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Sample records for layer hen chicks

  1. Thy hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus by chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T S

    1976-11-01

    The chromic oxide balance method was used to determine the amount of natural phytate phosphorus hydrolyzed by chicks and laying hens. Broiler chicks 4 and 9 weeks old and Single Comb White Leghorn hens were fed diets containing corn as the only grain source or diets in which wheat replaced one half of the corn. Feces were collected twice daily during the 7-day test period. The phytate phosphorus recovered in the feces of the 4 and 9 week old chicks and the laying hens fed the diet containing corn was 100, 98, and 92%. When wheat replaced one half of the corn the recovery was 92, 87 and 87%. The phytase activity in wheat was minimal in vivo; whereas, in vitro tests indicated enzyme activity. PMID:1019083

  2. Xanthophyll supplementation regulates carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in hens and chicks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Ji, Jun; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Chang-Kang; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin; Juyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd., GuangZhou, China) on gene expression associated with carotenoid cleavage enzymes (β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, BCMO1; and β-carotene 9', 10'-dioxygenase, BCDO2) and retinoid metabolism (lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and STRA6) of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with zero (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at d 35 of the trial. Results showed that 40 mg/kg xanthophyll supplementation increased BCDO2 mRNA in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum; LRAT mRNA in the jejunum; and STRA6 mRNA in the liver, while it decreased LRAT mRNA in the liver. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from a zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at zero, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophyll modulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly within one wk after hatching. The maternal effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work one to 2 wk after hatching. Dietary xanthophyll regulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly from 2 wk onward. The xanthophyll regulation of carotenoid and retinoid metabolism also revealed strong tissue specificity. In conclusion, xanthophyll supplementation could modulate carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:26574032

  3. Dopamine and prolactin involvement in the maternal care of chicks in the native Thai hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Rozenboim, Israel; El Halawani, Mohamed E; Chaiseha, Yupaporn

    2015-02-01

    The dopaminergic (DAergic) system plays a pivotal role in incubation behavior via the regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion in birds, however the role of the DA/PRL system in rearing behavior is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the DA/PRL system and rearing behavior in a gallinaceous bird, the native Thai chicken. Incubating native Thai hens were divided into two groups. In the first group, hens were allowed to care for their chicks (rearing hens; R). In the second group, hens were deprived of their chicks immediately after hatching (non-rearing hens; NR). In both groups, blood samples and brain sections were collected at different time points after the chicks hatched (days 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28; 6 hens/time point/group). In this study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used as a marker for DAergic neurons. The numbers of TH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the nucleus intramedialis (nI) and in the nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML), which regulate the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/PRL system, were determined in R and NR hens utilizing immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma PRL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results revealed that both the number of TH-ir neurons in the nI and the plasma PRL levels were significantly higher in the R hens compared with the NR hens during the first 14 days of chick rearing (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change in the DAergic activity in the ML in either the R or NR groups throughout the 28-day rearing periods. These results suggest that the DA/PRL system is involved in early rearing behavior. The additional decline in DAergic activity and plasma PRL levels during the disruption of rearing behavior further supports their involvement in rearing behavior in this equatorial precocial species. PMID:24746677

  4. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  5. Consequences of different growth rates in broiler breeder and layer hens on embryogenesis, metabolism and metabolic rate: A review.

    PubMed

    Buzała, M; Janicki, B; Czarnecki, R

    2015-04-01

    Intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens for economically important production traits, which has been carried out for almost a century, resulted in considerable differences in the mechanisms of growth and development and, thus, in avian metabolism, both during embryogenesis and after hatching. Selection for meat production (broiler breeders) and eggs (layer hens) led to increased productivity but also brought about metabolic disorders. That intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens is effective is seen, for example, in the differences in growth and development, metabolism of the yolk sac, hormones and lipids, gas exchange, and thermogenesis. Due to genetic proximity and different developmental mechanisms in broiler breeders and layer hens, avian embryos and chicks serve as excellent models for fundamental scientific research. This review paper discusses the consequences of different growth rates as a result of long-term genetic selection on embryonic development and metabolic rate of broilers and layers. The evidence presented herein indicates that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. PMID:25691756

  6. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  7. Chemical control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum on caged layer hens.

    PubMed

    Levot, G W

    1992-04-01

    Manual application of aqueous solutions of malathion, carbaryl and permethrin controlled northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago, on caged layer hens for at least 118 days. Azamethiphos sprayed manually provided acceptable control for a shorter period. Machine application, particularly of azamethiphos, but also malathion, provided lesser control. The addition of surfactant increased the wetting ability of the sprays but interfered with the efficacy of azamethiphos. PMID:1421482

  8. Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in ring-necked pheasant hens, chicks, and eggs.

    PubMed

    Nosek, J A; Craven, S R; Sullivan, J R; Olson, J R; Peterson, R E

    1992-03-01

    The T 1/2 for whole-body elimination of [3H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) derived radioactivity in ring-necked pheasant hatchlings was 13 d, whereas in adult hen pheasants that were not producing eggs it was 378 d. All TCDD-derived radioactivity in hen tissues was from the parent compound. The oral bioavailability of TCDD in the adult hen pheasant varied with the environmental matrix, with 30% of the dose absorbed from a suspension of earthworms, 33% absorbed from a soil suspension, 41% absorbed from a suspension of paper mill sludge, and 58% absorbed from a suspension of crickets. A cumulative dose of 1.0 micrograms TCDD/kg body weight, administered as weekly doses of 0.1 micrograms/kg for 10 wk, did not adversely affect hen condition or egg production. Under these exposure conditions, hens translocated about 1% of their cumulative TCDD dose to each of the first 15 eggs laid. All of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in the eggs was the parent compound and was confined entirely to the yolk; no TCDD was detected in egg albumin. We conclude that TCDD was more persistent in pheasant hens than in chicks and that egg laying was an important route of elimination in the hen. PMID:1602521

  9. Chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens differ in apomorphine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    van Hierden, Yvonne M; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Kost'ál, L'ubor; Výboh, Pavel; Sedlacková, Monika; Rajman, Marek; Juráni, Marian; Mechiel Korte, S

    2005-03-16

    Proactive rodents show a larger behavioral response to apomorphine (APO) than reactive copers, suggesting a more sensitive DA system in proactive individuals. Previously, chicks from a high feather pecking (HFP) and low feather pecking line (LFP) have been suggested to display a proactive and reactive coping strategy, respectively. Therefore, at approximately 4 weeks of age, the behavior of 48 LFP and 48 HFP chicks in response to an APO injection was studied using an open field. Another objective of the present study was to determine whether behavioral variation (in an open field) between HFP and LFP birds, after APO injection, is also reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain. Receptor binding capacities were assessed by measuring specific binding of tritiated D(1) and D(2) receptor ligands in different regions of the brain of control HFP and LFP chicks. In the present study, it is shown that indeed HFP chicks display a more enhanced behavioral response to acute APO treatment (0.5 mg/kg BW) than LFP birds in an open field. This difference was not reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain between both lines. PMID:15763586

  10. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  11. Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Küçükyılmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Çınar, Mustafa; Çatlı, Abdullah Uğur; Bintaş, Erol; Çöven, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty

  12. Composition and phosphorus bioavailability of a solid by-product from anaerobically digested waste from caged layer hens

    SciTech Connect

    Steinsberger, S.C.; Ort, J.F.; Shih, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    A poultry waste digester was constructed at the North Carolina State University Poultry Research Farm to produce methane from the waste of caged layer hens. A solid by-product (SBP) from the digester was recovered and dried for chemical and biological analysis as a feed supplement. Dried SBP was chemically analyzed for minerals, trace elements, and certain vitamins. The SBP was evaluated as a phosphorus (P) supplement in broiler diets. Biological availability of P in the SBP was determined by a slope ratio assay with femur bone ash as the criterion of P availability. Dietary treatments consisted of graded levels of standard available P (AP) supplemented as to provide .2, .3, .4, and .6% AP and graded levels of SBP added to provide 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5% SBP to a corn-soy basal diet. Two treatments, containing 1.5% and 2.5% SBP added to an adequate diet (.4% AP) were used to determine if other factors in SBP were contributing to femur bone ash. The P in SBP was determined to be 90% available to the growing broiler chick. Femur bone ash did not respond to SBP in the diets already adequate in AP. Body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion were not significantly different (P less than .05) among treatments with similar AP levels. The study concluded that SBP is a safe, effective feed supplement that supplies P, Ca, and total minerals.

  13. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  14. Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

  15. Review: Effects of different growth rates in broiler breeder and layer hens on some productive traits.

    PubMed

    Buzala, M; Janicki, B

    2016-09-01

    Genetic selection that has been carried out for several dozen years has led to significant progress in poultry production by improving productive traits and increasing the profitability of broiler breeder and layer hen production. After hatching, broilers and layers differ mainly in feed intake, growth rate, efficiency of nutrient utilization, and development of muscles and adipose tissue. A key role can be played by hormonal mechanisms of appetite control in broilers and layers. The paper discusses the consequences of different growth rates resulting from long-term genetic selection on feed intake, efficiency of nutrient utilization, and development of muscles and adipose tissue, with particular consideration of the hormonal mechanisms of appetite control in broilers and layers. The information presented in this review paper shows that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. PMID:27194733

  16. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli, and nitrogen metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Layer hen manure and litter contain appreciable amounts of uric acid, which makes these good crude protein sources for ruminants. Rumen microbial populations can upgrade the nitrogen in uric acid into high quality microbial protein of nutritional value to the host. Layer hen manure and litter can ...

  17. Presence-absence sequential sampling plan for northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), on caged-layer hens.

    PubMed

    Harris, M A; Brewer, M J; Meyer, J A

    2000-04-01

    Caged-layer hens were scored as infested or uninfested by visual examination of the vent region, and the number of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago), per hen was estimated. The proportion infested and average number of mites per hen were shown to have a highly significant, positive relationship (r = 0.936). Sampling among houses within a flock, and rows and sections within houses were analyzed to determine the reliability of sampling a representative portion of a flock. Low- and moderate-tolerance treatment thresholds, based on percentage of hens infested with mites, were developed from sampling 1 wk before and 1 wk after acaricide treatments determined necessary by the producer. These thresholds were used to compare a fixed (single) sampling plan, a curtailed procedure of the fixed sampling plan, and a sequential sampling plan based on a sequential probability ratio test, by sampling 174 hens (the maximum number needed for the single sampling plan). The sequential sampling plan required fewer hen examinations on average to reach a treatment decision than did the other plans, depending on the infestation tolerance limits. Using a low tolerance approach in which infestations below 15% are considered noneconomic (safe threshold) and infestations above 25% are considered economically important (action threshold), as few as 5 hens required examination to reach a treatment decision. Sequential sampling plan graphs are presented for 2 tolerance threshold scenarios (a 15% safe-threshold paired with a 25% action threshold and a 35% safe-threshold paired with a 45% action threshold). These sequential sampling plans using presence absence assessments should greatly facilitate monitoring and treatment decisions for this important pest. PMID:10826212

  18. Assessment of caecal parameters in layer hens fed on diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Richards, P J; Wu, S; Mellits, K H; Wiseman, J

    2015-01-01

    There is much interest in quantifying the nutritional value of UK wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (W-DDGS) for livestock species. A study was designed to evaluate caecal parameters (pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial diversity) in layer hens fed on balanced diets containing graded concentrations of W-DDGS. A total of 32 layer hens (Bovans Brown strain at 27 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments containing W-DDGS at 0, 60, 120 or 180 g/kg. Each treatment was fed to 8 replicate individually housed layer hens over a 5-d acclimatisation period, followed by a 4-week trial. Individual feed intakes were monitored and all eggs were collected daily for weeks 2, 3 and 4 of the trial, weighed and an assessment of eggshell "dirtiness" made. All hens were culled on d 29 and caecal pH and SCFAs measured. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16 S rDNA gene was used to assess total bacterial diversity of luminal caecal content from hens fed the 0 and 180 g W-DDGS/kg diets. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms were generated from DGGE banding patterns. Increasing W-DDGS dietary concentrations resulted in a more acidic caecal environment. Caecal SCFAs were unaffected by diet aside from a quadratic effect for molar proportions of isobutyric acid. Diversity profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from luminal caecal contents were unaffected by W-DDGS inclusion. The results of the current study suggest that W-DDGS can be successfully formulated into nutritionally balanced layer diets (supplemented with xylanase and phytase) at up to 180 g/kg with no detrimental effects to the caecal environment. PMID:26098705

  19. In vitro invasive capacity of Salmonella strains into sections of the layer hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-08-30

    Raw or undercooked eggs and egg products are frequently identified as the source of Salmonella following outbreaks of foodborne gastrointestinal disease. Some Salmonella serovars, such as Salmonella Enteriditis, have a high tropism for the oviduct of laying hens. Oviduct colonization with S. Enteriditis can result in both internal and external contamination of an egg. While oviduct invasion is not limited to S. Enteriditis, the invasive capacities of other serovars is not widely known. In this study, the in vitro invasive ability of eighteen Salmonella isolates of representative serovars into different segments of the oviduct was assessed. All Salmonella isolates tested were invasive and the highest bacterial invasion was observed in segments of the isthmus and vagina. S. Bredeney consistently exhibited the lowest invasion into all sections of the oviduct. Interestingly, the S. Typhimurium definitive types included in this study did not exhibit significantly greater invasion capacity than other serovars. In this study, the genomic capacity of the selected isolates of representative Salmonella serovars to colonize the layer hen oviduct was also investigated. Previous studies have identified several genes upregulated during oviduct colonization by S. Enteriditis. Single gene comparison of 107 genes from eleven Salmonella isolates was conducted to determine whether these oviduct colonization genes were present within each bacterial genome. The degree of homology with corresponding sequences in S. Enteriditis P125109 was also determined for each gene. Genes encoding the O-antigen as well as phage and virulence plasmid genes were among the most highly variable and may serve specific roles in oviduct invasion. PMID:27527775

  20. [Investigation of the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle and Manceaux, 1908) in layer hens by the Sabin-Feldman Dye Test in the region of Konya].

    PubMed

    Altinöz, Funda; Babür, Cahit; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out on layer hens in the region of Konya between December 2004 and March 2005. During this period, blood samples were collected from a total of 287 layer hens and the sera were separated by centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. All the sera were investigated with the Sabin-Feldman Dye Test for Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies. The rate of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii was found to be 0.34%. PMID:17471403

  1. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  2. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growi...

  3. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P < 0.05) villus height and villus surface area compared with the control birds. Seaweed supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria [e.g., Bifidobacterium longum (4- to 14-fold), Streptococcus salivarius (4- to 15-fold)] and importantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of the chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CC and SG treatments than in the control. In conclusion, dietary supplementation using red seaweed inclusions can act as a potential prebiotic to improve performance, egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  4. Expression of messenger RNA for gonadotropin receptor in the granulosa layer during the ovulatory cycle of hens.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, N; Takeishi, M; Goto, H; Tagami, M; Mizutani, T; Miyamoto, K; Doi, O; Kamiyoshi, M

    2001-06-01

    The present experiments were conducted to evaluate the mRNA levels of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in granulosa layers during the ovulatory cycle of hens, in relation to the release of LH and steroid hormones. After the release of LH, progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17beta (E2), found 4-5 h before ovulation, LHR and FSHR mRNA levels were observed to decrease in the granulosa layers of the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) preovulatory follicles, with the greatest in the LHR mRNA level of F1. P4 concentrations in the granulosa layers of F1 and F2 increased 4-5 h before ovulation, with greater in F1 than in F2. F2 concentrations in the theca layers were greater in F2 than in F1 throughout the ovulatory cycle. Also, the injection of ovine LH caused decreases in the mRNA levels of LHR and FSHR in the granulosa layers. However, these decreases were abolished by the injection of aminoglutethimide, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. These results suggest that in hen granulosa cells, the mRNA levels of not only LHR but also FSHR are down-regulated by LH and the down-regulation may be mediated steroid hormones. PMID:11423305

  5. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens

    PubMed Central

    Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Eshak, Mariam G.; El Sabry, M. I.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  6. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  7. Microbial contamination in inoculated shell eggs: I. Effects of layer strain and hen age.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Curtis, P A; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    Three Ottawa control strains and a current commercial laying stock were reared and housed under identical environmental and management conditions. Eggs were collected from each strain when hens were 32, 45, 58, 71, and 84 wk of age. The eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis (SE), Pseudomonasfluorescens (PF), or a combination of the two. After storage at 26 C, bacterial counts were obtained from the exterior shell surfaces (rinse), air cell, egg contents, and shell structure. SE and PF survived at different rates on the shell surface with as much as a 1 log difference during a given collection period. Egg content counts tended to be higher than eggshell counts in PF, whereas the opposite was true for SE. These data suggest that PF is a primary invader of eggs that is more capable of contaminating egg contents through the shell membranes than SE. The PF and SE data suggest that bacterial contamination of air cells, shells, and egg contents is more easily achieved in eggs from older hens than from younger hens. There were also differences between the strains. Control Strain 10 consistently maintained a lower level of contamination for both organisms in each sampling location. The overall results of this study suggest that genetic selection has altered the ability of eggs to resist microbial contamination and that screening for microbial integrity should be considered in the selection process among the laying egg breeders. PMID:12033423

  8. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of ARG and GAA on the SP and fertility was significant. Supplementary ARG increased the SP rate in the IPL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GAA and ARG might be potentially used to improve the fertility of broiler breeder hens at the later phase of the egg production period. PMID:26216477

  9. The interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Zendehdel, Morteza; Jonaidi, Hossein; Babapour, Vahab; Shayan, Parviz

    2016-05-01

    Most physiological behaviors such as food intake are controlled by the hypothalamus and its nuclei. It has been demonstrated that injection of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus with nitric oxide (NO) donors elicited changes in the concentration of some amino acids, including GABA. Also, central nitrergic and GABAergic systems are known to provide inputs to the paraventricular nucleus and are involved in food intake control. Therefore, the present study examines the probable interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-arginine (400 and 800 nmol), as a NO donor, significantly decreased food intake (P < 0.001), but ICV injection of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (200 and 400 nmol), a NO synthesis inhibitor, increased food intake (P < 0.001). In addition, the orexigenic effect of gaboxadol (0.2 µg), a GABAA agonist, was significantly attenuated in ICV co-injection of L-arginine (200 nmol) and gaboxadol (0.2 µg) (P < 0.001), but it was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of L-NAME (100 nmol) and gaboxadol (0.2 µg) (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the orexigenic effect of baclofen (0.2 µg), a GABAB agonist, did not change in ICV co-injection of L-arginine (200 nmol) or L-NAME (100 nmol) with baclofen (0.2 µg) (P > 0.05). Also, the hypophagic effect of L-arginine (800 nmol) was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of picrotoxin (0.5 µg), a GABAA antagonist, or CGP54626 (21 ng), a GABAB antagonist, with L-arginine (800 nmol) (P < 0.001). These results probably suggest an interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks and GABAA receptors play a major role in this interaction. PMID:26832169

  10. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  11. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  12. Plumage condition in laying hens: genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects in two purebred layer lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feather pecking is a major welfare issue in laying hen industry that leads to mortality. Due to a ban on conventional cages in the EU and on beak trimming in some countries of the EU, feather pecking will become an even bigger problem. Its severity depends both on the victim receiving pecking and on its group mates inflicting pecking (indirect effects), which together determine plumage condition of the victim. Plumage condition may depend, therefore, on both the direct genetic effect of an individual itself and on the indirect genetic effects of its group mates. Here, we present estimated genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects on plumage condition of different body regions in two purebred layer lines, and estimates of genetic correlations between body regions. Methods Feather condition scores (FCS) were recorded at 40 weeks of age for neck, back, rump and belly and these four scores were added-up into a total FCS. A classical animal model and a direct–indirect effects model were used to estimate genetic parameters for FCS. In addition, a bivariate model with mortality (0/1) was used to account for mortality before recording FCS. Due to mortality during the first 23 weeks of laying, 5363 (for W1) and 5089 (for WB) FCS records were available. Results Total heritable variance for FCS ranged from 1.5% to 9.8% and from 9.8% to 53.6% when estimated respectively with the classical animal and the direct–indirect effects model. The direct–indirect effects model had a significantly higher likelihood. In both lines, 70% to 94% of the estimated total heritable variation in FCS was due to indirect effects. Using bivariate analysis of FCS and mortality did not affect estimates of genetic parameters. Genetic correlations were high between adjacent regions for FCS on neck, back, and rump but moderate to low for belly with other regions. Conclusion Our results show that 70% to 94% of the heritable variation in FCS relates to indirect effects

  13. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

  14. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  15. Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

  16. Effects of clofibrate treatment in laying hens.

    PubMed

    König, B; Kluge, H; Haase, K; Brandsch, C; Stangl, G I; Eder, K

    2007-06-01

    Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) has been shown in liver of chicks, but effects of its activation have not yet been investigated. In this study, laying hens were treated with clofibrate, a synthetic PPARalpha agonist, to investigate the effects of PPARalpha activation on liver lipid metabolism. Hens receiving a diet containing 5 g of clofibrate/kg had a lower food intake and higher liver mRNA concentrations of typical PPARalpha target genes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, bifunctional enzyme, lipoprotein lipase) involved in hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation and plasma triglyceride clearance than control hens that received the same diet without clofibrate (P<0.05). Hens treated with clofibrate also had lower mRNA concentrations of fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, and low-density lipoprotein receptor, proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake, than hens fed the control diet (P<0.05). These changes in clofibrate-treated hens were accompanied by reduced liver triglyceride concentrations, strongly diminished very low density triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations (P<0.05), a disturbed maturation of egg follicles, a complete stop of egg production, and a markedly reduced plasma 17-beta-estradiol concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, it is shown that clofibrate has complex effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in laying hens that mimic PPARalpha activation in mammals, affect maturation of egg follicles, and lead to a stop of egg production. Because clofibrate treatment strongly reduced food intake in the hens, some of these effects (i.e., egg production) may have been due to a low energy and nutrient intake. PMID:17495091

  17. The effects of utilization of hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their products on performance and fatty acid composition of yolk in layer hens.

    PubMed

    Cetıngul, I S; Inal, F

    2009-08-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of hazelnut crude oil, sunflower crude oil and its refinery by-products over the laying hens performance and the fatty acid composition of the egg's yolk. Four hundreds 36-week-old Nick Brown layer hens were allocated into five groups. Treatment groups were supplemented with 1.5% of sunflower crude oil, hazelnut crude oil, acidulated sunflower soapstock, acidulated hazelnut soapstock and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. The daily feed consumption for groups that were fed with crude oils were numerically improved as compared for those nourished with acidulated soapstocks. Although the percentages of cracked and broken eggs in acidulated hazelnut soapstock group was significantly higher than the other groups, daily feed consumption and egg production values were not different. The usage of acidulated hazelnut soapstock reduced the percentage of intact egg ratio. Egg's specific gravity and yolk color index were the highest level throughout the experiment from start to end in hazelnut crude oil group (p < 0.05). In group that was nourished by hazelnut oil, Omega 3/Omega-6 fatty acid ratios in egg yolk were higher than the groups that were fed with sunflower oil. The oleic acid content of the egg yolk was increased in the groups which were supplemented with hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. Consequently, hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil improved the egg shell quality, yolk color index and yolk oleic acid value which would increase egg's shelf life. On the other hand acidulated hazelnut soapstock supplementation adversely affects the quality of egg shell. PMID:19142742

  18. Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

    2012-09-01

    Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 μg m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 μg m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

  19. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  20. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  1. A differential screen for genes expressed in the extraembryonic endodermal layer of pre-primitive streak stage chick embryos reveals expression of Apolipoprotein A1 in hypoblast, endoblast and endoderm.

    PubMed

    Bertocchini, Federica; Stern, Claudio D

    2008-09-01

    The lower layer of the pre-gastrulating chick embryo is an extra-embryonic tissue made up of two different cell populations, the hypoblast and the endoblast. The hypoblast is characterized by the expression of inhibitory signalling molecules (e.g. Cerberus, Dickkopf1, Crescent) and others (e.g. Otx2, goosecoid, Hex, Hesx1/RPX, FGF8). However, no genes expressed in the endoblast have yet been found. We designed a differential screen to identify markers differentially expressed in these two cell populations. This only revealed one novel gene, Apolipoprotein A1 (APO A1) with restricted endodermal layer expression. Expression of APO A1 begins very early throughout the lower layer (both hypoblast and endoblast). At later stages it is also expressed in the endoderm and its derivatives, the anterior intestinal portal endoderm and the growing liver bud. PMID:18672094

  2. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune® FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune®FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of white leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing M. gallisepticum mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect a...

  3. Gonadotropin releasing hormone and brooding behavior in the native Thai hen.

    PubMed

    Chaiyachet, Orn-anong; Chokchaloemwong, Duangsuda; Prakobsaeng, Nattiya; Sartsoongnoen, Natagarn; Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; Chaiseha, Yupaporn

    2013-07-01

    Changes in the number of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) neurons within the Nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were associated with the reproductive cycle of native Thai chickens. In order to further understand the association of GnRH-I in the regulation of brooding behavior in this bird, the native Thai chickens were divided into two groups; chick-rearing (R) and non-chick-rearing (NR) hens. Numbers of visible of GnRH-I-immunoreactive (GnRH-I-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus of R and NR hens were compared utilizing immunohistochemistry. Numbers of visible GnRH-I-ir neurons within the Nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, Nucleus suprachaiasmaticus, pars medialis, Nucleus septalis lateralis, Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis, and Regio lateralis hypothalami areas were observed in both groups, but no differences were seen between R and NR hens. The number of visible GnRH-I neurons in the nCPa was higher (P<0.05) in the NR than in R hens, and increased in NR hens by day 14 after chick removal. These findings suggest, for the first time, an association of the GnRH system with brooding behavior in continuously breeding birds. Furthermore, the expression of brooding behavior of native Thai chickens might be regulated, in part, by GnRH-I neurons in the nCPa. PMID:23466257

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in embryonated hen's eggs. An alternative in vivo model for the screening of antibacterial substances.

    PubMed

    Härtl, A; Möllmann, U; Schrinner, E; Stelzner, A

    1997-09-01

    Embryonated hens' eggs can be reliably infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in laboratory experiments. Therapy tests with the antibiotics azlocillin (CAS 37091-66-0) and gentamicin (CAS 13291-74-2) on this type of infected hens' eggs demonstrate that this test system offers a realistic alternative to septic experiments with small laboratory rodents. Chick embryos survive a lethal Pseudomonas infection when azlocillin or gentamicin in a relevant therapeutic dose are administered immediately after the infective agent. The use of Pseudomonas infected chick embryos in the screening for new antiinfectives allows, therefore, a considerable reduction of the number of laboratory rodents required. PMID:9342424

  5. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  6. Influence of canthaxanthin on broiler breeder reproduction, chick quality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Hernandez, J M; Yao, B; Zhu, Q

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect of canthaxanthin supplied via a maternal route on the production of both breeder hens and chickens, 270 Chinese Three-Yellow breeder hens were randomly divided into 2 groups consisting of 135 birds each (5 replicates of 27) for study. The breeder hens were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 6 mg of canthaxanthin/kg for 24 wk. At the end of the 24-wk breeder experiment, all hatching eggs laid in 5 consecutive days of each group were collected and incubated. For each breeder group, 100 newly hatched chicks (5 replicates of 20) were reared under environmentally controlled conditions for 21 d. Canthaxanthin supplementation resulted in the following outcomes: an enhancement of the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of breeder hens (P = 0.029), a significant increase in the yolk colorimetric score of Roche Yolk Color Fan (RYCF; P < 0.001), and a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the egg yolk (P < 0.05). The chicks that hatched from eggs laid by breeder hens fed the canthaxanthin supplementation diet demonstrated a higher pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF for their shank skin (P < 0.05), and the antioxidant capacity of the newly hatched chicks was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Both of these positive effects on shank skin pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF and antioxidant capacity were observed for at least 7 d posthatching, and the chicks that hatched from canthaxanthin-enriched eggs showed a lower mortality (0 vs. 4%) during the first 21 d posthatching. These findings support the hypothesis that canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet enhances the protective capacity of tissues against oxidative stress in vivo, which might be beneficial for poultry producers. PMID:21673167

  7. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  8. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  9. Lipid synthesis in chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lavker, R M

    1975-07-01

    Lipid synthesis in newborn chick epidermis was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography after injection of tritiated palmitate. The labeled lipid product in the tissue was identified as mostly triglyceride. At the earliest time after injection (6 hr), the radioactive precursor was taken up by all viable cells of the epidermis. Grain density was heaviest over basal cells, moderate over spinous cells, and slight over granular cells; thus lipid incorporation is highest in the basal and spinous regions of the chick epidermis. As time after injection progressed, the increasing amounts of grains over the granular and horny cells and decreasing amounts over the basal and spinous cells reflected the continuous upward displacement of cells from one layer into the next. From the distribution of silver grains within the epidermal cells, it has been concluded that, with the passage of time, triglycerides synthesized by the epidermal cells were mainly located in lipid droplets. The numerous grains associated with the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum indicated that this organelle is involved in aggregating triglyceride molecules into lipid droplets. The fact that grains were seen within the horny cells indicated that part of the horny cell consists of lipid probably derived from the lipid droplets retained by the cells during keratinization. PMID:1151110

  10. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  11. Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy breed) and white (light breed) laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M

    2010-03-01

    Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869

  12. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  13. Expression of myelin genes in the developing chick retina.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hitosh; Ueda, Takayuki; Uno, Aoi; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2011-12-01

    In submammalian animals including chicks, the retina contains oligodendrocytes (OLs), and axons in the optic fiber layer are wrapped with compact myelin within the retina; however, the expression of myelin genes in the chick retina has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study, we examined the expression of three myelin genes (proteolipid protein, PLP; myelin basic protein, MBP; cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, CNP) and PLP in the developing chick retina, in comparison to the localization of Mueller cells. In situ hybridization demonstrated that all three myelin genes began to be expressed at E14 in the chick embryo retina. They are mostly restricted to the ganglion cell layer and the optic fiber layer, with a few exceptions in the inner nuclear layer where Mueller cells reside; however, PLP mRNA+ cells do not express glutamine synthetase, or vice versa. The present results elucidate that myelin genes are expressed only by OLs that are mostly localized in the innermost layer of the developing chick retina. PMID:21872683

  14. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  15. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  16. Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Weibking, T S; Rottinghaus, G E

    1992-07-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young broiler chicks. The experimental design consisted of 5 treatments each with 9 randomly allotted male broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0 (feed control), 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Response variables measured were chick performance, organ weights, serum biochemistry, and histologic parameters. Body weights and average daily gain dramatically decreased with increasing dietary fumonisin B1, and liver, proventriculus, and gizzard weights increased. Diarrhea, thymic cortical atrophy, multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and rickets were present in chicks fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Serum calcium, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels all increased at higher fumonisin dietary levels. Results indicate that fumonisin, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young chicks. PMID:1515495

  17. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (= group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n = 40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated. PMID:26364806

  18. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. PMID:26419601

  19. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks. PMID:24773606

  20. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  1. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  2. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    PubMed

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  3. [Measurement of floor space allowance of Lohmann Silver hens using biometric data].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Space allowance for laying hens is one of the most disputed criteria of modern laying hen husbandry. Fast and cheap methods to achieve reliable data about the space occupied by laying hens are missing. This studie is based on a method, that can be used to measure the space ocupied by laying hens using digital images from above. 100 hens were photographed digitally when walking or scratching freely on a blue coloured wooden plate that had been placed in a sheltered outdoor scratching area. The birds were 65 weeks old and in the 47th laying week. The body width and the floor area covered by the hens were measured from the photographs by the KobaPlan color contrast planimetric method using a personal computer. Another 50 hens were randomly caught and weighed in order to get an estimate of the average bird weight of the herd. The mean floor space covered by the hens was 545.4 cm2 (SD: +/- 51.9) and their mean width was 173.9 mm (SD: +/- 8.9). The mean weight of the 50 hens was 2085.8 g (SD: +/- 234.0 g). Compared to the space allowance in the German "Kleingruppenhaltung" (small colony cage holdings) Lohman Silver laying hens occupy more than half (68.2% resp. 60.6%) of the minimum floor space of 800 cm2 per hen resp. 900 cm2 for hens heavier than 2 kg (Nutztierhaltungsverordnung 2006). Subsequently less than half of the floor space (32.6% resp. 39.8%) can be used for movement or other normal behaviours including social behaviour. Compared to the floor space of 750 cm2 per hen as laid down in the European Council Directive 1999/74/EC, 72.5% of the floor space in furnished cages is covered by the birds. Further data on the floor space covered by the body size of layers in different situations and from different genetic strains can be gained using the KoBaPlan method in order to estimate reasonable space allowances for laying hens in modern husbandry systems which in particular should enable the hens to perform normal behaviour. This is evenly important for hens which

  4. Cannabinoid-glutamate interactions in the regulation of food intake in neonatal layer- type chicks: role of glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Keyshams, Negar; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab; Baghbanzadeh, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the brain functions is likely the conclusion of its capability to interact with specific neurotransmitters in several brain regions. The present study was designed to examine the role of the glutamatergic system on cannabinoid-induced hyperphagia in chicken. In this survey 10 experiments designed to investigate interaction of cannabinoidergic and glutamatergic systems on feeding behavior in neonatal chickens. In experiment 1, chicken were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with saline, 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 5.28 nmol, CB1 receptors agonist), MK-801(NMDA receptor antagonist, 15 nmol) and co-administration of 2-AG + MK-801. In experiment 2, injection of saline, 2-AG (5.28 nmol), CNQX) AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nmol) and their combination (2-AG + CNQX) was done. In Experiment 3, injections were saline, 2-AG (5.28 nmol), AIDA)mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol) and 2-AG + AIDA. Experiments 4 and 5 were similar to experiment 3, except birds injected with LY341495 (mGLUR2 glutamate antagonist, 150 nmol) and UBP1112 (mGLUR3 glutamate antagonist, 2 nmol) instead of AIDA. Experiments 6-10 followed the procedure similar to experiments 1-5, except chickens received ICV injection of CB65 (CB2 receptor agonist, 3 nmol), instead of 2-AG. Then the cumulative food intake measured until 120 min post injection. According to the results, ICV injection of 2-AG and CB65 significantly increased food intake (P < 0.001). Co-injection of 2-AG and MK-801 significantly amplified hyperphagic effect of CB1 receptors agonist(P < 0.001). Moreover, co-administration of CB65 plus CNQX significantly increased CB65- induced hyperphagia in FD3 neonatal layer-type chickens (P < 0.001). These results suggest there is an interaction between endocannabinoids and glutamatergic systems via NMDA and AMPA receptors in feeding behavior of neonatal layer-type chickens. PMID:27000110

  5. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...

  6. [Degree of synchronous feeding behavior of two types of laying hybrid hens in battery cages with a feeder space of 12 cm per hen].

    PubMed

    Knierim, U

    2000-11-01

    There is a considerable lack of scientific evidence on the necessary feeder space with respect to the legal requirement that all hens of one battery cage must be able to feed simultaneously. Moreover it is likely that hens from different lines, differing in weight and width, have different space needs at the feeding trough. In order to ascertain the degree of simultaneous feeding in two types of laying hybrids with different weights, feeding activity was recorded in 29 cages, populated with four hens each with a feeder space of 12 cm per hen. Recordings took place over 6 days at seven feeding times under ad libitum feeding conditions. In all cages, the lighter and apparently slimmer LSL-hens (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, white) were able to feed simultaneously. However, for the somewhat heavier and apparently broader LT-hens (Lohmann Tradition, brown) this could not be observed in two of 16 cages. Nevertheless, was the average proportion of cages higher in LT-hens in which synchronous feeding of all hens could be noted at least once within each 30 minutes observation period. These were 35% of cages (LT) compared to 18% in LSL-hens (p < 0.001). Therefore, not only the physical space needs, but also possible differences in social and feeding behaviour may affect synchrony in different lines. In general, the proportion of observation time with simultaneous feeding was low (3.3% in LT, 1.7% in LSL, n.s.). As there are no comparable figures available for different feeder space allowances from the literature, an assessment of the presented data is not possible. Investigations on the synchrony of feeding behaviour in small groups of laying hens under varying environmental conditions and in different layer lines should be continued. PMID:11153232

  7. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  8. Effects of incubation humidity and hatching time on heat tolerance of neonatal chicks: growth performance after heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, A M; Henken, A M; Van der Hel, W; Galal, A G; Abd-Elmoty, A K

    1991-07-01

    Three experiments were performed with 300 neonatal Hisex Brown layer chicks in each. The chicks hatched from eggs incubated at a relative humidity (RH) of 55 or 45%. Within each RH group, two groups were separated based on hatching time (early and late hatch groups). After hatch, 60 chicks served as controls. The other chicks were exposed to 35, 37, or 39 C for 48 h. After exposure, a 4-wk experimental growing period started at Day 2 of age. Chicks exposed to the experimental temperature regimens for 2 days had lower body weights at the end of exposure and grew less than controls during the 1st wk afterwards. At Day 2 of age, chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 45% RH had higher body weights than chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH. These chicks also had higher body weight gain in the 1st and 2nd wk following exposure to 39 C than chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH. Chicks hatching late were heavier at Day 2 than early-hatching ones, but body weight gain was similar. Chicks exposed to the experimental temperature regimens had lower rectal temperatures than controls at the end of the 1st and 2nd wk. Incubation RH, hatching time, and sex did not affect feed intake, feed conversion, or rectal temperature. After exposure to 39 C, fewer chicks that had hatched from eggs incubated at low RH died compared with chicks that had hatched from the 55% RH group. Early-hatching chicks had a significantly higher risk of dying than late-hatching ones. PMID:1886861

  9. Experimental melioidosis in hens.

    PubMed

    Vesselinova, A; Najdenski, H; Nikolova, S; Kussovski, V

    1996-08-01

    Experimental intramuscular infection of hens with Pseudomonas pseudomallei, strain 2796 (1 x 10(9) CFU from a 24-h culture) was reproduced. Clinical, paraclinical and pathomorphological findings were followed from 1 to 30 days after challenge. Haemagglutinin titre, bacterial dissemination in the viscera, number of leucocytes, alveolar (aMa) and peritoneal (pMa) macrophages and their phagocytic activity in vitro were studied. During the course of infection a leucocytosis as well as an increased haemagglutinin titre (1:256) were established. The number of bacteria per gram tissue in the spleen and liver was highest at 1 day post-infection (p.i.). Melioidose bacteria from egg yolk were isolated at 15 and 30 days p.i. Leucocyte and pMa phagocytic activity was maximal at 3 days p.i. unlike the activity of aMa which increased gradually until the end of the study. Inflammatory-necrotic changes were found in the viscera and brain at 3 and 15 days p.i. The investigation of experimental melioidosis infection in hens showed that they are susceptible to P. pseudomallei and this disease takes a generalized subacute course. PMID:8794700

  10. Hen egg yolk lipid fractions with antiatherogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Panagopoulou, Eleanna; Demopoulos, Constantinos; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-03-01

    Three different types of hen egg yolk, cage-free, organic and daily fresh, were tested for their antiatherogenic properties. Total lipids (TL) of all hen egg yolk samples were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer and further separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) by counter current distribution chromatography. TPL and TNL were further separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). TL, TPL, TNL and the obtained polar and neutral lipid fractions after TLC separation were tested to determine whether they induce platelet activation or inhibit platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet activation. All three hen egg yolk TL samples possessed strong inhibitory activity against PAF-induced platelet activation that was mainly attributed to TPL, especially to PL fraction 4. Cage-free hen egg yolk exhibited the most potent anti-PAF activity in all lipid classes (TL, TPL and TNL). Thus hen egg yolk contains PAF inhibitors that reinforce their nutritional value in terms of protection against cardiovascular diseases, since PAF is a crucial inflammatory phospholipid mediator that is implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis. PMID:23480708

  11. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks. PMID:26289531

  12. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  13. Passive solar hen house--Second year

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, E.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper describes the second year's study of a passive solar hen house. The first year's study demonstrated that a small flock of hens living in a solar heated environment can produce more eggs at a better feed efficiency than that predicted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for hens housed in standard hen housing. For this second year's work a new flock of Rhode Island Reds was raised and then divided in two groups - one housed in the solar hen house; the other in a barn. The solar housed group showed slightly better feed efficiency, but the barn housed group had better egg production. Both groups produced consistently heavier eggs than comparative commercial hens. However, the commercial hens showed higher feed efficiency than either the barn housed or the solar housed group for the 15 week test.

  14. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen

    PubMed Central

    ABOU ELAZAB, Mohamed Fahmy; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  15. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

  16. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  17. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  18. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  19. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and

  20. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus. PMID:26514927

  1. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

  2. Cu influence on hens egg productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Korotkoval, G. N.

    2003-05-01

    The high Cu content was detected in water, soil and plants of some areas in East Siberia region [1]. That is why it is necessary to study the influence of Cu on animals'productivity and morbidity. 5 group of cross Rodonit hens were taken for an experiment. For 30 days the hens from experimental groups (2 5) were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). In group 1 (control) the egg laying was 0.63 and in group 2 (5 UL)-0.70. Hens of group 3 (10 UL) decreased the egg productivity for 6 days followed by their 3-day cease to lay egg. From the 10th to 22nd day of the experiment the egg productivity restoring was marked (to 0.55). Besides 20% of the hens died for the last 10 days. In group 4 (20 UL) the dramatic decrease in the egg laying was revealed at the very onset and the productivity breaking off from the 9th ... 12th day of the study. 70% of the hens died during the first 13 ... 17 days. In group 5 (30 UL) the egg productivity was 5 times less than in the control for the first decade and all the hens died for 2 ... 14 days. Thus, Cu is toxic in concentrations more than 10 UL and may cause the decrease of the egg productivity and even death of hens.

  3. [Behaviour of laying hens in aviaries--review. Part 1: Social and resting behaviour of hens].

    PubMed

    Moesta, A; Knierim, U; Briese, A; Hartung, J

    2007-12-01

    This literature review gives information about important behaviour categories of laying hens kept in aviary systems. Based on current knowledge, the differences in behaviour of hens in aviaries compared to the behaviour of hens living under "close to natural" conditions are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. The focus of this first review is put on resting and particularly on social behaviour. So far "optimal" group size for laying hens and consequences of oversized groups for the well-being of laying hens are unknown, thus, rendering further research necessary. Referring to the resting and social behaviour of laying hens, proposals for the design of the housing system aviary are given. A second part will deal with feeding, reproductive and dustbathing behaviour. PMID:18181358

  4. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  5. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  6. Evaluation of two novel biochemicals on plasma and egg yolk lipid composition and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Freed, M; Watkins, B A; Srebnik, M; Kieft, K A; Newton, R S

    1993-03-01

    PD132301-2, an inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26), and 1-stearylboronic acid (SBA), a fatty acid analogue, were orally administered to White Leghorn hens in separate experiments to evaluate their effects on layer performance and plasma and egg yolk lipids. Five 60-wk-old hens each were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .0121, .0363, or .1089% PD132301-2. In a second experiment, 12 37-wk-old hens each were fed either a basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .20 or .40% SBA. The duration of the experiments were 21 and 16 days, respectively. Neither compound significantly affected hen-day production, egg weight, yolk weight, BW gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, or egg yolk cholesterol content. PD132301-2 had no effect on yolk fatty acid profiles, and C22:6n3 was the only fatty acid altered by SBA. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been successful in reducing egg cholesterol, ACAT inhibitors and fatty acid analogues apparently hold little promise in this regard. The results of the present work also support the concept that, in order to pharmacologically alter the cholesterol content of eggs, direct inhibition of key enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is necessary. PMID:8464792

  7. Effect of fermented earthworm cast on egg production and egg quality as well as removal of odor in feces from egg laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding fermented earthworm casts (EEC) to layers on egg-laying performance, blood lipid profiles, cecal microflora, and fecal odor removing performance. A total of 200 Hyline Brown layer chicks at 33-week-old were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to two numerically equal groups with 100 replications per treatment for 10 weeks. All the birds were caged individually. The control group was not treated with EEC. The EEC group was treated with top dressing containing 3.5% EEC. The present study revealed that egg production and egg weight were increased after feeding diet containing EEC at the top dressing level. Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength of EEC group were higher than those of control group. Egg yolk was determined for fatty acid profiling. It was found that EEC group had higher ratio of unsaturated- to saturated fatty acid as compared to control group. Lower ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in the egg yolk of EEC group. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were lower in the EEC group. However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was higher in the EEC group as compared to that in control group. The number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased while the population of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria decreased in the EEC group. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contents were lower in the EEC group as compared to those in control group. Taken together, these results suggested that EEC could improve egg production and egg quality. In addition, it could remove odour from laying-hen manure. PMID:27498506

  8. Effects of beta-mannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M E; Fodge, D W; Hsiao, H Y

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a patented enzyme product (beta-Mannanase, Hemicell) has been shown to improve feed conversion in corn-soybean diets fed to broilers and swine. The mechanism of beta-Mannanase is to degrade beta-mannan, which is an antinutritional factor existing in many legumes, including soybean and canola meals. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not performance can be improved by including beta-Mannanase in diets of commercial laying hens, 18 through 66 wk of age. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. There were two energy sequences of 2,926-2,907-2,885 and 2,827-2,808-2,786 kcal ME/kg, which changed at 33 and 43 wk of age respectively; two dietary enzyme levels (0 and 110 units/g); and two Hy-Line strains (W36 and W77). Hen-day production, hen-housed production, BW, feed intake, mortality, egg weight, and specific gravity data were collected biweekly. Data were analyzed in four cycles (each with six 2-wk periods) and also for the whole experiment. beta-Mannanase increased egg weight from 51.4 to 51.7 g/egg (P < 0.05) in the first 12-wk cycle. This effect was consistent across energy levels. beta-Mannanase significantly improved hen-day and hen-housed production after the first cycle. Hen-day production of the beta-Mannanase group was 0.70, 1.07, and 1.5% greater than the control for cycles two, three, and four, respectively (P < 0.01). After 30 wk of age, average hen-day production of hens fed the low-energy diets with beta-Mannanase was similar or superior to that of hens fed the high-energy diets without the enzyme. The study indicates that beta-Mannanase is capable of increasing egg weight in commercial layers at early stages of production, and increasing egg production, particularly delaying the postpeak decline in productivity. PMID:10626649

  9. Population size, cage area, and dominance rank effects on productivity and well-being of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, D L; van Tienhoven, A; Gvaryahu, G

    1988-03-01

    The effect of two cage population sizes (four vs. six/cage) and two cage area treatments (316 cm2 vs. 406 cm2/bird) were compared in a nonconfounded design while maintaining feeder space constant (8.9 cm/bird) for egg production performances and behavioral and physiological indicators of well-being of laying hens. Egg production rates were determined for all members of each cage group (palpations at 48 to 50 wk) and on a cage group basis (20 to 60 wk). Heart weights, plasma corticosterone levels, durations of tonic immobility (TI), and plumage conditions were compared for top and bottom birds in the dominance ranks. Significant reductions in egg production were observed for low ranking hens in the high density (4 and 6/316-cm2) treatments. In addition, high ranking hens of the 6/316-cm2 treatment produced fewer eggs than high ranking hens in the 4/316-cm2 treatment. When high and low ranking individuals were housed in single-hen cages, egg production was improved relative to performances in the social environments. Heart weights of hens, as a percentage of body weight, were increased in the low ranking hens and for hens in the smaller cage size. Plasma corticosterone did not prove to be a useful indicator of well-being. Low ranking individuals had greater durations of TI but differences in feather condition were not detected. The results support the contention that appropriate population sizes and cage space allocations can be determined that will optimize the performance and welfare of layers in cage environments. PMID:3405919

  10. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems. PMID:26953938

  11. Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

  12. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  13. Maternal corticosterone further reduces the reproductive function of male offspring hatched from eggs laid by quail hens selected for exaggerated adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A

    2007-03-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can depress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male quail cloacal gland (CG) size and foam production shows androgen dependency, and males selected for exaggerated [high stress (HS)] rather than reduced [low stress (LS)] plasma corticosterone (B) stress response exhibit reduced CG and testes development. High stress hens also deposit more B into egg yolks than LS ones, and quail hens given B produce chicks that have a reduced growth rate and adults with heightened HPA responsiveness. Herein, we gave LS and HS hens no B [empty implants, control (CON)] or B-filled implants and assessed the reproductive performances of these hens and their male offspring. Mortality was similarly elevated in LS and HS B-treated hens, but only HS B-implanted hens showed reduced egg production. In male offspring, CG volume (CVOL), intensity of CG foam production (CFP), and the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam were measured from 4 to 11 wk of age. At 6 wk, BW, and at 15 wk, BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW were also determined. Hen treatments did not affect male chick CVOL at 4 wk, but CVOL differed thereafter as follows: LS CON > LS B = HS CON = HS B at 5 and 6 wk and LS CON > LS B > HS CON = HS B from 7 to 11 wk. By 8 wk, and thereafter, CFP differed as follows: LS CON > LS B > HS CON > HS B. Group differences in the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam generally supported CFP findings from 4 to 8 wk of age. Body weight did not differ by treatment at 6 wk of age. By 15 wk, TWT were similarly depressed in both HS groups. However, similarly higher 15-wk BW in the LS-CON and HS-B groups contributed to TWT relative to BW differences as follows: LS-B > LS-CON > HS-B; LS-CON = HS-CON; LS-B > HS-CON; and, HS-CON = HS-B. Both selection for exaggerated HPA responsiveness and maternal B treatment negatively affected the reproductive function of HS male offspring. PMID:17297171

  14. Hen welfare in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Lay, D C; Fulton, R M; Hester, P Y; Karcher, D M; Kjaer, J B; Mench, J A; Mullens, B A; Newberry, R C; Nicol, C J; O'Sullivan, N P; Porter, R E

    2011-01-01

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare hens experience. Although the need to evaluate the influence of these factors on welfare is recognized, research is still in the early stages. We compared conventional cages, furnished cages, noncage systems, and outdoor systems. Specific attributes of each system are shown to affect welfare, and systems that have similar attributes are affected similarly. For instance, environments in which hens are exposed to litter and soil, such as noncage and outdoor systems, provide a greater opportunity for disease and parasites. The more complex the environment, the more difficult it is to clean, and the larger the group size, the more easily disease and parasites are able to spread. Environments such as conventional cages, which limit movement, can lead to osteoporosis, but environments that have increased complexity, such as noncage systems, expose hens to an increased incidence of bone fractures. More space allows for hens to perform a greater repertoire of behaviors, although some deleterious behaviors such as cannibalism and piling, which results in smothering, can occur in large groups. Less is understood about the stress that each system imposes on the hen, but it appears that each system has its unique challenges. Selective breeding for desired traits such as improved bone strength and decreased feather pecking and cannibalism may help to improve welfare. It appears that no single housing system is ideal from a hen welfare perspective. Although environmental complexity increases behavioral opportunities, it also introduces difficulties in terms of disease and pest control. In addition, environmental complexity can create opportunities for the hens to express behaviors that may be detrimental to their welfare. As a

  15. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  16. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  17. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  18. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  19. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (P<0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds

  20. Ultrasonic eggshell thickness measurement for selection of layers.

    PubMed

    Kibala, Lucyna; Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona; Kasperek, Kornel; Zieba, Grzegorz; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for using ultrasonic technology (USG) to record eggshell thickness for selection of layers. Genetic correlations between eggshell strength and its thickness have been reported to be around 0.8, making shell thickness a selection index candidate element. Applying ultrasonic devices to measure shell thickness leaves an egg intact for further handling. In this study, eggs from 2 purebred populations of Rhode Island White (RIW) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens were collected on a single day in the 33rd week of the farm laying calendar from 2,414 RIR and 4,525 RIW hens. Beginning from the large end of the egg, measurements were taken at 5 latitudes: 0º (USG0), 45º (USG45), 90º (USG90), 135º (USG135), and 180º (USG180). To estimate the repeatability of readings, measurements were repeated at each parallel on 3 meridians. Electronic micrometer measurement ( EMM: ) were taken with an electronic micrometer predominantly at the wider end of eggs from 2,397 RIR and 4,447 RIW hens. A multiple-trait statistical model fit the fixed effect of year-of-hatch × hatch-within-year, and random effects due to repeated measurements (except EMM) and an animal's additive genetic component. The shell was thinnest in the region where chicks break it upon hatching (USG0, USG45). Heritabilities of shell thickness in different regions of the shell ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 (EMM) in RIW and from 0.12 to 0.23 (EMM) in RIR and were highest for USG45 and USG0. Because the measurement repeatabilities were all above 0.90, our recommendation for balancing egg strength against hatching ease is to take a single measurement of USG45. Due to high positive genetic correlations between shell thickness in different regions of the shell its thickness in the pointed end region will be modified accordingly, in response to selection for USG45. PMID:26316340

  1. Ovarian morphology and internal vis-à-vis non internal laying in relation to triacylglycerol, hormones and their receptors concentration around the age of sexual maturity in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Moudgal, R P; Agarwal, R; Sirajuddin, M; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Tyagi, J S

    2013-01-01

    1. Ovarian morphology, serum hormone concentrations of 17-β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were investigated at 23 and 26 weeks of age in broiler breeder hens provided with ad libitum access to feed. Progesterone, oestrogen-β, thyroid-α and -β receptor mRNAs were also quantified in the infundibulum at the same ages. 2. A large variation in the ovarian morphology was observed at 23 weeks of age including hens with undeveloped ovaries, non-laying hens with post ovulatory follicles (POF) and a predominance of non-laying hens without a POF. 3. Serum concentrations of triglyceride, 17-β-estradiol and progesterone at 23 weeks of age were lower in hens with an undeveloped ovary compared with other groups of hens, whereas testosterone, triiodothyronine and thyroxin were higher. 4. At 26 weeks of age, the average number of hierarchical yellow follicles in normal layers was 7.64 ± 0·41 whereas in internal layers, the follicular numbers were significantly greater at 8.66 ± 0·53. The higher follicular numbers in internal layers were associated with higher serum triglyceride and progesterone concentrations. 5. Oestrogen receptor-β and thyroid receptor-β mRNA was up regulated in the infundibulum of internal layers compared with normal laying hens at 26 weeks of age. PMID:23444865

  2. Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Abrams, L

    1976-09-01

    Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens severely reduced egg production particularly at the time of peak production. Hens were able to consume large numbers of Musca domestica, the intermediate host of Choanotaenia infundibulum following the use of an aerosol insecticide to control flies. A considerable discharge of cestodes followed the use of "Lintex" in the feed resulting in a marked improvement in egg production. The use of an insect growth regulator in the feed showed promise in controlling the breeding of flies. PMID:994133

  3. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A multifaceted experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, wound healing, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. PMID:27178379

  4. Do stocking rate and a simple run management practice influence the infection of laying hens with gastrointestinal helminths?

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, F; Häring, D A; Amsler, Z; Maurer, V

    2009-01-22

    The aim of this experiment conducted at four sites in Switzerland was to investigate the transmission and infectivity of the two main helminth parasite species of poultry (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) in outdoor runs with two different stocking rates. Additionally, the influence of a simple management practice (mowing of run) on helminth transmission was studied. Three run types were created on each site: runs C served as control (stocking rate 10 m(2)/hen, no management), runs B corresponded to runs C but were managed (10 m(2)/hen, management). In runs A stocking rates were doubled compared to control runs (5m(2)/hen, no management). During two subsequent layer flocks, a set of parasitological parameters (faecal egg counts (FECs), prevalence, worm burdens in hens and in tracer animals, helminth eggs in soil) as well as parameters describing the run vegetation were determined. The increased stocking rate (runs A) led to a larger proportion of bare soil and to a reduction of the average vegetation height. In runs with a lower stocking rate (B and C), the proportion of bare soil did not increase during the experimental period. Irrespective of the run type, numbers of helminth eggs in the soil decreased significantly with an increasing distance to the hen houses, while the percentage of ground coverage as well as vegetation height increased. However, across runs the correlation between the percentage of ground cover and the values of eggs per gram soil between runs was very low (r(2)=0.0007, P=0.95) indicating a non-causal relationship. Significant differences in FEC were found in flock 2 (P<0.001): FEC of hens in managed runs B were 24% lower (P<0.05) than those of the control animals. Although not significant, the corresponding prevalence was lower (-9.7%) in hens from managed runs as well. Hens from runs with a high stocking rate (A) had significantly higher FEC than hens from control runs (C). In flock 2 management (n.s.) and higher stocking rates

  5. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:26569471

  6. Organ weight and serum triglyceride responses of older (80 week) commercial laying hens fed an alfalfa meal molt diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since one of the costs in the commercial egg industry is that of replacement pullets, commercial egg layer managers have opted to induce molt older hens in order to extend their productive life for additional egg laying cycles. Conventional molt induction involves the complete removal of feed for s...

  7. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-08-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens' movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the 'dark' observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the 'light' observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  8. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  9. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Luptakova, Lenka; Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental data of carbamate pesticides are scarce although they generally possess low toxicity for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bendiocarb to liver and central nervous system of chick embryos. Bendiocarb (1600 μg/egg) was administered to the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic day 3 and 10. In the liver and central nervous system we observed no macroscopic or microscopic changes. These organs were also investigated for caspase activity in regard to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The embryolethality after bendiocarb respective dose was high (94 %) on the embryonic day 3, though following results indicated no toxicity to investigated organs and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in survived chick embryos on both the early (day 3 of incubation) and the later (day 10 of incubation) developmental stage. PMID:22540656

  10. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens. PMID:18753438

  11. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  12. Chick embryos can form teratomas from microinjected mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Seiki; Matsubara, Yuko; Hosoe, Misa

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether chick embryos are a suitable experimental model for the evaluation of pluripotency of stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing the reporter gene, LacZ or GFP were injected into the subgerminal cavity of blastoderms (freshly oviposited) or the marginal vein of chick embryos (2 days of incubation). Injected mESCs were efficiently incorporated into the body and extra-embryonic tissues of chick embryos and formed small clusters. Increased donor cell numbers injected were positively associated with the efficiency of chimera production, but with lower viability. A single mESC injected into the blastoderm proliferated into 34.7 ± 3.8 cells in 3 days, implying that the chick embryo provides an optimal environment for the growth of xenogenic cells. In the embryo body, mESCs were interspersed as small clustered chimeras in various tissues. Teratomas were observed in the yolk sac and the brain with three germ layers. In the yolk sac, clusters of mESCs gradually increased in volume and exhibited varied morphology such as a water balloon-like or dark-red solid mass. However, mESCs in the brain developed into a large soft tissue mass of whitish color and showed a tendency to differentiate into ectodermal lineage cells, including primitive neural ectodermal and neuronal cells expressing the neurofilament protein. These results indicate that chick embryos are useful for the teratoma formation assays of mESCs and have a broad-range potential as an experimental host model. PMID:26691605

  13. Phosphorous requirements of laying hens in a semiarid continental climate.

    PubMed

    Daghir, N J; Farran, M T; Kaysi, S A

    1985-07-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn layers raised in floor pens in conventional open housing were used to determine their phosphorous requirement in a semiarid continental climate. Dietary available phosphorous (AP) of .15, .25, .35, and .45% were fed continuously from 26 to 74 weeks of age. Concurrently, diets containing .45, .35, and .25% AP or .35, .25, and .15% AP were "phase fed" during the age intervals of 26 to 42, 42 to 54, and 54 to 74 weeks, respectively. Diets used were corn-soybean diets in which the phosphorous was varied by changing the level of dicalcium phosphate in the ration. Under the conditions of this experiment, hens required a minimum of .25% AP for best egg production, feed consumption, and body weight gain. The AP levels above .35% depressed shell thickness. In a phase-feeding program, when the last phase corresponds with the summer season, AP should not go below .25% for best performance. PMID:4022909

  14. Eggshell penetration of various types of hens' eggs by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Grijspeerdt, Koen; De Reu, Koen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Mertens, Kristof; Bamelis, Flip; Kemps, Bart; De Baerdemaeker, Josse; Decuypere, Eddy; Herman, Lieve

    2007-03-01

    Egg weight, shell thickness, number of pores, cuticle deposition, eggshell strength (dynamic stiffness and damping ratio), and the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) to penetrate the eggshell were determined. Penetration was assessed by filling the eggs with a selective medium that allowed viewing of Salmonella growth on the inside of the shell and membrane complex. After inoculation of each shell with on average 2.71 log CFU, the eggs were stored for up to 14 days at 20 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Commercially available eggs were used. At 14 days of storage, only 6.0% of the eggs from free-range hens and 16.0% of the generic (i.e., eggs from hens in conventional battery cages that were given standard feed) white eggs were penetrated. The generic brown, organic, and omega-3-enriched eggs were penetrated at a frequency of 30 to 34%. In a second experiment it was shown that the layer strains of the hen (ISA-Brown Warren versus Bovans Goldline), which were kept in furnished cages, did not affect eggshell penetration by SE. For Bovans Goldline hens, the housing system (furnished cage versus aviary) did not affect penetration, while a trend was visible toward a higher fraction of penetrated eggshells when hens were fed corncob mix rather than standard feed. Eggshell penetration was observed more frequently in the absence of cuticle spots and for eggs having lower dynamic stiffness values. Shell contamination at the end of storage was highly correlated with SE penetration. PMID:17388050

  15. Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

  16. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  17. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-04-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  18. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  19. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  20. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

  2. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  3. Plasminogen-independent fibrinolysis by proteases produced by transformed chick embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L B; Buchanan, J M

    1975-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of proteases secreted by chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus was studied by use of a procedure in which a fibrin clot was formed with highly purified fibrinogen and thrombin above the cell layer. This procedure results in the formation of fibrin that is apparently a more suitable substrate for studies on fibrinolysis than is fibrin prepared by other methods. Since neither plasminogen nor serum were included in the assay system in the present studies, the fibrinolytic activity observed cannot be ascribed to the conversion of the plasminogen in serum to plasmin by a plasminogen activator produced by transformed cells. Our procedure, therefore, measures proteolytic activities other than those reported by previous investigators. Maintenance of some of the transformed phenotypes of Rous sarcoma virus transformed chick embryo fibroblasts such as morpholigical change and increased rate of glucose uptake apparently does not depend on the presence of plasminogen in the culture medium. Images PMID:165484

  4. Feeding BAY Vi 7533 to hens.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W; Wong, Y; Thomas, O P

    1984-09-01

    BAY Vi7533 (2-chloro-N-[[[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl] amino] carbonyl] benzamide) was fed to White Leghorn and Vedette Mini-broiler breeder hens at concentrations ranging from 0 to 25 ppm in the ration. Concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm resulted in greater than 95% mortality of house flies, Musca domestica L., seeded as larvae into the droppings. Concentration of 25 ppm reduced egg production in the White Leghorn but not in the Vedette Mini-broiler hens. At each concentration (except 5 ppm for Vedette Mini-broilers) residues of the compound were detected in the eggs. These residues, however, had no adverse effects on fertility or hatchability of the eggs. PMID:6483739

  5. Efficient ectopic gene expression targeting chick mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kerby C; Pira, Charmaine U; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Ratz, Beate; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Eichele, Gregor

    2002-07-01

    The chick model has been instrumental in illuminating genes that regulate early vertebrate development and pattern formation. Targeted ectopic gene expression is critical to dissect further the complicated gene interactions that are involved. In an effort to develop a consistent method to ectopically introduce and focally express genes in chick mesoderm, we evaluated and optimized several gene delivery methods, including implantation of 293 cells laden with viral vectors, direct adenoviral injection, and electroporation (EP). We targeted the mesoderm of chick wing buds between stages 19 and 21 (Hamburger and Hamilton stages) and used beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to document gene transfer. Expression constructs using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the beta-actin promoter, and vectors with an internal ribosomal entry sequence linked to GFP (IRES-GFP) were also compared. After gene transfer, we monitored expression for up to 3 days. The functionality of ectopic expression was demonstrated with constructs containing the coding sequences for Shh, a secreted signaling protein, or Hoxb-8, a transcription factor, both of which can induce digit duplication when ectopically expressed in anterior limb mesoderm. We identified several factors that enhance mesodermal gene transfer. First, the use of a vector with the beta-actin promoter coupled to the 69% fragment of the bovine papilloma virus yielded superior mesodermal expression both by markers and functional results when compared with several CMV-driven vectors. Second, we found the use of mineral oil to be an important adjuvant for EP and direct viral injection to localize and contain vector within the mesoderm at the injection site. Lastly, although ectopic expression could be achieved with all three methods, we favored EP confined to the mesoderm with insulated microelectrodes (confined microelectroporation- CMEP), because vector construction is rapid, the method is efficient, and results

  6. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  7. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  8. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  9. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor in the neurohypophysis of hens.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kawashima, M

    2009-08-01

    To elucidate whether the receptor for prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), one of PG, exists in the neurohypophysis in hens and whether the binding of receptor changes with relation to oviposition, the PGF(2alpha) binding component in the membrane fraction of the neurohypophysis of laying hens was analyzed by radioligand binding assay using [5,6,8,9,11,12,14,15(n)-(3)H]PGF(2alpha). The binding component had characteristics of a receptor such as binding specificity, high affinity, and limited capacity for PGF(2alpha). Scatchard analysis indicated that the binding site was of a single class. The binding capacity of the receptor was smaller in laying hens than in nonlaying hens, whereas the binding affinity was not significantly different between these hens. When non-laying hens received an i.m. injection of estradiol-17beta or progesterone (0.5 mg/hen), the specific binding of the PGF(2alpha) receptor in the neurohypophysis was decreased. In laying hens, the specific binding decreased and the blood arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentration increased just after oviposition but did not change during a 24-h day in nonlaying hens. An i.v. injection of PGF(2alpha) (2 microg/hen) induced oviposition and caused an increase in the blood AVT concentration with a decrease in the specific binding of PGF(2alpha) receptor. The present study suggests a possibility that PGF(2alpha) may directly cause the AVT release from the neurohypophysis at oviposition time in hens. PMID:19590087

  10. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρL, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  11. Measurement of the Photoreceptor Pointing in the Living Chick Eye

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Maria K.; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in-vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (gallus gallus domestie beled) chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particul chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρl, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17 mm−2 for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20 mm−2 for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  12. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether. PMID:6711983

  13. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  14. Attenuation by leptin of the effects of fasting on ovarian function in hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, H E; Gertler, A; Proszkowiec, M; Proudman, J; Hrabia, A; Sechman, A; Mika, M; Jacek, T; Cassy, S; Raver, N; Rzasa, J

    2003-12-01

    Thirty-four-week-old laying hens received injections of recombinant chicken leptin to assess the role of leptin in avian ovarian function. In the first experiment, the hens (n=60) were divided into three groups: (i). fed ad libitum; (ii). fasted; and (iii). fasted + leptin. Hens were fasted for 5 days and those treated with leptin received 250 microg leptin kg-1 body weight twice a day, i.p. In the second experiment, the hens (n=72) were divided into four groups: (i). fed ad libitum; (ii). fasted; (iii). fasted + leptin given only during fasting (5 days); or (iv). fasted and leptin given during both fasting and 5 days of re-feeding (10 days). LH was measured in blood plasma, and progesterone and oestradiol were measured in blood plasma and the ovary by radioimmunoassay. Apoptosis was examined in the walls of the three largest yellow hierarchical follicles (F3-F1; F3hens was determined by RT-PCR. The highest expression of leptin receptor was observed in the hypothalamus. Lower receptor mRNA expression was found in the hypophysis, whereas the lowest expression was observed in the ovary. Within the ovary, a relatively high expression of leptin receptor was found in the stroma with cortical follicles <1 mm, the wall of white (1-8 mm) and small yellow follicles (>8-12 mm), and the granulosa layer of F3 follicles. The expression of leptin receptor in the granulosa layer of F2 and F1

  15. Social predisposition dependent neuronal activity in the intermediate medial mesopallium of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Lorenzi, Elena; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Species from phylogenetically distant animal groups, such as birds and primates including humans, share early experience-independent social predispositions that cause offspring, soon after birth, to attend to and learn about conspecifics. One example of this phenomenon is provided by the behaviour of newly-hatched visually-naïve domestic chicks that preferentially approach a stimulus resembling a conspecific (a stuffed fowl) rather than a less naturalistic object (a scrambled version of the stuffed fowl). However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this behaviour are mostly unknown. Here we analysed chicks' brain activity with immunohistochemical detection of the transcription factor c-Fos. In a spontaneous choice test we confirmed a significant preference for approaching the stuffed fowl over a texture fowl (a fowl that was cut in small pieces attached to the sides of a box in scrambled order). Comparison of brain activation of a subgroup of chicks that approached either one or the other stimulus revealed differential activation in an area relevant for imprinting (IMM, intermediate medial mesopallium), suggesting that a different level of plasticity is associated with approach to naturalistic and artificial stimuli. c-Fos immunoreactive neurons were present also in the intermediate layers of the optic tectum (a plausible candidate for processing early social predispositions) showing a trend similar to the results for the IMM. PMID:27173429

  16. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, mu...

  17. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system. PMID:23873573

  18. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  19. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  20. Effect of dietary vanadium and vitamin C on egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; He, K R; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of dietary vanadium (V) and vitamin C (VC) on production performance, egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens. A total of 360 laying hens (31-week-old) were randomly allotted into a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement treatments (four replicates and 10 chicks per replicate) with three levels of dietary V (0, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The effect of V and VC did not alter egg production, egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-12 week. Albumen height and Haugh unit value were linearly decreased (p < 0.001) by addition of V, whereas the effect of 100 mg/kg VC was observed to counteract (p < 0.05) this effect in V-containing treatments during 1-12 week. Hens fed V-containing diet laid lighter (linear effect, p < 0.05) coloured eggs (higher lightness value, lower redness and yellowness value), and the VC exerted no influence on it during 1-12 week. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical, were significantly decreased, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and V contents were increased (p < 0.05) by effect of V during 4, 8 and 12 week. The effect of VC alone and the interactive effect between VC and V were shown to increase serum (p < 0.05) SOD activity in 4 week and decrease MAD levels in 12 week. The result indicate that V decreased the egg quality and caused the oxidative stress at level of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, and the addition of 100 mg/kg vitamin C can alleviate its egg quality reduction effect and can mitigate the oxidative stress to some extent. PMID:26259765

  1. Rearing without early access to perches impairs the spatial skills of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson; Yngvesson; Keeling; Forkman

    2000-04-01

    The effect of rearing with and without perches on the spatial ability of domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated. No access or late access to perches during rearing has been shown to increase the later prevalence of floor eggs and cloacal cannibalism in loose-housed laying hens. This may be explained by either the birds reared without perches have difficulty using perches due to low muscle strength, lack of motor skills, and inability to keep balance, or they have impaired spatial skills necessary for moving around in three-dimensional space. These alternative explanations are not mutually exclusive.Thirty, day-old chicks were randomly allocated into two equal groups and reared in litter pens, one with access to perches (P+) and one without (P-). At 8 weeks of age, all birds were given access to perches, and by 15 weeks, all birds were using perches for roosting at night. At 16 weeks, 10 birds from each group were tested in pens where food was presented on a wire mesh tier 40 cm above the ground (T40). Three consecutive tests, with increasing difficulty for the bird to reach the food, were then performed. Firstly, the food was presented at 80 cm above the ground but with the tier at 40 cm still present; secondly, food was presented on the tier at 80 cm; and then, finally, with the food on a 160 cm high tier with the tier at 80 cm still present. All birds were food deprived for 15 h before each test and the time from the bird entering the pen until reaching the food was recorded. There was no difference in the time to reach the food between P+ and P- birds in the T40 test. But as the difficulty of the task increased, the difference between the P+ and P- birds became significant, with the P- birds taking a longer time to reach the food or not reaching it at all. Since there was no difference between P+ and P- in the T40 test, it seems reasonable to suppose that the later differences did not depend on differences in physical ability. Therefore, the

  2. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  3. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  4. Effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lien, T F; Chen, K L; Wu, C P; Lu, J J

    2004-08-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens using 144 forty-five-week-old White Leghorn layers. The hens were randomly assigned into 9 groups to conduct this 3 copper (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg as copper sulphate) x 3 chromium (0, 800 and 1600 microg/kg as chromium picolinate) factorial trial. 2. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly reduced by supplementary copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) and there was an interaction between Cu and Cr supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength and eggshell thickness were not influenced by Cu or Cr supplementation. 3. Serum cholesterol concentration was decreased by Cu supplementation and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was reduced markedly by both Cu and Cr. On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased by Cu and Cr. Interaction occurred between Cu and Cr in the VLDL and HDL parameters. Supplmentary Cu also reduced VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and enhanced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), while supplemental Cr had a contrary effect on these two parameters. 4. If minimum egg cholesterol content is the criterion, this study suggests that 125 mg/kg of Cu together with 800 to 1600 microg/kg of Cr provide adequate supplementary concentrations for laying hens. PMID:15484730

  5. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  6. The toxicity of purified fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Henry, M H; Wyatt, R D; Fletchert, O J

    2000-10-01

    An investigation of the toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme, in broiler chicks was conducted. Purified FB1 (98.1% pure) was incorporated into the diets of broiler chicks at 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, and fed to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Dietary FB1, at concentrations of 80 mg/kg or less, did not adversely affect body weight, feed efficiency, or water consumption of broiler chicks. The relative weights of the liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius were also unaffected (P < 0.05) by any dietary concentration of FB1 compared with the control (0 mg/kg) group. Total liver lipids of chicks fed 40 or 80 mg FB1/kg were significantly lower than those of the chicks fed either 0 or 20 mg FB1/kg of feed. Liver sphinganine concentration and the sphinganine:sphingosine ratio were increased significantly in all treated groups. Chicks fed dietary FB1 at 80 mg/kg had significantly higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransaminase:aspartate aminotransferase ratios and levels of free sphinganine in the serum. The results of this investigation agree with the results previously described, in which FB1 was supplied to diets from the use of F. moniliforme-contaminated grain; therefore, the use of such material as the source of the mycotoxin in animal feeding studies is appropriate. PMID:11055840

  7. Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

    2009-05-01

    Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

  8. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  9. Potential for horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine hens were inoculated orally and intravaginally with a marker strain of Salmonella and Campylobacter at 56 wk-of-age and housed in individual cages in isolation. Challenged hens were comingled with non-challenged hens 2 wk post-inoculation, at a ratio of 1 challenged hen per 4 non-challenged he...

  10. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  11. Expression of Wise in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Y; Itasaki, N

    2007-08-01

    We have performed in situ hybridization to study the expression of Wise in early chick embryos. Wise expression is first detectable in the ectoderm at posterior levels of late neurula. As development proceeds, Wise expression is seen in specific patterns in the ectoderm of the trunk region, pharyngeal arches, limb buds, and feather buds. In addition to these areas, particular cartilages such as the ones in the maxillary process and limbs start to express Wise at the late pharyngula stage, and the expression in these cartilages becomes stronger than that in epidermal components at later stages. Importantly, Wise is expressed in regions where other signaling molecules such as Wnt, Bmp, and Shh are known to function in morphogenesis and differentiation. Direct comparisons of the expression of Wise and these genes are also demonstrated. PMID:17654720

  12. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  13. Cochlear nerve activity after intense sound exposure in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J C; Doan, D E; Poje, C P; Fisher, K A

    1996-08-01

    between 0.8 and 1.0 kHz showed abnormal growth and higher discharge rates at saturation than the control cells. Outside of this frequency range the rate-intensity functions of control and exposed cells were similar to each other. 6. Recovery of function in the sound-damaged chick ear is accompanied by almost complete repair of the basilar papilla. The tectorial membrane, however, retains a major defect and only the lower layer of this membrane regenerates. An important observation in this presentation was the abnormal rate-intensity functions (in the 12-day recovered cells) reported for frequencies served by that region of the sensory epithelium where the tectorial membrane defect was found. This observation may be related to sustained structural damage to the short hair cell region of the papilla and/or alterations in the efferent control of papilla function mediated by the short hair cells. PMID:8871198

  14. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  16. Tribasic copper chloride toxicosis in commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Malinak, Chad M; Hofacre, Charles C; Collett, Stephen R; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S; Myers, Elise; Wang, Yun-Ting; França, Monique

    2014-12-01

    Two broiler chicken houses containing 17,500 chicks each experienced an extreme elevation in chick mortality beginning on day 3 after placement. Clinical signs observed upon farm visit included numerous small chicks for their age; depressed, lethargic, and comatose chicks; and chicks huddling near feed pans and under heaters. Necropsied chicks were markedly pale and had atrophy of the thymus and bursa, swollen and edematous proventriculus, erosions in the koilin and in the proventricular-ventricular junction, pale kidneys, and yellowish to brownish-orange liver often with linear pale areas. The chicks had watery blood and hematocrits measured from 9.5% to 18%. Chicken infectious anemia was initially suspected based on the clinical signs and gross lesions. Histopathology revealed multifocal acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis with golden-brown pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, moderate to severe koilin degeneration and fragmentation, multifocal mild to moderate proventricular necrosis, mild to moderate necrosis and loss of enterocytes, blunting of small intestinal villi, lymphoid depletion in the thymus and bursa, erythrophagocytosis in the liver and spleen, and acute renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Special stains revealed mild to abundant accumulation of copper pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and iron pigment in the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells. Feed analysis revealed 2140 to 2393 parts per million of copper in the starter ration, and heavy metal analysis detected markedly elevated copper levels in formalin-fixed samples of the liver. Excessive amounts of tribasic copper chloride in the starter ration caused copper toxicosis in these chicks. Similar clinical signs and lesions were reproduced when the suspect feed was used in an experimental pen trial. PMID:25619012

  17. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

  18. [Utilization and transformation of sulfur-containing compounds by hens].

    PubMed

    Lagodiuk, P Z; Ratych, I B; Skvaruk, V I; Strazhnyk, Z Ia; Nazarevich, L E

    1984-01-01

    In the experiments with 35S-labelled sodium sulfate, sulfate sulfur was found to be used for cysteine synthesis in hens. The 35S label was detected in hen's eggs as well, the subshell membranes possessing the highest specific radioactivity. A dependence of 35S incorporation on the ovule developmental stage was revealed. It was established that a shortage of sulfur-containing amino acids in hens' diet can be partially compensated by sodium sulfate sulfur, which influences the concentration of some metabolites. PMID:6718330

  19. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  20. Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  1. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

  2. Analysis of Lrrn1 expression and its relationship to neuromeric boundaries during chick neural development

    PubMed Central

    Andreae, Laura C; Peukert, Daniela; Lumsden, Andrew; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    Background The Drosophila leucine-rich repeat proteins Tartan (TRN) and Capricious (CAPS) mediate cell affinity differences during compartition of the wing imaginal disc. This study aims to identify and characterize the expression of a chick orthologue of TRN/CAPS and examine its potential function in relation to compartment boundaries in the vertebrate central nervous system. Results We identified a complementary DNA clone encoding Leucine-rich repeat neuronal 1 (Lrrn1), a single-pass transmembrane protein with 12 extracellular leucine-rich repeats most closely related to TRN/CAPS. Lrrn1 is dynamically expressed during chick development, being initially localized to the neural plate and tube, where it is restricted to the ventricular layer. It becomes downregulated in boundaries following their formation. In the mid-diencephalon, Lrrn1 expression prefigures the position of the anterior boundary of the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI). It becomes progressively downregulated from the presumptive ZLI just before the onset of expression of the signalling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh) within the ZLI. In the hindbrain, downregulation at rhombomere boundaries correlates with the emergence of specialized boundary cell populations, in which it is subsequently reactivated. Immunocolocalization studies confirm that Lrrn1 protein is endocytosed from the plasma membrane and is a component of the endosomal system, being concentrated within the early endosomal compartment. Conclusion Chick Lrrn1 is expressed in ventricular layer neuroepithelial cells and is downregulated at boundary regions, where neurogenesis is known to be delayed, or inhibited. The timing of Lrrn1 downregulation correlates closely with the activation of signaling molecule expression at these boundaries. This expression is consistent with the emergence of secondary organizer properties at boundaries and its endosomal localisation suggests that Lrrn1 may regulate the subcellular localisation of specific

  3. Using neurogenin to Reprogram Chick RPE to Produce Photoreceptor-like Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiumei; Ma, Wenxin; Zhuo, Yehong; Yan, Run-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. One potential therapy for vision loss from photoreceptor degeneration is cell replacement, but this approach presents a need for photoreceptor cells. This study explores whether the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could be a convenient source of developing photoreceptors. Methods. The RPE of chick embryos was subjected to reprogramming by proneural genes neurogenin (ngn)1 and ngn3. The genes were introduced into the RPE through retrovirus RCAS-mediated transduction, with the virus microinjected into the eye or added to retinal pigment epithelial explant culture. The retinal pigment epithelia were then analyzed for photoreceptor traits. Results. In chick embryos infected with retrovirus RCAS-expressing ngn3 (RCAS-ngn3), the photoreceptor gene visinin (the equivalent of mammalian recoverin) was expressed in cells of the retinal pigment epithelial layer. When isolated and cultured as explants, retinal pigment epithelial tissues from embryos infected with RCAS-ngn3 or RCAS-ngn1 gave rise to layers of visinin-positive cells. These reprogrammed cells expressed genes of phototransduction and synapses, such as red opsin, the α-subunit of cone transducin, SNAP-25, and PSD-95. Reprogramming occurred with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from virally infected embryos and with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from normal embryos, with the recombinant viruses added at the onset of the explant culture. In addition, reprogramming took place in retinal pigment epithelial explants from both young and old embryos, from embryonic day (E)6 to E18, when the visual system becomes functional in the chick. Conclusions. The results support the prospect of exploring the RPE as a convenient source of developing photoreceptors for in situ cell replacement. PMID:19628733

  4. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  5. Urate synthesis in the perfused chick liver

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Eileen; Buttery, Peter J.; Boorman, K. Neil

    1974-01-01

    Urate synthesis was studied in a perfused chicken liver preparation. The perfused liver had an ATP/ADP ratio of 0.29±0.05(6) compared with 0.34±0.07(10) in liver obtained from chicks under ether anaesthesia. Lactate/pyruvate ratios were 9.4±1.7(5) in the perfused liver and 14.8±1.8(5) in the rapidly sampled liver. Urate synthesis was only marginally stimulated by glycine, glutamine, aspartic acid or NH4Cl, but significant increases were observed with phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, aminoimidazolecarboxylic acid riboside, inosine, inosinic acid and xanthine. Urate synthesis from glycine, glutamine, NH4Cl, asparagine, alanine, histidine and a mixture of 21 amino acids was obtained on inclusion of insulin in the perfusion medium. Evidence for the inclusion of the carbon of histidine into uric acid was obtained. Aspects of the energy consumption associated with the conversion of excess of amino acid into uric acid are considered. PMID:4462579

  6. Ventral vs. dorsal chick dermal progenitor specification.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ingrid; Viallet, Jean P; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The dorsal and the ventral trunk integuments of the chick differ in their dermal cell lineage (originating from the somatic and somatopleural mesoderm respectively) and in the distribution of their feather fields. The dorsal macropattern has a large spinal pteryla surrounded by semi-apteria, whereas the ventral skin has a true medial apterium surrounded by the ventral pterylae. Comparison of the results of heterotopic transplantations of distal somatopleure in place of somatic mesoderm (Mauger 1972) or in place of proximal somatopleure (our data), leads to two conclusions. These are that the fate of the midventral apterium is not committed at day 2 of incubation and that the signals from the environment which specify the ventral and dorsal featherforming dermal progenitors are different. Effectively, Shh, but not Wnt -1 signalling can induce the formation of feather forming dermis from the embryonic somatopleure. Shh is not able, however, to trigger the formation of a feather forming dermis from the extra embryonic somatopleure. This brief report constitutes the first attempt, by comparing old and new preliminary results, to understand whether dermal progenitors at different sites are specified by different signalling pathways. PMID:15272375

  7. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  8. Mechanisms of uterine contractility in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kupittayanant, S; Kupittayanant, P; Suwannachat, C

    2009-10-01

    The physiological basis of uterine contractility in laying hens is not well understood, but a better understanding is important for understanding the mechanisms governing egg laying. The characteristics of uterine contractility arising spontaneously or by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) stimulation were therefore examined and the underlying mechanisms investigated. Uterine strips were isolated from laying hens 4h before oviposition and force measured. These strips remained healthy in vitro and produced regular spontaneous contractions. The contractions were phasic and could be recorded for several hours. Exposure to nifedipine, the specific L-type Ca channel blocker, led to the abolition of force. The contraction amplitude and frequency were significantly increased when Bay K8644, an agonist of L-type Ca channels, was applied or when the concentration of extracellular Ca was elevated. Spontaneous contractions were also significantly inhibited by wortmannin, the specific inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). When 1 microM PGF(2alpha) was applied to spontaneously contracting uterus, it significantly increased their amplitude and frequency of the contractions. As with spontaneous contractions, PGF(2alpha)-induced force production was abolished by nifedipine and wortmannin. In the absence of extracellular Ca, a small but tonic force was generated upon application of PGF(2alpha) which was not affected by wortmannin. Thus, extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation are essential for uterine force production occurring spontaneously or by PGF(2alpha) stimulation. Our data supports the conclusion that the pathway dependent on extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation predominates during PGF(2alpha) stimulation but suggests some involvement of an alternative force-producing pathway, presumably Ca-sensitization. PMID:19081211

  9. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  11. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  12. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  13. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

  14. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  15. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. )

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  16. A pecking device as an environmental enrichment for caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Moroki, Yuko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device. Not only time spent pecking, but also quality of pecking might be important to fill their need for stimulation. Both single- and pair-housed hens more often pecked at the device in the evening. Response to various pecking objects also showed that pecking behaviors were most frequently expressed in the evening. Increased foraging at dusk is a well-known habit; therefore, the increase in pecking behavior in the evening might reflect the hens' general circadian rhythm. These results indicate that the device made of stones could promote some instinctive behavior. Enhancement of behavioral repertories and reduced agonistic behavior with the pecking device might improve the welfare of caged laying hens. PMID:27436770

  17. Use of the Chick Embryo Model in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalirai, Helen; Shahidipour, Haleh; Coupland, Sarah E.; Luyten, Gregorius

    2015-01-01

    Animal models play a crucial role in basic and translational oncology research. Conventional rodent experiments, however, face ethical, practical and technical issues that limit their use. The chick embryo represents an accessible and economical in vivo model, which has long been used in developmental biology and for the study of angiogenesis. It is also a recognised xenograft model, and because of its lack of immune system in early development, the chick embryo has established itself as a key model system for cancer research, with which to study various steps in the metastatic process. In this chapter, we review the chick embryo model and the technical approaches adopted by cancer biologists, including advances in real-time imaging, and discuss how this has been or can be applied to improve our understanding of the biological events during uveal melanoma development and metastasis. PMID:27171889

  18. Generalization of visual regularities in newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of learning and generalization of visual regularities in a newborn organism is provided in the present research. Domestic chicks have been trained to discriminate visual triplets of simultaneously presented shapes, implementing AAB versus ABA (Experiment 1), AAB versus ABB and AAB versus BAA (Experiment 2). Chicks distinguished pattern-following and pattern-violating novel test triplets in all comparisons, showing no preference for repetition-based patterns. The animals generalized to novel instances even when the patterns compared were not discriminable by the presence or absence of reduplicated elements or by symmetry (e.g., AAB vs. ABB). These findings represent the first evidence of learning and generalization of regularities at the onset of life in an animal model, revealing intriguing differences with respect to human newborns and infants. Extensive prior experience seems to be unnecessary to drive the process, suggesting that chicks are predisposed to detect patterns characterizing the visual world. PMID:27287627

  19. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  20. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  1. An estimation of Citrullus colocynthis toxicity for chicks.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, A O; Adam, S E

    1995-08-01

    Citrullus colocynthis seed was fed at 2% and 10% of the basal diet to 7-d-old Bovans-type chicks for 6 w. Average body weights and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly depressed in the chicks on 10% Citrullus feed, and the serum activities of LDH, AST and CK and concentrations of total lipid and zinc were significantly increased. The concentration of serum total iron binding capacity was particularly reduced in chicks on 2% Citrullus feed. The concentrations of other serum and blood constituents and of hepatic copper, manganese and zinc were not significantly changes. Lesions seen in the intestines, livers, kidneys and other tissues were fully reversed 4 w after removal from the experimental diet. PMID:8540228

  2. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Buhr, R J

    2011-12-01

    In each of five sequential trials, laying hens (56-72 wk of age) were challenged with Salmonella and Campylobacter, and 1 wk postinoculation, the challenged hens (n = 3) were commingled with nonchallenged hens (n = 12) in conventional wire cages, on all-wire slats, or on all-shavings floor housing systems. After 12 days, challenged and nonchallenged hens were euthanatized for sample collection. Ceca were aseptically collected from all hens, and the spleen, liver/gallbladder (LGB), lower (LRT) and upper (URT) reproductive tracts, and ovarian follicles (mature and immature) were collected from only the challenged hens after commingling. Samples were divided equally and cultured separately for Salmonella and Campylobacter. Differences in the horizontal transmission of the challenge Salmonella to nonchallenged hens housed in cages (12%), on slats (15%), and on shavings (14%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the challenged pen-mate hens over the five trials. However, with the inclusion of residual environmental Salmonella, the recovery of Salmonella from nonchallenged hens housed in cages was lowest at 15%, intermediate for hens on slats at 20%, and highest for hens on shavings at 38%. Among challenged hens housed in cages, Salmonella was recovered from only 27% of the cecum and LRT samples. From challenged hens housed on slats, Salmonella was recovered from 38% of the cecum, 12% of the spleen, 19% of the LGB, 44% of the LRT, and 19% of the URT samples. From challenged hens housed on shavings, Salmonella was recovered from 31% of the cecum; 15% of the spleen, LGB, and URT; and 31% of the LRT samples. Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter among nonchallenged pen-mate hens was significantly lower for hens housed in cages at 28% than for hens on shavings at 47%, with hens on slats being intermediate at 36%. For challenged hens housed in cages, Campylobacter was recovered from 27% of the cecum, 13% of the LRT, 7% of the URT, and 17% of the follicle

  3. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  4. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  5. Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on intestinal health and productivity of coccidian-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2012-07-01

    A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 × 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens. PMID:22700503

  6. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data

  7. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  8. Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

  9. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-f...

  10. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns. PMID:26237714

  11. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  12. Effect of a single injection of adrenaline on shell ultrastructure in a series of eggs from domestic hens.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S E; Hughes, B O; Gilbert, A B

    1987-12-01

    1. Adrenaline (1 mg in 1 ml water) was administered subcutaneously to three hens to determine whether any changes in the shell ultrastructure of subsequent eggs would occur. 2. The egg shells were examined in a scanning electron microscope after plasma etching. 3. The first three eggs laid by each bird after adrenaline injection were compared with previously-collected normal eggs from the same birds and also with control eggs collected over the same period from three hens which had received no adrenaline. 4. The first egg laid following adrenaline treatment was essentially normal but both the second and third eggs showed severe structural disorganisation at all levels, from the mamillary caps up to the cuticular layer. 5. Eggs laid 20 d or more after adrenaline treatment had reverted to normal. 6. The findings suggest that the abnormal eggs laid after hens have been exposed to disturbance or stress are likely to be affected in not only their external appearance but also to be of poor structural quality. PMID:3446329

  13. [Enriched cage systems for laying hens--legal minimum conditions and starting points for their scientific evaluation].

    PubMed

    Briese, A; Sewerin, K; Knierim, U; Hartung, J

    2001-03-01

    Recent developments in the European and national legislation regarding minimum standards for the keeping of laying hens will be causing changed conditions for egg production in the medium term. Enriched cages shall allow hens to better fulfill their needs than traditional battery cages. More space for the stretching of wings and legs, perches for resting, littered areas for scratching, pecking and dustbathing and nests for egg-laying behaviour shall allow layers to perform more of their normal behaviour patterns. However, regarding the sustainability of these systems there are different views and still a great lack of scientific data and practical experience. An overview is given on the development of European and national animal welfare legislation concerning laying hens, minimum requirements for enriched cages and the available evidence about animal behaviour, performance and health in these systems. Furthermore, a current project at the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover on the animal welfare assessment of enriched cages, specifically on the Aviplus cage system, which was one of the first systems on the market and is in accordance with EU-directive, is introduced. PMID:11314463

  14. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  16. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling. PMID:26354762

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL MEMORY IN OCCLUSION-EXPERIENCED DOMESTIC CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At around day 11 of life, domestic chicks show a tendency to move out of sight of their mother before returning and regaining social and visual contact. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of this voluntary "out-of-sight" behaviour on the development of spatial memory in yo...

  18. System for exposing chicks to experimental intermittent electric shock.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J M; Curtis, S E

    1988-12-01

    A system for imposing mild electric shock on chicks was developed to study effects on health, behavior, and performance. A floor of parallel steel rods was wired so that the chick's foot or feet completed an electric circuit. Droppings spanning the gap between energized rods and ground rods caused short-circuiting occasionally and temporarily, creating a random-interval/random-duration generator. In one 48-h period, on average, the floor remained electrified for 2.7 +/- .19 min (mean +/- SD) then off 4.5 +/- .64 min. Chicks seemed to habituate to the shock over time. Therefore, in one experiment, the current from one point on a foot to another was increased daily from an estimated 2.9 mA on Day 1 to 8.7 mA on Day 7. When exposed to this electric shock regimen between 10 and 17 days of age, chicks' weight gain was reduced by 12%, feed intake by 5%, and gain:feed by 8%. PMID:3241786

  19. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  20. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  1. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  2. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  3. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  4. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  5. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  6. Regionalization of the anterior hypothalamus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Caqueret, Aurore; Coumailleau, Pascal; Michaud, Jacques L

    2005-06-01

    Loss-of-function experiments in mice have shown that the transcription factors Sim1, Otp, Sim2, and Brn2 form a cascade essential for the differentiation of neuroendocrine cells of the anterior hypothalamus that produce vasopressin, oxytocin, somatostatin (SS), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Very little is known about how the differentiation of these cell types is regulated in chick. Here, we report the cloning of the chick homolog of Otp. Moreover, we have systematically compared the expression of Sim1, Sim2, Brn2, and Otp with that of the markers of terminal differentiation TRH, SS, CRH, vasotocin, and mesotocin during development of chick embryos. We have found that the cell types studied generally develop in domains expressing these transcriptional regulators but that the pattern of neuronal differentiation and the spatial distribution of some regulators were not the same as in mice. Our results provide a framework useful for the functional analysis of hypothalamus development in chick. PMID:15844192

  7. Determination of 14C residue in eggs of laying hens administered orally with [14C] sulfaquinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, B; Rummel, N; Smith, D

    2004-06-01

    Ten layer hens were dosed for 5 consecutive days with 6.2 mg kg(-1) [14C] sulfaquinoxaline (SQX). Eggs were collected from the hens during the 5-day dosing period and during a 10-day post-dose withdrawal period. Egg yolk and albumen were separated and assayed for total radioactive residues (TRR) using a combustion oxidizer and liquid scintillation counting techniques. Significant amounts of radioactivity were detected on the second day of dosing (greater than 24h after the initial dose) in both egg yolk and albumen. First eggs were collected about 8 h after dosing; the second-day eggs were collected during 8-h period after the second dose. Radioactive residues reached a maximum on the fifth day of dosing in albumen, whereas on the second day of withdrawal in egg yolk, the peak TRR levels in albumen were about threefold higher than in yolk. Thereafter, the TRR levels declined rapidly in albumen and were detectable up to withdrawal day 6, whereas the TRR levels in egg yolk declined more slowly and were detectable up to withdrawal day 10. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the parent drug sulfaquinoxaline was the major component in both the egg albumen and yolk. Additionally, this work suggests that egg yolk is the appropriate matrix for monitoring SQX residues PMID:15204532

  8. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

  9. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  10. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. R.; Cox, N. A.; Guard, J.; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.; Buhr, R. J.; Gast, R. K.; Abdo, Z.; Rigsby, L. L.; Plumblee, J. R.; Karcher, D. M.; Robison, C. I.; Blatchford, R. A.; Makagon, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89–100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0–41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  11. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  12. Chick Pcl2 regulates the left-right asymmetry by repressing Shh expression in Hensen's node.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shusheng; Yu, Xueyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zunyi; Chen, YiPing

    2004-09-01

    Asymmetric expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the left side of Hensen's node, a crucial step for specifying the left-right (LR) axis in the chick embryo, is established by the repression of Shh expression in the right side of the node. The transcriptional regulator that mediates this repression has not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel chick Polycomblike 2 gene, chick Pcl2, which encodes a transcription repressor and displays an asymmetric expression, downstream from Activin-betaB and Bmp4, in the right side of Hensen's node in the developing embryo. In vitro mapping studies define the transcription repression activity to the PHD finger domain of the chick Pcl2 protein. Repression of chick Pcl2 expression in the early embryo results in randomized heart looping direction, which is accompanied by the ectopic expression of Shh in the right side of the node and Shh downstream genes in the right lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), while overexpression of chick Pcl2 represses Shh expression in the node. The repression of Shh by chick Pcl2 was also supported by studies in which chick Pcl2 was overexpressed in the developing chick limb bud and feather bud. Similarly, transgenic overexpression of chick Pcl2 in the developing mouse limb inhibits Shh expression in the ZPA. In vitro pull-down assays demonstrated a direct interaction of the chick Pcl2 PHD finger with EZH2, a component of the ESC/E(Z) repressive complex. Taken together with the fact that chick Pcl2 was found to directly repress Shh promoter activity in vitro, our results demonstrate a crucial role for chick Pcl2 in regulating LR axis patterning in the chick by silencing Shh in the right side of the node. PMID:15294861

  13. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  14. Characterization of the ultrastructure in the uterovaginal junction of the hen.

    PubMed

    Waqas, M Y; Yang, P; Ahmed, N; Zhang, Q; Liu, T; Li, Q; Hu, L; Hong, C; Chen, Q

    2016-09-01

    In poultry, the infundibulum is the place of fertilization, eggshell production, and sperm storage, while its uterovaginal junction (UVJ) is regarded as the most important site, which has abundant sperm storage tubules (SST). We examined the ultrastructure of the epithelium with relation to its unique secretory cytology in the UVJ of hens using transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium of the UVJ is lined with ciliated and secretory cells. Ciliated cells are characterized with light and dense secretory granules in supernuclear cytoplasm. Dense secretory granules in ciliated cells are larger in diameter (one μm), surrounded with a transparent rim and concentric layers, whereas the dense granules in the ciliated cells of SST are smaller (0.52 μm) in size and not surrounded by any transparent rim or layer. Ciliated cells also are involved in the shedding of exosomes and secretory vesicles in the lumen. Secretory exosomes are in close contact with cilia and directly release from the apical border into the lumen. Cell junctions are widely distributed between these cells. The secretory cells are associated with the release of secretions via apocrine blebs from microvilli and secretory vesicles, which protrude out from the surface of the epithelium. The dense secretory granules in these cells are smaller in size (0.6 μm), absent of a transparent rim or layers, and are released into the lumen through secretory vesicles. The intracellular multivesicular body (MVB) also is observed in the supernuclear cytoplasm of secretory cells, which are related to the production of exosomes. In general, the apical protrusion of the epithelium in the form of apocrine secretions, the releasing of exosomes, the identification of intracellular MVB, and the release of dense granules give the epithelium a distinct morphology in the UVJ of the hen oviduct. PMID:27143772

  15. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens. PMID:26467011

  16. The effects of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylivarium on egg production and body weight of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A

    1979-01-01

    Egg production of caged White Leghorn hens with heavy (greater than 1000) populations of the northen fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), was 5 to 15% less than egg production of control hens. Body weight was depressed in hens infested with mites before the hens came into full egg production but not when hens were infested after that time. Feed consumption was not affected by mite populations. PMID:471884

  17. The effect of Marek's disease vaccination and day-old debeaking on the performance of growing pullets and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Reid, I S

    1977-05-01

    In a 2 X 2 completely randomized factorial design, four hundred day-old Single Comb White Leghorn pullets were randomly assigned to four treatment combinations of vaccinated, non-vaccinated, debeaked and non-debeaked groups. Vaccination and debeaking were performed at day-old by administering 2,000 P.F.U. of HVT vaccine/chick and by removing approximately 2/3 of the upper beak, respectively. All the data were analyzed at 5% level of probability. Vaccination reduced feed consumption significantly only during the early growing period of the first 12 weeks, whereas debeaking caused a significant reduction in feed consumption throughout the experimental period of 80 weeks. Mortality during the 20-week growing period was not affected by either vaccination or debeaking. During the laying period (20-80 weeks of age), vaccination reduced the mortality numerically, while debeaking reduced the mortality significantly. Final body weight, hen-day egg production, egg weight, albumen height and egg shell thickness were not influenced by either vaccination, debeaking or a combination of the two. Debeaking had no effect on the incidence of blood-spotting in the eggs. Vaccination, however, significantly reduced percent blood spots in the eggs. Day-old debeaking effectively prevented the occurrence of cannibalism. PMID:605052

  18. Performance, behavior, plasma corticosterone, and economic returns of laying hens in several management alternatives.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, K W; Cain, J R

    1984-11-01

    Production, physiological, and behavioral data were collected simultaneously on commercial hens housed for 10 months of lay in housing alternatives of cages, deep litter floor pens, and outside range pens. Treatments consisted of housing 1, 2, or 3 hens in small cages 3, 4, 5, or 6 hens in large cages, floor pens housing 51 hens each at three densities, and range pens with 50 hens at .74 m2 (8 ft2) per hen. Egg production rates were greater for all caged hen treatments than for any floor or range groups. Egg numbers favored 2 hens per cage, but economic benefits favored 5 hens per cage. Viability was highest for 1 hen per cage and range pen groups. Feed efficiency was poorer in floor and range groups; however, body weight was generally greater for caged hens. Plasma corticosterone levels did not differ among any cage or range groups, but floor pen hens had significantly elevated levels. Behavioral data for walking and object pecking showed clear differences between cage and floor management alternatives. Preening, standing, and drinking activities were different between some treatments but not clearly different between management alternatives. Feeding activity did not differ among any groups. Although correlations between stress and well-being have not been well elucidated, the sum of the stressors of cage confinement appeared to be less than those from floor pens. Therefore, it was concluded that the well-being of hens in cages was equal to or better than that for free ranging hens or those in floor pens. PMID:6514660

  19. Long-term effects of early life microbiota disturbance on adaptive immunity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; Verwoolde, M B; Zhang, J; Smidt, H; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2016-07-01

    Due to an interplay between intestinal microbiota and immune system, disruption of intestinal microbiota composition during immune development may have consequences for immune responses later in life. The present study investigated the effects of antibiotic treatment in the first weeks of life on the specific antibody response later in life in chickens. Layer chicks received an antibiotic cocktail consisting of vancomycin, neomycin, metronidazole, and amphotericin-B by oral gavage every 12 h, and ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for the first week of life. After the first week of life, chicks received ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for two more weeks. Control birds received no antibiotic cocktail and plain drinking water. Fecal microbiota composition was determined during antibiotic treatment (d 8 and 22), two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment (d 36), and at the end of the experimental period at d 175 using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene targeted microarray, the Chicken Intestinal Tract Chip (ChickChip). During antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition differed strongly between treatment groups. Fecal microbiota of antibiotic treated birds consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, and in particular E.coli, whereas fecal microbiota of control birds consisted mainly of Firmicutes, such as lactobacilli and clostridia. Two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition of antibiotic treated birds had recovered and was similar to that of control birds. On d 105, 12 weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment, chicks of both treatment groups received an intra-tracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/human serum albumin (HuSA) challenge. Antibody titers against LPS and HuSA were measured 10 days after administration of the challenge. While T cell independent antibody titers (LPS) were not affected by antibiotic treatment, antibiotic treated birds showed lower T cell dependent antibody titers (HuSA) compared with control

  20. [Immunofluorescent study of the distribution of adult neuro-specific antigens in the chick embryo (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Touzet, N; Jeanmaire-Zylberberg, R; Chaminade, M

    1977-06-01

    The adult neuro-specific antigens have been localized by immunofluorescence techniques in diencephalon and mesencephalon of chick embryo. This study has been made using fresh or fixed tissues from embryos 72, 48 or 36 h old. At 72 h of incubation the wall of diencephalon shows marked fluorescence; at 48 h of incubation the fluorescent cells are localized in an outer layer and an inner one. In the 48 h-old embryo the reaction is more distinct and intensive in fresh tissues than in fixed tissues. At 36 h of incubation no fluorescence has been detected either in fresh tissues or in fixed tissues. PMID:328815

  1. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

    2009-01-01

    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of ‘normal’ eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 ± 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg ± 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P ≤ 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 ± 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 ± 0.018 (SE) mm2 day−1 for normal chicks, P ≤ 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 ± 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm−2 in the central cornea and 393 ± 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm−2peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P ≤ 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth. PMID:19245502

  2. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium

  3. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  4. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  5. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  6. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  7. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  8. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  9. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

  10. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  11. Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate

  12. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  13. Electrical tuning in hair cells isolated from the chick cochlea.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P A; Nagai, T; Evans, M G

    1988-07-01

    Tall (inner) hair cells were isolated from specific locations in the chick cochlea. The electrical membrane properties of these cells were recorded using the tight-seal whole-cell technique. Depolarizing current steps elicited damped voltage oscillations that ranged in frequency from 100 to 250 Hz among cells from the middle third of the cochlea (basal cells). The current-voltage relation obtained under voltage clamp was dominated by calcium-activated potassium current in the voltage range over which these oscillations occurred. Tall hair cells isolated from the apical tip of the cochlea (apical cells) exhibited action potentials and lower frequency voltage oscillations (5-14 Hz) during depolarizing current steps. Outward currents in these cells were 20-fold slower than those found in the basal cells. These results suggest that electrical tuning of hair cells may play a role in determining the frequency selectivity of the chick cochlea. PMID:3249237

  14. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  15. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella species on laying hen farms in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hulaj, B; Çabeli, P; Goga, I; Taylor, N; Hess, C; Hess, M L

    2016-09-01

    A survey on the prevalence of Salmonella (S) species was carried out on 39 layer farms in Kosovo between April and September 2012. In total 367 samples, comprising feces, dust, eggs, and internal organs from dead birds, were investigated using bacteriological culture methods. Additionally, data on the location of the farm, the total number of birds on the farm, age of birds, and laying performance were collected. Salmonella were isolated from 38 samples obtained from 19 (49%) farms. The most common serovar identified was Salmonella enteritidis, found on 18 farms. The most common S. enteritidis phage type was PT29 followed by PT6, PT7, PT21, PT13a, PT8, PT14b, and PT4. One S. enteritidis isolate was not typable. Six farms had more than one phage type. Furthermore, serovar S. Bovismorbificans also was found in samples from 3 farms. Flock size or production stage was not associated with the probability of isolating Salmonella. The only flock factor found to be significantly associated was percent hen/day production: It was 2.8 times more likely to isolate Salmonella from flocks with production above 80% hen/day production compared to flocks producing at a lower level. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance patterns of 30 isolates revealed that all isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline, and 29 (97%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. All isolates showed intermediate resistance or were resistant to minocycline and cloxacillin. Twenty-six isolates (86%) had intermediate resistance to amoxicillin and 27 isolates (90%) were fully resistant to streptomycin. The present survey revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in layer flocks in Kosovo, indicating that table eggs have to be suspected as an important source of human salmone-llosis. PMID:27252368

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus associated with chicks that have an unusual condition known as "white chicks" in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Santander Parra, S H; Carranza, C; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Buim, M R; Piantino Ferreira, A J

    2016-06-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) is one of many viruses related to enteric diseases in poultry that are associated with Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), which affects young chickens. CAstV was also recently associated with an unusual condition in chicks called "white chicks." Some hatcheries in certain states of Brazil have reported several incubation problems, mortality, and the presence of chicks with white plumages over the past several months. These chicks were termed locally as "white chicks." The present work investigated 30 chicks with this unusual condition using a multidisciplinary approach. Postmortem examination of each chick showed enlarged livers and intestines that were full of liquid and gas (30/30). The pancreas, kidneys, and spleen were pale (30/30). The other organs did not show any macroscopic alterations. CAstV, chicken parvovirus (ChPV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), avian rotavirus (ARtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1) were tested in the intestines, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, liver, spleen, bursa, kidneys, thymus, lung, heart, brain, and yolk sac in each chick. All organs and yolk sacs were positive for CAstV in different titres and negative for the other tested viruses. The partial molecular characterization of the ORF 1b gene of CAstV using 28 sequences revealed a high similarity of the nucleotides and amino acids with sequences of CAstV from North America, Europe, and Asia, and our CAstV sequences clustered into a unique group that was separate from the other sequences. These results demonstrated that CAstV was associated with the white chick condition in Brazil. The virus was distributed in most organs, including the brain and yolk sac. These results suggest that the virus could be transmitted vertically. The molecular characterization also revealed that the CAstV associated with white chick condition was molecularly related to other CAstV sequences found worldwide. PMID

  17. Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

  18. The Use of Chick Embryos to Study Wnt Activity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Galli, Lisa M; Barnes, Tiffany; Burrus, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    The chick spinal cord provides a valuable model for assessing Wnt signaling activity. Loss or gain of function constructs that are transfected by electroporation can be directed to a single side of the spinal cord, thus leaving the contralateral side as an internal control. Here, we describe a method for measuring Wnt signaling via the use of BAT-Gal, a β-catenin dependent Wnt reporter. PMID:27590153

  19. A Chick Model of Retinal Detachment: Cone Rich and Novel

    PubMed Central

    Cebulla, Colleen M.; Zelinka, Chris P.; Scott, Melissa A.; Lubow, Martin; Bingham, Amanda; Rasiah, Stephen; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD) model in the chick. Methodology/Principal Findings Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG). Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP), proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas. Conclusions/Significance Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies. PMID:22970190

  20. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  1. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

  2. Ontogeny of the estrogen receptor in the chick oviduct.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, T K; Tuohimaa, P J

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ER) in the chick oviduct was studied immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody H222, known to recognize chick ER [1]. The ontogeny of ER appeared to be very dependent on cellular differentiation. In the undifferentiated oviduct ER was located in the epithelial, mesothelial, stromal and smooth muscle cells. During differentiation ER disappeared from the surface epithelium, mesothelium, stromal and smooth muscle cells. At the onset of differentiation the protodifferentiated gland cells invaginated into the underlying stroma; these cells expressed ER. In the fully differentiated chick oviduct ER was located only in the tubular gland cells, which correlates with the known transcriptional activity of estrogen-induced ovalbumin-gene. However, we have reported estrogen dependency of PR also in ER-negative stromal cells, the mechanism being so far unknown. It is possible that there are mechanisms other than ER regulating the expression of PR. Estrogen-induced differentiation did not differ from normal maturation in regard to the distribution of ER. Since stromal, epithelial, mesothelial and smooth muscle cells were ER-negative in the mature oviduct, the concentration of ER, i.e. ER binding sites/cell is underestimated when whole tissue homogenates are used. PMID:2626020

  3. Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A. M.; Joshi, C. G.; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3 mg/kg, 28.4 mg/kg and 42.6 mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180 bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species.

  4. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  5. Glutathione plays a role in the chick intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Tolosa de Talamoni, N; Marchionatti, A; Baudino, V; Alisio, A

    1996-10-01

    DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) administration to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol produces a rapid decrease in the Ca2+ transfer from lumen-to-plasma and in the intestinal glutathione content. This response was reversed by addition of glutathione monoester to the intestinal sac. Variables related to the Ca2+ homeostasis such as plasma Ca and P, and intestinal calbindin D28k were not modified by BSO given to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity, on the contrary, was highly reduced by BSO in vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with vitamin D3. This effect showed time and dose-dependency. Although the mechanism/s of action of BSO on the intestinal Ca absorption is unknown, it is quite possible that thiol groups of protein involved in the Ca2+ transport are affected by the GSH depletion and/or by block of the antioxidant ability of vitamin D3. Thus, reactive oxygen compounds would be increased and, therefore, the Ca2+ movement from lumen to plasma decreases. PMID:8916550

  6. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  7. Biological chick procedure to determine fluoride availability in sepiolite.

    PubMed

    Tortuero, F

    1992-12-01

    1. A modified fluoride (F) bioassay procedure based on the method of standard additions and using chicks was tested for the determination of F availability in sepiolite. Chicks were distributed between a control group fed on a basal diet and experimental groups fed on this diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg F as sodium fluoride. A further group was fed on the basal diet plus 2 g/kg sepiolite. 2. Body weight gain and food consumption during a 60 or 90 d study were similar for all treatments. 3. Ileal digestibility of F from the basal diet or from the diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg F as sodium fluoride was higher (0.907) than for chicks fed on the sepiolite diet (0.152). 4. Increases in the F contents of tibia ash were linearly related to dietary F concentration as sodium fluoride. 5. F contents of tibiae from the sepiolite group (at 60 or 90 d of age) were plotted against tibia F concentrations from groups receiving additional sodium fluoride in the diet. A weighted regression was performed. The values obtained for the relative available F from sepiolite were 0.213 and 0.150, respectively, at 60 and 90 d of age. PMID:1493555

  8. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

  9. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected immune responses in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Fritsche, K L; Rottinghaus, G E

    1999-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate immune responses in chicks fed fumonisin B1 (FB1). Day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to dietary treatments: 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg FB1/kg diet. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed diets for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6x10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected after 180 min. Chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet had significantly higher numbers of bacterial colonies in blood, spleen, and liver (P<0.05) than control chicks. In Experiment 2, chicks were placed on the diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL inactivated Newcastle Disease virus vaccine on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment, and primary and secondary antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. The secondary antibody response in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control chicks. In Experiment 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to FB1 in vivo or in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens was lower (P<0.05) in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet than in control chicks. For the in vitro study, cell proliferation was lower (P<0.05) when cells were exposed to > or = 2.5 microg FB1/mL. Data of the current study suggested that FB1 is immunosuppressive in chicks when present in the ration at 200 mg FB1/kg diet. PMID:10515357

  10. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands to establish how farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which factors affected health and welfare. Abstract From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go

  11. Pigmented epithelium induces complete retinal reconstitution from dispersed embryonic chick retinae in reaggregation culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rothermel, A; Willbold, E; Degrip, W J; Layer, P G

    1997-01-01

    Reaggregation of dispersed retinal cells of the chick embryo leads to histotypic retinospheroids in which the laminar organization remains incomplete: photoreceptors form rosettes which are surrounded by constituents of the other retinal layers. Here, for the first time, a complete arrangement of layers is achieved in cellular spheres (stratoids), provided that fully dispersed retinal cells are younger than embryonic day E6, and are reaggregated in the presence of a monolayer of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). A remarkable mechanism of stratoid formation from 1 to 15 days in vitro is revealed by the establishment of a radial Müller glia scaffold and of photoreceptors. During the first two days of reaggregation on RPE, rosettes are still observed. At this stage immunostaining with vimentin and F11 antibodies for radial Müller glia reveal a disorganized pattern. Subsequently, radial glia processes organize into long parallel fibre bundles which are arranged like spokes to stabilize the surface and centre of the stratoid. The opsin-specific antibody CERN 901 detects photoreceptors as they gradually build up an outer nuclear layer at the surface. These findings assign to the RPE a decisive role for the genesis and regeneration of a vertebrate retina. PMID:9332014

  12. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  13. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are deprived of feed and water between hatching and the moment of chick pulling (d E21.5), and a patio system, in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined, and chicks have immediate posthatch feed and water access. Climate conditions in patio also differ with about 3°C lower temperature and 20% lower RH compared with conventional hatchers. At E18, fertile eggs were transferred to either a hatcher or the patio until the end of incubation. From each system, 50 newly hatched chicks were collected at 3 hatching times: at 468 h (early), 483 h (midterm), and 498 h (late) of incubation, of which 25 chicks were decapitated for analyses of physiological parameters. The other 25 chicks were returned to the hatching system for analyses after 515 h of incubation (E21.5). At hatch, weights of the heart, lungs, stomach, and intestine increased with hatching time, concurrent with a decrease in residual yolk weight, regardless of hatching system, and indicating that later hatching chicks are more matured. Weights of the heart, liver, stomach, and intestines were lower in hatcher than in patio chicks. Between hatch and E21.5, residual yolk weight decreased, whereas organ weights increased in both fasted hatcher and fed patio chicks, but at a higher rate in the latter. At E21.5, plasma glucose and triiodothyronine had increased with time after hatch in patio chicks, whereas levels were similar among hatching times and lower in hatcher chicks. Early feed and water access seems to enable early hatching chicks to compensate for their apparent disadvantage in development at hatching, whereas chicks subjected to fasting show metabolic adaptations to preserve nutrients. Chick physiology at

  14. Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, J.; Suryan, R.M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

  15. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  16. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  17. Effect of estradiol-17β on calcitonin receptor bindings in the hen neurohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, H; Takahashi, T; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, K; Kawashima, M

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate whether estradiol-17β (E₂) would affect calcitonin (CT) receptor binding in the hen neurohypophysis. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of the CT receptor in the plasma membrane fraction of the hen neurohypophysis were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125)I-labeled chicken CT. A single i.m. injection of E₂ into nonlaying hens caused a decrease in K(d) and B(max) values of the CT receptor. The K(d) and B(max) values of the CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in nonlaying hens. The present study suggests that E₂ may increase the action of CT on the neurohypophysis in hens. PMID:21177459

  18. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in

  19. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  20. The influence of dietary pectin on the cholesterol content of egg-yolk and muscle and on various haematological indices in laying-hens.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, S; Mason, V C

    1977-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to see if a commerical poultry diet, supplemented with 0, 2, 4 or 6% pectin would influence the cholesterol content of egg-yolk and muscle, the total lipid, cholesterol and protein contents of blood serum, and the erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin content of whole blood, in laying hens. The cholesterol content of the egg-yolk and muscle from birds given pectin was not significantly different from that of control hens. However, the birds which received the pectin weighed somewhat less than the controls at the end of the experiment, and produced fewer eggs, despite the same intake of digestible energy. Pectin treatment also resulted in higher erythrocyte counts, higher packed cell volumes and higher haemoglobin contents in the blood. The variation in the cholesterol content of egg-yolk was significantly lower within layers than between layers. This suggests that it should be possible to select for hens which produce eggs of lower cholesterol content, provided that other aspects of egg-production are not thereby negatively influenced. PMID:834544

  1. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

  2. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

  3. Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

  4. Individual and combined effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and moniliformin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Broomhead, J N; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2003-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 100, 200 mg FB1/kg) and moniliformin (M; 0, 100, 200 mg M/kg) were evaluated using a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Significant mortality (P < 0.05) occurred in chicks fed all diets containing 200 mg M/kg (50%-65%). Compared with controls and chicks fed FB1, both feed intake and body weight gain were decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed diets containing 100 mg M/kg. Chicks fed M had heavier heart weights (P < 0.05) than control chicks or chicks fed FB1. Compared with controls, chicks fed diets containing 200 mg M/kg or a combination of 200 mg FB1/kg and 100 mg M/kg had increased kidney and liver weights (P < 0.05). Significant FB1 by M interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for serum total protein and aspartate aminotransferase. Mild to moderate periportal extramedullary hematopoiesis and mild focal hepatic necrosis were observed in chicks fed FB1 alone. An increased incidence of large pleomorphic cardiomyocyte nuclei, loss of cardiomyocytes, and mild focal renal tubular mineralization were observed in chicks fed M alone. Both cardiac and renal lesions were observed in chicks fed combinations of FB1 and M. Data indicate FB1 and M, alone or in combination, can adversely affect chick performance and health at these dietary concentrations. The interactive effects of FB1 and M were not synergistic and were less than additive in nature. At the dietary concentrations studied, M is much more toxic to broilers than FB1. PMID:14708984

  5. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  6. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Shazia; Ahmad, H B; Nawaz, R

    2007-07-01

    Eggs were collected from different areas of Faisalabad city. The quantity of sulphonamides was determined in yolk, white and whole egg and compared with the permissible limit 1 microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine available in literature. In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted. PMID:17545104

  7. Selective reduction of a disulphide bridge in hen ovotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Moreton, K; Goodearl, A D

    1985-01-01

    Brief treatment of iron-saturated hen ovotransferrin with dithiothreitol selectively cleaves the disulphide bridge between residues 478 and 671, which is in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The reduced alkylated protein is less stable than the native protein, and its iron-binding properties are different. A fluorescent derivative was prepared by coupling N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulpho-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to the thiol groups. Images Fig. 3. PMID:4026802

  8. Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level. PMID:19925670

  9. Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Commercial Layer Chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko; Wigle, William L; Gallagher, Susan; Johnson, Amy L; Sweeney, Raymond W; Wakenell, Patricia S

    2016-03-01

    This report describes an outbreak of type C botulism in two organic, free-range commercial layer farms in the Midwest. Hens affected were 64-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens and 34-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens owned by the same company, but housed on different premises, with approximately 20,000 birds per house. Mortality over the 2 wk of investigation was estimated to be up to 8% and 2.8%, respectively, with birds acting listless, lethargic, and depressed. Clinical signs consisted of progressive paralysis, and severely affected birds were moribund and laterally recumbent. Hens had ruffled feathers that easily epilated, with loss of muscular tone in the neck, tail, and wings. Hens had closed eyes and were reluctant to move. There were no significant gross or histopathologic lesions. Intestinal samples were submitted to the University of Pennsylvania Botulism Diagnostic Laboratory for real-time PCR and were positive for Clostridium botulinum organisms containing the Type C neurotoxin gene. Speculations on the source of the botulinum toxins include poor mortality removal leading to cannibalism of decomposing carcasses, as well as birds on the farm having access to putrid carcasses in the compost pile from a hole in their outdoor access fence. PMID:26953952

  10. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  11. Effects of Antitumor Drug Sorafenib on Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Sen; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Chen, Yue-Lei; Chuai, Man-Li; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xue-Song

    2015-07-01

    Sorafenib has been used as an oral anti-cancer drug because of its ability to inhibit tumor growth. However, the pharmacological effect of sorafenib is still the lack of in vivo experimental evidence. Tumor and embryonic cells share some similar features, so we investigated the effects of sorafenib on the development of gastrulating chick embryos. We found that sorafenib exposure was markedly attributed to the number of embryonic cell in proliferation and apoptosis. We also detected sorafenib significantly interfered with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, sorafenib treatment impaired the production and migration of neural crest cells. PMID:25810088

  12. Effects of Low Phytic Acid Barley on Zinc Utilization in Young Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21 day experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of low phytic acid barley (LPB) on Zn utilization by young broiler chicks, and to determine the contribution of endogenous phytase, present in LPB. In the first experiment, 96 d-old male chicks were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangeme...

  13. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  14. ChickScope: An Interactive MRI Classroom Curriculum Innovation for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, B. C.; Carragher, B. O.; Damon, B. M.; Dawson, M. J.; Eurell, J. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Lauterbur, P. C.; Marjanovic, M. M.; Mason-Fossum, B.; Morris, H. D.; Potter, C. S.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-01-01

    Describes ChickScope, a 21-day chick embryonic development project, to demonstrate the remote control of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instrument through the World Wide Web. Topics include remote instrumentation and the Web, teacher-based implementation, impact in elementary and secondary school classrooms, and future directions. (Author/LRW)

  15. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  16. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  17. Routes for Campylobacter coli colonization of the intestinal track of chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly hatched chick may be exposed to significant levels of Campylobacter from various sources in the hatchery and grow-out environments. Once the Campylobacter reach the ceca of the young chick they are able to multiply to high levels in a relatively short time period. This creates a situatio...

  18. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells. PMID:24570429

  19. Influence of quantity of litter on nest box selection and nesting behaviour of domestic hens.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; Seawright, E; Waddington, D

    1993-12-01

    1. Twenty two hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were given a free choice, for egg laying, between 4 nest boxes containing different quantities of wood shavings (litter): 3180 cm3 (large), 1060 cm3 (medium), 350 cm3 (small) and none (zero). 2. There was considerable individual variation in the quantity of litter selected for egg laying, but 17 hens laid 50% or more of their eggs in a single litter quantity. Hens selected the large quantity in preference to the small and zero. More searching, nest selection and nesting behaviours tended to be directed to the boxes with the largest quantities and also to the quantities that the hens finally selected for egg laying. 3. In a second experiment, the hens from experiment 1 which showed a preference for litter, and a further 22 naïve hens were given a choice of three nest boxes containing no litter and one containing one of 6 quantities. Over 30 trials there were 5 replicates using each of the three quantities used in experiment 1 plus 115 cm3, 40 cm3 and 10 cm3. 4. There was a wide range in the proportion of trials in which hens selected litter; for experienced hens the range was 0.43 to 0.97, but only two naïve hens were within this range, all others being between 0 and 0.43. 5. The pattern of choosing litter quantities was comparable but at different levels of preference in experienced and naïve hens and a contour map was derived enabling predictions to be made of the probability of a particular quantity being chosen. 6. The variability of individual responses suggest that no single type of nest box system can cater for the requirements of all hens. PMID:8156424

  20. Can acaricide-impregnated leg bands fitted to female red grouse reduce sheep tick parasitization of chicks and increase chick survival?

    PubMed

    Baines, D; Taylor, L

    2016-09-01

    In parts of northern England, North Wales and the Scottish Highlands, increasing numbers of sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the louping ill virus they can carry, are considered to be important factors that reduce red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica productivity. The present study tested this hypothesis by fitting adult female grouse with leg bands impregnated with the acaricide cypermethrin to experimentally control ticks on their chicks on two managed grouse moors in northeast Scotland. The chicks of females fitted with acaricide leg bands showed reduced tick infestations and improved survival in one of the two study years, relative to chicks of control females. Acaricide leg bands constitute a potential management technique that may be adopted by grouse moor managers in circumstances of high tick infestations on grouse chicks. PMID:27377883

  1. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  2. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Nicol, Christine J; Murrell, Joanna C

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  3. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), egg mass (EM) (P < 0.001), and dirty egg ratio of hens were higher in the FR system but similar in the CC and EC systems. The highest mortality ratio was found in EC system hens (P = 0.020). The best feather score was found in FR system hens (P < 0.001). The worse body wound score was found in EC system hens (P = 0.038). On the other hand, the worse bumble foot and footpad lesions were found in FR system hens (P < 0.001). The highest tibia breaking strength was found in FR system hens compared with in CC and EC system hens (P < 0.001). The highest Heterophil/Lymphocyte ( H/L: ) ratio was found in CC system hens (P = 0.006) but the blood phosphorus ( P: ) level was higher in FR system hens (P = 0.013). The tonic immobility, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and Ca values of hens were found to be similar in all systems (P > 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. PMID:26994200

  4. Effects of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on egg quality of White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Devaney, J A

    1981-10-01

    Interior egg quality and shell thickness of eggs from hens infested with the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), were compared with eggs from mite free hens. Egg shells of mite infested hens were significantly thicker (P greater than or equal to .05) but within the normal biological range. There were no differences in either Haugh units or yolk color between the two groups of hens. PMID:7199145

  5. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  6. Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

  7. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  8. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

  9. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  10. Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-β-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver. PMID:22069604

  11. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged. PMID:26944968

  12. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. PMID:26706355

  13. Feeding laying hens a bioavailable soy sterol mixture fails to enrich their eggs with phytosterols or elicit egg yolk compositional changes.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Lorenz, E S

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Elevated levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), and particularly plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), are primary contributing factors to CHD. Dietary plant sterols (phytosterols) have been shown to significantly reduce plasma TC and LDLC in humans, primarily through inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, and are potentially effective agents for reduction of CHD risk. Although a variety of phytosterol-containing foods are currently available, phytosterol-enriched eggs, which represent a potential value-added product, are conspicuously absent from the marketplace. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to enrich shell eggs with phytosterols; and 2) to determine if feeding phytosterols to hens elicits egg compositional changes, particularly that of yolk cholesterol content. Sixteen 32-wk-old White Leghorn hens were fed a corn-soy-based layer diet without (n = 8) or with (n = 8) 1 g of supplemental soy sterols/100 g of diet for 28 d.. Hen performance was determined on an individual basis, and 1 egg/hen per week was collected, processed, and analyzed for yolk cholesterol, CP, crude fat (CF), and phytosterol content. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of supplemental dietary phytosterols on 28-d weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma TC, hen-day egg production, egg weights, egg component weights, and yolk cholesterol, CP, and CF contents. Small amounts of campesterol were present in most of the eggs (average of 0.29 and 1.02 mg/yolk for control vs. soy sterol-fed hens, respectively; P < or = 0.05), whereas only 3 of the 80 analyzed eggs contained trace amounts of beta-sitosterol and none contained any detectable stigmasterol. It was concluded that phytosterols are either poorly absorbed from the chicken intestine or, if they are absorbed, they are efficiently secreted back into the intestinal lumen, most likely via as yet uncharacterized

  14. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M.; Widowski, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30- or 60-bird cages stocked at 750 cm2/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2-h period in the morning (08:00–10:00), afternoon (12:00–14:00), and evening (17:00–19:00). All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for 3 days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data were summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48 h after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F0 (no fracture, N = 24), F1 (single fracture, N = 17), and F2 (multiple fractures, N = 31). The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P = 0.04) and standing (P = 0.001), bout length of standing (P < 0.0001), and location (floor vs. perch) of resting behaviors (P = 0.01). F2 hens perched longer than F0 hens, 20.0 ± 2.9 and 11.6 ± 3.2%. F2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2 ± 1.5%, than F0 and F1 hens, 20.7 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 1.8%. F2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 ± 4.2 s) than both F0 and F1 hens, 33.1 ± 4.3 and 27.4 ± 4.4 s. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0 ± 6.9% of total resting time on the floor, whereas F1 and F2 hens spent 56.9 ± 12.4 and 51.5 ± 7.7% resting on the floor

  15. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages.

    PubMed

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M; Widowski, Tina M

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30- or 60-bird cages stocked at 750 cm(2)/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2-h period in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (12:00-14:00), and evening (17:00-19:00). All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for 3 days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data were summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48 h after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F 0 (no fracture, N = 24), F 1 (single fracture, N = 17), and F 2 (multiple fractures, N = 31). The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P = 0.04) and standing (P = 0.001), bout length of standing (P < 0.0001), and location (floor vs. perch) of resting behaviors (P = 0.01). F 2 hens perched longer than F 0 hens, 20.0 ± 2.9 and 11.6 ± 3.2%. F 2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2 ± 1.5%, than F 0 and F 1 hens, 20.7 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 1.8%. F 2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 ± 4.2 s) than both F 0 and F 1 hens, 33.1 ± 4.3 and 27.4 ± 4.4 s. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0 ± 6.9% of total resting time on the floor, whereas F 1 and F 2 hens spent 56.9 ± 12.4 and 51.5 ± 7.7% resting on the

  16. Laying hen performance and well-being over two flock cycles on different litter substrates in an aviary housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The momentum to move toward aviary housing has continued to increase in the past eight months. The pressure to find consistent bedding sources for meat birds may impact litter substrate for the laying hen industry as the number of cage-free hens increases in the next nine years. Molting laying hens ...

  17. Interferon Production and Protein Synthesis in Chick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Friedman, Robert M. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.). Interferon production and protein synthesis in chick cells. J. Bacteriol. 91:1224–1229. 1966.—Overnight incubation of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) at 4 C before infection with live Semliki Forest virus (SFV) increased virus yields but decreased interferon production. The same findings were noted when CEF were incubated for 4 hr with p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA) before infection with live SFV or inactivated Chikungunya virus. In both systems incorporation of C14-leucine into protein appeared to be increased after pretreatment at 4 C or with FPA. Protein synthesis could be raised in CEF incubated in 0.5% serum after trypsinization by increasing the concentration of serum. CEF in 10% serum had higher rates of C14-leucine incorporation than did cells in 1.5% serum, but again the cells with the apparently high rate of incorporation produced less interferon. These findings may be related to the mechanism of cellular control over interferon production. PMID:5929753

  18. Availability to chicks of biotin from dried egg products.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, F H; Knollman, K; Earl, L; Buenrostro, J L

    1988-05-01

    Two feeding experiments were conducted with duplicate groups of five chicks each to study the availability of biotin in spray-dried egg products. In the first experiment chicks that were fed diets containing 43% dried whole egg (DWE) grew poorly and developed perosis and dermatitis. The signs were prevented and growth improved progressively with supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 mg biotin/kg diet. In the second experiment dried egg yolk (DEY) and dried egg white (DEW) were compared with DWE at equivalent levels of egg components. Signs of biotin deficiency and reduced growth were slightly more severe with DEW than with DWE, although liver biotin content was slightly lower at 0 and 0.5 mg biotin/kg with DWE than with DEW. Growth with DEY and no added biotin was not different from that with DEY and 500 or 1000 mg biotin/kg diet, although liver biotin was lower than when supplemental biotin was added. Liver fat was approximately five times greater in the groups receiving DWE and DEY than in the groups receiving DEW. The results show that the biotin contained in egg yolk is inadequate to counteract the deficiency of biotin caused by the avidin in egg white so that unheated dried whole egg is deficient in this vitamin. PMID:3367239

  19. Distinct modes of floor plate induction in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Patten, Iain; Kulesa, Paul; Shen, Michael M; Fraser, Scott; Placzek, Marysia

    2003-10-01

    To begin to reconcile models of floor plate formation in the vertebrate neural tube, we have performed experiments aimed at understanding the development of the early floor plate in the chick embryo. Using real-time analyses of cell behaviour, we provide evidence that the principal contributor to the early neural midline, the future anterior floor plate, exists as a separate population of floor plate precursor cells in the epiblast of the gastrula stage embryo, and does not share a lineage with axial mesoderm. Analysis of the tissue interactions associated with differentiation of these cells to a floor plate fate reveals a role for the nascent prechordal mesoderm, indicating that more than one inductive event is associated with floor plate formation along the length of the neuraxis. We show that Nr1, a chick nodal homologue, is expressed in the nascent prechordal mesoderm and we provide evidence that Nodal signalling can cooperate with Shh to induce the epiblast precursors to a floor-plate fate. These results indicate that a shared lineage with axial mesoderm cells is not a pre-requisite for floor plate differentiation and suggest parallels between the development of the floor plate in amniote and anamniote embryos. PMID:12917296

  20. Expression of thymosin beta4 during chick development.

    PubMed

    Dathe, V; Brand-Saberi, B

    2004-04-01

    We cloned the chick homologue of Homo sapiens thymosin beta4, encoding a G-actin sequestering factor which plays an important role in angiogenesis, cell motility and tumorigenesis. The thymosin beta4 gene is highly conserved between chick and human. Its expression was analyzed during different stages of development. At early stages thymosin beta4 is expressed in the mesoderm and endoderm and in Hensen's node. Later, thymosin beta4 transcripts are found in the head mesenchyme, somites, dorsal root ganglia, neural tube, brain, blood vessels and feather buds. The pattern of thymosin beta4 expression in blood vessels indicates a function mainly in development of the blood circulatory system which closely parallels findings in vitro. The observed expression pattern shows a high similarity to expression data published for mice, mainly in the heart and in the nervous system. Important new aspects are the early onset of expression, the expression in the mesoderm preceding heart formation and the involvement in feather development. PMID:14968362

  1. Evaluation of vitamin E against deltamethrin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, U; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, K S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Kalakumar, B

    2003-10-01

    Deltamethrin toxicity was studied in broilers and vitamin E was evaluated for therapeutic management. Day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 chicks in each. Group 1 was maintained as control for 6 wks, group 2 was fed on deltamethrin (100 mg/kg feed) for 6 wks and group 3 was fed on deltamethrin for the first 4 wks and during the subsequent 2 wks with vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed) with out deltamethrin. Weekly body weights, feed conversion ratio, glutathione (GSH) concentration and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-R), catalase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the lipid profile and renal biomarkers were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group 2 and 3 at the end of 4th wk as compared to group 1. Following treatment with vitamin E during the last 2 wks in group 3, all the parameters in study revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that deltamethrin induces toxicity by oxidative damage in biological system and supplementing vitamin E in feed is useful in treating accidental toxicity. PMID:15266958

  2. Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes. PMID:1380327

  3. Modelling the anxiety-depression continuum in chicks.

    PubMed

    Warnick, J E; Huang, C J; Acevedo, E O; Sufka, K J

    2009-03-01

    The clinical syndromes of anxiety and depression are now thought to exist along a temporal continuum and this construct has been modelled in a preclinical setting in chicks separated from conspecifics. This research sought to further the validity of the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Dose-response studies using two classes of anxiolytics (chlordiazepoxide: 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 mg/kg, and clonidine: 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 mg/kg) and three classes of antidepressants (imipramine: 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, 15.0 mg/kg, maprotoline: 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 mg/kg and fluoxetine: 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 mg/kg) showed an ability to detect anxiolytic activity of chlordiazepoxide, clonidine, imipramine and maprotoline in the anxiety-like phase of the model and to detect antidepressant effects of imipramine, maprotoline and fluoxetine in the depression-like phase of the model. In addition, blood plasma interleukin-6, a biomarker of stress, was found to be elevated in response to social-separation stress. Collectively, these findings further characterize the model as a simulation of the anxiety-depression continuum and begin to establish the paradigm as a high-utility adjuvant to rodent screening assays for putative anxiolytic and antidepressant compounds. PMID:18515452

  4. Arginine vasotocin receptor in the vagina of the oviduct of the hen.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kawashima, M; Yasuoka, T; Tanaka, K

    1998-11-01

    The presence of receptor for arginine vasotocin (AVT) in the vagina of the oviduct of the hen was demonstrated by the use of radioligand binding assays on membrane fractions of the tissue. The binding to [125I]AVT was highly competitive with unlabeled AVT. Scatchard analysis revealed that the binding sites are of a single class. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.48+/-0.05 nM (x+/-SEM; n = 6) in laying hens holding a hard-shelled egg in the uterus (shell gland) and 1.01+/-0.02 nM (n = 6) in nonlaying hens. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) was 0.41+/-0.04 pmol/mg protein (n = 6) in laying hens and 0.81+/-0.01 pmol/mg protein (n = 6) in nonlaying hens. The Kd value of the laying hens varied from 0.39 to 1.20 nM during an oviposition cycle, showing an increase just prior to oviposition, and the Bmax value also varied from 0.30 to 0.66 pmol/mg protein, showing a gradual increase after 6 h prior to oviposition. In the nonlaying hen, both values were almost constant during a 24-h day. The changes in the binding affinity and capacity of AVT receptor of the vagina may be related to oviposition in the hen. PMID:9835346

  5. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  6. Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

  7. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objectives of this research were to determine if inclusion of dietary fiber and a lowered dietary crude protein content would decrease ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 con...

  8. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R. S.; Pankaj, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds. PMID:27536042

  9. Effect of incubating egg exposure to magnetic field on the biophysical blood properties of newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ghannam Magdy; Mohamed, Shafey Tarek; Abd-Alaah, Aly Amany; Kassem, Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar; Suliman, Al-Ayed Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Due to widespread of human exposure to electromagnetic fields, there has been increasing public concern about the potential health risks from low-frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF-EMF. The magnetic fields (MFs) affects functions of the living organisms, such as DNA synthesis and ion transportation through the cell membranes. In the present work, the effects of short-term exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) prior to incubation were investigated on the biophysical blood properties of chicks hatched from layer-type breeder eggs. The eggs were exposed to a MF of 0.75 mT at 50 Hz for 20, 40 and 60 min before incubation. This study was performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules and the membrane solubility of red blood cells (RBCs) using the non-ionic detergent octylglucoside. Exposure of the eggs to a MF increased the conductivity of the Hb molecules. The pronounced increase in the conductivity of the exposed eggs might be attributed to an increase in the surface charge of the Hb macromolecules, resulted from the formation of highly active molecular species. This speculation can be supported by the increase in the relaxation time of the exposed groups. The solubilization process of the RBC membrane indicates a loss in the mobility of RBCs in the blood of hatching chicks. PMID:26525029

  10. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (<1 lux) per day. The 10-h dark period was distributed intermittently throughout the day, averaging 25.0±0.4 min per hour. This hourly light-dark rhythm differs from the typical commercial practice of providing continuous dark period for certain part of the day (e.g. 8 h at night). Distributions of daily feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in <1 lux (61.9% of total) which was significantly higher than under other light intensities (P<0.05). Findings from this study offer insights into preference of fluorescent light intensity by the laying hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to

  11. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  12. Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P < 0.05), and the highest egg production, feed intake and average egg weights were achieved when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was at 0.3% (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of intestinal sodium phosphorus co-transporter linearly decreased when dietary nonphytate phosphorus increased. mRNA and protein expression of intestinal calbindin and vitamin D receptor correlated quadratically with dietary nonphytate phosphorus, and the highest expression was found when dietary available phosphorus was at 0.25% to 0.3%. In conclusion, the ideal phosphorus requirement for Dwarf pink-shell layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression. PMID:24028402

  13. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers. PMID:23960108

  14. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Anja B.; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a long-term reduction of fearfulness in brooder birds was found. Results support the suggestion that rearing with dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing some of the major welfare problems in layers. Abstract Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion (p ≤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ≤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ≤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks (p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  15. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  16. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2004-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding laying hens grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins. Parameters measured included performance, organ weights, and plasma chemistry. One hundred and forty-four, 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for a 12-wk period. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased feed consumption compared with controls in the first 4 wk. Feed consumption increased, however, from 4 to 8 wk and from 8 to 12 wk. The efficiency of feed utilization (feed consumption/egg mass) decreased compared with controls in the periods from 4 to 8 and from 8 to 12 wk when birds were fed contaminated grains. Supplementation with GMA decreased feed consumption and increased the efficiency of feed utilization in the period from 8 to 12 wk. Egg production and egg mass decreased in wk 4 and 8 compared with controls when contaminated grains were fed, whereas egg and eggshell weights decreased in the fourth wk. Plasma uric acid concentrations increased throughout the experiment and relative kidney weights increased at the end of the experiment compared with controls when birds were fed contaminated grains. The feeding of GMA prevented the elevation in uric acid concentrations and relative kidney weights. It was concluded that layer performance and metabolism were adversely affected by chronic feeding of a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins, and that GMA prevented many of these effects. PMID:15554061

  17. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  18. The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Oh, S. T.; Jeon, J. Y.; Moon, B. H.; Kwon, H. S.; Lim, S. U.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora. PMID:25049560

  19. Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

  20. A nonchemical method of controlling the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sulviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A; Beerwinkle, K R

    1980-06-01

    Populations of the northern fowl mite on hens but not on roosters were significantly reduced relative to normally feathered chickens when feathers in the vent area were clipped to 2 to 3 mm length. The average difference in egg production between the control (no mites) and the clipped mite-infested hens was only 2.6% during the 22-week study, but the average difference between the control and the unclipped mite-infested hens was 7.6%, which was significantly different (P less than .01). Egg weight, hen body weight, and feed consumption of the three groups of hens were not significantly different. PMID:7402989

  1. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  2. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  3. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  4. Development of the chick thymus microenvironment: a study by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J G; Sanchez, A J; Melcon, C; Chamorro, C A; Garcia, C; Paz, P

    1994-01-01

    The microenvironment of the chick thymus has been examined during development using lectin histochemistry. We have assayed WGA, Con A, RCA-I and TPA on thymic sections from 13, 15, 17 and 19 d chick embryos and 0, 5, 10 and 15 d chicks. All lectins were immunoperoxidase and colloidal gold-conjugated for transmission electron microscope observations. WGA labelled both the cortical and medullary thymic stroma at all the stages analysed. An intense reaction to WGA was observed in the subcortical region from stage 18 embryos to 5 d chicks. On the other hand, WGA did not stain medullary areas of the chick thymus. Con A lectin detected several cell clusters of stromal cells and thymocytes in cortical regions. These clusters could represent a lymphostromal complex with which Con A receptors are associated, probably in relation to cell adhesion. The residues detected by RCA were distributed both in stromal cells and thymocytes of the developing chick thymus. There was an increase of the reaction to RCA between the 19 d embryos and the 5 d chicks. This increase might be interpreted in terms of the secretion of thymic humoral factors at these stages. The thymic stromal cells stained with immunoperoxidase conjugated-TPA showed a reticular pattern in the medulla. There is a possibility that the fucosyl residues may be expressed in the Ia antigen as has previously been suggested in other species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7512541

  5. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior. PMID:25930217

  6. Inversion of contrast polarity abolishes spontaneous preferences for face-like stimuli in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    A spontaneous preference for face-like stimuli has been demonstrated in domestic chicks, similar to that shown by human newborns, suggesting evolutionary continuity across species. Inversion of contrast polarity of face-like stimuli abolishes face preferences in human newborns. Here we investigated the effects of contrast polarity inversion and brain lateralization in chicks' preferences for faces. In Experiment 1 face-naïve chicks were tested with a negative face obtained from a stimulus that elicited preferential approach in previous research. As in human newborns, reversal of contrast polarity abolished face-preferences. Experiments 2, 3 and 5 investigated the effect of adding a pupil-like dot within the inner features of the negative and of positive stimuli (a manipulation that re-established face-preference in human newborns). Chicks reacted to this by avoiding the face stimulus. In Experiments 4 and 6 we found that the preference expressed by chicks having only their left eye (right hemisphere) in use changed according to contrast polarity, whereas it remained unaffected in chicks having their right eye in use. Thus, in domestic chicks, as in human beings, a stimulus is perceived as face-like only if it presents the correct luminance pattern expected for a face under natural top-lit illumination and the right hemisphere seems to play a crucial role in this kind of social orienting responses. PMID:22155610

  7. Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.

    PubMed

    Tjørve, Kathleen M C; Underhill, Leslie G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Chicks with small growth rate coefficients for body mass exhibited retarded growth of all body measures except wing length. This enabled these chicks to fledge in a shorter period of time than their slow growth would otherwise allow. The growth rate of body mass was observed to vary greatly between chicks. Fast-growing African black oystercatchers had a shorter pre-fledging period; were larger at fledging and were more likely to fledge successfully. African black oystercatchers display sibling rivalry, and once a dominance relationship is established, the larger chick remains so during the pre-fledging period. Larger siblings fledged earlier and at a heavier mass than the smaller siblings and this may improve their chances of survival. Neither hatching date nor brood size influenced the growth rate coefficients. PMID:18838259

  8. Reorienting strategies in a rectangular array of landmarks by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Tommaso; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Spatial reorientation in a rectangular array of four landmarks located in the center of a circular enclosure was investigated in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). One of the landmark possessed unique visual features, indicating the location of a food reward. After training, chicks were tested (a) with the same array as during the training; (b) with four identical landmarks of the type previously nonrewarded, of the type previously rewarded, or of a new type; (c) after having transformed one of the landmarks located at the geometric incorrect location into the type of landmark previously rewarded; or (d) with a fifth landmark of the rewarded type at a new location. Chicks encoded information provided by local featural cues but not the geometric information provided by the shape of the array. Moreover, when trained in a rectangular array of identical landmarks chicks failed to reorient. In a second series of experiments, the array was located in correspondence to the corners of a rectangular enclosure. This time chicks successfully learned to locate the reward using geometric information. However, when the rectangular array was located in the center of a larger rectangular enclosure, chicks failed to reorient, indicating that the geometric information given by the macroscopic layout of arena surfaces was not used to specify different locations. These results suggest that chicks reorient on the basis of a local representation of single landmarks and that encoding of the global aspects of geometry only occurs with respect to the large, extended surfaces of an enclosure. PMID:20476814

  9. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  10. Insectivory versus piscivory in Black Terns: Implications for food provisioning and growth of chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) is known for insectivory in their breeding range, but they are piscivorous in winter and feed some fish to chicks. Fish have potentially high value for chick provisioning because of their larger mass, but the relative value of fish and insect diets for chick growth is unknown. In 1999-2000, we documented use of fish and insects for provisioning chicks at four Black Tern colonies in Maine and examined chick growth rates at two colonies (Douglas Pond and Carlton Pond) that differed in fish and insect use. Deliveries of fish and insects to broods were documented using video cameras and observations from blinds, while concurrently measuring chick growth in nest enclosures. Fish use was substantial (>25% of deliveries) at three of four colonies. Fish comprised 29% of items and 56% of metabolizable energy delivered to chicks at Douglas Pond compared to 13% of items and 22% of metabolizeable energy at Carlton Pond. Food delivery rate was inversely related to the proportion of large fish. In brood diets at Douglas and Carlton Ponds and increased with brood age at Carlton Pond only, apparently due to high insect use. Chick growth rate did not vary with respect to fish and insect composition of diets. It is concluded that adults were able to raise chicks through age 12 d at comparable growth rates with insect-or fish-dominated diets. Use of fish may be more energy efficient for adults, and the capability to use both fish and insects may reduce potential variability in food availability during the breeding season.

  11. Social Facilitation Revisited: Increase in Foraging Efforts and Synchronization of Running in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation. PMID:21811436

  12. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Riber, A B; Hinrichsen, L K

    2016-07-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During both visits, the plumage condition was assessed and the density of floor feathers recorded. In week 62, droppings and floor feathers were collected. Droppings were examined for presence of feather content, whereas length, downiness and pecking damage were recorded for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P<0.001), but the prevalence of droppings with feather content did not differ between the two production systems (8.5% in barn v. 4.3% in organic; P=0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor feathers was positively correlated both with prevalence of droppings with feather content (P<0.05) and poor plumage condition (P<0.01), indicating a possible association between feather eating and feather pecking. In conclusion, it was confirmed that feather eating occurs on-farm, but feather eating was only found to be positively correlated to the number of floor feathers with pecking damage and not as expected to the prevalence of plumage damage. More research is needed into the sources from

  13. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  14. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  15. Aflatoxin adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates in experimentally contaminated chick diets.

    PubMed

    Márquez Márquez, R N; Tejada de Hernandez, I

    1995-01-01

    To study the aflatoxin-adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates (ALS) identified as Atapulgita (AT) and Füller earth (FE), these ALS were compared with a commercial aluminosilicate, Novasil (NV), at two concentrations (0.05 and 1.0%) added to chick diets with 55% of experimentally contaminated corn (200 micrograms/kg). Eight treatments were studied with two replicates for treatment and four chicks per cage. Results (weight gain, feed efficiency, gross and microscopic pathology) at 3 weeks showed that both Mexican ALS were as efficient as the commercial material in protecting chicks against the aflatoxin toxicity. PMID:7664939

  16. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  17. Isolation of a novel thermophilic Campylobacter from cases of spotty liver disease in laying hens and experimental reproduction of infection and microscopic pathology.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Tim R; Chanter, Jeremy I; Young, Stuart C L; Cawthraw, Shaun; Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Vidal, Ana B; Salguero, Francisco J; Irvine, Richard M

    2015-09-30

    The condition known as spotty liver disease or spotty liver syndrome can cause significant mortality in free range laying hen flocks. It has been described in Europe and Australia but the aetiology has not been established. There are similarities between spotty liver disease and avian vibrionic hepatitis, a condition which was reported in the 1950s. A Vibrio-like organism was suspected to be the cause of avian vibrionic hepatitis, although this organism was never fully characterised. We report the isolation of a novel Campylobacter from five separate outbreaks of spotty liver disease. The conditions required for culture, the growth characteristics, electron microscopical morphology and results of the phenotypic tests used in the identification of this novel Campylobacter sp. are described. The novel Campylobacter is slow growing and fastidious and does not grow on media routinely used for isolating Campylobacter sp. The morphology is typical for a Campylobacter sp. and phenotypic tests and a duplex real time PCR test differentiate the novel Campylobacter from other members of the genus. 16S rRNA analysis of 19 isolates showed an identical sequence which appears to represent a hitherto unknown sub lineage within the genus Campylobacter. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of four week old SPF chickens produced microscopic liver pathology indistinguishable from natural disease and the novel Campylobacter was recovered from the experimentally infected chicks. The isolates described appear to be a possible causal organism for spotty liver disease. PMID:26130518

  18. Dynamics of skeletal pattern formation in developing chick limb.

    PubMed

    Newman, S A; Frisch, H L

    1979-08-17

    During development of the embryonic chick limb the skeletal pattern is laid out as cartilaginous primordia, which emerge in a proximodistal sequence over a period of 4 days. The differentiation of cartilage is preceded by changes in cellular contacts at specific locations in the precartilage mesenchyme. Under realistic assumptions, the biosynthesis and diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a cell surface protein, such as fibronectin, will lead to spatial patterns of this molecule that could be the basis of the emergent primordia. As cellular differentiation proceeds, the size of the mesenchymal diffusion chamber is reduced in descrete steps, leading to sequential reorganizations of the morphogen pattern. The successive patterns correspond to observed rows of skeletal elements, whose emergence, in theory and in practice, depends on the maintenance of a unique boundary condition at the limb bud apex. PMID:462174

  19. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  20. Melatonin modulates intercellular communication among cultured chick astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jennifer L; Cassone, Vincent M; Zoran, Mark J

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin, a pineal neurohormone, mediates circadian and seasonal processes in birds and mammals. Diencephalic astrocytes are sites of action, at least in birds, since they express melatonin receptors and melatonin affects their metabolism. We tested whether astrocytic calcium waves are also modulated by melatonin. Calcium waves, which we found to be regulated in cultured chick glial cells by an IP(3)-dependent mechanism, were potentiated by physiological concentrations of melatonin. Melatonin also increased resting calcium levels and reduced gap junctional coupling among astrocytes, at concentrations that facilitated calcium waves. These modulatory effects were diminished by melatonin receptor blockade and pertussis toxin (PTX). Thus, melatonin induced a functional shift in the mode of intercellular communication, between junctional coupling and calcium waves, among glial cells. We suggest a mechanism where neuroglial physiology, involving GTP-binding protein signaling pathways, links rhythmic circadian outputs to pervasive neurobehavioral states. PMID:15621008

  1. Release of acetylcholine by chick embryo heart before innervation

    PubMed Central

    Coraboeuf, E.; Le Douarin, G.; Obrecht-Coutris, G.

    1970-01-01

    1. In chick embryo hearts, 3-day-old and not yet innervated, repetitive direct stimulation causes a transitory inhibition of the spontaneous rhythm. 2. The degree of post-stimulation inhibition depends on the frequency and duration of the artificial stimulation and on the concentration of K and Ca ions in the extracellular solution. 3. After treatment with atropine (10-5 g/ml.) post-stimulation inhibition is no longer observed. The spontaneous rhythm is accelerated by atropine. The findings therefore suggest that an ACh-like substance is released from the non-innervated embryonic heart during activity. 4. By use of the dorsal muscle of the leech for biological assay the liberation of an ACh-like substance from the non-innervated embryonic heart was confirmed. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:5498489

  2. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes. PMID:26859350

  3. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  4. Ethanol exposure represses osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-Long; Song, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-07-01

    It is known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can increase the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the effect of ethanol exposure on bone morphogenesis in fetus is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment of gastrulating chick embryos could inhibit long bone (humerus, radius and ulna) development. Histological examination revealed that ethanol exposure reduced the width of the proliferation and hypertrophic zones. In addition, cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activities were repressed. We also investigated the effect on chondrogenesis and chondrogenesis was inhibited. Ethanol exposure also induced excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The inhibiting effect on flat bone (sclerotic ossicle) and the generation of cranial neural crest cells (progenitors of craniofacial bones) was also presented. In conclusion, ethanol exposure during the embryonic period retards bone development through excess ROS production and altered bone-associated gene expression. PMID:27112526

  5. The effects on chicks of dietary fibre from different sources: a growth factor in wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Hegde, S N; Rolls, B A; Turvey, A; Coates, M E

    1978-07-01

    1. Groups of chicks were given a low-residue diet with or without supplements of dietary fibre in the form of wheat bran, wheat straw or bagasse. Growth and food conversion efficiency (g weight gained/g food eaten; FCE) during the first 4 weeks of life were measured. 2. In every one of seven experiments supplementation of the diet with 100 g wheat bran/kg resulted in improved growth, and in three experiments FCE was also increased. 3. Supplementation with coarsely-milled wheat straw to provide an amount of unavailable carbohydrate equivalent to that in the bran diet resulted in poorer growth; finely-milled wheat straw had little effect on growth. 4. The growth-promoting effect of bran was destroyed by sterilization with heat or gamma-radiation. 5. In some experiments weights, lengths and volumes of small intestines were measured. Differences in intestinal dimensions between birds given the diet with and without fibre were not consistent, nor were they correlated with growth rate or FCE. 6. Histometric observations on small intestines from a few birds indicated that those given coarse wheat straw had longer vili and thicker muscularis layers, and the caecal tonsils had a greater area of lymphoid tissue and more follicles. PMID:566554

  6. Generation of bioengineered feather buds on a reconstructed chick skin from dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Various kinds of in vitro culture systems of tissues and organs have been developed, and applied to understand multicellular systems during embryonic organogenesis. In the research field of feather bud development, tissue recombination assays using an intact epithelial tissue and mesenchymal tissue/cells have contributed to our understanding the mechanisms of feather bud formation and development. However, there are few methods to generate a skin and its appendages from single cells of both epithelium and mesenchyme. In this study, we have developed a bioengineering method to reconstruct an embryonic dorsal skin after completely dissociating single epithelial and mesenchymal cells from chick skin. Multiple feather buds can form on the reconstructed skin in a single row in vitro. The bioengineered feather buds develop into long feather buds by transplantation onto a chorioallantoic membrane. The bioengineered bud sizes were similar to those of native embryo. The number of bioengineered buds was increased linearly with the initial contact length of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers where the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions occur. In addition, the bioengineered bud formation was also disturbed by the inhibition of major signaling pathways including FGF (fibroblast growth factor), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein). We expect that our bioengineering technique will motivate further extensive research on multicellular developmental systems, such as the formation and sizing of cutaneous appendages, and their regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27019985

  7. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Edward K.; Munasinghe, Jeeva

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage) where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC) knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo, the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation. PMID:27200386

  8. Isolation and characterization of new collagens from chick cartilage.

    PubMed

    von der Mark, K; van Menxel, M; Wiedemann, H

    1982-05-01

    Three unique collagen chains were isolated from chick sternal cartilage following pepsin solubilization of total cartilage collagens and removal of the predominant type II collagen by fractional salt precipitation. Native molecules containing 1 alpha, 2 alpha and 3 alpha chains precipitated between 0.7 M and 1.2 M NaCl at acidic pH and could be purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose and agarose columns. Although similar to mammalian 1 alpha, 2 alpha and 3 alpha chains, differences in the mobilities on sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis, CNBr peptide profiles and amino acid composition were found. The 1 alpha and 2 alpha chains resemble, but are structurally distinct from, the chick alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) chains. The 3 alpha chain appears to be closely related to the alpha 1(II) chain, although some differences in the cyanogen bromide peptides suggest that they might be different gene products. In addition, two collagenous fragments of Mr 140 000 (M1) and 35 000 (M2) were found which precipitated at 2.0 m NaCl at acidic pH. Both fragments contain interchain disulfide bonds. The larger fragment was reducible to subunits of approximate Mr 120 000, 48 000, 28 000 and 11 000. The smaller fragment gave rise to peptides of Mr about 12 000 and 10 000 after reduction. By the technique of rotary shadowing the native, unreduced larger fragment M1 appeared as a slender rod-like molecule with a distinct bend approximately 40 nm from one end. We interpret this finding as indicative of a focal amino acid sequence irregularity, disrupting the triple-helical conformation. PMID:7084229

  9. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n = 120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1 ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1 ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20 mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks. PMID:26071807

  10. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  11. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

  12. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management. PMID:26527703

  13. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P<0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P<0.0001).Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety. PMID:26976901

  14. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  15. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  16. Ontogeny of chick responses to maternal food calls in the Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus).

    PubMed

    Moffatt, C A; Hogan, J A

    1992-03-01

    Burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) chicks were reinforced at 5 days old with a mealworm at the end of a runaway in the presence of a maternal food call. Two food calls were used, one made to a highly preferred food item (a mealworm) and one made to a less preferred food item (chick crumbs). Chicks initially approached the food call made to the mealworm faster regardless of reinforcement contingencies, but by the 3rd day of training chicks responded faster to the call that was reinforced. These results indicate that functional experience can modify preexisting response tendencies to food-calling stimuli. We discuss the implications of these results for the interpretation of published accounts that chickens use food calls deceptively. PMID:1555403

  17. Intestinal colonization and competitive exclusion of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Soerjadi, A S; Snoeyenbos, G H; Weinack, O M

    1982-01-01

    Colonization of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was investigated in monoxenic and holoxenic chicks. In monoxenic chicks, major colonization was found in the crop and ceca, with populations in the ceca consistently reaching 10(9) colony-forming-units/ml of cecal contents over the 28-day test period. Bacteremia was found in most chicks, but no significant gross pathological lesions were detected. In holoxenic chicks, major colonization occurred only in the ceca, and no evidence of bacteremia was detected. Colonization by native gut microflora sharply reduced subsequent colonization by C. fetus subsp. jejuni. The protective mechanism is perhaps the same as that protective against paratyphoid salmonellae and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. PMID:7150145

  18. Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  19. Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  20. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  1. Expression and regulation of Kit ligand in the ovary of the hen.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Mila C; Wojtusik, Jessye; Johnson, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    The Kit system, composed of Kit ligand (KL) and its tyrosine kinase receptor, cKit, has been well characterized in mammals. Studies have shown that it is involved in signaling between the oocyte and somatic cells during the process of follicle maturation. We characterized KL mRNA expression during follicle maturation in the domestic hen, examined regulation of KL and a possible function of the Kit system. KL mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative PCR (n=4 replicates) in follicles of various sizes (1, 3, 5, 6-12 mm, F1). Expression of KL mRNA decreased significantly (p<0.01) with follicle development and was highest in <1 mm follicles, which contained the theca as well as granulosa layers, with high levels also found in the granulosa layer of 3 mm follicles and ovarian stroma. To study regulation of KL mRNA, granulosa cells from 6-8 mm follicles (n=4 replicates) were plated in M199 plus 0.1% BSA in the presence of various treatments including: oocyte conditioned medium (OCM), Vitamin D(3), FSH, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone. OCM caused a dose-related increase (p<0.05) in expression of KL mRNA; Vitamin D(3) increased and FSH decreased expression of KL mRNA. cKit was detected (at the expected size) in the theca layer of 3-5 mm follicles and in a lysate of whole <1mm follicles. Culture of granulosa cells in the presence of OCM resulted in a decrease of P4 secretion, an effect blocked by pre-incubation of OCM with cKit antibody. Although OCM caused a dose-related increase in E2 secretion from theca, this was not blocked by cKit antibody. PMID:22885556

  2. Expression and regulation of anti-mullerian hormone in an oviparous species, the hen.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P A; Kent, T R; Urick, M E; Giles, J R

    2008-01-01

    Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) has a critical role in regression of the mullerian duct system during development in male mammalian and avian species and in regression of the right oviduct in female avian species. AMH in adult female birds has not been investigated. Chicken-specific cDNA primers were used to isolate Amh by RT-PCR. This probe was used in Northern blot analysis to identify a 2.8-kb band with expression in total ovarian RNA and in granulosa cell RNA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess Amh expression in follicles of different maturity (1, 3, 5, and 6-12 mm and the largest F1 follicle; n = 4-6 of each size). There was an increased amount of Amh mRNA in the granulosa layer of the smaller follicles and a lower amount in the granulosa layer of the larger follicles (P < 0.01). There was no difference in granulosa Amh expression between the germinal disc and non-germinal disc region of 6- to 12-mm follicles, although expression differed with follicle size (P < 0.01). To examine hormone regulation of Amh, granulosa cells (from 6- to 8-mm follicles) were cultured with various concentrations of estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)), and Amh mRNA was assessed. Neither E(2) nor P(4) influenced Amh mRNA accumulation. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence of oocyte-conditioned medium (OCM), which decreased Amh mRNA expression in a dose-related manner (P < 0.05); FSH receptor expression was not affected. Heat treatment of OCM abolished the effect, but growth differentiation factor 9 antiserum did not block the suppression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the granulosa layer was the predominant source of AMH in the small follicles of the hen and indicated that AMH was present early in follicle development, with expression in very small follicles (approximately 150 mum). PMID:17881771

  3. Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Aury, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Toquin, Marie-Thérèse; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Nôtre, Yolène; Allain, Virginie; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks during a single visit to the farm. Two logistic regression models (specific to each production) were used to assess the association between management practices and the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of the flock. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 30.9% (95% CI: 21.0; 40.9) and 31.7% (95% CI: 24.0; 39.4) for cage-layers and broiler flocks, respectively. For layer flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when pets were present on the production site. When droppings were evacuated by conveyor belt with deep pit storage, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination decreased significantly. Feed meal was found to be associated with a higher risk of L. monocytogenes contamination than feed crumb. For broiler flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when farmers did not respect the principle of two areas (clean and dirty) at the poultry house entrance. A first disinfection by thermal fogging and the absence of pest control of the poultry house before the arrival of the next flock was found to increase the risk of contamination. When litter was not protected during storage and when farm staff also took care of other broiler chicken houses, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination increased significantly. In the case of the watering system, nipples with cups were found to decrease the risk of contamination. PMID:21176855

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins during hen ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwon; Lee, Jeeyoung; Johnson, A L

    2016-06-01

    Growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in the hen (Gallus gallus) requires a network of blood vessels that increases in complexity during development. The present studies investigate expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), angiopoietin1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2 mRNAs together with their associated receptors (VEGFR and TIE2, respectively) during maturation. Elevated expression of VEGF and its receptors is associated with healthy, compared to atretic, follicles. Levels of VEGF significantly increase, while antagonistic ANGPT2 decrease, in granulosa cells (GC) at follicle selection. By comparison, levels of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, ANGPT1, ANGPT2 and TIE2 within the theca layer do not change (P>0.05) relative to developmental stages surrounding follicle selection (6-8mm versus 9-12mm follicles). Prior to selection, treatment with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) significantly increases levels of VEGF in undifferentiated GC from prehierarchal (6-8mm) follicles and actively differentiating GC from selected (9-12 and F4) follicles. Moreover, subsequent to selection follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increases VEGF expression in GC from 9 to 12mm follicles, and eventually luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes VEGF expression in GC from more mature preovulatory follicles. It is concluded that prior to follicle selection VEGF expression is regulated by autocrine and paracrine actions of TGFβ1 (but not FSH), and that a comparatively limited extent of vasculature is sufficient to maintain prehierarchal follicles in a viable and undifferentiated state. At follicle selection, FSH- and subsequently LH-induced VEGF production within the GC layer enhance angiogenesis within the theca layer, which facilitates the rapid growth of preovulatory follicles via enhanced incorporation of yellow yolk. PMID:26996428

  5. Secondary effects of the pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on chicks of spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Norton, M L; Bendell, J F; Bendell-Young, L I; LeBlanc, C W

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if application of the biological pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (B.t.k.) had secondary effects on spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis) chicks in the southern boreal forest of Ontario, Canada. B.t.k. kills larvae of Lepidoptera that might otherwise be food. This may affect types of food ingested and influence chick growth rates by reducing the availability of a high-protein food. Amount of ingested grit, which is diet-dependent, may also be influenced, which could alter exposure to anthropogenic toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), associated with the grit. Chick growth rate from 0 to 14 days of age was determined, and gizzard contents were analyzed for types of foods and levels of macronutrients and trace metals in chicks raised in a plot treated with B.t.k. compared to chicks raised on a control plot. Chick growth rates were significantly different (p < 0.05); chicks from the treatment plot increased body mass 30% less as compared to chicks raised on the control plot. Control chicks contained on average 2.5-fold the mass (in g) of grit and nearly twofold the mass of food, which included larvae, in their gizzards compared to those exposed to B.t.k. whose diets were dominated by spiders and ants. Concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), sulfur (S) and the trace metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) did not differ between experimental and control birds (p > 0.05). In contrast, control chicks had higher levels of aluminum (Al), Cd, cobalt (Co), and Pb in their gizzards than chicks from the sprayed area (p < 0.05), attributed to greater amounts of consumed grit. Although birds from the sprayed area had lower levels of the toxic metals Pb and Cd in their gizzards, a protein-deficient diet could have been a factor that contributed to decreased rates of growth in B.t.k.-exposed birds as compared to those birds held on nonsprayed

  6. Polymorphisms in eggshell organic matrix genes are associated with eggshell quality measurements in pedigree Rhode Island Red hens.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Joseph, N T; Bain, M; Edmond, A; Wilson, P W; Milona, P; Nys, Y; Gautron, J; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R; Waddington, D

    2009-02-01

    Novel and traditional eggshell quality measurements were made from up to 2000 commercial pedigree hens for a candidate gene association analysis with organic eggshell matrix genes: ovocleidin-116, osteopontin (SPP1), ovocalyxin-32 (RARRES1), ovotransferrin (LTF), ovalbumin and ovocalyxin-36, as well as key genes in the maintenance and function of the shell gland [estrogen receptor (ESR1) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)]. Associations were found for (i) ovalbumin with breaking strength and shell thickness; (ii) ovocleidin-116 with elastic modulus, shell thickness and egg shape; (iii) RARRES1 with mammillary layer thickness; (iv) ESR1 with dynamic stiffness; (v) SPP1 with fracture toughness and (vi) CAII with egg shape. The marker effects are as large as 17% of trait standard deviations and could be used to improve eggshell quality. PMID:18828860

  7. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  8. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033

  9. Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. )

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

  10. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  11. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of

  12. Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

  13. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P < 0.05) but did not reduce cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in either experiment (P > 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined. PMID:20371858

  14. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P

    2011-06-15

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited. PMID:21591754

  15. Muscarinic signaling influences the patterning and phenotype of cholinergic amacrine cells in the developing chick retina

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Jennifer J; Lehman, Bret; Fischer, Andy J

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies in the vertebrate retina have characterized the differentiation of amacrine cells as a homogenous class of neurons, but little is known about the genes and factors that regulate the development of distinct types of amacrine cells. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to characterize the development of the cholinergic amacrine cells and identify factors that influence their development. Cholinergic amacrine cells in the embryonic chick retina were identified by using antibodies to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Results We found that as ChAT-immunoreactive cells differentiate they expressed the homeodomain transcription factors Pax6 and Islet1, and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27kip1. As differentiation proceeds, type-II cholinergic cells, displaced to the ganglion cell layer, transiently expressed high levels of cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) and neurofilament, while type-I cells in the inner nuclear layer did not. Although there is a 1:1 ratio of type-I to type-II cells in vivo, in dissociated cell cultures the type-I cells (ChAT-positive and CRABP-negative) out-numbered the type-II cells (ChAT and CRABP-positive cells) by 2:1. The relative abundance of type-I to type-II cells was not influenced by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), but was affected by compounds that act at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition, the abundance and mosaic patterning of type-II cholinergic amacrine cells is disrupted by interfering with muscarinic signaling. Conclusion We conclude that: (1) during development type-I and type-II cholinergic amacrine cells are not homotypic, (2) the phenotypic differences between these subtypes of cells is controlled by the local microenvironment, and (3) appropriate levels of muscarinic signaling between the cholinergic amacrine cells are required for proper mosaic patterning. PMID:18254959

  16. Differences in the Expression and Distribution of Flotillin-2 in Chick, Mice and Human Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Possidonio, Ana Claudia Batista; Soares, Carolina Pontes; Portilho, Débora Morueco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myoblasts undergo a series of changes in the composition and dynamics of their plasma membranes during the initial steps of skeletal muscle differentiation. These changes are crucial requirements for myoblast fusion and allow the formation of striated muscle fibers. Membrane microdomains, or lipid rafts, have been implicated in myoblast fusion. Flotillins are scaffold proteins that are essential for the formation and dynamics of lipid rafts. Flotillins have been widely studied over the last few years, but still little is known about their role during skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells grown in vitro. Primary cultures of chick myogenic cells showed a decrease in the expression of flotillin-2 during the first 72 hours of muscle differentiation. Interestingly, flotillin-2 was found to be highly expressed in chick myogenic fibroblasts and weakly expressed in chick myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. Flotillin-2 was distributed in vesicle-like structures within the cytoplasm of chick myogenic fibroblasts, in the mouse C2C12 myogenic cell line, and in neonatal human muscle cells. Cryo-immunogold labeling revealed the presence of flotillin-2 in vesicles and in Golgi stacks in chick myogenic fibroblasts. Further, brefeldin A induced a major reduction in the number of flotillin-2 containing vesicles which correlates to a decrease in myoblast fusion. These results suggest the involvement of flotillin-2 during the initial steps of skeletal myogenesis. PMID:25105415

  17. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Eichhorst, B.A.; Warburton, D.

    2007-01-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jon-Min

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of heavy metals in livers and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks from two islands in Korea. Iron and manganese concentrations were significantly higher in chick livers at Hongdo Island compared to Rando Islnad. In contrast, zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher at Rando Island than Hongdo Island. On Hongdo Island, Black-tailed Gull chicks at a lighthouse site had higher lead concentrations in livers and stomach contents than at a nearby reference site and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull chicks had significantly higher lead concentrations than regurgitated diets. In Hongdo Island, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly correlated between livers and stomach contents. Essential elements such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper concentrations from the present study were within the range reported for other seabird species including gulls. Livers of four individual gull chicks (13.3%) were at a level considered lead exposed (6-30 μg g(-1) dry weight), but cadmium concentrations in all specimens were within the background level (<3 μg g(-1) dry weight) for wild birds. Elevated lead concentrations on lighthouse site may be attributed to ingestion of paint chips and these concentrations may negatively affect chick behavior, growth and survival. PMID:25048929

  20. Suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Yakabe, Y; Ishida, A; Yamazaki, M; Abe, H

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that L-leucine suppresses myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles. In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on myofibrillar proteolysis in skeletal muscle of chicks. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (24 h) chicks were orally administered 225 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 2 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious inhibitory effect on myofibrillar proteolysis (plasma N(tau)-methylhistidine concentration) in chicks while D-leucine and alpha-KIC were much more effective. We also examined the expression of the proteolytic-related genes (ubiquitin, proteasome, m-calpain and cathepsin B) by real-time PCR of cDNA in chick skeletal muscles. Ubiquitin mRNA expression was decreased by D-leucine and alpha-KIC but not L-leucine. Proteasome and m-calpain mRNA expressions as well as cathepsin B mRNA expression were likewise decreased by L-leucine, D-leucine and alpha-KIC. These results indicate that D-leucine and alpha-KIC suppress proteolytic-related genes, resulting in an decrease in myofibrillar proteolysis while L-leucine is much less effective in skeletal muscle of chicks, may be explain by conversion of D-leucine to alpha-KIC. PMID:16998714

  1. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  2. Monitoring of heavy metal contamination using tissues of two ardeids chicks, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Koo, Tae-Hoe; Oh, Jong-Min

    2010-06-01

    This study presents concentrations of iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium in livers and kidneys of Little Egret Egretta garzetta (n = 10) and Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax (n = 10) chicks from Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Essential element concentrations such as iron, zinc and manganese did not differ between both species chicks in livers and kidneys, but lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly greater in both tissues of Little Egret chicks (lead 2.78 +/- 4.06 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 10.3 +/- 12.8 kg/g wet weight) than in those of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks (lead 0.92 +/- 0.73 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 1.00 +/- 1.00 kg/g wet weight). Lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks were highly related to sediment and/or prey concentrations of their foraging sites in Korean studies. It shows that lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of heron chicks can reflect those of surrounding environment of breeding sites. In this study, cadmium concentrations were higher in kidneys than in livers and it's not recent high-level exposure but chronic background exposure to cadmium contamination around breeding site. Therefore, we suggest that cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys can be used as a bioindicator of acute and/or chronic local contamination. PMID:20464368

  3. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Eichhorst, Bruce A; Warburton, David

    2007-07-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. PMID:17464443

  4. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  5. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  6. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:27519174

  7. Effect of diets supplemented with different levels of manganese, zinc, and copper from their organic or inorganic sources on egg production and quality characteristics in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Abbas Ali; Sanei, Abbas; Samie, Abdolhossein; Gheisari, Mohamad Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid

    2011-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc, manganese, and copper sources (inorganic vs. organic) in the diet on laying performance and eggshell quality characteristics. One hundred and eighty Hy-Line W-36 layers at 38 weeks of age were allocated to 36-layer cages of five hens each. Each six cages were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental diets fed from 38 to 53 week of age. In three experimental treatments, the basal diet was supplemented with 65-75-7 or 65-75-7 or 40-40-7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from their oxide or sulfate sources. Three other groups were fed diets supplemented with 20-20-3.5 or 40-40-7.5 or 60-60-10.5 mg/kg of organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively. Dietary treatments significantly did affect feed intake (P < 0.001), feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) and percentage of broken eggs (P < 0.05). Substitution of Zn and Mn oxides (65 and 75 mg kg(-1), respectively) with equal amounts of their sulfate forms significantly improved feed intake, feed conversion ratio, percentage of broken eggs, and Haugh Unit (P < 0.05). In addition, laying hens maintained their performance when substitution of Zn and Mn oxides and Cu sulfate (65, 75, and 7 mg kg(-1), respectively) reduced up to 20, 20, and 3.5 mg kg(-1) by amino acid complexes of the microelements. The results showed that a corn-soybean diet supplemented with the organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu at a dosage 50% to 75% lower than NRC recommendation is sufficient to maintain laying performance and can improve eggshell and albumen qualities of the egg in laying hens. PMID:20711683

  8. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  9. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation. PMID:26101060

  10. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    PubMed Central

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Ampe, Bart A.; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D’Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L.T.; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Until 2012, laying hens in the EU were often housed in conventional cages that offered limited space and few opportunities to perform highly motivated behaviors. Conventional cages are now banned in the EU in order to improve animal welfare. In this study, egg farmers were surveyed (winter 2013–2014) to assess whether they perceived any changes in animal welfare since changing housing systems, what role hen welfare played in choosing a new housing system, and which aspects of hen welfare they find most important. The data show that the answers differ depending on which housing system the farmers currently use and whether they had used conventional cages in the past. Abstract As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  11. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  12. The Little Red Hen: A Story of Productive Resources and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Abbejean

    2005-01-01

    "The Little Red Hen" is a classic story. Many children have not had the opportunity to see where a commercial loaf of bread comes from, or to feel the bounce of rising dough in a kitchen. "The Little Red Hen" not only helps to introduce the process, but gives the students an opportunity to reflect how they might feel if they did the work on a…

  13. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  14. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L; Wichman, A; Kalliokoski, O; Wall, H

    2016-06-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens housed in furnished cages. Welfare indicators were measured between 61 and 70 wk of age in birds excluded from their nests for 5 consecutive d and control birds that had continuous access to nests. Baseline recordings were carried out in both groups prior to and post exclusion period. The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest deprived and control birds during the exclusion. This suggests that these indicators were able to detect an increased stress response arising from nest deprivation, and it is hypothesized that the stress spread to birds in adjacent cages with access to nests. There was a positive and consistent correlation between FCM in droppings and eggshell irregularities, also supporting the use of eggshell irregularities as a potential non-invasive welfare indicator. However, the pattern of the stress response varied between indicators and correlations were generally few and inconsistent, highlighting the complexity of the relationship among welfare indicators. PMID:26994207

  15. Ultrastructural identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Gandahi, J A; Chen, S F; Yang, P; Bian, X G; Chen, Q S

    2012-06-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are widely believed to be neuroeffector cells of smooth muscle activity in all tubular organs, including the oviduct. The avian oviduct involves the secretion, sheathing, and transportation of a large-sized egg, but there is no information available on ICC in this special organ. We have demonstrated the presence of ICC in different segments throughout the oviduct in the laying hen and provided details on their ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy technique, for the first time. The observed ICC appeared bipolar and multipolar cells of different shapes, with varying nuclear morphologies, a thin rim of electron-dense cytoplasm, and an infrequent basal lamina. They showed moniliform primary processes with one or 2 secondary or terminal processes. We found ICC near smooth muscle cells, nerve fibers, and the epithelia, where they make specialized contacts in the form of close membrane associations or gap-like junctions and peg-and-socket-like junctions. Intricate labyrinthine-type networking contacts were also present in ICC processes. Moreover, we report for the first time, that ICC in avian oviduct make interdigitating contacts with the epithelium. Cytoplasmic organelles identified in ICC include numerous well-developed mitochondria, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dispersed intermediate filaments. Many caveolae and vesicles were also present. Golgi bodies and centrioles were rare. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, were distinct cells with larger cytoplasmic area, more rough endoplasmic reticulum, and less mitochondrial content. No basal lamina, intermediate filaments, or caveolae were present in fibroblasts. Their processes were shorter and showed no contacts with smooth muscle cells or nerves. We conclude that these ICC might also have a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of motility and transportation in the hen oviduct, as already proved in mammalian oviduct. Such role of ICC might also be responsible

  16. Photoperiodic control of reproduction in the domestic hen.

    PubMed

    Sharp, P J

    1993-05-01

    Egg laying in domestic hens exposed to natural lighting begins shortly after the winter solstice, peaks in early spring, begins to decrease before the fall equinox, and is at its lowest during the late fall and early winter. The seasonal cycle of egg production phase-leads that of the changes in day length. This seeming anomaly can be explained if it is accepted that 1) short days are photoperiodically neutral and do not actively inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I neurons; and 2) long days are photoperiodically active, transducing both stimulatory and inhibitory inputs to GnRH-I neurons. The development of a long day-induced inhibitory input results in a form of photorefractoriness. Around the winter solstice, photorefractoriness is dissipated by prolonged exposure to short days, allowing GnRH-I neurons to express a photoperiodic-independent, genotype-dependent, level of activity. This is sufficient to stimulate egg laying before the minimum photoperiod for photoinduced gonadotropin release is reached in early spring. When day length begins to decrease after the summer solstice, the photoinduced stimulatory input to GnRH-I neurons is reduced, unmasking the photoinduced inhibitory input. As a consequence, the activity of GnRH-I neurons decreases rapidly and the intensity of egg laying decreases. The minimum and maximum day lengths required to stimulate reproductive function in short-day hens, calculated from the photoperiodic response curves (PRC) for luteinizing hormone release are about 10 and 13 h, respectively, depending on genotype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8502612

  17. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  18. Calcitonin receptor binding in the hen anterior pituitary during an oviposition cycle.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, Kaori; Kawashima, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d) ) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max) ) of calcitonin (CT) receptor in the plasma membrane of the anterior pituitary in hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125) I-labeled chicken CT. Values of K(d) and B(max) of CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in non-laying hens. A decrease in the K(d) and B(max) value of CT receptor was observed in the anterior pituitary after the injection of estradiol-17β and progesterone into nonlaying hens, but not changed after the injection of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. During an oviposition cycle, the K(d) and the B(max) value decreased 3 h before oviposition. In non-laying hens, neither the K(d) nor the B(max) value changed during a full day period. The present study suggests that the CT action on the anterior pituitary may increase 3 h before oviposition by the effect of estradiol-17β and progesterone in laying hens. PMID:21951904

  19. Antibody and inflammatory responses in laying hens with experimental primary infections of Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Atxutegi, C; Gandolfi, B; Arangüena, T; Sepúlveda, R; Arévalo, M; Simón, F

    2009-04-01

    Ascaridia galli, an intestinal nematode that affects hens and other domestic and wild birds, causes economic losses in avian exploitations. The present work shows that A. galli stimulates a strong antibody response as well as an intense inflammatory reaction, in the intestinal mucous of experimentally infected Lohmann Brown laying hens. IgG antibodies against soluble extracts of A. galli embrionated eggs and adult worms, were detected in both blood and yolks eggs from infected hens during a period of 105 days after the infection. This indicates that hens transfer to their offspring a part of the IgG antibodies produced when they become infected. The antigens responsible for the stimulation of specific IgG were molecules of 30-34, 44-54 and 58-90 kDa, while in the yolk eggs of infected hens a reactivity directed against antigens of molecular weight (M(w)) lower than 50 kDa was detected. Histology revealed traumatic lesions with leukocyte infiltration, and inflammation of the intestinal wall of the infected hens after 105 days of initial infection. The possible influence of the immune and inflammatory response on the population dynamics of the parasite is discussed. PMID:19167166

  20. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  1. Enantioselective Characteristics and Montmorillonite-Mediated Removal Effects of α-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueke; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Guojun; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide that is often ubiquitously detected in various environmental matrices and may be absorbed by the human body via food consumption, with serious detriments to human health. In this study, enantioselective degradation kinetics and residues of α-HCH in laying hens were investigated after a single dose of exposure to the pesticide, whereas enantioselectivity and residues of α-HCH in eggs, droppings, and various tissues were investigated after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, montmorillonite (MMT), a feed additive with high capacity of adsorption, was investigated for its ability to remove α-HCH from laying hens. Most non-brain tissues enantioselectively accumulated (-)-α-HCH, while (+)-α-HCH was preferentially accumulated in the brain. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in most tissues gradually decreased, implying continuous depletion of (+)-α-HCH in laying hens. After 30 days of exposure and 31 days of elimination, the concentration of α-HCH in eggs and tissues of laying hens with MMT-containing feed was lower than that with MMT-free feed, indicating the removal effects of MMT for α-HCH in laying hens. The findings presented herein suggest that modified MMT may potentially be useful in reducing the enrichment of α-HCH in laying hens and eggs, thus lowering the risk of human intake of α-HCH. PMID:27163366

  2. The effect of a bisphosphonate on bone volume and eggshell structure in the hen.

    PubMed

    Thorp, B H; Wilson, S; Rennie, S; Solomon, S E

    1993-12-01

    Bisphosphonates, used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, in man, can prevent bone loss in experimental models of osteoporosis in mammals. In egg-laying hens there is a high incidence of bone fractures which are due to osteoporosis. Alendronate, a bisphosphonate, was given to three groups of hens in mid-lay. Different doses of alendronate were given to each group and group 4 was a control. The birds were killed after 2 weeks of treatment. The hens receiving the highest dosage of alendronate (1 mg/kg every 2nd day) ceased laying and had reduced serum calcium concentrations. Lower dosages of alendronate (0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg every 2nd day) resulted in normal egg production and serum calcium concentrations. Egg shells with ultra-structural features indicative of reduced shell quality were produced by hens on the two higher dosages, but the egg shells from the controls and from the hens on the lowest dosage were considered normal. When alendronate was administered to hens in mid-lay there was no effect on trabecular bone volumes, but there was a reduction in mean medullary bone volume in some groups. In a second experiment, pullets were treated with alendronate (0.01 mg/kg twice a week) before the onset of lay. The pullets were killed after laying their first egg. In the pullets treated with alendronate, this protocol resulted in a significantly greater volume of trabecular (structural) bone at the onset of lay. PMID:18671052

  3. Angiogenesis and hyperbaric oxygen in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Montecorboli, Umberto; Annese, Tiziana; Marinaccio, Christian; Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is increasingly applied in different areas of medical practice. The oxy-hyperbarism effects are not well understood in cancer malignancy. One unique feature of cancer is the presence of hypoxic regions that are insensitive to conventional therapies. It is possible to alter the hypoxic state and produce reactive oxygen species for better treatment outcome by HBOT. In the present study, we determined the effects of HBOT on angiogenesis, a signature of cancer progression, by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in vivo assay. CAMs were exposed to 2.0 ATA (atmospheres absolute) for 30 min of hyperbaric oxygen on the 6(th) and 7(th) days of incubation (ED6, ED7). On the 10-11(th) day of incubation, CAMs were excised from eggs, fixed and analysed using APERIO ImageScope software. HBOT outcomes were evaluated quantifying the volumetric area occupied by blood vessels and calculating the number of blood vessel ramifications. Results indicated that CAMs treated at ED6 and ED7 had a significantly higher CAM vascularization and an increased number of blood vessel ramifications (+82% higher for ED6) compared to untreated CAMs (ED6=63.3±2.5 and ED7=57.7±5.5 vs. CTRL=34.7±2.5). Thus, HBOT induces an angiogenic response in treated CAMs through a classic sprouting mechanism. PMID:26864486

  4. Proper autophagy is indispensable for angiogenesis during chick embryo development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hui; Shi, Yu-Xun; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Liu, Langxia; Chuai, Manli; Song, Xiaoyu; Münsterberg, Andrea; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-07-01

    People have known that autophagy plays a very important role in many physiological and pathological events. But the role of autophagy on embryonic angiogenesis still remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that Atg7, Atg8 and Beclin1 were expressed in the plexus vessels of angiogenesis at chick yolk sac membrane and chorioallantoic membrane. Interfering in autophagy with autophagy inducer or inhibitor could restrict the angiogenesis in vivo, which might be driven by the disorder of angiogenesis-related gene expressions, and also lead to embryonic hemorrhage, which was due to imperfection cell junctions in endothelial cells including abnormal expressions of tight junction, adheren junction and desmosome genes. Using HUVECs, we revealed that cell viability and migration ability changed with the alteration of cell autophagy exposed to RAPA or 3-MA. Interestingly, tube formation assay showed that HUVECs ability of tube formation altered with the change of Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8 manipulated by the transfection of their corresponding siRNA or plasmids. Moreover, the lost cell polarity labeled by F-actin and the absenced β-catenin in RAPA-treated and 3-MA-treated cell membrane implied intracellular cytoskeleton alteration was induced by the activation and depression of autophagy. Taken together, our current experimental data reveal that autophagy is really involved in regulating angiogenesis during embryo development. PMID:27163719

  5. Hair bundle profiles along the chick basilar papilla

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, R. K.; ILE, K. E.; DUBIN, M. G.; SAUNDERS, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells play a central role in the transduction of sound into neural output. Anatomical descriptions of these cells, and their protruding hair bundles, are of fundamental interest since hair cell transduction is dependent on hair bundle micromechanics and hair bundle micromechanics depends on hair bundle morphology. In this paper, we describe quantitatively changes in the staircase profile of the hair bundle along the apical portion of the chick's basilar papilla. Images of hair cells from 8 discretely dissected segments of the apical 3rd of the basilar papilla were archived, and the profile contour outlined by the tips of the stereocilia was digitised and curves were fitted by linear and power equations. The hair bundles of tall hair cells exhibited both linear and curvilinear profiles, which were equally distributed along the papilla. All short hair cells in our sample had straight contours. The differences in hair bundle shape among the tall hair cells may lead to differential susceptibility to injury and some variance in the current-displacement transduction curves due to differences in the translation of forces throughout the hair bundle. PMID:11215761

  6. Molecular Architecture of the Chick Vestibular Hair Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Krey, Jocelyn F.; Hassan, Ahmed; Metlagel, Zoltan; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Pagana, James M.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Jeffery, Erin D.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Zhao, Hongyu; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L.; Auer, Manfred; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Hair bundles of the inner ear have a unique structure and protein composition that underlies their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified >1100 proteins, present from a few to 400,000 copies per stereocilium, from purified chick bundles; 336 of these were significantly enriched in bundles. Bundle proteins that we detected have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton structure and dynamics, energy metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, and cell signaling. Three-dimensional imaging using electron tomography allowed us to count the number of actin-actin crosslinkers and actin-membrane connectors; these values compared well to those obtained from mass spectrometry. Network analysis revealed several hub proteins, including RDX (radixin) and SLC9A3R2 (NHERF2), which interact with many bundle proteins and may perform functions essential for bundle structure and function. The quantitative mass spectrometry of bundle proteins reported here establishes a framework for future characterization of dynamic processes that shape bundle structure and function. PMID:23334578

  7. Molecular architecture of the chick vestibular hair bundle.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Krey, Jocelyn F; Hassan, Ahmed; Metlagel, Zoltan; Tauscher, Andrew N; Pagana, James M; Sherman, Nicholas E; Jeffery, Erin D; Spinelli, Kateri J; Zhao, Hongyu; Wilmarth, Phillip A; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L; Auer, Manfred; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2013-03-01

    Hair bundles of the inner ear have a specialized structure and protein composition that underlies their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified >1,100 proteins, present from a few to 400,000 copies per stereocilium, from purified chick bundles; 336 of these were significantly enriched in bundles. Bundle proteins that we detected have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton structure and dynamics, energy metabolism, phospholipid synthesis and cell signaling. Three-dimensional imaging using electron tomography allowed us to count the number of actin-actin cross-linkers and actin-membrane connectors; these values compared well to those obtained from mass spectrometry. Network analysis revealed several hub proteins, including RDX (radixin) and SLC9A3R2 (NHERF2), which interact with many bundle proteins and may perform functions essential for bundle structure and function. The quantitative mass spectrometry of bundle proteins reported here establishes a framework for future characterization of dynamic processes that shape bundle structure and function. PMID:23334578

  8. Sensory generalization and learning about novel colours by poultry chicks.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Daniel; Ham, Abigail D; Gonda, Zsusanna; Andrew, Richard J

    2009-07-01

    In nature animals constantly encounter novel stimuli and need to generalize from known stimuli. The animal may then learn about the novel stimulus. Hull (1947) suggested that as they learn animals distinguish knowledge based on direct experience from inference by generalization and in support of this view suggested that if a subject is directly trained to a stimulus subsequent extinction of responses is slower than when the response is based on generalization. Such an effect is also predicted by Bayesian models that relate the rate of learning to uncertainty in the estimate of stimulus value. We find support for this prediction when chicks learn about a novel colour (orange) if the initial evaluation is based on similarity to known colours (red, yellow). Specifically, if an expected food reward is absent the rate of extinction of the response to the novel stimulus exceeds that for the familiar colours. Interestingly, the change in relative preference for novel and familiar stimuli occurs after a delay of an hour. This type of delay has not, to our knowledge, been reported in previous studies of single-trial learning, but given its importance of generalization in natural behaviour this type of learning may have wide relevance. PMID:19235098

  9. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  10. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  11. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  12. Expression pattern of BMPs during chick limb development.

    PubMed

    Geetha-Loganathan, P; Nimmagadda, S; Huang, R; Scaal, M; Christ, B

    2006-12-01

    In vertebrates, BMPs (bone morphogenic proteins) play critical roles in establishing the basic embryonic body plan and are involved in the development of a large variety of organs and tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern of various BMPs (2, 4, 5 and 7) by whole mount in situ hybridization during chick limb development. In limb, expression of BMPs suggests evolutionary conserved mechanisms of BMP-dependent differentiation between lower and higher vertebrates. During the early developmental stages, BMP-2 and BMP-7 are expressed in the posterior distal mesenchyme leaving a less prominent expression anteriorly. BMP-4 is initially expressed in the anterior mesenchyme and spreads later to the whole mesenchyme leaving a stronger expression at the anterior side. From HH-stage 25, expression of BMP-4 is observed in the anterior-posterior margins of the limb bud. The BMPs 2, 4 and 7 are expressed strongly in the AER, whereas BMP-5 is expressed as a weak signal in the distal mesoderm during the early stages of limb development. Later from HH-stage 25 onwards, BMP-5 is expressed in the dorsal and ventral muscular mass of the developing limb. As digits become identifiable, expression of BMPs are observed in the interdigital mesenchyme and can also be detected along the contours of the developing phalanges and at the distal tips of the digits. All these BMPs are found to be expressed in the developing feather buds from day 8 onwards. PMID:17024298

  13. Developmental expression of the chick four-jointed homologue.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Parish, Joanne; Akita, Keiichi; Francis-West, Philippa

    2006-11-01

    Four-jointed is a type II transmembrane protein that is thought to be cleaved to give rise to a secreted protein. In Drosophila, four-jointed controls outgrowth, vein patterning, and bristle polarity in the developing limb together with the polarity of the ommatidia in the developing eye. In Drosophila and mice, Fj is regulated by notch signaling. Here, we have determined the expression of the chick four-jointed (fjx) homologue during embryonic development. We show that fjx is expressed in the limb bud; facial primordia; the proliferating zone of the lens, feather buds, the neural tube; and neural crest derivatives such as the dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of the fjx expression in the developing limb bud showed that initially fjx is expressed throughout the limb bud, but as the limb develops, highest levels of fjx transcripts are found distally. However, by stage 27, fjx expression is predominantly found in the central core of the limb bud. Finally, fjx expression becomes confined to the developing tendons, ligaments, articular cartilage, and arteries but not the veins. Comparison with scleraxis (scx), a marker of tendons and ligaments, revealed that they are coexpressed in the majority of tendons but that fjx is expressed after scx, when the tendons have begun to differentiate. These data suggest that fjx has two roles during limb development: the first controlling outgrowth and the second tissue differentiation. PMID:16958101

  14. Involvement of the Sonic hedgehog gene in chick feather formation.

    PubMed

    Nohno, T; Kawakami, Y; Ohuchi, H; Fujiwara, A; Yoshioka, H; Noji, S

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chick feather formation, we observed expression patterns of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene, which is one of the vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, hedgehog, and encodes a signaling molecule functioning in limb pattern formation and motor neuron induction. We found that the Shh gene is also expressed in the apical region of the feather placodes and then in nine to eleven longitudinal stripes along feather filaments. The stripe was found to correspond to one of the outer marginal zones of each barb ridge, termed the zone of Shh expression. No significant expression signal was detected in the scale bud of developing legs. Thus, Shh is likely to function as an epithelial signaling molecule in epithelio-mesenchymal interaction during feather formation. Furthermore, since genes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) are coexpressed with Shh during feather formation as observed in limb morphogenesis, interactions among FGF-4, Shh and BMP-2 may be involved in formation of feather filaments and barbs in a similar fashion as elucidated in limb pattern formation. PMID:7818537

  15. Distribution of repetitious sequences in chick nuclear DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tapiero, H.; Monier, M.N.; Shaool, D.; Harel, J.

    1974-01-01

    By an improved method of hydroxylapatite chromatography, the reassociated sequences of chick nuclear DNA were isolated, and their base composition analysed. By increasing the amount of reassociation, the G + C content of the renatured sequences decreased progressively to reach a mean value corresponding to that of the total DNA. In order to study the distribution of the families, or group of families having different amount of reassociation, DNA was fractionated by CsC1 density gradient centrifugation. Fractions having different G + C content were obtained, and their reassociation rates analysed. At high Cot value of renaturation (Cot=50) the amount of reassociated sequences included in the high or in the low buoyant density DNA fractions was approximately the same, but their G + C content was as expected different. At lower Cot values of renaturation (between Cot of 0.2 and the Cot of 10), the results indicated an heterogeneity of the repeated sequences in the A + T rich DNA fractions, as compared to the G + C rich ones. PMID:4213036

  16. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  17. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. PMID:26287003

  18. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 ??g g -1 fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by ???3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by < or =3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. PMID:17701344

  20. Reduction of provisioning effort in response to experimental manipulation of chick nutritional status in the Horned Puffin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, J.F.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using a supplemental feeding experiment, we investigated the ability of adult Horned Puffins to decrease provisioning effort in response to reduced nutritional requirements of chicks. We found no difference between experimental and control groups in parental provisioning before supplementary feeding was initiated. After receiving supplemental food for seven days, experimental chicks grew faster, gained more mass and received 87% less food from their parents than did control chicks. These results demonstrate that Horned Puffin parents can decrease food provisioning in response to a decrease in their chick nutritional requirements. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  1. Corticosterone in thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri chicks: diel rhythm, timing of fledging and nutritional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud; Chastel, Olivier; Masello, Juan F.

    2007-11-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) of the hypothalam-pituitary-adrenal axis play a role in association with both stressful events and daily life processes. However, relatively little is known about the role of GCs in relation to daily and seasonal life processes in animals in the wild. In this paper, we present data on basal levels of plasma corticosterone CORT in chicks of a pelagic seabird, the thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, during two predictable changes in demands, the daily activity pattern and the preparation for fledging. By comparing chicks fed recently with unfed chicks, we test how GC levels are modified according to nutritional condition. In accordance with their nocturnal feeding rhythm, chicks had a clear daily rhythm with increased CORT secretion at night, but CORT levels during the active phase were also highly elevated in unfed chicks compared with fed chicks. Close to fledging, chicks rapidly increased basal CORT levels, and again unfed chicks had higher levels than fed chicks, although the age effect here was stronger than the effect of recent feeding. The present data thus support the hypothesis that GC levels are adjusted to life stages with predictable changes in demands, but food availability and/or internal energy stores also affect the level to which GCs increase.

  2. Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

  3. Plasticity in the growth of the chick eye: emmetropization achieved by alternate morphologies.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Howland, Howard

    2015-05-01

    Both refractive properties of the eyes and ambient light conditions affect emmetropization during growth. Exposure to constant light flattens the cornea making chicks hyperopic. To discover whether and how growing chick eyes restore emmetropia after exposure to constant light (CL) for 3, 7, or 11weeks, we returned chicks to normal (N) conditions with 12h. of light alternating with 12h. of darkness (designated the "R", or recovery, condition) for total periods of 4, 7, 11, or 17weeks. The two control groups were raised in CL conditions or raised in N conditions for the same length of time. We measured anterior chamber depths and lens thicknesses with an A-scan ultrasound machine. We measured corneal curvatures with an eight-axis keratometer, and refractions with conventional retinoscopy. We estimated differences in optical powers of CL, R and N chicks of identical age by constructing ray-tracing models using the above measurements and age-adjusted normal lens curvatures. We also computed the sensitivity of focus for small perturbations of the above optical parameters. Full refractive recovery from CL effects always occurred. Hyperopic refractive errors were absent when R chicks were returned to N for as little as 1week after 3weeks CL treatment. In R chicks exposed to CL for 11weeks and returned to N, axial lengths, vitreous chamber depths and radii of corneal curvatures did not return to normal, although their refractions did. While R chicks can usually recover emmetropia, after long periods of exposure to CL, they cannot recover normal ocular morphology. Emmetropization following CL exposure is achieved primarily by adjusting the relationship between corneal curvature and axial length, resulting in normal refractions. PMID:25765992

  4. Factors affecting chick provisioning by Caspian Terns nesting in the Columbia River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting chick provisioning by radio-tagged Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting in a large colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary during 2001. Caspian Tern predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the estuary prompted resource managers to relocate ca. 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to consume fewer salmonids in favor of marine forage fishes. This study investigated factors influencing foraging success, diet composition, and overall reproductive success at the managed Caspian Tern colony. Our results indicated that daytime colony attendance by nesting terns averaged 64% and decreased throughout the chick-rearing period, while duration of foraging trips averaged 47 min and increased during the same period; these seasonal changes were more strongly related to date than chick age. Average meal delivery rates to 2-chick broods (0.88 meals h-1) were 2.6 times greater than to 1-chick broods (0.33 meals h-1). Parents delivered more juvenile salmonids to chicks during ebb tides than flood tides, but meal delivery rates to the nest remained constant, suggesting diet composition tracks relative availability of prey species. Foraging trips resulting in delivery of juvenile salmonids averaged 68% longer than foraging trips for schooling marine forage fishes, indicating higher availability of marine prey near the colony. High availability of marine forage fish in the Columbia River estuary during 2001 was apparently responsible for high colony attendance, short foraging trips, high chick meal delivery rates, and high nesting success of Caspian Terns on East Sand Island.

  5. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  6. Inhibition of scleral proteoglycan synthesis blocks deprivation-induced axial elongation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Rada, J A; Johnson, J M; Achen, V R; Rada, K G

    2002-02-01

    A specific inhibitor of proteoglycan synthesis was administered to chicks undergoing the development of form deprivation myopia in order to test the hypothesis that increases in proteoglycan synthesis are responsible for normal and/or deprivation-induced ocular elongation in chicks. Chicks undergoing monocular form deprivation were treated with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (beta-xyloside) via i.p. injection every 8 hr for 5-11 days. Ocular measurements were made at the end of the experiment using high frequency A-scan ultrasound in conjunction with a LabView (v. 5.0) analysis program. Following ultrasound measurements, sclera were isolated and proteoglycans characterized by Sepharose CL-2B and Western blot analyses. Preliminary studies indicated that i.p. administration of beta-xyloside maximally inhibited sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans 8 hr after administration. Beta-xyloside treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the axial length, vitreous chamber depth, and rate of axial elongation of form deprived eyes as compared with form deprived eyes from vehicle treated chicks (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). No significant differences were detected in anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, choroid thickness or retina thickness in form deprived eyes of beta-xyloside treated chicks as compared with that of vehicle controls. No significant differences were detected in contralateral non-deprived fellow eyes between beta-xyloside treated and vehicle treated chicks for any ocular measurement. Analysis of proteoglycans indicated that the xyloside treatment resulted in the accumulation of smaller proteoglycans due, in part, to the presence of underglycosylated aggrecan within the scleral matrix. These results indicate that interruption of normal scleral proteoglycan synthesis inhibits form deprivation-induced ocular elongation, supporting the hypothesis that scleral proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation are largely responsible for

  7. Plasticity in the growth of the chick eye: Emmetropization achieved by alternate morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Howland, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Both refractive properties of the eyes and ambient light conditions affect emmetropization during growth. Exposure to constant light flattens the cornea making chicks hyperopic. To discover whether and how growing chick eyes restore emmetropia after exposure to constant light (CL) for 3, 7, or 11 weeks, we returned chicks to normal (N) conditions with 12 hrs. of light alternating with 12 hrs. of darkness (designated the “R”, or recovery, condition) for total periods of 4, 7, 11, or 17 weeks. The two control groups were raised in CL conditions or raised in N conditions for the same length of time. We measured anterior chamber depths and lens thicknesses with an A-scan ultrasound machine. We measured corneal curvatures with an eight-axis keratometer, and refractions with conventional retinoscopy. We estimated differences in optical powers of CL, R and N chicks of identical age by constructing ray-tracing models using the above measurements and age-adjusted normal lens curvatures. We also computed the sensitivity of focus for small perturbations of the above optical parameters. Full refractive recovery from CL effects always occurred. Hyperopic refractive errors were absent when R chicks were returned to N for as little as one week after 3 weeks CL treatment. In R chicks exposed to CL for 11 weeks and returned to N, axial lengths, vitreous chamber depths and radii of corneal curvatures did not return to normal, although their refractions did. While R chicks can usually recover emmetropia, after long periods of exposure to CL, they cannot recover normal ocular morphology. Emmetropization following CL exposure is achieved primarily by adjusting the relationship between corneal curvature and axial length, resulting in normal refractions. PMID:25765992

  8. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  9. Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth

    2014-01-01

    Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22 ± 0.03 (mean ± SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8 km) reference tern colony (0.29 ± 0.10 in 2010 and 0.25 ± 0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

  10. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Tyerman, Donald J.; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Oswald, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL) among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167), and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body) occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem) most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns. PMID:27231646

  11. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jennifer M; Tyerman, Donald J; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L; Oswald, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL) among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167), and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body) occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem) most likely fledged 10-20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns. PMID:27231646

  12. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  13. Lysine and sulfur amino acid utilization in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks as affected by narasin.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, O A; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H

    1987-10-01

    The effects of supplemental narasin (80 mg/kg) on several dietary factors were investigated in chicks infected with Eimeria acervulina. In Trial 1, chicks were fed a lysine-deficient corn-corn gluten meal diet containing graded increments of crystalline L-lysine.HCl with or without narasin. Supplemental narasin increased weight gain and feed efficiency at all lysine levels fed. Based upon slope-ratio methodology, efficiency of L-lysine utilization was virtually the same in both narasin-fed and control chicks. Trials 2 and 3 evaluated the effect of narasin on methionine utilization in crossbred chicks fed a methionine-deficient soy-feather meal diet supplemented with graded levels of DL-methionine. Narasin supplementation increased weight gain, feed efficiency, and utilization of supplemental methionine in chicks infected with E. acervulina (Trial 2), but had no effect on any of the performance parameters in uninfected chicks (Trial 3). The effects of dietary protein level and source and dietary electrolyte balance on the narasin response of commercial broiler chicks infected with E. acervulina were studied in Trials 4 and 5, respectively. In Trial 4, narasin supplementation increased performance in all cases, and protein source or level had no effect on the narasin response. In Trial 5, rate and efficiency of gain were improved as the electrolyte balance (meq Na + K-Cl/kg diet) increased from 100 to 250, with no further improvement being observed from 250 to 350 meq. Supplemental narasin improved performance and no interaction between electrolyte balance and narasin was observed. PMID:3124089

  14. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    PubMed

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  15. Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

  16. Comparison of trace element concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured in the prey and liver of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks (24-26 days after hatching) at the Pyeongtaek colony, Korea in 2001 (n = 10, respectively) and 2008 (n = 11 and n = 10). Cadmium and Pb concentrations in livers of grey heron (Cd geomean 0.06, Pb 3.90 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 4.24 μg/g dw) chicks were increased with diet concentrations of grey heron (Cd 0.18, Pb 1.76 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 3.96 μg/g dw) chicks. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in prey items of grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were a good predictor of chick liver concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in livers of both heron species collected at the Pyeongtaek heronry were relatively low and within the background level (<3 μg/g dw) for birds. Five of 20 (25.0%) grey heron and 4 of 18 (22.2%) black-crowned night heron chicks were higher than the background level for lead (>6 μg/g dw). Prey Cd and Pb concentrations were within the range of other heron and egret studies. Manganese, Zn, and Fe concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were within the background or normal physiological levels reported earlier in other birds including herons and egrets. PMID:25410946

  17. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:24803465

  18. Can Non-Beak Treated Hens be Kept in Commercial Furnished Cages? Exploring the Effects of Strain and Extra Environmental Enrichment on Behaviour, Feather Cover, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Krysta L H; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Baker, Laurence; Widowski, Tina M; Sandilands, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Commercial laying hens are prone to injurious pecking (IP), a common multifactorial problem. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design assessed the effects of breed (Lohmann Brown Classic (L) or Hyline Brown (H)), beak treatment (infra-red treated (T) or not (NT)), and environment (extra enrichment (EE) or no extra enrichment (NE)) on mortality, behaviour, feather cover, and beak shape. Hens were allocated to treatments at 16 weeks of age and data were collected every four weeks from age 19 to 71 weeks. Data were analysed in Genstat using mixed models. L hens had higher all and IP-related mortality than H hens (p < 0.003), whilst NT hens had higher mortality than T hens but only due to culling of whole cages (p < 0.001). Feather cover for L hens deteriorated more quickly with age at most body sites than H hens (age × breed × body site p < 0.001). For NT hens, feather cover was worse at most body sites (beak treatment × body site p < 0.001), and worsened more quickly with age (age × beak treatment p = 0.014) than T hens. L and NE hens performed more bird-to-bird pecking than H and EE hens, respectively (breed p = 0.015, enrichment p = 0.032). More damage to mats and ropes was caused by L and NT hens than by H and T hens, respectively (age × breed p < 0.005, beak treatment p < 0.001). Though H hens had fewer mortalities and better feather cover, breed effects may have been influenced by farm management practices, as they may have been better suited to H than L hens. Though EE hens performed less bird-to-bird pecking, the enrichments were less effective at reducing feather cover damage and mortality than expected. PMID:26927190

  19. Can Non-Beak Treated Hens be Kept in Commercial Furnished Cages? Exploring the Effects of Strain and Extra Environmental Enrichment on Behaviour, Feather Cover, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Krysta L. H.; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Baker, Laurence; Widowski, Tina M.; Sandilands, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Commercial laying hens are prone to injurious pecking (IP), a common multifactorial problem. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design assessed the effects of breed (Lohmann Brown Classic (L) or Hyline Brown (H)), beak treatment (infra-red treated (T) or not (NT)), and environment (extra enrichment (EE) or no extra enrichment (NE)) on mortality, behaviour, feather cover, and beak shape. Hens were allocated to treatments at 16 weeks of age and data were collected every four weeks from age 19 to 71 weeks. Data were analysed in Genstat using mixed models. L hens had higher all and IP-related mortality than H hens (p < 0.003), whilst NT hens had higher mortality than T hens but only due to culling of whole cages (p < 0.001). Feather cover for L hens deteriorated more quickly with age at most body sites than H hens (age × breed × body site p < 0.001). For NT hens, feather cover was worse at most body sites (beak treatment × body site p < 0.001), and worsened more quickly with age (age × beak treatment p = 0.014) than T hens. L and NE hens performed more bird-to-bird pecking than H and EE hens, respectively (breed p = 0.015, enrichment p = 0.032). More damage to mats and ropes was caused by L and NT hens than by H and T hens, respectively (age × breed p < 0.005, beak treatment p < 0.001). Though H hens had fewer mortalities and better feather cover, breed effects may have been influenced by farm management practices, as they may have been better suited to H than L hens. Though EE hens performed less bird-to-bird pecking, the enrichments were less effective at reducing feather cover damage and mortality than expected. PMID:26927190

  20. Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Makanya, Andrew Ndegwa; Dimova, Ivanka; Koller, Tobias; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration PMID:27046154

  1. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN THE CHICK YOLK SAC1

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R. L.; Fukushi, K.; Pickens, E. G.; Lackman, D. B.

    1964-01-01

    Anacker, R. L. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), K. Fukushi, E. G. Pickens, and D. B. Lackman. Electron microscopic observations of the development of Coxiella burnetii in the chick yolk sac. J. Bacteriol. 88:1130–1138. 1964.—Yolk sac material, obtained daily over a period of 1 week from embryos inoculated with seed of phase I Coxiella burnetii strain Ohio 314 containing 250 units of penicillin, was examined by electron microscopy and other techniques for the presence of rickettsiae. The concentration of rickettsiae in the yolk sac, as determined by electron microscopy, light microscopy, the complement-fixation test, recovery of organisms, and mouse infectivity, was low for the first 3 days, increased rapidly 3 to 5 days after infection, and then remained relatively constant. Rickettsiae in 3- to 7-day cultures, when observed by electron microscopy, had dense fibrillar centers surrounded by less-dense cytoplasmic material containing granules approximately 15 mμ in diameter. The whole was enclosed by multiple external layers. Many appeared to be in various stages of binary fission, and one form which contained a cross-wall was observed. These forms readily combined with ferritin-labeled specific antibody. In rare instances, several kinds of ”atypical” forms which did not combine with ferritin-labeled antibody were found in the cytoplasm of yolk-sac cells 4 to 5 days after inoculation; it is not certain whether these forms are artifacts or normal stages in the maturation of C. burnetii. These atypical forms were not observed in subsequent experiments in which embryonated eggs were inoculated with doses of penicillin varying from 0 to 4,000 units per egg. Images PMID:14219028

  2. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks. PMID:26344414

  3. Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sha; Cui, Luying; Shi, Cheng; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Jingwen; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis. PMID:24054908

  4. PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.; Buehler, D.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

  5. Pharmacological reversal of cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21722654

  6. Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

  7. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L.; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.X.; Fry, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  8. Tissue distribution of heavy metals in heron and egret chicks from Pyeongtaek, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-02-01

    Iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium were measured in the liver, kidney and bone of Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), Intermediate Egret (Egretta intermedia), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from Korea. Iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations had species- and tissue- specific accumulation. Lead concentrations in all tissues of Black-crowned Night Heron and cadmium in kidneys of Intermediate Egret chicks were relatively higher than in other species. Iron and manganese in the liver, zinc in the bone, and lead and cadmium in the kidney were relatively higher than other tissues and these results have been reported in other birds. Lead concentrations in all species were at a level associated with acute lead poisoning and cadmium concentrations except for Grey Heron chicks were at a level associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Lead concentrations in livers and bones of heron and egret chicks were within a range considered background level (<6.00 μg/g dw). But, lead concentrations in kidneys of 12 of 37 heron and egret chicks were at concentrations associated with lethal lead poisoning (6.00-18 μg/g dw) and 7 of 37 chicks were compatible with death (>18.0 μg/g dw). For cadmium, all liver and kidney concentrations were at a level considered background for birds (<3.00 μg/g dw). Essential elements such as iron, zinc and manganese concentrations were within the range observed in other birds. PMID:25504523

  9. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  10. Aluminium sulphate exposure increases oxidative stress and suppresses brain development in Ross broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Emin Oğuzhan; Enli, Yaşar; Şahin, Barbaros; Gönen, Cafer; Turgut, Günfer

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Aluminium (Al) is known to have neurotoxic effects that can result in oxidative damage to a range of cellular biomolecules. These effects appear to be of significance in the developmental stages of the brain. We therefore investigated the oxidative and histopathological damage induced by Al during growth and development of the chick brain. Material/Methods We used a chick embryonic development model, with Al treatment of 500 μg Al sulphate in 0.1 ml saline injected into the egg air chambers at the beginning of their incubation period. The effects on chick-brain growth and development were then assessed at term (day 21). Determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were used as relevant biological measures for increased oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and biochemical oxidative damage, respectively. Furthermore, we also monitored neuronal degeneration as estimated stereologically using the Cavalieri brain volume estimation tool. Results This Al treatment showed significantly increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels, as indicators of increased biochemical oxidative damage. This was accompanied by significantly decreased brain volume, as a measure of neuronal degeneration during brain development in this chick embryonic development model. Conclusions Exposure to Al during chick embryonic development results in increased oxidative stress in the brain that is accompanied by neuronal degeneration. PMID:22367119

  11. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  12. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  13. Sim1 and Sim2 expression during chick and mouse limb development.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Pascal; Duprez, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila Single minded (Sim) transcription factor is a master regulator of cell fate during midline development. The homolog mouse Sim1 and Sim2 genes are important for central nervous system development. Loss of mSim1 activity leads to an absence of specific neuroendocrine lineages within the hypothalamus, while overexpression of mSim2 leads to behavioural defects. We now provide evidence that vertebrate Sim genes might be important for limb muscle formation. We have examined by in situ hybridisation the expression of the Sim1 and Sim2 genes during limb development in chick and mouse embryos. The expression of both Sim genes is mainly associated with limb muscle formation. We found that each Sim gene has a similar temporal and spatial expression pattern in chick and mouse embryonic limbs, although with some differences for the Sim2 gene between species. In chick or mouse embryonic limbs, Sim1 and Sim2 display non-overlapping expression domains, suggesting an involvement for Sim1 and Sim2 proteins at different steps of limb muscle formation. Sim1 gene expression is associated with the early step of muscle progenitor cell migration in chick and mouse, while the Sim2 gene is expressed just after the migration process. In addition, chick and mouse Sim2 gene expression is enhanced in limb ventral muscle masses versus dorsal ventral muscle masses. Our results provide a basis for further functional analysis of the Sim genes in limb muscle formation. PMID:19123137

  14. Morphologic characterization of osteosarcoma growth on the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay is a commonly used method for studying angiogenic or anti-angiogenic activities in vivo. The ease of access allows direct monitoring of tumour growth by biomicroscopy and the possibility to screen many samples in an inexpensive way. The CAM model provides a powerful tool to study effects of molecules, which interfere with physiological angiogenesis, or experimental tumours derived from cancer cell lines. We therefore screened eight osteosarcoma cell lines for their ability to form vascularized tumours on the CAM. Findings We implanted 3-5 million cells of human osteosarcoma lines (HOS, MG63, MNNG-HOS, OST, SAOS, SJSA1, U2OS, ZK58) on the CAM at day 10 of embryonic development. Tumour growth was monitored by in vivo biomicroscopy at different time points and tumours were fixed in paraformaldehyde seven days after cell grafting. The tissue was observed, photographed and selected cases were further analyzed using standard histology. From the eight cell lines the MNNG-HOS, U2OS and SAOS were able to form solid tumours when grafted on the CAM. The MNNG-HOS tumours showed the most reliable and consistent growth and were able to penetrate the chorionic epithelium, grow in the CAM stroma and induce a strong angiogenic response. Conclusions Our results show that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying osteosarcoma growth. The model provides an excellent alternative to current rodent models and could serve as a preclinical screening assay for anticancer molecules. It might increase the speed and efficacy of the development of new drugs for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:20202196

  15. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

    1948-01-01

    Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

  16. The distribution of motoneurones supplying chick hind limb muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L

    1978-01-01

    1. The motor nuclei supplying many of the hind limb muscles were localized in late chick embryos (stage 36-37; 10-11 days) by utilizing the technique of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. 2. Each nucleus was found to be localized in a characteristic position in both the rostro-caudal and transverse plane of the spinal cord with only slight individual variation. 3. Each motor nucleus consisted of an elongate, coherent cluster of labelled cells, with few cells occurring outside the cluster. Thus, there did not appear to be extensive overlap of nuclei nor extensive intermingling of motoneurones projecting to different muscles. 4. The position of a motor nucleus in the transverse plane was not correlated with whether its muscle was used as an extensor or flexor; nor were adjacent nuclei necessarily co-activated during normal unrestrained walking movements as deduced from e.m.g. recordings. The position of a motor nucleus also was not correlated in a topographical manner with the adult position in the limb of the muscle to which it projected. 5. Further, while no correlation was found between the rostrocaudal position of a motor nucleus and the embryonic muscle mass from which its muscle was derived, such a relationship existed for the medio-lateral position; all muscles arising from the dorsal muscle mass, regardless of their function or adult position, were innervated by laterally situated motoneurones, all muscles arising from the ventral muscle mass by medially situated motoneurones. 6. It is concluded that motoneurone position is most closely correlated with ontogenetic events presumaeriphery. It can also be inferred that the central connexions onto motoneurones, responsible for their proper activation, cannot be achieved by a simple mechanism based largely on the position of the motoneurone soma. Images Text-fig. 6 Plate 1 PMID:731549

  17. Hemicellulose does not affect iron bioavailability in chicks.

    PubMed

    Fly, A D; Czarnecki-Maulden, G L; Fahey, G C; Titgemeyer, E C

    1996-01-01

    Two iron repletion experiments using hemoglobin as a response criterion were conducted to assess effects of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability to chicks. In Experiment 1, iron bioavailability from intact fiber sources was determined by adding tomato pomace (14.6% hemicelluloses), soybean hulls (20.6% hemicelluloses), beet pulp (21.5% hemicelluloses), orchard grass (24.1% hemicelluloses) and corn fiber (55.2% hemicelluloses) to a casein dextrose basal diet providing 0.4-4.1% hemicelluloses to the diet. Test foods were analyzed for iron, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent residue, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, pectins and uronic acids. Hemicelluloses were determined by the difference of neutral detergent residue minus acid detergent fiber. Iron bioavailability was determined by the standard curve method to be (percent relative to ferrous sulfate using hemoglobin as the response criterion) as follows: tomato pomace, 82.0; soybean hulls, 94.0; beet pulp, 26.5; orchard grass, 68.9; corn fiber, 69.4. Iron bioavailability was not related to hemicellulose content of test foods or diets. In Experiment 2, the effect of psyllium husk (a fiber source that contains predominantly hemicelluloses) on iron bioavailability from ferrous sulfate was assessed. Bioavailability was determined by the slope ratio method where treatments consisted of graded levels of ferrous sulfate in the presence and absence of 5% dietary psyllium. Although iron intrinsic to psyllium was unavailable, bioavailability of ferrous sulfate iron was not affected (P > 0.05) by the presence of psyllium. Thus, there was no clear effect of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability. However, some feeds that contained high levels of hemicelluloses had low intrinsic iron bioavailabilities, suggesting that other dietary factors are primarily responsible for determining iron bioavailability from these feed components. PMID:8558316

  18. The Role of the Iris in Chick Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Peripheral defocus, higher-order aberrations, and accommodation interact with pupil size to influence retinal image quality and possibly eye growth. Iridectomy (ID) provides a fixed, enlarged pupil. Results from in vitro studies suggest that ID may reduce or eliminate accommodation in the chicken. This paper further investigates the effects of ID on chicken accommodation, eye growth, and refractive development. Methods. Refraction, biometry, and corneal curvature were measured, before, and after topical instillation of nicotine in 43 White-Leghorn chickens that had undergone monocular ID. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, and eyes were imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) during accommodation. In vitro preparations were used to examine accommodation responses in a lens-scanning instrument. Results. Iridectomy induced small but significant decreases in anterior and vitreous chamber depths and an increase in lens thickness (LT). IOP was similar in iridectomized and control eyes from 1 week on. In vivo, nicotine induced similar accommodative changes in iridectomized and control eyes. OCT images revealed a forward displacement of the iris during accommodation in control eyes. Iridectomized and control eyes showed similar increases in LT. In vitro, iridectomized eyes showed minimal nicotine-induced accommodation. Conclusions. Refraction and eye growth were minimally affected by ID in chickens, implying that emmetropization was unaffected and supporting the use of ID as a tool in emmetropization and myopia studies. The greatly attenuated accommodative responses in vitro for iridectomized eyes suggest a role of biomechanical factors in the chick. IOP was unaffected by the surgery, implying that the iris musculature is not essential for maintaining aqueous outflow pathways. PMID:21357397

  19. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P<0.05) in plasma CORT, glucose, uric acid (UA), insulin, cholesterol (Chol) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), but the concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TG) were decreased (P<0.05). CORT treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed while the mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) in CORT-treated hens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed by CORT treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that CORT plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, CART, POMC, CCK and MCRs) and a dynamic balance between these appetite-associated peptides in the hypothalamus and the gastrointestinal tract defines the feeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. PMID:22554475

  20. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished and Battery Cages on Egg Production and Physiological Parameters of White Leghorn Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in a species-special “natural” or “near to natural” environment. This study was to examine if housing environment, furnished cages vs. battery cages, causes a similar impact on well-being in laying hens. One hundred seventy-two, on...

  1. Individual Consistency of Feather Pecking Behavior in Laying Hens: Once a Feather Pecker Always a Feather Pecker?

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Swanson, Janice C.; Siegford, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n = 300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37 weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3 cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest boxes. The number of severe feather pecks given (SFPG) and received (SFPR) was used to categorize hens as feather peckers (P), victims (V), neutrals (N), or feather pecker-victims (PV) at each age. Hens categorized as PV exhibited pecking behaviors similar to P and received pecks similar to V. SFP given were correlated with APs given, but not with gentle feather pecks (GFP) given throughout the study. State-transition plot maps illustrated that 22.5% of P remained P, while 44% of PV remained PV throughout the duration of the study. Lifetime behavioral categories identified hens as a consistent feather pecker (5%), consistent neutral (3.9%), consistent victim (7.9%), consistent feather pecker-victim (29.4%), or inconsistent (53.8%) in their behavioral patterns throughout their life. Consistent feather peckers performed more SFP than hens of other categories, and consistent neutral hens received fewer GFP than consistent feather PV. No differences in corticosterone or whole blood serotonin levels were observed among the categories. Approximately, half of the population was classified as a feather pecker at least once during the study, while the remainder was never categorized as a feather pecker. Therefore, even if the development and cause of feather pecking may be multifactorial, once the behavior has been developed, some hens may persist in feather pecking. However, as some hens were observed to never receive or perform SFP, emphasis should be made to select for these hens in future breeding practices. PMID:26664935

  2. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  3. Quality of organic eggs of hybrid and Italian breed hens.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, C; Marangon, A

    2012-09-01

    The quality of eggs laid by 2 hybrid and 2 Italian dual-purpose genotypes of hens reared under organic farming system was studied. Hens belonging to Hy-Line Brown (brown eggshell, HLB), Hy-Line White (white eggshell, HLW), Ermellinata di Rovigo (brown eggshell, E), and Robusta maculata (brown eggshell, R) genotypes were reared from 24 to 43 wk of age. The trial was carried out from July to December, with environmental temperature ranging from 25°C (±5°C, summer) to 13°C (±7°C, autumn). The HLB eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than HLW (62.9 vs. 60.4 g), and R eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than E (56.5 vs. 54.4 g). The albumen weight differed (P < 0.01) among HLB, HLW, R, and E (40.7, 38.3, 32.7, 34.1 g, respectively). The E and R yolk weights were similar (16.2 g) and higher (P < 0.01) than hybrids; HLW yolk was higher (P < 0.05) than HLB (15.8 vs. 15.5 g). The HLB showed the highest (P < 0.01, 6.74 g) shell weight and E had the lowest (P < 0.01; 5.43 g). The yolk cholesterol content was higher (P < 0.01) in the Italian eggs than in the hybrids (258 vs. 219 mg/yolk). The HLB yolk had the lowest (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids (33.8 vs. 34.9%), and R yolks showed the lowest (P < 0.01) monounsaturated fatty acids (36.3 vs. 38.0%) and the highest (P < 0.01) polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.7 vs. 27.4%) than the other groups. The HLW yolk showed the highest (P < 0.01) n-6/n-3 ratio (13.7) in comparison to the other 3 groups (12.8). During 21 d of storage (at 21°C and 62% RH), the E eggs showed the lowest (P < 0.01) quality (albumen height, 4.93 vs. 5.56 mm; Haugh units, 71 vs. 74). A sensory profile of boiled eggs showed differences (P < 0.05) in odor and flavor sensations and in certain yolk and albumen texture properties according to genotype. The quality of organic eggs from different genotypes differs in relation to the strain but also the interaction with the environmental conditions has to be considered. PMID:22912471

  4. Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

  5. In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies to cultured embryonic chick limb mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Capehart, A A

    2000-01-01

    A simple, rapid protocol for the in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize native antigens in cultured chick limb mesenchyme during chondrogenic differentiation is described. Murine lymphocytes were stimulated by direct exposure to methanol-fixed micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme derived from the distal tip of stage 25 chick limb buds. Initial immunohistochemical characterization of two antibodies (DIDI and DIIA5) produced by this method showed preferential localization of reactivity with antigens in developing cartilage nodules during chondrogenesis in cultured chick limb mesenchyme. This study demonstrates the utility of in vitro immunization of lymphocytes for the production of MAbs to native antigens expressed by differentiating embryonic limb cells in culture. Immunohistochemical data provided by DIDI and DIIA5 suggest that antigens bearing these epitopes may be important in early morphogenetic events during limb skeletal development. PMID:11549945

  6. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  7. The effect of the administration of Solanum malacoxylon on the chick.

    PubMed

    Basudde, C D; Humphreys, D J

    1975-05-01

    Replacement of the drinking water of chicks maintained on a normal mixed protein diet with an aqueous extract containing the equivalent of 5 g of the dried leaves of Solanum malacoxylon (DLSM) per 100 ml for one month produces a hypercalcaemia (23-49 per cent), hypomagnesamia (28-37 per cent), hypophosphataemia (26-34 per cent), hypouricaemia (29-34 per cent) and a decrease in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (54-98 per cent). The ash content of the defatted, dried tibiae and the body weight of the DLSM treated chicks were also significantly lower (37-7 per cent and 17-79 per cent respectively) than the corresponding values for the untreated birds. The results obtained are similar to those reported for hypervitaminosis D3 in the chick. PMID:1144927

  8. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  9. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  10. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  11. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  12. How safe is the use of chlorpyrifos: Revelations through its effect on layer birds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R. S.; Pankaj, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of chlorpyrifos (CPF) insecticide after oral administration in layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given CPF in drinking water at 0.3 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-month. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from CPF-treated birds were estimated at 15 days interval in layer birds and monthly interval in chicks using immunological and biochemical parameters. Results: There was a significant decrease in values of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from CPF-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to CPF produced hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting total stoppage of using CPF in poultry sheds. PMID:27536038

  13. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this ‘discrimination without recognition’ behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite–host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host–parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general. PMID:17164201

  14. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  15. Dietary iron deficiency compromises normal development of elastic fibers in the aorta and lungs of chicks.

    PubMed

    Hill, Charles H; Ashwell, Chris M; Nolin, Shelly J; Keeley, Fred; Billingham, Catherine; Hinek, Aleksander; Starcher, Barry

    2007-08-01

    Elastic fibers play a key role in the structure and function of numerous organs that require elasticity. Elastogenesis is a complex process in which cells first produce a microfibrillar scaffold, composed of numerous structural proteins, upon which tropoelastin assembles to be cross-linked into polymeric elastin. Recently, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of free iron upregulate elastin gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The present studies were conducted to assess whether low-iron diets would affect the deposition of elastic fibers in an in vivo model. One-day-old chicks were fed semipurified diets containing 1.3 (low), 12 (moderate), and 24 (control) mg/kg of iron. After 3 wk, chicks in the low-iron group were underweight and anemic. Their aortas were smaller with significantly thinner walls than control chicks, yet elastin or collagen content did not decrease relative to total protein. They also demonstrated a significantly lower stress-strain resistance than the controls. Electron microscopy demonstrated that aortic and lung smooth muscle cells were vacuolated and surrounded by loose extracellular matrix and disorganized elastic lamellae with diffuse and fragmented networks of elastic fibers and microfibrils. Immunohistology demonstrated that fibrillin-3 (FBN3) was disorganized and markedly reduced in amount in aortas of the low-iron chicks. Elastin messenger RNA levels were not downregulated in the tissues from the low-iron-fed chicks; however, there was a significant reduction in expression of the FBN1 and FBN3 genes compared with control chicks. The studies indicate that iron deficiency had a pronounced negative effect on elastic fiber development and suggests that fibrillin may have an important role in this pathology. PMID:17634261

  16. Does extra corticosterone elicit increased begging and submissiveness in subordinate booby (Sula nebouxii) chicks?

    PubMed

    Vallarino, A; Wingfield, J C; Drummond, H

    2006-07-01

    We tested whether in two-chick broods of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) elevated circulating corticosterone in the socially subordinate broodmate facilitates submissive behavior and/or enhances food solicitation. Implanting corticosterone in 17 subordinate chicks (experimental broods) produced changes in the behavior of chicks and parents over the first two days, relative to 17 matched families (control broods) where subordinate chicks were implanted with empty capsules. Experimental broods showed increased activity/wakefulness of the dominant broodmate and, consequently, increased simultaneous activity of both broodmates, but there was scant evidence that subordinates submitted more readily when attacked. Implanted subordinates increased their rate of spontaneous submission over the total observation time, but this increase was mostly explained by the additional time when both broodmates were simultaneously active. There was little sign that extra corticosterone induced more begging, except possibly by eliciting increased activity. Experimental broods increased their rate of feeding, and most if not all of the increase was due to the increased activity and increased feeding rate of dominant broodmates. On the third and fourth days after implantation all effects of implanted corticosterone disappeared, except for the elevated activity and feeding rates of dominant chicks. At the end of four days, subordinates implanted with corticosterone showed no increase in circulating corticosterone and experimental broods showed no gain in mass or body size, relative to controls. Extra corticosterone, above the high level that normally circulates in subordinate chicks, apparently does not enhance submission to aggression or food solicitation, but provokes a cascade of changes in the behavior of broodmates and parents. PMID:16530762

  17. Variability and possible rapid evolution of the hot post-AGB stars Hen 3-1347, Hen 3-1428, and LSS 4634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Komissarova, G. V.; Tekola, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for three hot southern-hemisphere post-AGB objects, Hen 3-1347 = IRAS 17074-1845, Hen 3-1428 = IRAS 17311-4924, and LSS 4634 = IRAS 18023-3409. In the spectrograms taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in 2012, we have measured the equivalent widths of the most prominent spectral lines. Comparison of the new data with those published previously points to a change in the spectra of Hen 3-1428 and LSS 4634 in the last 20 years. Based on ASAS data, we have detected rapid photometric variability in all three stars with an amplitude up to 0{·/ m }3-0{·/ m }4 in the V band. A similarity between the patterns of variability for the sample stars and other hot protoplanetary nebulae is pointed out. We present the results of UBV observations for Hen 3-1347, according to which the star undergoes rapid irregular brightness variations with maximum amplitudes Δ V = 0{·/ m }25, Δ B = 0{·/ m }25, and Δ U = 0{·/ m }30 and shows color-magnitude correlations. Based on archival data, we have traced the photometric history of the stars over more than 100 years. Hen 3-1347 and LSS 4634 have exhibited a significant fading on a long time scale. The revealed brightness and spectrum variations in the stars, along with evidence for their enhanced mass, may be indicative of their rapid post-AGB evolution.

  18. The effects of water deprivation on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Cree, Shelby; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Freedom from thirst is one of the most undeniable welfare requirements. Nevertheless, the welfare implication of water deprivation because of a particular situation (e.g., transport) or as an involuntary consequence (e.g., sick, injured, or subordinate animals) remains unclear. This experiment investigated the behavioral changes in laying hens following various durations of water deprivation by using a motivation test based on passing through a narrow, vertical gap to access water. Twenty laying hens were subjected to water deprivation for various durations (0, 12, 18, 24, or 32 h) and the cost of access was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap (150, 135, 120, or 100 mm) to access the water side of the testing cage. An incomplete randomized block design was used with two tests per hen per wk for 5 wk. The testing apparatus was identical to their home cage but with two cages connected through an adjustable vertical gap and a drinker on the other side. Hens spent more time in the control side rather than the water side at 100 mm compared to 120 mm (P = 0.03). The hens' willingness to pass through a narrow vertical gap in order to access water did not vary according to the duration of water deprivation. Nonetheless, water-deprivation duration had a marked effect on the hens' location and behavior. Hens spent more time in the vicinity of the drinker at 18, 24, and 32 h compared to 0 and 12 h (P < 0.05). Hens spent more time drinking at 24 h and 32 h, followed by 18, 12, and finally 0 h (P < 0.05). Drinking latency and frequency were higher for all water-deprivation durations as compared to the 0 h control (P < 0.05). Water deprivation can be characterized by behavioral changes such as drinking duration, reaching a plateau at 24 h. Complementary physiological data are warranted to fully assess the impact of water deprivation on hen welfare. PMID:26628345

  19. Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in Cecal Contents of Laying Hens Fed Various Molting Diets Using Bacterial Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laying hens are typically induced to molt in order to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12-14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella Enteriditis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes ...

  20. Effects of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on fertility and hatchability of eggs from artificially inseminated White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A

    1978-09-01

    Egg production of White Leghorn hens infested with the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), was as much as 15% lower than egg production of control hens. However, when these hens were artificially inseminated with semen from mite infested roosters, fertility nor hatchability was affected by the mite infestation. PMID:724591

  1. Liver lipid content of twenty varieties of laying hens from three confinement systems.

    PubMed

    Garlich, J D; Olson, J D; Huff, W E; Hamilton, P B

    1975-05-01

    Average liver lipid values were determined for 20 varieties of 71-week old laying hens managed in 3 confinement systems of the 1972-73 North Carolina Random Sample Laying Test. There were highly significant differences in liver lipid atrributable to variety, to confinement system, and a significant variety X system interaction. Four varieties had consistently high and five had consistently low liver lipid values in all 3 confinement systems. Varietymeans ranged from 25.8 to 49.0% liver lipid on a dry weight basis. Hens confined 2/cage had slight but significantly higher liver lipid than hens 7/cage or in floor pens. Liver lipid was positively correlated with body weight in hens 2/cage and in floor pens. There were no significant correlations of liver lipid with egg production or mortality. A frequency distribution of individual liver lipid values revealed a continuous distribution from 15.4 to 65.4with a pronounced skew to the right of the mean of 38.2%. Neither a fatty liver syndrome nor liver hemorrhage syndrome was reported for any of the flocks during the laying year. The normal range of liver lipid values for hens 71 weeks of age appears to be between 25 and 49 g. of lipid per 100 g. of dry liver weight. PMID:1153379

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  4. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    PubMed

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  5. Effect of dietary fish meal on production performance and cholesterol content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rowghani, E; Boostani, A D; Fard, H R Mahmoodian; Frouzani, R

    2007-05-15

    The effect of dietary fish meal (FM) on production and egg yolk cholesterol of commercial Hyline White Leghorn hens (24-week old) was studied for four weeks. Eighty birds were given a corn-wheat-soyabean meal diet that contained either 0% (control diet, C) or 3% fish meal (DM basis). Hens were randomly divided into two experimental treatments with four replicates (10 hens per replicate). Egg weight, daily egg production (g/hen/day), daily feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded. At the end of each week, 12 eggs from each group were randomly collected and egg yolk cholesterol, egg volume, shell thickness and Haugh unit (HU) were measured. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of feeding 3% FM on egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg/100 g yolk or mg/yolk) compared with the control diet, but 3% FM, tended to decrease egg yolk cholesterol concentration (1930.93 vs 2021.48 mg/100 g yolk). Hens fed on 3% FM had higher (p < 0.05) egg production, egg weight, egg volume, shell thickness, HU and better feed conversion ratio. It was concluded that under the condition of the study, feeding 3% fish meal improved egg production traits but was not able to reduce cholesterol concentration of the egg yolk although tended to reduce cholesterol concentration. PMID:19086530

  6. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    PubMed

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  7. Method for Dissecting the Auditory Epithelium (Basilar Papilla) in Developing Chick Embryos.

    PubMed

    Levic, Snezana; Yamoah, Ebenezer N

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for exploring auditory physiology. Similar to humans, the chicken inner ear is morphologically and functionally close to maturity at the time of hatching. In contrast, chicks can regenerate hearing, an ability lost in all mammals, including humans. The extensive morphological, physiological, behavioral, and pharmacological data available, regarding normal development in the chicken auditory system, has driven the progress of the field. The basilar papilla is an attractive model system to study the developmen