may help to explain why the evolution of chick recognition is not more common in hosts of most interspecific brood parasites. PMID:20016486

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E



In vitro Phosphate Transport in Chick Ileum: Effect of Cholecalciferol, Calcium, Sodium and Metabolic Inhibitors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three parameters of phosphate transport were monitored in everted gut sacs prepared from the ileum of rachitic chicks injected with cholecalciferol 48 hours before use and untreated rachitic chicks by measuring tracer T movement: transfer from the outside ( mucosa) ) compartment to inside ( serosa! ) compartment; total transfer out of mucosa! compartment, i.e., into intestinal tissue plus serosal



Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens.  


Experiment 1 was conducted to study the effects of feeding 60% untreated ervil seeds (UE) or ervil soaked in water at room temperature (RTWE) or at 40 degrees C (40WE) for 72 h with water change every 12 h on the performance and internal organ size of broilers. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet (control) and diets containing 60% UE, RTWE, or 40WE were fed to battery caged broilers in 4 replicates with 8 birds per replicate, from 8 to 49 d. Broilers consuming UE from 8 to 28 d gained less weight, used feed less efficiently, and had heavier liver, pancreas, and gall bladder weights (%BW) than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Compared with control birds, broilers on 40WE had similar relative organ weights, except for kidney, but lower BW gain at 49 d (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ervil seeds were soaked in 1% acetic acid at room temperature (RTAAE) or at 40 degrees C (40AAE) for 24 h. A conventional diet and diets containing 60% UE, 40WE, RTAAE, or 40AAE were fed to individually caged laying hens in 4 replicates per treatment with 5 hens per replicate for 42 d. Hens on UE had the poorest performance followed by RTAAE, 40WE, and then 40AAE (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, all treated ervil diets resulted in lower shell thickness values but higher Haugh unit scores (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, 30% dietary UE and 40AAE at 10, 20, and 30% were fed to layers for 56 d. The general performance of hens on 30% 40AAE was comparable with that of the control except for BW and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Compared with UE, the performance of broilers and layers was improved by 40WE and that of hens was further enhanced by 40AAE. In addition, diets containing up to 20% 40AAE had no adverse effects on feed conversion, egg production, or quality of hens. PMID:16463969

Farran, M T; Halaby, W S; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M



9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chicks from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from 25 randomly selected 1- to 5-day-old chicks that have not...




PubMed Central

Administration of estrogen (E) to immature chicks triggers the cytodifferentiation of tubular gland cells in the magnum portion of the oviduct epithelium; these cells synthesize the major egg-white protein, ovalbumin. Electron microscopy and immunoprecipitation of ovalbumin from oviduct explants labeled with radioactive amino acids in tissue culture were used to follow and measure the degree of tubular gland cell cytodifferentiation. Ovalbumin is undetectable in the unstimulated chick oviduct and in oviducts of chicks treated with progesterone (P) for up to 5 days. Ovalbumin synthesis is first detected 24 hr after E administration, and by 5 days it accounts for 35% of the soluble protein being synthesized. Tubular gland cells begin to synthesize ovalbumin before gland formation which commences after 36 hr of E treatment. When E + P are administered together there is initially a synergistic effect on ovalbumin synthesis, however, after 2 days ovalbumin synthesis slows and by 5 days there is only 1/20th as much ovalbumin per magnum as in the E-treated controls. Whereas the magnum wet weight doubles about every 21 hr with E alone, growth stops after 3 days of E + P treatment. Histological and ultrastructural observations show that the partially differentiated tubular gland cells resulting from E + P treatment never invade the stroma and form definitive glands, as they would with E alone. Instead, these cells appear to transform into other cell types—some with cilia and some with unusual flocculent granules. We present a model of tubular gland cell cytodifferentiation and suggest that a distinct protodifferentiated stage exists. P appears to interfere with the normal transition from the protodifferentiated state to the mature tubular gland cell. PMID:4329151

Palmiter, Richard D.; Wrenn, Joan T.



Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial.2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced

H. M. Shang; T. M. Hu; Y. J. Lu; H. X. Wu



Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng



Effect of raw legume diets on disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of chicks.  


The effect of four raw legume diets: field beans (Vicia faba) (RFB), navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (RNB), soybeans (Glycine soja) (RSB) and bitter vetch (VICIA ervilia) (RBV), on disaccharidase activities in chick small intestine have been studied. Maltase and sucrase activities, which vary with age, were determined in 1 to 60 day old animals, RFB and RBV diets had no effect on maltase activity and only increased sucrase activity in 60 day old chicks. Both maltase and sucrase activities decreased in chicks on RSB diet, regardless of their age, and the decrease was even more pronounced in chicks on RNB diet. Contrarywise, chicks fed on autoclaved navy beans and soybeans showed a considerably higher activity of these disaccharidases. PMID:7192009

Lasheras, B; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Fontán, J; Lluch, M; Larralde, J



Values of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

and bone scraps, cottonseed meal, soybean oil meal, peanut meal, liver meal, and linseed meal in chick rations. Neither mortality nor perosis (slipped tendon) was a factor in these experiments. The rations were not extreme enough to cause losses... than did vacuum-dried fish meal when fed in a ration along with soybean oil meal and cottonseed meal. Neither peanut meal nor old process linseed oil meal gave as good results as soybean oil meal or cottonseed meal. Dried whey, a rich source...

Couch, James Russell; Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)



Sumatriptan blocks spreading depression in isolated chick retina.  


Spreading depression is a neurohumoral phenomenon that has been related to the pathophysiology of migraine. The recently introduced 5HT1D agonist anti-migraine compound sumatriptan blocks neurogenic extravasation and induces cerebral vasoconstriction, but the actual mechanism of action against migraine remains obscure. Retinal spreading depression (RSD) velocity has been measured in isolated chick retinas in the presence of 0.05-2.00 mM sumatriptan. This drug reversibly blocks RSD in a concentration-dependent manner. Since the preparation is blood-vessel free, this effect must be related to the nervous tissue. PMID:9453269

Maranhăo-Filho, P A; Martins-Ferreira, H; Vincent, M B; Ribeiro, L J; Novis, S A



Glutamine metabolism in chick enterocytes: absence of pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase and citrulline synthesis.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine whether pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P-5-C) synthase is deficient in chick enterocytes therefore resulting in the lack of synthesis of ornithine and citrulline from glutamine. Post-weaning pig enterocytes, which are known to contain P-5-C synthase and to synthesize both ornithine and citrulline from glutamine, were used as positive controls. Enterocytes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 0-30 min in the presence of 2 mM [U-14C]glutamine or 2 mM ornithine plus 2 mM NH4Cl. In chick enterocytes, glutamine was metabolized to NH3, CO2, glutamate, alanine and aspartate, but not to ornithine, citrulline, arginine or proline. Likewise, there was no formation of citrulline, arginine, alanine or aspartate from ornithine in chick enterocytes. Furthermore, the rate of conversion of ornithine into proline in chick enterocytes was only about 4% of that in cells from pigs. To elucidate the reason for the inability of chick enterocytes to synthesize ornithine and citrulline from glutamine, the activities of the enzymes involved were measured. No activity of P-5-C synthase or ornithine carbamoyltransferase was found in chick enterocytes, in contrast with cells from post-weaning pigs. It was also demonstrated that the activity of ornithine aminotransferase in chick enterocytes was only 3% of that in cells from pigs. Thus the present findings elucidate the biochemical reason for the lack of endogenous synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in chicks. Our results also explain previous observations that ornithine cannot replace arginine or proline in the diet of chicks. We suggest that the absence of P-5-C synthase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase in enterocytes is the metabolic basis for the nutritional requirement of arginine in the chick. PMID:7702565

Wu, G; Flynn, N E; Yan, W; Barstow, D G



The protective role of squalene in alcohol damage in the chick embryo retina.  


The developing CNS, and in particular the visual system, is very sensitive to the effects of alcohol. Alcohol causes lipid peroxidation. Squalene, the major olive oil hydrocarbon, is a quencher of singlet oxygen and prevents the corresponding lipid peroxidation. We presumed that squalene can protect against the alcohol-induced damage already observed during the development of the chick retina. Alcohol+squalene was administered directly into the yolk sac of the egg of White Leghorn chicks at day 6 of incubation. The lipid composition of the retina was analyzed in embryos at E7, E11, E15 and E18. The proportions of phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol, diacylglycerides and free fatty acids were estimated using the Iatroscan TLC/FID procedure. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to determine the fatty acid composition. The morphological study was carried out at E11 using semithin sections, and by means of immunohistochemical techniques at E19. Comparing the results obtained in control embryos, the administration of alcohol+squalene reduces the effects of alcohol on the total lipid composition of the retina during development. The effects were, in fact, of less magnitude than in embryos treated only with alcohol. The major phospholipid species of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited total recuperation at E15. As far as fatty acids are concerned, no significant changes were observed with regard to control embryos during development. From a morphological point of view, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos show at E11 fewer cellular alterations than the retinas of alcohol-treated embryos. In this respect, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited: a columnar cell arrangement similar to that observed in control retinas; few pycnotic cells and very few alterations in ganglion cell layers and in the optic nerve fibers layer. At E19 the recuperation of the expression of myelin oligodendrocyte specific protein (MOSP) in alcohol+squalene-treated embryos was recorded. Since squalene reduces the deleterious effects caused by alcohol on the lipid composition and the structure of the retina, squalene could act as a naturally occurring agent for the prevention of damage caused by abusive alcohol ingestion during pregnancy. PMID:15781281

Aguilera, Yolanda; Dorado, Manuel E; Prada, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan J; Quesada, Adela; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina



Shape diversity among chick retina Müller cells and their postnatal differentiation.  


It is currently believed that in each vertebrate species Müller cells in the central retina constitutes a fairly homogeneous population from the morphologic point of view and that particularly the chick Müller cell attains full shape differentiation at prenatal stages. However, in this study of the chick retina, from day 1 to day 55 of life, we show that there is a large variety of Müller cell shapes and that many of them complete shape differentiation postnatally. We used a cell dissociation method that preserves the whole shape of the Müller cells. Unstained living and unstained fixed cells were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, and fixed cells immunostained for intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton were studied by fluorescence microscopy. Our results show that (1) Müller cell shapes vary in the origination of the hair of vitread processes, in the shape of the ventricular (outer or apical) process, in the presence or absence of an accessory process, as well as in the number and shape of processes leaving from the ventricular process at the level of the outer nuclear and outer plexiform layers (ONL/OPL); (2) during the first month of life, many Müller cells differentiate the portion of the ventricular process that traverses the ONL, most Müller cells differentiate the ONL/OPL processes, and all Müller cells differentiate the thin short lateral processes leaving from the vitread hair processes at the level of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The number of cells differing in the shape of the ventricular process and that of cells with and without accessory process were estimated. The spatial relationship between the outer portion of the ventricular process of the Müller cell and the photoreceptor cells was also studied. Our results show that the branching of the ventricular process and the refinement of Müller cell shape is achieved without apparent participation of growth cones. We give a schematic view of how the branching of the ventricular process might take place and propose the size increase of photoreceptor soma as a factor responsible for this branching. PMID:11503151

Anezary, L; Medina, J I; Sánchez-Nogueiro, J; López-Gallardo, M; Prada, C



Layers and Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students create their own rock layers by slowly adding and observing how different types of sediment interact when layered upon each other. This lesson is meant to illustrate how we can use these layers to discover the relative age of an object found in that layer by utilizing the Law of Superposition.

Cheri Tremarco



[Microbial colonisation of the caecal mucosa of specific pathogen-free chicks and adherence of an adult SPF chicken microflora to the caeca of a conventional newly hatched chick: study by scanning electron microscopy].  


Two studies were conducted by SEM in order to evaluate the relationship between the caecal microflora morphology and the age of SPF chicks and the colonising of an adult SPF chick caecal microflora to the caecal mucosa of conventional newly hatched chicks. These experiments indicated that the number of 'adhering' bacteria increases with the age of the chick, that the morphological and quantitative changes of the caecal microflora are completed by about 15 days of age and that a complete bacterial colonisation of the caecal wall of a newly hatched chick occurs only 24 h after treatment with an adult caecal microflora. PMID:18679891

Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Morin, M; Colin, P; Lahellec, C; Bennejean, G



Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages  

PubMed Central

Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang



Stimulation of growth of the chick embryo by acute hyperoxia.  


We have previously demonstrated that continuous incubation in elevated concentrations of ambient oxygen leads to accelerated growth of the chick embryo. We now report that a similar growth response is elicited by acute (72 h) exposure beginning on the 16th day of incubation. White Leghorn eggs were paired by initial weight and incubated in air for 15 days in forced-draft incubators. Embryos were sampled on days 11, 13 and 15 (experiments 1, 2, 3) or 13, 14 and 15 (experiment 4), freed of all extra-embryonic membranes and weighed. On day 16 the experimental group was switched to 60% O2. The control group was maintained in air. A portion of the remaining eggs from each group was opened on days 16, 17 and 18 (experiment 4), or alternatively all the remaining eggs were opened at the end of the 18th day of incubation (experiments 1, 2, 3). Linear regression analysis of growth curves obtained by plotting log wet embryo weight (g) vs log incubation age (d) showed a significantly greater rate of growth (slope) for days 15-18 in embryos exposed to 60% O2. These results support the hypothesis that growth of the chick embryo is normally limited by the availability of oxygen. PMID:6528110

Stock, M K; Metcalfe, J



Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.  


A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age. PMID:25619015

Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A



Shh regulates chick Ebf1 gene expression in somite development.  


The chick early B-cell factor 1 (cEbf1) is a member of EBF family of helix loop helix transcription factors. Recently, we have proved that cEbf1 expression in feather is regulated by Shh. It is therefore possible that the somitic expression of cEbf1 is controlled by Shh signals from the notochord. To assess this hypothesis, the expression profile of cEbf1 was first detailed in somites of chick embryos (from HH8 to HH28). cEbf1 expression was mainly localised in the medial sclerotome and later around the vertebral cartilage anlagen of body and pedicles. Tissue manipulations (notochord ablation) and Shh gain and loss of function experiments were then performed to analyse whether the notochord and/or Shh regulate cEbf1 expression. Results from these experiments confirmed our hypothesis that the medial somitic expression of cEbf1 is regulated by Shh from the notochord. In conclusion, cEbf1 gene is considered as a medial sclerotome marker, downstream to and regulated by the notochord derived Shh, which may be functionally involved in somitogenesis. PMID:25455103

El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Allen, Steve; McGonnell, Imelda; Mansour, Ali A; Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pre- and post-SE-challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops of eight commercial layer-breeds (5 white-egg & 3 brown-egg layer strains) and SPF-White Leghorn chickens were evaluated. The hen groups were orally challenged with ~10e8 cfu/ml Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a. Fecal and crop samp...


Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.  


Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ? 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fc?3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ? 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens. PMID:25436390

Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho



Long-term effects of feeding flaxseeds on hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens.  


The long-term effects of dietary flaxseed and tocopherols on hepatic and blood plasma lipids, fatty acids, tocopherols, hepatic TBA reactive substances, and histopathology of Brown Leghorn hens were investigated. Thirty-two-week-old ISA Brown Leghorn hens (n = 120) were kept in cages and were fed 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets, a control diet (no flax) or a 10% flax diet with or without 100 IU of tocopherols, until the hens were 64 wk of age. Feeding diets with 10% flaxseed reduced hepatic and plasma fat content, hepatic triglycerides, total number of fat vacuoles, and number of cells with 75% or higher lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). Addition of tocopherols to the 10% flax diet increased hepatic and plasma tocopherol content. A significant reduction in hepatic TBA reactive substances was observed in the hens supplemented with the basal diet with 10% flax and 100 IU of tocopherols (P < 0.05). Feeding diets containing flaxseed resulted in an increase in the content of alpha-linolenic (18: n-3) and docosahexaenoic acids (22:6n-3), with a concomitant reduction in monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the hen liver and plasma. Overall, long-term feeding of hens with flax led to a reduction in liver and plasma lipids and reduced hepatocellular infiltration. Inclusion of tocopherols may be needed to reduce lipid oxidation products in the liver of flax-fed hens. However, tocopherol supplementation had no effect on hepatocellular lipid infiltration or liver total lipid or triglyceride content. PMID:19903954

Cherian, G; Hayat, Z



Comparison of changes in production and egg composition in relation to in vivo estimates of body weight and composition of brown and white egg layers during the first egg-laying period.  


1. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the production and in the body and egg composition of 45 TETRA SL brown egg layers and 45 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers during the first egg-laying period. 2. Changes in the body composition of the hens were followed in vivo by means of computed tomography (CT) four-weekly, between 20 and 72 weeks of age. The measurements covered the whole body of the hens using overlapping 10 mm slice thicknesses on a Siemens Somatom Emotion 6 multislice CT scanner. 3. The yolk, albumen and shell ratio of the eggs, produced on the days of the CT measurements by the hens, were determined and their composition was analysed chemically. 4. The body fat content of the hens increased continuously until 44 weeks of age and plateaued thereafter in both genotypes. However, the body fat content of the white egg layers was always higher than that of the brown egg layers. 5. The yolk ratio and the dry matter and crude fat content of the eggs of white egg layers were higher than the brown egg layers throughout the experiment. 6. Moderate correlations were observed in both genotypes between the body fat content of the hens and egg yolk ratio of their eggs. PMID:24053575

Szentirmai, E; Milisits, G; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Fülöp, T; Repa, I; Süt?, Z



List of Publications (Dr. Anke Henning) Citation report (Web of Science: Author = Henning A; Address = Zurich OR Chemnitz; 2004-2012; articles only)  

E-print Network

: implications for antidepressant drug action. PLOS ONE: EPUB 2012. 3. Hock A, Henning A, Boesiger P, Kollias SS by glycemic status in young untrained women with type 1 diabetes but is not impaired relative to healthy between coronary microvascular dysfunction and cardiac energetics impairment in type 1 diabetes mellitus


Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel



Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.



Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.  


Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM1, AFM2, AFP1) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB1, and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB1 dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB1 (18); AFG1, AFM2, and AFL (0); AFG2 (1.3); AFM1 (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB1 had AFG1 (16); AFG2 (72); AFM1 (0); AFM2 (18); AFP1 (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB1 had AFG1 (512); AFG2 (7); AFM1 (4,775); AFM2 (0); AFP1 (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1). PMID:25352677

Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M



Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much  

E-print Network

exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much attention has beeni ABSTRACT Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat and in particular to optimal operation of HENs. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also

Skogestad, Sigurd


Tiagabine and vigabatrin reduce the severity of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in chick retina.  


The possible neuroprotective effects of two GABAergic drugs, tiagabine (TGB) and vigabatrin (VGB), against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity have been investigated in the isolated chick embryo retina model. Retina segments were incubated either with NMDA alone (100 microM) or with NMDA and TGB or VGB (10-1,000 microM, added 5 min before NMDA). Retina damage was assessed after 24 h by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity present in the medium and by histological analysis. Both drugs reduced LDH release in a dose-dependent manner with comparable mean maximal values of 56.6-63.7% achieved at concentration of 1 mM. Histological analysis of retina slices was in line with the biochemical assays and showed partial preservation of drug exposed retina structure with reduced edema especially in the inner plexiform layer. The present data provide pharmacological evidence that both TGB and VGB reduce the severity of NMDA-induced excitotoxic damage. Although an increase in GABAergic transmission might play a role, this in itself is insufficient to explain the neuroprotective effect of the two drugs and the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. PMID:16418854

Pisani, Francesco; Costa, Cinzia; Caccamo, Daniela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Gorgone, Gaetano; Oteri, Giancarla; Calabresi, Paolo; Ientile, Riccardo



Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development. PMID:24665397

Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K



Benzodiazepine receptor turnover in embryonic chick brain and spinal cord cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

The turnover (synthesis and degradation) of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZD-R) in embryonic chick brain and spinal cord cell cultures was monitored using flunitrazepam (GNZM) as a photoaffinity label. To measure BZD-R appearance, intact cell cultures were incubated with 100 nM RNZM and irradiated with ultraviolet light; this process, referred to as photoinactivation, resulted in a 75% decrease in the subsequent reversible binding of 5 nM (/sup 3/H)FNZM. Following photoinactivation, (/sup 3/H)FNZM binding sites reappeared at a rate of 6 +/- 1.5%/hour (n = 7) in brain cultures and at 8%/hour (n = 2) in spinal cord cultures. Reappearance reflects de novo receptors synthesis. To examine the degradation of existing receptors, cultures were photolabeled with 5 nM (/sup 3/H)FNZM, washed, and then the decrease in cell-associated radioactivity, or the efflux of radioactivity into the medium, was monitored. The released radioactivity did not comigrate with authentic FNZM on thin-layer-chromatographs, indicating that release did not represent dissociation of ligand from the photolabeled receptor. The BZD-R appears to be degraded by an energy-dependent, non-lysosomal pathway. These experiments represent the first direct examination of the turnover of a neurotransmitter receptor localized to the central nervous system; this information will be valuable in elucidating the mechanisms by which receptor levels are altered following chronic drug treatment.

Borden, L.A.



Changeover delay and concurrent-schedule performance in domestic hens  

PubMed Central

Six domestic hens were exposed to a series of five pairs of two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with a range of changeover delays from no delay to 15 s. Times spent responding on each alternative and total, within_, and post-changeover-delay response ratios were analyzed in terms of the generalized matching law. The sensitivity parameters, a, for response and time data were generally low when no changeover delay was programmed but were not 0.0. They were higher for all other changeover-delay values, with some tendency to increase as the changeover delay lengthened at very short delays. Within-delay responding was insensitive to reinforcement-rate differences at all changeover delays (a values close to 0.0). As a result of this insensitivity, post-changeover-delay responding was more sensitive to reinforcement-rate changes than was total responding. Interchangeover intervals increased systematically with changeover-delay duration. Responding, particularly after the changeover delay, was well predicted by an equation based on a reinforcer-loss model. PMID:16812753

Temple, William; Scown, Jan M.; Foster, T. Mary



ATP-induced noncooperative thermal unfolding of hen lysozyme  

SciTech Connect

To understand the role of ATP underlying the enhanced amyloidosis of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, combined with tryptophan fluorescence, dynamic light-scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry, is used to examine the alterations of the conformation and thermal unfolding pathway of the HEWL in the presence of ATP, Mg{sup 2+}-ATP, ADP, AMP, etc. It is revealed that the binding of ATP to HEWL through strong electrostatic interaction changes the secondary structures of HEWL and makes the exposed residue W62 move into hydrophobic environments. This alteration of W62 decreases the {beta}-domain stability of HEWL, induces a noncooperative unfolding of the secondary structures, and produces a partially unfolded intermediate. This intermediate containing relatively rich {alpha}-helix and less {beta}-sheet structures has a great tendency to aggregate. The results imply that the ease of aggregating of HEWL is related to the extent of denaturation of the amyloidogenic region, rather than the electrostatic neutralizing effect or monomeric {beta}-sheet enriched intermediate.

Liu, Honglin; Yin, Peidong; He, Shengnan; Sun, Zhihu [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Zhuang, Hao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Guobin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wei, Shiqiang, E-mail: [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)




Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of fertilization, most mammalian spermatozoa must penetrate through a series of egg investments before reaching the vitelline membrane. By contrast, cock spermatozoa have only to penetrate the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum. The composition of the vitelline membrane of the hen's ovum at the time of ovulation has been described by Bellairs, Harkness & Harkness (1963)





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of 16 and 32 week old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines and two weeks later CMI was assessed using splenic mononuclear cel...



EPA Science Inventory

The disposition and metabolism of a single oral 10 mg/kg (LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled (14C)EPN (O-ethyl O-4 nitrophenyl (14C) phenylphosphonothioate) were studied in adult hens. The birds were protected from acute toxicity with atropine sulfate. Three treated hens were kill...


Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...


Neurotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticides: predictions can be based on in vitro studies with hen and human enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative inhibitory power of organophosphorus esters in vitro against hen brain acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase correlates with their comparative effects (death or delayed neuropathy) in vivo. Further comparisons of the in vitro effects seen with hen and human enzymes facilitates extrapolations to the human in vivo situation.

Marcello Lotti; Martin Keith Johnson



The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger



NGF retards apoptosis in chick embryo bursal cell in vitro.  


Recent studies have demonstrated that the action of nerve growth factor (NGF) is not restricted to neuronal cells but also affects cells of the immune system. In a previous work on the effect of NGF on the chick embryo bursa of Fabricius both in vivo and in vitro, we observed that NGF prolongs bursal cell survival in vitro. In the present study we report that the increase of viable cells in NGF-treated cultures is not due to a proliferative effect of NGF on bursal cells but to a reduction of cell mortality. The morphological analysis revealed that bursal cells in cultures die by apoptosis, which was also shown by the typical pattern of DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of this cell death process. It is concluded that NGF, with an action similar to that described in sympathetic neurons and PC12, could retard bursal cell death by influencing apoptosis. PMID:8359593

Bracci-Laudiero, L; Vigneti, E; Iannicola, C; Aloe, L



Repolarization currents in embryonic chick atrial heart cell aggregates.  

PubMed Central

Outward membrane currents in aggregates of atrial cells prepared from 7-12-d-old chick embryonic hearts were measured with the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Two outward current components, Ix1 and Ix2, were found in the plateau potential range of the action potential. The Ix1 component is activated between -50 and -20 mV; the Ix2 component is activated between -15 and +20 mV. The Ix1 component inwardly rectifies, whereas Ix2 has an approximately linear current-voltage relation. These preparations lack a time-dependent pacemaker current component, even though they beat spontaneously with an interbeat interval of approximately 1 s. A mathematical model of electrical activity is described based on our measurements of time-dependent outward current, and measurements in the literature of inward current components. PMID:3790689

Shrier, A; Clay, J R



Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis



Norepinephrine, epinephrine and MHPG levels in chick brain development.  


In this study we determined the norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine and methoxy-hydroxy-phenyl-glycol (MHPG) levels in dissected chick telencephalon, diencephalon/mesencephalon and cerebellum in a number of stages from the late embryonic period (E16, E17, E18 and E19) and post-hatching period (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P15 and P30) using HPLC coupled with a coulometric detection system. A mobile phase which permits the detection of NE, epinephrine and MHPG simultaneously is also described. During development, NE levels increase dramatically after hatching in all brain structures studied and are not correlated in the same period with an increase in the MHPG/NE ratio. The values obtained for epinephrine and MHPG were significantly lower than the NE values in all the structures and stages studied. Our results support the notion of a specific role for NE during the first days after hatching. PMID:11543768

Revilla, R; Díez-Alarcia, R; Mostany, R; Pérez, C C; Fernández-López, A



Campylobacter jejuni strains compete for colonization in broiler chicks.  


Campylobacter jejuni isolates possess multiple adhesive proteins termed adhesins, which promote the organism's attachment to epithelial cells. Based on the proposal that one or more adhesins are shared among C. jejuni isolates, we hypothesized that C. jejuni strains would compete for intestinal and cecal colonization in broiler chicks. To test this hypothesis, we selected two C. jejuni strains with unique SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction profiles and generated one nalidixic acid-resistant strain (the F38011 Nal(r) strain) and one streptomycin-resistant strain (the 02-833L Str(r) strain). In vitro binding assays revealed that the C. jejuni F38011 Nal(r) and 02-833L Str(r) strains adhered to LMH chicken hepatocellular carcinoma epithelial cells and that neither strain influenced the binding potential of the other strain at low inoculation doses. However, an increase in the dose of the C. jejuni 02-833L Str(r) strain relative to that of the C. jejuni F38011 Nal(r) strain competitively inhibited the binding of the C. jejuni F38011 Nal(r) strain to LMH cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, the C. jejuni 02-833L Str(r) strain was found to significantly reduce the efficiency of intestinal and cecal colonization by the C. jejuni F38011 Nal(r) strain in broiler chickens. Based on the number of bacteria recovered from the ceca, the maximum number of bacteria that can colonize the digestive tracts of chickens may be limited by host constraints. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that C. jejuni strains compete for colonization in chicks and suggest that it may be possible to design novel intervention strategies for reducing the level at which C. jejuni colonizes the cecum. PMID:17293510

Konkel, Michael E; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Dhillon, A Singh; Lane, Alison B; Hare-Sanford, Rebekah; Schaberg, Dennis M; Larson, Charles L



Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.



Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed Central

Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A



Tolerance of Japanese quail embryos and young chicks to hypothermia.  


The purpose of this study was to explore the tolerance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos and young quail chicks to a very low ambient temperature. Fifty (n = 50) quail embryos at age embryonic age d 6 were placed in a cold room at 13 degrees C for 24 h. The heart rate (HR) was determined with an infrared HR sensor in an instrument called "Buddy." After 12 and 24 h, the average body temperature of the embryos was 13 degrees C with an average HR of 8.7 +/- 0.9 beats per minute (bpm). The average body temperature of 50 control embryos was 38 degrees C and they had an average HR of 301 +/- 15 bpm. The hypothermic quail embryos had a 24-h delay in hatching at 58% hatchability. The controls hatched on time at 81% hatchability. Twelve (n = 12) 6-d-old quail chicks were placed in a low-temperature environment (13 degrees C) for a period of 6 h. Quail from which the test group was selected were retained in a brooder to serve as the control comparison. The electrocardiogram HR for both hypothermic and control quail was recorded with a digital oscilloscope. The 12 quail in the low-temperature environment exhibited an immobile state of hypothermia. These hypothermic quail had an average HR of 7 +/- 0.6 bpm. The control quail had an average HR of 525 +/- 24 bpm. After emerging from the reduced-temperature environment, the immobile hypothermic quail were placed under an infrared light that produced a brooder-like temperature of 33 degrees C. After 40 min, all quail could walk around and some ate and drank. PMID:19359693

Wentworth, B; Cigan, J; Schaaf, T



Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks.  


Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects. PMID:11345464

Elliott, J E; Wilson, L K; Henny, C J; Trudeau, S F; Leighton, F A; Kennedy, S W; Cheng, K M



Varying antibody responses of laying hens housed in an aviary system and in furnished cages.  


Antibody titers after vaccination against Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and after natural infection with Campylobacter were analyzed in five trials with Lohmann Silver laying hens kept in two different housing systems. In these studies it could be demonstrated that antibodies against IBV and Campylobacter were in 4 out of 5 respectively in 2 out of 5 trials significantly higher in hens housed in an aviary system compared to those kept in furnished cages. The opposite trend was observed for antibodies against NDV which were on average significantly higher in cages. The mean mortality rate was slightly higher in hens kept in the aviary system compared to the cage system. PMID:25080819

Auerbach, Monika I; Glünder, Gerhard; Weber, Rita M



Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Traits Related to Fear and Feather Pecking in Laying Hens.  


Feather pecking is a well known problem in flocks of laying hens. It is partially controlled by genetics. Fear is frequently reported to be related with feather pecking. The present study reports the result from a quantitative genetic analysis of feather pecking and three fear test traits in laying hens. Fear was recorded by the tonic immobility test, the open field activity and the emergence box test. These were recorded at a juvenile and adult age of the hens. The heritability of feather pecking was 0.16, and in the range between 0.07 and 0.14 for the fear test traits. Genetic correlations between fear measured in the juvenile and in the adult age point to different but correlated traits. Tonic immobility measured early in life was moderately correlated with feather pecking and might be used as a breeding criterion to reduce feather pecking. PMID:25491395

Grams, Vanessa; Bögelein, Stefanie; Grashorn, Michael A; Bessei, Werner; Bennewitz, Jörn



Effects of high and low erucic acid rapeseed oils on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function of the chick.  


Duplicate experiments were conducted to compare energy utilization, growth, cardiac mitochondrial oxidative phosphoryl,tion, and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid composition of chicks fed diets containing 20 parts of high erucic acid rapeseed oil (HER), low erucic acid rapeseed oil (LER) or sunflower seed oil (SFO) for 24 days. Chicks fed diets containing HER deposited less fat and utilized energy less efficiently (kcal gained/kcal consumed) than chicks fed diets containing either LER or SFO. Energetic efficiency and fat deposition of chicks pair-fed diets containing LER were significantly lower than for chicks fed diets containing SFO. Cardiac mitochondria isolated from chicks fed diets containing either HER or LER for 24 days had significantly reduced ADP/O ratios and reduced rates of ATP synthesis utilizing pyruvate and malate as the respiratory substrates when compared with mitochondria isolated from chicks fed SFO. Diet induced transitions in fatty acid composition of cardiac mitochondrial membranes were also observed. The composition of fat ingested affected the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial diphosphatidyl glycerol more than the fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl choline or phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The linoleic acid content of mitochondrial diphosphatidyl glycerol was lower and the gadoleic acid and erucic acid content higher for chicks fed diets containing rapeseed oils than for chicks fed SFO containing diets. These studies indicate that a complex dynamic mechanism exists associating dietary fat with mitochondrial structural-functional changes and energetic efficiency in the growing chick. PMID:430239

Renner, R; Innis, S M; Clandinin, M T



Detection of X-rays from the jet-driving symbiotic star Hen 3-1341  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Hen 3-1341 is a symbiotic binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star that is one of about ten symbiotics that show hints of jets. The bipolar jets have been detected through displaced components of emission lines during its outburst from 1998 to 2004. These components disappeared when Hen 3-1341 reached quiescence. On February 23, 2012, Hen 3-1341 started a new outburst with the emergence of new bipolar jets on March 3, 2012. Aims: We observed Hen 3-1341 during quiescence with XMM-Newton in March 2010 with an effective exposure time of 46.8 ks and with Swift on March 8-11, 2012 as ToO observations with an effective exposure time of 10 ks in order to probe the interaction of the jet with the ambient medium and also the accretion onto the white dwarf. Methods: We fitted the XMM-Newton X-ray spectra with XSPEC and examined the X-ray and UV light curves. Results: We report the detection of X-ray emission during quiescence from Hen 3-1341 with XMM-Newton. The spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed one-temperature plasma or an absorbed blackbody. We did not detect Hen 3-1341 during our short Swift exposure. Neither periodic or aperiodic X-ray nor UV variability were found. Conclusions: Our XMM-Newton data suggest that interaction of the residual jet with the interstellar medium might survive for a long time after outbursts and might be responsible for the observed X-ray emission during quiescence. Additional data are strongly needed to confirm these suggestions.

Stute, M.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I. F.; Sokoloski, J. L.



Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.  


Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico



Airborne bacterial reduction by spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water in a laying-hen house.  


Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been considered as a potential approach to reduce airborne bacteria in laying-hen houses. In this study, the effects of spraying SAEW on airborne bacterial reduction were investigated in a laying-hen house as compared with using diluted didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB). Averaged air temperature reduced by approximate 1 degrees C and average relative humidity increased by 3% at a stable ventilation rate (about 2.5 m3 hr(-1) per bird) in the laying-hen house 30 min after spraying (120 mL m(-2)). Compared with the control without spraying, the airborne bacterial concentration was reduced by about 0.70 and 0.37 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) in the 4 hr after spraying 120 mL m(-2) SAEW (available chlorine concentration [ACC] of 156 mg L(-1)) and diluted DDAB (active compound concentration of 167 mg L(-1)), respectively. Compared with spraying diluted DDAB, spraying SAEW was determined to be more effective for reducing airborne bacterial in laying-hen houses. The effects of spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house increased with the increasing available chlorine concentrations for SAEW (156, 206, 262 mg L(-1)) and increasing active compound concentrations for diluted DDAB (167, 333, 500 mg L(-1)), respectively. Spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB with two levels of spraying volumes (120 and 90 mL m(-2)) both showed significant differences on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house (P < 0.05). PMID:24282973

Zheng, Weichao; Kang, Runmin; Wang, Hongning; Li, Baoming; Xu, Changwen; Wang, Shuang



Provisioning of Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus chicks at nests in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Slavonian Grebe nests are used as a focal point for feeding chicks in the early stages of growth, with considerable variation in feeding rates diurnally and across the duration of post?hatch nest use.

Ian A. Dillon; Mark H. Hancock; Ron W. Summers



Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.



Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.



Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu


A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation. PMID:24068190

Borges, R.M.; Horne, J.H.; Melo, A.; Vidal, J.T.; Vieceli, F.M.; Melo, M.O.; Kanno, T.Y.N.; Fraser, S.E.; Yan, C.Y.I.



Rearing of Germfree and Monocontaminated Chicks in Rigid Plastic Isolators1  

PubMed Central

A Plexiglas isolator for rearing germfree vertebrates is described. Plastic components were precut and finished by a Plexiglas supplier. This equipment is relatively inexpensive; moreover, neither special facilities nor skills are required in their construction. Advantages of this type of isolator are: readily dismantled for cleaning, durable, excellent visibility of the interior, and minimal maintenance. In 30 separate groups of animals, 27 of these yielded germfree chicks. Many of these chicks were reared germfree for 4 weeks; and several were maintained for about 2 months, without microbial contamination. Pure cultures of Candida albicans, Streptococcus faecalis, and Clostridium perfringens were established as monocontaminations in the intestinal tracts of chickens. In contrast, Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 9220 failed to grow in the gut of chicks, following peroral administration of this organism. All chicks described were employed on other experiments, and were killed for various assays at times specified. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:14486221

Phillips, A. W.; Newcomb, H. R.; Lachapelle, R.; Balish, E.



Secondary effects of the pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on chicks of spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis).  


The objective of this study was to determine if application of the biological pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (B.t.k.) had secondary effects on spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis) chicks in the southern boreal forest of Ontario, Canada. B.t.k. kills larvae of Lepidoptera that might otherwise be food. This may affect types of food ingested and influence chick growth rates by reducing the availability of a high-protein food. Amount of ingested grit, which is diet-dependent, may also be influenced, which could alter exposure to anthropogenic toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), associated with the grit. Chick growth rate from 0 to 14 days of age was determined, and gizzard contents were analyzed for types of foods and levels of macronutrients and trace metals in chicks raised in a plot treated with B.t.k. compared to chicks raised on a control plot. Chick growth rates were significantly different (p < 0.05); chicks from the treatment plot increased body mass 30% less as compared to chicks raised on the control plot. Control chicks contained on average 2.5-fold the mass (in g) of grit and nearly twofold the mass of food, which included larvae, in their gizzards compared to those exposed to B.t.k. whose diets were dominated by spiders and ants. Concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), sulfur (S) and the trace metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) did not differ between experimental and control birds (p > 0.05). In contrast, control chicks had higher levels of aluminum (Al), Cd, cobalt (Co), and Pb in their gizzards than chicks from the sprayed area (p < 0.05), attributed to greater amounts of consumed grit. Although birds from the sprayed area had lower levels of the toxic metals Pb and Cd in their gizzards, a protein-deficient diet could have been a factor that contributed to decreased rates of growth in B.t.k.-exposed birds as compared to those birds held on nonsprayed sites. Reduced growth during the first 2 weeks of avian development has important consequences at the population level, and it is recommended that this secondary effect be considered for all species who rely on Lepidoptera larvae as a food resource prior to wide spread application of B.t.k. for insect control. PMID:11503075

Norton, M L; Bendell, J F; Bendell-Young, L I; LeBlanc, C W



Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.  


A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID:25568377

Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G



Effects of variations in fish meal quality on performance of laying hens  

E-print Network

Average body scdght, hen~ prodentim, egg seight, , percent of eggs 2-cence end abave~ feed efficiency snd ~ty' es inflnenoed by fish neels k snd 3 alone end snppleeented witkL Qnident@ed factor seeress ~ ~ ~ ~ we ~ ~ o s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ 20... Expericentel design need for dstsrnining the effects of varieties in fish nsa1 gaal1ty an perf or@ence of laying hens, shcsing the rendcsL distribntion af rsp3Lcetss of tbs nine tz est%ants 0 ~ ~ ~ f ~ 0tl ~ ~ ~ Q ~ t4 ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ t 'I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ psetaha Ca...

Narasimhamurthy, Pinapaka Venkata Lakshmi



All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.  


Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories. PMID:17681433

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B



Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  


The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva



The heat increment of feeding in house wren chicks: magnitude, duration, and substitution for thermostatic costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat increment of feeding (HIF), a transient postprandial increase in metabolic rate, is the energy cost of processing\\u000a a meal. We measured HIF in house wren chicks (Troglodytes aedon) ranging in mass from 1.6 to 10.3?g. This mass range (age 2–10 days) spanned a transition from blind, naked, ectothermic\\u000a chicks through alert, endothermic birds with nearly complete feathering. We

Mark. A. Chappell; Gwendolyn C. Bachman; Kimberly A. Hammond



Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))



Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB




The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissatridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of\\u000a their food. Starting at the age of 10?days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum\\u000a energy intake. After 20?days

A. S. Kitaysky; J. F. Piatt; J. C. Wingfield; M. Romano



Response of broiler chicks to threonine?supplemented diets to 4 weeks of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the response of broiler chicks to threonine?supplemented diets between 10 and 28 d and 7 and 21 d of age, respectively.2. In the first experiment female broiler chicks were fed on 11 experimental diets. Two iso?energetic basal diets (diets 1 and 2) were prepared with 200 and 160 g CP\\/kg and 7·6

J. P. Holsheimer; P. F. G. Vereijken; J. B. Schutte



Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.




Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) chicks were exposed via contact and\\/or ingestion to formulations of three insecticides (Lorsban 4E, chlorpyrifos; Cygon 480E, dimethoate; and Furadan 480F, carbofuran) applied to pasture plots at one and four times the rate recommended for control of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in prairie Canada. Chicks (3 d old) were exposed for 48 h in pens with

Pamela A. Martin; Daniel L. Johnson; Douglas J. Forsyth



[Effect of cyclic AMP on retrogression of the Mullerian ducts in chick embryos].  


Theophyllin and puromycine, inhibitors of the enzyme phosphodiesterase and AMPc are all able to inhibit the retrogression of mullerian ducts in the female chick embryo, grafted with an embryonic testis. We can think that these results are explained by an inhibitory action of AMPc on the mechanisms responsible for the mullerian retrogression. So the chick embryo reacts similarly as do the mammalian embryo. PMID:199323

Stoll, R; Rashedi, M; Maraud, R



Wheat Gray Shorts for the Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Battery Brooder Chicks.  

E-print Network

CHICKS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Rations containing wheat gray shorts milled from hard wheat produced fewer slipped tendons and'more rapid gains than rations containing shorts milled from soft wheat when... fed to chicks ih battery brooders, although the units of feed necessary to pro- duce a unit of gain in live weight were greater for the shorts milled from hard wheat than for the shorts milled from soft wheat. Hard wheat shorts contain larger...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell



Molecular cloning and early expression of chick embryo SCO-spondin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCO-spondin is a multidomain glycoprotein secreted by the subcommissural organ (SCO). It belongs to the thrombospondin type 1 repeat superfamily and has been identified in several vertebrate species. We report the cloning of the chick SCO-spondin ortholog and examine its temporal and spatial expression during early embryogenesis from Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 12 to HH stage 21. Chick SCO-spondin

Robert Didier; Olivier Meiniel; Annie Meiniel



Investigation of the effect of cobalt compounds on uninfected and infected with Ascaridia galli chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary cobalt from three different sources on chicks (uninfected and infected with Ascaridia galli) was studied. Chicks diet was supplemented with 0,06g Co 2+ \\/kg food either in the form of 2Gly.CoCl 2 .2H 2 O; Gly.CoSO 4 .5H 2 O or (Zn x Co 1-x ) 4 .(OH) 6 .SO 4 .2H 2 O for 20



Secondary Effects of the Pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on Chicks of Spruce Grouse ( Dendragapus canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine if application of the biological pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (B.t.k.) had secondary effects on spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis) chicks in the southern boreal forest of Ontario, Canada. B.t.k. kills larvae of Lepidoptera that might otherwise be food. This may affect types of food ingested and influence chick growth\\u000a rates by reducing the

M. L. Norton; J. F. Bendell; L. I. Bendell-Young; C. W. LeBlanc



Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Utilization of Phytate Phosphorus by Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks were used to determine whether the addition of a mold phytase to a diet containing natural phytate phosphorus causçdthe phosphorus in the phytate to be hydrolyzed in vivo to a form which could be utilized by the chick. Phytase, produced by Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135, was fed as an ace tone-dried preparation. The diets contained from 0.18 to 0.24%



Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Assorted Creatures: The Apocryphal Bestiary of Chick Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, Chick tracts and comics have relied on provocative images drawn from an eclectic blend of popular culture, urban legend, and self-professed, religious authorities. Ostensibly, they endorse a King-James-only interpretation of the Bible in all areas of Christian belief and practice. In this paper, I will argue that many images and themes in Chick Publications produce results consistent with

Alan G. Phillips Jr



Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable\\u000a model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed.\\u000a We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green\\u000a fluorescent

Vladimir Bobek; Jiri Plachy; Daniela Pinterova; Katarina Kolostova; Michael Boubelik; Ping Jiang; Meng Yang; Robert M. Hoffman



The effect of dinitrophenol on the development and oxidative metabolism of the chick embryo  

E-print Network

L I B R A R Y H M C. . L i c l ' - OF TEXAS THE EFFECT OF DINITROPHENOL ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF THE CHICK EMBRYO T Dissertation by Gerald Lewis Feldman Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural... EMBRYO T Dissertation by Gerald Lewis Feldman January 1959 TABLE OF CONTENTS Xo Introduction .......................... 1 HEF The Induction CO Cataracts and Other Anomalies in Chick Embryos Injected With Dinitrophenol ........................ 4...

Feldman, Gerald Lewis



Evidence of Increased Cholecalciferol Requirement in Chicks with Tibial Dyschondroplasia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D utilization may not be as efficient in chicks with tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). The basal diet contained 1.0% Ca and 0.45% available P with no supplemental cholecalciferol (D3). Chicks from low TD (LTD) and high TD (HTD) selected lines were fed diets supplemented with various levels of vitamin



The effect of cholecalciferol in vivo on proteins and lipids of skeletal muscle from rachitic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The protein and lipid constituents of skeletal muscle subcellular fractions isolated from chicks fed a vitamin D-deficient\\u000a diet for 3 weeks and chicks repleted with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) were analyzed. Administration of the sterol markedly altered the protein composition of mitochondria. The changes were localized\\u000a in the inner membranes and consisted of a modification of the relative amounts of proteins

Ana R. de Boland; Liliana E. Albornoz; Ricardo Boland



Axonal transport of 4S RNA in the chick optic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axonal transport of tRNA has been investigated in the chick optic system. Chicks were injected with [3H]uridine intraocularly or intracranially and the RNA of the retina, nerve complex, and tecta separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then counted. The ratio of TRNA to rRNA specific activities increased with time in both the nerve complex and contralateral tectum. The ratio

Suzanne Por; P. W. Gunning; P. L. Jeffrey; L. Austin



Identification of Two Sodium Channel Subtypes in Chick Heart and Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Na+ channels in chick brain and heart have been directly compared by measuring binding of tritium-labeled saxitoxin ([3H]STX) to the two tissues under identical conditions. Maximum saturable uptake and toxin affinity were considerably less in chick heart than in chick brain, requiring the development of an assay method to resolve specific [3H]STX uptake in heart. With this method, binding to both preparations consisted of a specific saturable component and a linear nonspecific component. The equilibrium dissociation constant for [3H]STX measured in chick heart (6.2-8.8 nM) was 20-30 times higher than that measured in chick brain (0.3 nM). The dissociation rate for [3H]STX was only about twice as fast in heart as it was in brain, indicating that the decrease in toxin affinity in heart results predominantly from a slowed toxin association rate. The decreased affinity for [3H]STX found at the chick heart Na+ channel is compared with toxin-resistant Na+ channels in other preparations. The existence of two Na+ channel subtypes is proposed, with high affinity and low affinity for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin; the significance of this classification is discussed.

Rogart, R. B.; Regan, L. J.; Dziekan, L. C.; Galper, J. B.



Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.



Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.



Heavy metal concentrations in Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks, Korea.  


The objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of heavy metals in livers and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks from two islands in Korea. Iron and manganese concentrations were significantly higher in chick livers at Hongdo Island compared to Rando Islnad. In contrast, zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher at Rando Island than Hongdo Island. On Hongdo Island, Black-tailed Gull chicks at a lighthouse site had higher lead concentrations in livers and stomach contents than at a nearby reference site and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull chicks had significantly higher lead concentrations than regurgitated diets. In Hongdo Island, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly correlated between livers and stomach contents. Essential elements such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper concentrations from the present study were within the range reported for other seabird species including gulls. Livers of four individual gull chicks (13.3%) were at a level considered lead exposed (6-30 ?g g(-1) dry weight), but cadmium concentrations in all specimens were within the background level (<3 ?g g(-1) dry weight) for wild birds. Elevated lead concentrations on lighthouse site may be attributed to ingestion of paint chips and these concentrations may negatively affect chick behavior, growth and survival. PMID:25048929

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jon-Min



Induction of autoimmunity by immunization with hapten-modified hen egg lysozyme in hen egg lysozyme-transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanism of autoimmunity induction, hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized with HEL or phosphorylcholine-conjugated HEL (PC-HEL). Repeated immunization of HEL-Tg mice with native HEL failed to induce the antibody response against HEL. However, immunization with PC-HEL generated a significant anti-HEL antibody response. Immunization of the Tg mice with dominant (HEL74–88) or cryptic (HEL47–61) T-cell epitope peptide stimulated the corresponding T-cell response and similarly yielded the anti-HEL antibody response. Predominance of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) anti-HEL antibody response in the HEL-Tg mice and preferential IL-4 production by HEL-specific T cells suggested the dependency of the antibody response to the presence of T helper 2. HEL-Tg mice received HEL-primed B6 T cells, but not HEL-primed Tg T cells, were able to generate anti-HEL antibody response following PC-HEL immunization. The pattern and the level of epitope peptides generated by splenic antigen-presenting cells indicated that PC-HEL results in much more efficient processing as compared to HEL. These results strongly suggest that the enhancement of antigen processing by hapten (PC) conjugation to the antigen facilitates more efficient stimulation of T cells reactive to self antigen, HEL in HEL-Tg mice resulting in the production of anti-self HEL antibody. PMID:16476056

Kang, Hee-Kap; Chung, Yun Jo; Park, Chung Ung; Jang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Byung S



Effect of warm drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens raised at low air temperatures.  


1. The effect of warmed drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens maintained at low air temperatures (5.0 degrees to 12.9 degrees C) was tested. From 22 weeks of age hens (mean body mass = 2.4 kg) were offered either warm water (27.7 degrees C; WARM; n = 24) or tap water (12.7 degrees C; CONR; n = 24) twice daily for a total time of 2.5 h or tap water ad libitum (CONA; n = 16). Food was restricted for all hens. 2. Daily water intake in the WARM hens (103 ml/kg) was similar to that of the CONR (93 ml/kg) and CONA hens (106 ml/kg). 3. There were no significant differences in either body mass change or egg production among treatment groups. 4. There was no difference among groups in heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Similarly, there was no difference among groups in either phagocytic activity or wattle index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. Total and IgG antibody titres to SRBC tended to be highest in the WARM hens and these titres were significantly higher than in CONR hens 14 d after challenge. PMID:8513410

Spinu, M; Degen, A A; Rosenstrauch, A



Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven

Dariusz Bukaci?ski; Monika Bukaci?ska; Thomas Lubjuhn



Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection on the development of the cecum microbiota in newly hatched chicks.  


Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative PCR showed that the cecal microbiota of chicks up to the age of 21 days was dominated by representatives of the orders Enterobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Lactobacillales. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection caused the greatest changes in the gut microbiota when 1-day-old chicks were infected, compared with the infection of 4- and 16-day-old chicks. PMID:23144133

Juricova, H; Videnska, P; Lukac, M; Faldynova, M; Babak, V; Havlickova, H; Sisak, F; Rychlik, I



Maternal high-zinc diet attenuates intestinal inflammation by reducing DNA methylation and elevating H3K9 acetylation in the A20 promoter of offspring chicks.  


A20 is an anti-inflammatory protein that suppresses ubiquitin-dependent nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling, which can be regulated by the microelement zinc (Zn). In mammals, Zn deficiency contributes to a decrease in A20 abundance, which impairs the gut mucosa barrier. However, it is unclear whether the epigenetic reprogramming of the A20 promoter is involved in enhanced Zn-induced intestinal immunity, especially in avian species. Herein, we show that maternal organic Zn exposure resulted in significantly improved intestinal morphological characteristics, increased mucin 2 (MUC2) abundance and secretory IgA (sIgA) production in progeny jejunums. Maternal and offspring Zn supplementation partially alleviated Zn-deficiency-induced inflammatory response, accompanied by repression of NF-?B signaling. Additionally, we observed DNA hypomethylation and histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) hyperacetylation at the A20 promoter region and subsequent activated A20 expression in Zn-supplemented hens compared with control. Notably, maternal dietary organic Zn exposure exhibited greater attenuation of gut impairment, along with increased MUC2 expression and sIgA level, and decreased the abundance of TNF-? and A20 relative to the inorganic-Zn group. Furthermore, enhanced acetylated H3K9 and A20 transcription at day 14 was found in the offspring adequate dietary Zn group. Thus, A20 may be a novel inflammatory-suppressed factor of chick gut that is persistently promoted by dietary Zn supplementation via epigenetic modifications at A20 promoter. PMID:25541535

Li, Changwu; Guo, Shuangshuang; Gao, Jing; Guo, Yuming; Du, Encun; Lv, Zengpeng; Zhang, Beibei



Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A



Gene Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Selenoproteins Correlates with Apoptosis in Various Muscles of Se-Deficient Chicks123  

PubMed Central

Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks. PMID:23514769

Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen



Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 ??g g -1 fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by ???3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Iverson, S.A.



Reprogramming of the chick retinal pigmented epithelium after retinal injury  

PubMed Central

Background One of the promises in regenerative medicine is to regenerate or replace damaged tissues. The embryonic chick can regenerate its retina by transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and by activation of stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin. These two ways of regeneration occur concomitantly when an external source of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is present after injury (retinectomy). During the process of transdifferentiation, the RPE loses its pigmentation and is reprogrammed to become neuroepithelium, which differentiates to reconstitute the different cell types of the neural retina. Somatic mammalian cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of pluripotency-inducing factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc and in some cases Nanog and Lin-28. However, there is limited information concerning the expression of these factors during natural regenerative processes. Organisms that are able to regenerate their organs could share similar mechanisms and factors with the reprogramming process of somatic cells. Herein, we investigate the expression of pluripotency-inducing factors in the RPE after retinectomy (injury) and during transdifferentiation in the presence of FGF2. Results We present evidence that upon injury, the quiescent (p27Kip1+/BrdU-) RPE cells transiently dedifferentiate and express sox2, c-myc and klf4 along with eye field transcriptional factors and display a differential up-regulation of alternative splice variants of pax6. However, this transient process of dedifferentiation is not sustained unless FGF2 is present. We have identified lin-28 as a downstream target of FGF2 during the process of retina regeneration. Moreover, we show that overexpression of lin-28 after retinectomy was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of the RPE in the absence of FGF2. Conclusion These findings delineate in detail the molecular changes that take place in the RPE during the process of transdifferentiation in the embryonic chick, and specifically identify Lin-28 as an important factor in this process. We propose a novel model in which injury signals initiate RPE dedifferentiation, while FGF2 up-regulates Lin-28, allowing for RPE transdifferentiation to proceed. PMID:24742279



Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Social stress in laying hens is a common problem affecting welfare. To address this, three genetic strains of Leghorn chickens were housed in a low (4 birds/cage) or high (10 birds/cage) density cage system at 17 weeks of age to form 6 treatments. The three genetic strains included docile (KGB), a...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long term feed withdrawal has been shown to increase intestinal colonization of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in challenged hens. Less information is available regarding effects of fasting on crop colonization. Two trials were conducted to compare effects of 14-day feed withdrawal vs full ...


The effect of dietary erythromycin and force molting on the reproductive performance of heavy breed hens  

E-print Network

. In , , sacral, e- ythromycin supplementation w- s mo"e favorable to egg production when fed to the hens on a continuous (Groups 4, 6, 8) than on an intermittent basis (Groups 3, 5, 7). I'urthermore, the lowest level of erythromycin administered (100 gm...

Noriega Coello, Carlos



Near-infrared and optical photometric observations of symbiotic star Hen 2-468  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the near-infrared photometric observations of the symbiotic star Hen 2-468 (V2428 Cyg) on 2014 December 23 and 24 with the 1.2 m telescope at Mt. Abu Infrared Observatory with the Near-Infrared Camera/Spectrograph that uses 1 K x 1K Hawaii array.

Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Venkataramani, Kumar; Epili, Prahlad; Mathew, Blesson; Ganesh, Shashikiran



Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses , Y. Liang2  

E-print Network

Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses H. Xin1 , Y. Liang2 , R.S. Gates3 , E. F the sustainability of the animal industry. This paper describes measurement and some preliminary results of ammonia ammonia (NH3) emission factors for poultry confinement facilities for representative housing types, manure

Kentucky, University of


14 GeologiskNyt 5/06 Af Henning Haack1  

E-print Network

14 GeologiskNyt 5/06 Af Henning Haack1 , Uffe Gråe Jørgensen2 , Anja Andersen2 og Martin Bizzarro3 daterer sig helt tilbage til Solsystemets oprindelse. Gang på gang lykkes det af løfte endnu en flig af

Andersen, Anja C.


Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in unhatched fertile eggs from hens fed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The PCBs tested with caged White Leghorn hens were ‘Aroclors 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1268, 5442 and BP-6’, fed at the 20 ppm level. In addition, 1242, 1248 and 1254 were also fed at the 2 ppm level. Feeding 20 ppm ‘Aroclors 1232, 1242, 1248 and 1254’ reduced hatchability and caused teratogenic effects in the embryos. The most

Helene C. Cecil; Joel Bitman; R. J. Lillie; George F. Fries; Jacqueline Verrett



Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter "Sage-Grouse"). During 2008­ 2011, we collected summer survival data from 427

Beck, Jeffrey L.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triacylglycerol accumulation in non-adipose tissue, termed lipotoxicity, develops with obesity and can provoke insulin resistance, overt diabetes and ovarian dysfunction. Leptin, an adipose tissue hormone, may mediate these effects. Feed-satiated broiler breeder hens manifest lipotoxicity-like sympt...


S. HAIHUA CHU & SCOTT A. ARMSTRONG hen a stem cell divides, it can either  

E-print Network

when a stem cell acquires a cancer-driving mutation? Previous studies have shown that mutationsS. HAIHUA CHU & SCOTT A. ARMSTRONG W hen a stem cell divides, it can either produce differentiated cells or self- renew to produce more stem cells. Becausestemcellsarethoughttobethecellsof

Cai, Long


Validation of the aging hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an animal model for uterine leiomyomas.  


Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

Machado, Sergio A; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, D Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Quade, Bradley J; Nowak, Romana A



Drug Exposure Side Effects from Mining Pregnancy Data Lars Henning Pedersen2  

E-print Network

Drug Exposure Side Effects from Mining Pregnancy Data Yu Chen1 Lars Henning Pedersen2 Wesley W. Chu association rule mining approach to derive possible side effects due to exposure to multiple drugs-epidemiology. Keywords Association rule mining, epidemiology data analysis, side effect of drug exposure. 1. INTRODUCTION

California at Los Angeles, University of


An Object-Dependent Hand Pose Prior from Sparse Training Data Henning Hamer1  

E-print Network

An Object-Dependent Hand Pose Prior from Sparse Training Data Henning Hamer1 Juergen Gall1 Abstract In this paper, we propose a prior for hand pose estima- tion that integrates the direct relation between a manipu- lating hand and a 3d object. This is of particular interest for a variety

Gall, Juergen


Isolation and characterization of Chlamydophila psittaci isolated from laying hens with cystic oviducts.  


The objective of this study was to isolate and identify a hypothetical Chlamydiaceae pathogen from laying hens with an oviduct cyst, and to characterize its potential causal relation with decreased egg production. Our clinical survey showed that cystic oviducts were prevalent at rates of 10% and 15.1% in breeder and commercial hen flocks, respectively. Chlamydial antigens were detected in 20 of 50 pharyngeal swabs (40%) and in 17 of 20 oviduct tissues (85%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection kits. The isolated pathogen was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci via complement fixation test, PCE-ELISA, and immunofluorescence assay. Avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were excluded after oviduct tissues were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonating eggs. The nucleotide sequence of the omp1 gene (accession no. EF202608) from the isolate was similar to that of C. psittaci avian type C (accession no. L25436). Typical cystic oviducts were observed in specific-pathogen-free hens inoculated intraperitoneally with the isolate. The high presence of chlamydial antigen is consistent with the cystic oviducts and poor egg production. We conclude that the isolated C psittaci is most likely associated with cystic oviducts in laying hens. PMID:18459300

Zhang, Faming; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Jianming; Pang, Wanyong; Yang, Li; He, Cheng



The Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus Winter Roost Survey in Britain and Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Hen Harrier winter roosts traced 202 sites in Britain to the end of 1985\\/86 winter, and 12 in Ireland. Communal roosting had been recorded at more than 90% of sites, and 43% were known to be used every winter. Of reported sites 39% were in E England, where coverage was undoubtedly more comprehensive. The majority of sites

R. Clarke; D. Watson



Hunting habitat selection by hen harriers on moorland: Implications for conservation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine habitat use by hunting hen harriers Circus cyaneus at three study sites in Scotland to evaluate whether foraging patterns differ between sexes, sites, and stages of the breeding period. We modelled time spent hunting in focal plots as a function of habitat and nest proximity. Male hunting intensity (time spent hunting per hour of observation and km2) varied

Beatriz Arroyo; Arjun Amar; Fiona Leckie; Graeme M. Buchanan; Jeremy D. Wilson; Stephen Redpath



Evidence for food limitation in the declining hen harrier population on the Orkney Islands, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) population on the Scottish Orkney Islands has declined dramatically since the end of the 1970s. We postulate that the cause of this decline was due to a reduction in the amount of available prey and predict that if this was the case the population would currently be limited by food. The evidence for this hypothesis

Arjun Amar; Steve Redpath; Simon Thirgood




E-print Network

/Physics Labs (Prepared by P&A Health, Safety and Environment Committee ­ Committed to Your Safety) Please file this form in your lab with other safety information sheets. Personal Safety Information Checklist for (NamePHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PERSONAL SAFETY INFORMATION CHECKLIST For Hennings, Hebb and Chemistry

Plotkin, Steven S.


Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens  

E-print Network

Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 Accepted May 21, 1996 Turkey be- havior, and hyperprolactinemia. Although remarkable changes occur in hormonal profiles as turkey

Ramachandran, Ramesh


Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...


Physiological responses of laying hens during whole-house killing with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Poultry on farms are sometimes required to be killed in an emergency, such as during a disease epidemic, yet none of the available methods are ideal. Whole-house carbon dioxide (CO2) administration has practical advantages, but gives rise to welfare concerns.2. The study measured the body temperature, respiration, cardiac and brain activity (EEG) responses of 10 adult hens placed in

D. E. F. McKeegan; N. H. C. Sparks; V. Sandilands; T. G. M. Demmers; P. Boulcott; C. M. Wathes



Argon as a Tracer of Cross-Isopycnal Mixing in the Thermocline CARA C. HENNING  

E-print Network

Argon as a Tracer of Cross-Isopycnal Mixing in the Thermocline CARA C. HENNING University April 2006) ABSTRACT Noble gases such as argon are unaffected by chemical reactions in the ocean measurements, which yield the local, recent rate of diabatic mixing, argon disequilibrium traces an integrated

Archer, David


Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5% DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5% or 15% DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results The 15% DFA diet decreased (P hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions Feeding laying hens with 7.5% DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15% inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization. PMID:24401600



The Little Red Hen: Bringing a Folktale to Life. Grades K-1. Tapestries for Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit involves kindergarten and 1st grade students in the production of a theatrical performance based on the folktale, "The Little Red Hen." The interdisciplinary unit connects knowledge related to theater arts, art, language arts, music, applied mathematics, social studies, and science. Students visit a local theater and prepare…

Stewart, Kelly; Westley, Joan



E-print Network

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS J. GUILLAUME C. CALET Three varieties of hulless cereals : two oats and one barley were compared to maize (trial i), to maize, wheat and normal or dehulled oats and barley (trial 2) as main components of isocaloric diets in growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Magnetic Cation Exchange Isolation of Lysozyme from Native Hen Egg White  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two magnetic macroporous cellulose cation exchangers (Iontosorb MG CM 100 and Iontosorb MG SHP 100) were used for one-step isolation of lysozyme from native, undilu- ted hen egg white. Highly purified lysozyme (purity >96 %) with specific activity similar to that of commercial lysozyme preparations was obtained in both cases. Carboxymethyl- -based cation exchanger exhibited substantially higher capacity for

Ivo Safarik; Zdenka Sabatkova; Oldrich Tokar; Mirka Safarikova



Pressure-dependent Changes in the Solution Structure of Hen Egg-white Lysozyme  

E-print Network

Pressure-dependent Changes in the Solution Structure of Hen Egg-white Lysozyme Mohamed Refaee1 conditions, because these clarify the physical constraints on pro- teins. One obvious extreme is pressure, but so far little is known of the behavior of proteins under pressure, largely for technical reasons. We

Williamson, Mike P.


Modeling ovarian follicle growth in commercial and heritage Single Comb White Leghorn hens.  


Approximately 84% of the energy in chicken eggs resides in the yolk. A robust model of ovarian follicle development is therefore valuable for estimating energy requirements of laying hens. The current experiment was designed to model the growth of ovarian follicles in 32-wk-old modern commercial line (CL) and unselected heritage line (HL) Single Comb White Leghorn hens. The volume of yolk deposited daily during the rapid growth phase (RGP) was estimated using a double dye technique. For 21 d, 8 CL and 8 HL hens were fed capsules (no. 1) containing Sudan IV (red) and Sudan Black dyes on alternate days. An additional 8 control CL hens were fed empty capsules. Eggs were collected, and the daily volume of yolk deposited was estimated. Significant differences are reported where P < 0.05. Dye had no significant effect on BW, ME intake, or egg weight. Maintenance ME requirements were 192 and 177 kcal/kg(0.67) for CL and HL hens, respectively. Duration of the RGP was shorter (7.35 d) in the CL hens compared with the HL hens (7.95 d). A nonlinear Lomolino model described follicular weight, which varied between strains over d 2 to 9 of follicle development; at each day during development, follicle weights were higher where RGP were shorter. The volume of yolk deposited for the 8 d preceding oviposition in CL was 0.17, 0.28, 0.43, 0.99, 1.84, 2.47, 2.82, 2.86, and 2.51 cm(3); and in HL was 0.17, 0.33, 0.72, 1.40, 2.15, 2.46, 2.48, 2.32, and 1.93 cm(3). The HL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 7 to 5 d before oviposition, and CL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 3 to 1 d before oviposition with no significant difference between lines on d 4 before oviposition. Although growth patterns differed, there were no differences among lines in final follicle weights (14.1 g) or retained energy (42.4 kcal). PMID:25214554

McLeod, E S; Jalal, M A; Zuidhof, M J



Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo



Effects of Microheterogeneity in Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In earlier sodium dodecylsulfate polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies it has been found that commonly utilized commercial hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) preparations contained 0.2-0.4 mol% covalently bound dimers. Here it is shown, using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), that HEWL contains, in addition, two differently charged monomers in comparable amounts. To explore the origin of these microheterogeneous contaminants, purified HEWL (PHEWL) has been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (0.0026-0.88 M) at various pH levels between 4.5 and 12.0. Optical densitometry of oxidized PHEWL (OHEWL) bands in SDS PAGE gels shows that hydrogen peroxide at 0.88 M in acetate buffer pH 4.5 increased the amount of dimers about sixfold over that in commercial HEWL. OHEWL had, in addition to one of the two monomer forms found in HEWL and PHEWL, three other differently charged monomer forms, each of them representing about 25% of the preparation. SDS-PAGE analysis of OHEWL yielded two closely spaced dimer bands with M(sub r) = 28 000 and 27 500. In addition, larger HEWL oligomers with M, = 1.7 million and 320 000 were detected by gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection. Non-dissociating PAGE in large pore size gels at pH 4.5 confirmed the presence of these large oligomers in HEWL and OHEWL. Increased microheterogeneity resulted in substantial effects on crystal growth and nucleation rate. On addition of 10 microgram(exp -1) mg ml(exp -1) OHEWL to 32 mg ml(exp -1) HEWL crystallizing solutions, both the number and size of forming crystals decreased roughly proportionally to the concentration of the added microheterogeneity. The same effect was observed in HEWL solutions on addition of 0.03-9,3 M Hydrogen peroxide. Repartioning of the dimer during crystallzation aat various temperatures between 277 and 293 K was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained <= 25 % weight by volume of the oligomers in the solution, with no apparent temperature dependence of the repartioning.

Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.



Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.  


In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing



Factors affecting chick provisioning by Caspian Terns nesting in the Columbia River estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated factors affecting chick provisioning by radio-tagged Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting in a large colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary during 2001. Caspian Tern predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the estuary prompted resource managers to relocate ca. 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to consume fewer salmonids in favor of marine forage fishes. This study investigated factors influencing foraging success, diet composition, and overall reproductive success at the managed Caspian Tern colony. Our results indicated that daytime colony attendance by nesting terns averaged 64% and decreased throughout the chick-rearing period, while duration of foraging trips averaged 47 min and increased during the same period; these seasonal changes were more strongly related to date than chick age. Average meal delivery rates to 2-chick broods (0.88 meals h-1) were 2.6 times greater than to 1-chick broods (0.33 meals h-1). Parents delivered more juvenile salmonids to chicks during ebb tides than flood tides, but meal delivery rates to the nest remained constant, suggesting diet composition tracks relative availability of prey species. Foraging trips resulting in delivery of juvenile salmonids averaged 68% longer than foraging trips for schooling marine forage fishes, indicating higher availability of marine prey near the colony. High availability of marine forage fish in the Columbia River estuary during 2001 was apparently responsible for high colony attendance, short foraging trips, high chick meal delivery rates, and high nesting success of Caspian Terns on East Sand Island.

Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, D.E.; Collis, K.



Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22?±?0.03 (mean?±?SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8?km) reference tern colony (0.29?±?0.10 in 2010 and 0.25?±?0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth



Feed Deprivation Affects Crop Environment and Modulates Salmonella enteritidis Colonization and Invasion of Leghorn Hens  

PubMed Central

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 105 Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion. PMID:10223980

Durant, Juliet A.; Corrier, Donald E.; Byrd, J. Allen; Stanker, Larry H.; Ricke, Steven C.



Kinetic study of chlordecone orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus).  


The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 ?g CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE), 5.5 ± 0.29, 5.3 ± 0.37 and 5.1 ± 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 ± 274, 460 ± 41, 331 ± 23, and 213 ± 8.5 ?g kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 ± 8.4, 127 ± 11 ?g kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 ± 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 ?g CLD kg(-1). PMID:25113213

Jondreville, Catherine; Fournier, Agnčs; Mahieu, Maurice; Feidt, Cyril; Archimčde, Harry; Rychen, Guido



Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens, and ducks.  


European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters (i.e., applied current, behavior) affecting effective water bath stunning. An inventory of current electrical stunning practice was performed in 10 slaughterhouses in the Netherlands. Thereafter, measurements were performed using a single-bird water bath to examine the effects of stunner settings based on the average technical settings observed in the slaughterhouses. Responses were recorded at 50, 400, and 1,000 Hz on broilers and hens and at 50 and 400 Hz on ducks under controlled laboratory conditions. Effects of voltage settings (broilers: 100 to 400 V; hens: 150 to 300 V; ducks: 150 to 400 V) on current levels (broilers: 45 to 444 mA; hens: 40 to 219 mA; ducks: 64 to 362 mA) and consciousness (response to pain stimulus) were recorded immediately after stunning. Brain and heart activity was monitored using electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram technology. Results show that effective stunning using the conventional water bath almost exclusively produces blood splashing in broilers. Effective stunning current levels did not differ significantly between broilers, hens, and ducks effectively stunned hens tended to require lower currents. Effective stuns at higher frequencies resulted in higher currents. Similar input voltage (V) levels (within and between bird type) resulted in significant variation (P < 0.001) in current levels (mA) required for an effective stun, indicating variability in electrical impedance between individual birds. Body weight and bird type did not affect the probability of an effective stun. Multi-bird water bath usage does not ensure effective stunning and technical adjustments can result in detrimental effects on meat quality. Future legislation should consider wave form, relationships between frequency and current allowing for individual impedance variation and effects on meat quality while safeguarding animal welfare. PMID:20181854

Hindle, V A; Lambooij, E; Reimert, H G M; Workel, L D; Gerritzen, M A



Effects of colored light-emitting diode illumination on behavior and performance of laying hens.  


The best method for lighting poultry houses has been an issue for many decades, generating much interest in any new systems that become available. Poultry farmers are now increasingly using colored LED (light-emitting diodes) to illuminate hen houses (e.g., in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In Switzerland all newly installed systems are now equipped with LED, preferably green ones. The LED give monochromatic light from different wavelengths and have several advantages over conventional illuminants, including high energy efficiency, long life, high reliability, and low maintenance costs. The following study examines the effects of illumination with white, red, and green LED on behavior and production parameters of laying hens. Light intensities in the 3 treatments were adjusted to be perceived by hens as equal. Twenty-four groups of 25 laying hens were kept in identical compartments (5.0 × 3.3 m) equipped with a litter area, raised perches, feed and drinking facilities, and nest boxes. Initially, they were kept under white LED for a 2-wk adaptation period. For the next 4 wk, 8 randomly chosen compartments were lit with red LED (640 nm) and 8 others with green LED (520 nm). Behavior was monitored during the last 2 wk of the trial. Additionally weight gain, feed consumption, onset of lay, and laying performance were recorded. The results showed minor effects of green light on explorative behavior, whereas red light reduced aggressiveness compared with white light. The accelerating effect of red light on sexual development of laying hens was confirmed, and the trial demonstrated that this effect was due to the specific wavelength and not the intensity of light. However, an additional effect of light intensity may exist and should not be excluded. PMID:23472008

Huber-Eicher, B; Suter, A; Spring-Stähli, P



Effect of cross-wise perch designs on perch use in laying hens.  


1. The use of cross-wise perches by laying hens was investigated in 8 groups of 6 hens. During a period of 5 weeks each group was exposed to 4 different perch arrangements: a single straight perch of 60 cm (P60), a 30-cm perch crossing the middle of another 30-cm perch (P30 + 30), crossing a 45-cm (P45 + 30) or crossing a 60-cm perch (P60 + 30). 2. Perch arrangement influenced perch use. Perch occupancy (the mean number of hens using the perches) was lowest in the P30 + 30 treatment during daytime, evening and night. Perch occupancy was lower for P45 + 30 than for P60 + 30 during daytime and for P60 during evening and night. Perch occupancy did not differ between P60 and P60 + 30. 3. Perch utilisation (perch use per unit of total perch length provided) was lower for the three cross-wise perch arrangements than for P60, indicating that the area near the crossing was not used optimally. 4. There were indications that the process of taking roosting positions was more disturbed with cross-wise perches. 5. Legislation and guidelines about the minimal perch length per hen should be refined to take into account the arrangement of the perches. A perch of 30 cm cross-wise to another perch should not be included in the total amount of perch length provided to the hens. For longer cross-wise perches, the precise distance near the cross that should be excluded remains to be determined. PMID:18704785

Struelens, E; Van Poucke, E; Duchateau, L; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Tuyttens, F A M



Decarboxylases of histidine and ornithine in chick embryo  

PubMed Central

1. The activities of histidine and ornithine decarboxylases as well as the histamine content of the developing chick embryo were studied. 2. Histidine decarboxylase (L-histidine carboxy-lyase; E.C. activity was fairly low with a tendency to increase at later stages of development. This enzyme was preferentially present in the supernatant fraction of the tissue homogenate. ?-Methyl-histidine, but not ?-methyl-DOPA, inhibited its activity. 3. The histamine content per gramme of embryo was low with a tendency to increase with the age of the embryo. 4. Ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase; E.C. activity was high at the beginning of the stages of development investigated, but later there was a steep fall in activity. A noticeable feature was that while the activity in the residual fraction of the homogenate remained almost constant during development, the activity in the supernatant fraction was high in the early stages, then fell rapidly to nearly zero at later stages. PMID:5572279

Dz[unk]dz[unk]e, Yao C. G.; Rosengren, Elsa



Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.



Molecular Architecture of the Chick Vestibular Hair Bundle  

PubMed Central

Hair bundles of the inner ear have a unique structure and protein composition that underlies their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified >1100 proteins, present from a few to 400,000 copies per stereocilium, from purified chick bundles; 336 of these were significantly enriched in bundles. Bundle proteins that we detected have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton structure and dynamics, energy metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, and cell signaling. Three-dimensional imaging using electron tomography allowed us to count the number of actin-actin crosslinkers and actin-membrane connectors; these values compared well to those obtained from mass spectrometry. Network analysis revealed several hub proteins, including RDX (radixin) and SLC9A3R2 (NHERF2), which interact with many bundle proteins and may perform functions essential for bundle structure and function. The quantitative mass spectrometry of bundle proteins reported here establishes a framework for future characterization of dynamic processes that shape bundle structure and function. PMID:23334578

Shin, Jung-Bum; Krey, Jocelyn F.; Hassan, Ahmed; Metlagel, Zoltan; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Pagana, James M.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Jeffery, Erin D.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Zhao, Hongyu; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L.; Auer, Manfred; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.



The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  


Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase C? (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds. PMID:25249465

Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro



A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.



Axial mesendoderm refines rostrocaudal pattern in the chick nervous system.  


There has long been controversy concerning the role of the axial mesoderm in the induction and rostrocaudal patterning of the vertebrate nervous system. Here we investigate the neural inducing and regionalising properties of defined rostrocaudal regions of head process/prospective notochord in the chick embryo by juxtaposing these tissues with extraembryonic epiblast or neural plate explants. We localise neural inducing signals to the emerging head process and using a large panel of region-specific neural markers, show that different rostrocaudal levels of the head process derived from headfold stage embryos can induce discrete regions of the central nervous system. However, we also find that rostral and caudal head process do not induce expression of any of these molecular markers in explants of the neural plate. During normal development the head process emerges beneath previously induced neural plate, which we show has already acquired some rostrocaudal character. Our findings therefore indicate that discrete regions of axial mesendoderm at headfold stages are not normally responsible for the establishment of rostrocaudal pattern in the neural plate. Strikingly however, we do find that caudal head process inhibits expression of rostral genes in neural plate explants. These findings indicate that despite the ability to induce specific rostrocaudal regions of the CNS de novo, signals provided by the discrete regions of axial mesendoderm do not appear to establish regional differences, but rather refine the rostrocaudal character of overlying neuroepithelium. PMID:10357936

Rowan, A M; Stern, C D; Storey, K G



A cellular lineage analysis of the chick limb bud  

PubMed Central

The chick limb bud has been used as a model system for studying pattern formation and tissue development for more than 50 years. However, the lineal relationships among the different cell types and the migrational boundaries of individual cells within the limb mesenchyme have not been explored. We have used a retroviral lineage analysis system to track the fate of single limb bud mesenchymal cells at different times in early limb development. We find that progenitor cells labeled at stage 19–22 can give rise to multiple cell types including clones containing cells of all five of the major lateral plate mesoderm-derived tissues (cartilage, perichondrium, tendon, muscle connective tissue, and dermis). There is a bias, however, such that clones are more likely to contain the cell types of spatially adjacent tissues such as cartilage/perichondrium and tendon/muscle connective tissue. It has been recently proposed that distinct proximodistal segments are established early in limb development; however our analysis suggests that there is not a strict barrier to cellular migration along the proximodistal axis in the early stage 19–22 limb buds. Finally, our data indicate the presence of a dorsal/ventral boundary established by stage 16 that is inhibitory to cellular mixing. This boundary is demarcated by the expression of the LIM-homeodomain factor lmx1b. PMID:17888899

Pearse, R.V.; Scherz, P. J.; Campbell, J. K.; Tabin, C. J.



Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation  

SciTech Connect

Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



Effects of age, vitamin D3, and fructooligosaccharides on bone growth and skeletal integrity of broiler chicks.  


A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of age, vitamin D(3), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and mechanical properties in broiler chicks using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. A total of 54 male broiler chicks (1 d old) were placed in battery brooders and fed a corn-soybean starter diet for 7 d. After 7 d, the chicks were randomly assigned to pens of 3 birds each. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. There were 6 treatments: 1) early age control (control 1); 2) control 2; 3) 125 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 4) 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 5) 2% FOS); and 6) 4% FOS. The control 1 chicks were fed a control broiler diet and killed on d 14 to collect femurs for bone analyses. The remaining groups were killed on d 21. Femurs from 3-wk-old chicks showed greater midshaft cortical BMD, BMC, bone area, thickness, and marrow area than those from 2-wk-old chicks (P = 0.016, 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.01, and 0.0001, respectively). Total, cortical, and trabecular BMD of chick proximal femurs were not influenced by age. However, BMC and bone area were significantly affected by age. The femurs of 2-wk-old chicks exhibited significantly lower stiffness and ultimate load than those of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001), whereas ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the femurs of 2-wk-old chicks were significantly higher than that of femurs of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001). Chicks fed 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3) exhibited significantly greater midshaft cortical BMC (P = 0.04), bone area (P = 0.04), and thickness (P = 0.03) than control 2, 2% FOS, or 4% FOS chicks. In summary, our study suggests that high levels of vitamin D(3) can increase bone growth and mineral deposition in broiler chicks. However, FOS did not have any beneficial effects on bone growth and skeletal integrity. Age is an important factor influencing skeletal integrity and mechanical properties in broiler chicks. PMID:22010225

Kim, W K; Bloomfield, S A; Ricke, S C



Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.  


In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn



Effect of reciprocating dietary lysine fluctuations on chick growth and carcass yield.  


Three experiments (Exp) were conducted to study the effect of reciprocating (i.e., back-and-forth) fluctuations in dietary Lys concentration on growth performance of male broiler chicks. The Lys, CP, and ME concentrations were fluctuated in Exp 1 by varying corn and soybean meal concentrations. Corn-peanut meal diets in Exp 2 and 3 contained a constant calorie-protein ratio, but Lys concentrations were fluctuated by varying supplemental L-Lys x HCl. During 7-d feeding periods from d 8 to 43 posthatch, chicks fed the fluctuating regimen were provided diets with nutrient concentrations arranged in the following order (relative to control diets at any given point): excess-deficient-excess-deficient-adequate. In each Exp, differences in feed intake and gain:feed were observed during the first 7 d. Weight gain was never affected by dietary regimen. Overall, chicks fed the fluctuating regimen showed similar weight gain and feed intakes relative to chicks fed the control regimen. Additionally, efficiency of feed, Lys, CP, and ME utilization over the 35-d growth period of Exp 2 and 3 were not affected by dietary regimen. An increase in carcass yield (dressed, carcass weight as a percentage of live weight) of birds fed the fluctuating regimen was observed, but there were no differences in abdominal fat yield (as a percentage of dressed, carcass weight). These data support the conclusion that reciprocating 7-d periods of nutrient excess and deficiency do not affect overall growth performance of growing chicks. PMID:16830863

Dilger, R N; Martinez Amezcua, C; Pillai, P B; Emmert, J L; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H



PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

Brewer, R.; Buehler, D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Halbrook, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.



Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents  

PubMed Central

The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e. ?=?0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e. ?=?0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e. ?=?0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.



Tissue distribution of heavy metals in heron and egret chicks from pyeongtaek, Korea.  


Iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium were measured in the liver, kidney and bone of Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), Intermediate Egret (Egretta intermedia), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from Korea. Iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations had species- and tissue- specific accumulation. Lead concentrations in all tissues of Black-crowned Night Heron and cadmium in kidneys of Intermediate Egret chicks were relatively higher than in other species. Iron and manganese in the liver, zinc in the bone, and lead and cadmium in the kidney were relatively higher than other tissues and these results have been reported in other birds. Lead concentrations in all species were at a level associated with acute lead poisoning and cadmium concentrations except for Grey Heron chicks were at a level associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Lead concentrations in livers and bones of heron and egret chicks were within a range considered background level (<6.00 ?g/g dw). But, lead concentrations in kidneys of 12 of 37 heron and egret chicks were at concentrations associated with lethal lead poisoning (6.00-18 ?g/g dw) and 7 of 37 chicks were compatible with death (>18.0 ?g/g dw). For cadmium, all liver and kidney concentrations were at a level considered background for birds (<3.00 ?g/g dw). Essential elements such as iron, zinc and manganese concentrations were within the range observed in other birds. PMID:25504523

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min



A search for factors specifying tonotopy implicates DNER in hair-cell development in the chick’s cochlea  

PubMed Central

The accurate perception of sound frequency by vertebrates relies upon the tuning of hair cells, which are arranged along auditory organs according to frequency. This arrangement, which is termed a tonotopic gradient, results from the coordination of many cellular and extracellular features. Seeking the mechanisms that orchestrate those features and govern the tonotopic gradient, we used expression microarrays to identify genes differentially expressed between the high- and low-frequency cochlear regions of the chick (Gallus gallus). Of the three signaling systems that were represented extensively in the results, we focused on the notch pathway and particularly on DNER, a putative notch ligand, and PTP?, a receptor phosphatase that controls DNER trafficking. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that both proteins are expressed more strongly in hair cells at the cochlear apex than in those at the base. At the apical surface of each hair cell, the proteins display polarized, mutually exclusive localization patterns. Using morpholinos to decrease the expression of DNER or PTP? as well as a retroviral vector to overexpress DNER, we observed disturbances of hair-bundle morphology and orientation. Our results suggest a role for DNER and PTP? in hair-cell development and possibly in the specification of tonotopy. PMID:21497156

Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A. J.



Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L?1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L?1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet



Altered expression of neurofilament subunits in diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate-treated hen spinal cord and their presence in axonal aggregations.  


Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) is an organophosphorus ester, which produces organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in hen and other sensitive species. A single dose of DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc.) produces mild ataxia in 7-14 days in hens, which develops into severe ataxia or paralysis with the progression of disease. OPIDN is associated with axonal swellings and degeneration of axons. This study was carried out to investigate the expression of neurofilament (NF) subunits in the spinal cord of DFP-treated hens. Hens were treated with a single dose of DFP and sacrificed 1, 5, 10, and 20 days post-treatment. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of middle molecular weight neurofilament protein (NF-M), and decreased expression of high molecular weight (NF-H) and low molecular weight (NF-L) neurofilament proteins in the 2 M urea extracts of spinal cord particulate fraction. These changes were observed within 24 h of DFP administration and persisted for 10-20 days. Thus, there was increase in the stoichiometry of NF-M:NF-L in the spinal cord of DFP-treated hens. Immunoprecipitation, cross-linking, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of heterodimers, but not heterotetramers, in the hen spinal cord extract. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of all three NF subunits in the cytoskeletal inclusions in DFP-treated hen spinal cord cross-sections. The results suggested that each NF subunit might be accumulated by a different mechanism in the axonal aggregations of DFP-treated hen. PMID:10996134

Gupta, R P; Abdel-Rahman, A; Jensen, K F; Abou-Donia, M B



Effect of Strain, Type of Natural Antioxidant and Sulphate Ion on Productive, Physiological and Hatching Performance of Native Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total number of 480 hens and 48 cocks from Inshas and Dokki4 strains of 32 weeks old were divided into 12 groups with 2 replicates each (20 hens+2 cocks). The experiment had a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two strains (Inshas and Dokki4), three types of natural antioxidants in the diet (control, 0. 25% thyme and 0. 25%

Mohamed N. Ali; Magdy S. Hassan; Fawzy A. Abd El-Ghany



Low Genetic Variation in the Heath Hen Prior to Extinction and Implications for the Conservation of Prairie-Chicken Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low genetic variation is often considered to contribute to the extinction of species when they reach small population sizes.\\u000a In this study we examined the mitochondrial control region from museum specimens of the Heath Hen (Tympanuchus cupido cupido), which went extinct in 1932. Today, the closest living relatives of the Heath Hen, the Greater (T. c. pinnatus), Attwater’s (T. c.

Jeff A. Johnson; Peter O. Dunn



Genetic evaluation of a proposed introduction: the case of the greater prairie chicken and the extinct heath hen.  


Population introduction is an important tool for ecosystem restoration. However, before introductions should be conducted, it is important to evaluate the genetic, phenotypic and ecological suitability of possible replacement populations. Careful genetic analysis is particularly important if it is suspected that the extirpated population was unique or genetically divergent. On the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, the introduction of greater prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) to replace the extinct heath hen (T. cupido cupido) is being considered as part of an ecosystem restoration project. Martha's Vineyard was home to the last remaining heath hen population until its extinction in 1932. We conducted this study to aid in determining the suitability of greater prairie chickens as a possible replacement for the heath hen. We examined mitochondrial control region sequences from extant populations of all prairie grouse species (Tympanuchus) and from museum skin heath hen specimens. Our data suggest that the Martha's Vineyard heath hen population represents a divergent mitochondrial lineage. This result is attributable either to a long period of geographical isolation from other prairie grouse populations or to a population bottleneck resulting from human disturbance. The mtDNA diagnosability of the heath hen contrasts with the network of mtDNA haplotypes of other prairie grouse (T. cupido attwateri, T. pallidicinctus and T. phasianellus), which do not form distinguishable mtDNA groupings. Our findings suggest that the Martha's Vineyard heath hen was more genetically isolated than are current populations of prairie grouse and place the emphasis for future research on examining prairie grouse adaptations to different habitat types to assess ecological exchangeability between heath hens and greater prairie chickens. PMID:15189201

Palkovacs, Eric P; Oppenheimer, Adam J; Gladyshev, Eugene; Toepfer, John E; Amato, George; Chase, Thomas; Caccone, Adalgisa



Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...