These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four?hundred?and?eighty 18?week?old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious

A. H. Azzam; M. A. Gabal

1998-01-01

2

The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens  

E-print Network

THF. EFFEC'I OF VITAMIN 8, , AND VARIOUS EKVK Lo OF IODINE IN THE DIET OF GBOV. ING CHICKS AND MAT URE HENS EDV ABD MACK SANTA A 'I'HgoIS oubmitted to tbe Gt aduate ochooi of tbe Agricultural and hiecbanical College of f'"xae in pertial fulf...Hhnent of tbe retlufremcnte for tbe dogree MASTER OF oCII. NCE ht a j o r oubject: sultry ociencc August 1957 'I HE E FFECT OF VITAMIN 9 . AND VABIUU& cEV E 1 o 12 OF IODINE IN THE DIET C F GI'On ING CHICKS AND MA'l UHE HENS A THEnle t DV. AND MAC K BA N...

Banta, Edward Mack

2012-06-07

3

Effect of citrinin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium citrinum, on laying hens and young broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Citrinin fed to mature laying hens at levels of 0, 50, and 250 mug/g. of diet for three weeks had no effect on body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight or egg shell quality. A moderate diarrhea occurring about three days after feeding 250 mug. citrinin/g. of diet was observed. However, the diarrhea subsided once the birds were returned to a normal diet. Young broiler chicks were fed a diet containing either 0, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mug. citrinin/g. of diet from hatching to three weeks of age. Body weight was decreased by the 500 mug/g. level whereas all levels of citrinin resulted in enlarged kidneys and an improvement in feed conversion when compared to control values. There was also a slight dose-related increase in liver size. The 250 and 500 mug./g. levels resulted in a dose-related increase in water consumption accompanied by an acute diarrhea. Dietary citrinin had no effect on serum protein, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, calcium, potassium and sodium concentrations or packed cell volume. PMID:951361

Ames, D D; Wyatt, R D; Marks, H L; Washburn, K W

1976-07-01

4

Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages.  

PubMed

The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and ?-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 wk old) and old (58 to 59 wk old) breeder hens. Chicks (384) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (YH) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet alone. Treatment 2 (YHB) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which BMD was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 (YHE) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which yeast extract (YE) was added at 0.075% level. Treatment 4 (YHED) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which YE was added at 0.15% level. Treatments 5 (OH), 6 (OHB), 7 (OHE), and 8 (OHED) consisted of chicks from old hens fed diets similar to those given to YH in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Growth performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was evaluated on d 7 and 14. Intestinal tissue samples were also analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an indicator of intestinal maturation on d 4 and 13 of experiment. Results showed that by d 14 of experiment, only BMD treatments (YHB and OHB) improved body weight gain (P < 0.05). However, the body weight gains of chicks in the yeast-supplemented treatments (YHE, YHED, OHE, and OHED) were statistically similar (P > 0.05) to those of the BMD treatments. Ileal ALP activity was consistently enhanced by BMD and yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet. It was concluded that antibiotic BMD and our novel yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet improved early chick growth and maturation of the ileal segment of the small intestine. PMID:21489956

Fasina, Y O; Thanissery, R R

2011-05-01

5

Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in ring-necked pheasant hens, chicks, and eggs.  

PubMed

The T 1/2 for whole-body elimination of [3H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) derived radioactivity in ring-necked pheasant hatchlings was 13 d, whereas in adult hen pheasants that were not producing eggs it was 378 d. All TCDD-derived radioactivity in hen tissues was from the parent compound. The oral bioavailability of TCDD in the adult hen pheasant varied with the environmental matrix, with 30% of the dose absorbed from a suspension of earthworms, 33% absorbed from a soil suspension, 41% absorbed from a suspension of paper mill sludge, and 58% absorbed from a suspension of crickets. A cumulative dose of 1.0 micrograms TCDD/kg body weight, administered as weekly doses of 0.1 micrograms/kg for 10 wk, did not adversely affect hen condition or egg production. Under these exposure conditions, hens translocated about 1% of their cumulative TCDD dose to each of the first 15 eggs laid. All of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in the eggs was the parent compound and was confined entirely to the yolk; no TCDD was detected in egg albumin. We conclude that TCDD was more persistent in pheasant hens than in chicks and that egg laying was an important route of elimination in the hen. PMID:1602521

Nosek, J A; Craven, S R; Sullivan, J R; Olson, J R; Peterson, R E

1992-03-01

6

Protein, grain and sources of methionine in the nutrition of the laying hen and broiler chick  

E-print Network

Experimental design showing distribution of L-methionine and MHA among treatment groups in broiler nutrition. Experiment I II. - 52 12 Composition of basal diet used in Experiment III. - 53 13 Body weights of broiler chicks at one, two, three and four... levels. 33 Experimental design for evaluation of L-methionine and MHA supplements to the diet of male broiler chicks reared in battery brooders. - 51 INTRODUCTION During the past two decades an extensive amount of research has been conducted...

Ernst, Herbert Lloyd

2012-06-07

7

Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens  

SciTech Connect

Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

Patterson, P.H.

1988-01-01

8

Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype  

PubMed Central

White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration. PMID:25049597

Kucuky?lmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; C?nar, Mustafa; Catl?, Abdullah Ugur; Bintas, Erol; Coven, Fethiye

2012-01-01

9

The ethics and politics of the caged layer hen debate in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in attitudes toward animal welfare, with a greater emphasis on the importance of allowing animals to express normal patterns of behavior has led to an examination of the practice of keeping hens in battery cages. There is widespread scientific consensus that the conditions of confinement and the barren nature of battery cages severely restrict hens’ behavioral repertoire, and are

Michael C. Morris

2006-01-01

10

Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.  

PubMed

Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

2013-04-12

11

Basophilic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions distributed widely in layer hens affected with avian-leukosis-virus-associated tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer hens (310 days old) affected with subcutaneous tumours were investigated pathologically. Basopholic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions (MIs) were widely distributed in the chickens affected with subcutaneous myxoma rhabdomyosarcoma, perineuroma, glioma, intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma, and nephroblastoma. MIs were observed in the myocardial cells and the impulse-conducting-system cells. They were also present in the smooth muscle cells of the arteries in the

Kikuyasu Nakamura; Tomoko Higashi; Manabu Yamada; Kunitoshi Imai; Yu Yamamoto

2007-01-01

12

Changes in eggshell conductance, water loss and hatchability of layer hens with flock age and moulting.  

PubMed

1. Changes in water loss, eggshell conductance and hatchability with flock age were monitored in layer hens in a commercial hatchery. 2. Optimal water loss for maximal hatchability of layer eggs was found to be 12 to 13% of initial egg mass at d 18 of incubation. 3. Mass specific water vapour conductance (GH(2)Osp) increased linearly with flock age from 0.31 mg/(d.g.Torr) at the beginning of the first breeding season to 0.40 mg/(d.g.Torr) at its end after 77 weeks (=4.21 and 5.44 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 4. After forced moulting GH(2)Osp increased from 0.35 to 0.41 mg/(d.g.Torr) (=4.76 and 5.58 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 5. The coefficients of variation of GH(2)Osp increased with flock age from 14% at the beginning of the breeding season to 31% at the end of the second breeding season. 6. In order to preserve normal incubation water loss for maximising hatchability, the humidity setting of an incubator should increase gradually, with flock age, from 53% RH to 66% RH in the first laying season and from 61% RH to 67% RH after forced moulting. 7. A 3.5-fold increase (from 2 to 7%) in the difference between mean and median GH(2)Osp of egg batches with flock age was found, indicating increasing frequency of microscopic cracks in eggshells with flock age. This has to be taken into account when setting the humidity regime in the incubator. PMID:19093240

Meir, M; Ar, A

2008-11-01

13

The effect of the age of a hen on fertility and hatchability of eggs and on livability and growth of chicks  

E-print Network

was 15 feet deep sn4 RS feet long E" ch house was furnished with aaple feeding snd watering space~ snd a11 pcs race%wed the sane care end sen~t thnxqjbout tbe experiment kt the beginning of this ~srbwt~ pcn I contained 100 hens one year of age~ pen II... was 15 feet deep sn4 RS feet long E" ch house was furnished with aaple feeding snd watering space~ snd a11 pcs race%wed the sane care end sen~t thnxqjbout tbe experiment kt the beginning of this ~srbwt~ pcn I contained 100 hens one year of age~ pen II...

Crossland, Aubrey Lee

2012-06-07

14

Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens  

E-print Network

environments, and its ability to induce a molt in single comb white leghorn hens. In part, the antibacterial properties of zinc may reduce environmental contamination in a poultry house by interrupting airborne routes. The first phase involved detecting...

Park, Shinyoung

2005-02-17

15

Plumage condition in laying hens: genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects in two purebred layer lines  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking is a major welfare issue in laying hen industry that leads to mortality. Due to a ban on conventional cages in the EU and on beak trimming in some countries of the EU, feather pecking will become an even bigger problem. Its severity depends both on the victim receiving pecking and on its group mates inflicting pecking (indirect effects), which together determine plumage condition of the victim. Plumage condition may depend, therefore, on both the direct genetic effect of an individual itself and on the indirect genetic effects of its group mates. Here, we present estimated genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects on plumage condition of different body regions in two purebred layer lines, and estimates of genetic correlations between body regions. Methods Feather condition scores (FCS) were recorded at 40 weeks of age for neck, back, rump and belly and these four scores were added-up into a total FCS. A classical animal model and a direct–indirect effects model were used to estimate genetic parameters for FCS. In addition, a bivariate model with mortality (0/1) was used to account for mortality before recording FCS. Due to mortality during the first 23 weeks of laying, 5363 (for W1) and 5089 (for WB) FCS records were available. Results Total heritable variance for FCS ranged from 1.5% to 9.8% and from 9.8% to 53.6% when estimated respectively with the classical animal and the direct–indirect effects model. The direct–indirect effects model had a significantly higher likelihood. In both lines, 70% to 94% of the estimated total heritable variation in FCS was due to indirect effects. Using bivariate analysis of FCS and mortality did not affect estimates of genetic parameters. Genetic correlations were high between adjacent regions for FCS on neck, back, and rump but moderate to low for belly with other regions. Conclusion Our results show that 70% to 94% of the heritable variation in FCS relates to indirect effects, indicating that methods of genetic selection that include indirect genetic effects offer perspectives to improve plumage condition in laying hens. This, in turn could reduce a major welfare problem. PMID:24885199

2014-01-01

16

Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

2013-12-01

17

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

18

Dietary vitamin E in White Leghorn layer breeder hens: a strategy to combat aflatoxin B1-induced damage.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of animal and human feed and food respectively. This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of vitamin E (Vit E) in White Leghorn breeder hens and their progeny against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced damage. The results indicated a significant decrease in egg production and quality in the groups exposed to dietary AFB1. A detectable amount of AFB1 residue appeared in the eggs during the first week of mycotoxin exposure at levels ? 2.5 mg kg(-1), which reached its peak (0.403 ± 0.04 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation]) during the second week of the experiment (in the group fed 10 mg kg(-1)). Feeding Vit E + AFB1 resulted in higher AFB1 residues (0.467 ± 0.03) when compared with the hens fed AFB1 alone. The resistance of red blood cells to oxidative damage was decreased, while embryonic mortalities and deformities were increased in the AFB1-fed groups. The protective effect of Vit E on these parameters was noted in the groups fed lower doses of AFB1. After the withdrawal of mycotoxin-contaminated feed, most of the parameters returned towards normal within 2 weeks, except AFB1 residues that were still detectable. From the findings of this study one can conclude that the addition of Vit E in the diet of hens provided only partial protection against AFB1-induced damage. PMID:25011613

Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Rafique, Shahid; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Ahad, Abdul

2014-10-01

19

Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on 3 measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of auditory enrichment (by means of classical music) or physical enrichment (by means of hanging colored string bunches and barley grains on the floor) on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in chicks of several layer breeds. In experiment 1, 192 chicks from 8 Spanish breeds and 1 White Leghorn population were reared in cages with or without music auditory enrichment until 8 wk of age. The effect of music auditory enrichment was significant for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). The ratios were higher in chicks reared without music than in those reared with music, suggesting that auditory enrichment from classical music reduces stress in chicks. There were significant differences in morphological trait measurements (relative asymmetry of wing length, leg width, and combined asymmetry; P < 0.05), being greater in chicks reared without music. This result suggests that FA is a good indicator for stress level in chicks, given that it follows the same trend as that found for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. There was a significant treatment by breed interaction (P < 0.05) for tonic immobility duration, indicating no consistent effect by auditory enrichment on tonic immobility duration across breeds. In experiment 2, 180 chicks from 3 Spanish breeds were housed in pens with or without physical enrichment (colored plastic string bunches and barley grains on the floor) until 6 wk of age. The effect of physical enrichment on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and FA was not significant, indicating no effect on fear and stress in layer chicks. In conclusion, auditory enrichment by means of classical music is a reliable method for reducing stress levels in several breeds of layer chicks. However, music auditory enrichment was not effective in reducing fearfulness in any of the layer breeds. Physical enrichment by means of colored plastic string bunches and floor barley grains does not appear to be an effective method for reducing stress and fear in layer chicks. PMID:22010229

Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Prieto, M T; Torres, O

2011-11-01

20

Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 ?g m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 ?g m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

2012-09-01

21

Antibiotics and an unidentified growth factor in the nutrition of the chick and mature fowl  

E-print Network

An unidentified chick-growth factor found in litter...............................58 VII Summary... .............. .............. 59 TABLE OF CONTENTS Tables Page Egg production and hatchability from New Hampshire hens as influenced by antibiotics... in the absence of vitamin B12 from the sixth through the fifteenth month of age.............. ......................... 21 Egg production and hatchability from New Hampshire hens as influenced by antibiotics in the presence of vitamin B-j^ from the sixth...

Jacobs, Richard Lewis

2013-10-04

22

Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival  

PubMed Central

Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

2013-01-01

23

Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R  

E-print Network

_____________ UR 3520 ­ STRUCTOR: Hartwig Hen Lauderdale R ONE/VOICE MAIL: hhhoch ACHING ASS am Benjamin Lauderdale ducation Cen 577-6378 u Thu: 10:40a- ass: 04/24/12 ERIALS: tment Compu for each sess dologies for a horough For each ass r 24 hours wil d

Slatton, Clint

24

Effects of short storage conditions and broiler breeder age on hatchability, hatching time, and chick weights.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to assess how hatching performance is affected by breeder age and egg holding environment during short-term storage. Response variables analyzed were egg weight loss up to 18 d of incubation, viability (hatchability of fertile eggs), embryonic mortality, hatching time, and weight of male and female chicks, at hatching and at the end of incubation. The trials involved a total of 2,250 hatching eggs from each of two commercial broiler breeder flocks of the same strain (Avian) but of different ages (32 to 34 and 48 to 50 wk). Eggs were stored for 0, 1, or 2 d in the egg storage room or in the setter room. The hatching times of the chicks were recorded at 4-h intervals during the period from 478 to 494 h postincubation, and at 514 h, when incubation was terminated and all chicks were removed from the hatcher. In eggs from younger hens, viability was not influenced by preincubation storage; in older hens, viability of eggs not submitted to storage was higher (P < 0.05) by 3 to 6 percentage points than that of stored eggs. Hatching times were not affected by age of the hen, whereas male chicks tended to hatch, on average, about 3 h later than females. Chick weights at hatching and at removal from the hatcher were similar for both sexes, but females experienced a higher (P < 0.05) weight loss in that interval. Eggs incubated on the day of lay tended to hatch, on average, later than stored eggs (especially when compared to eggs submitted to 1 d storage), and produced heavier chicks. PMID:9355138

Reis, L H; Gama, L T; Soares, M C

1997-11-01

25

Movements of British hen harriers circus cyaneus outside the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen Harrier chicks were wing?tagged in four regions in Scotland and in North Wales between 1990 and 1995, and resighted or recovered dead as fully grown birds during the non?breeding season (August to April) throughout Britain and Ireland, and on the Continent, until April 1997. Results were analysed in terms of the percentages of birds that carried out long?distance movements

Brian Etheridge; Ron W. Summers

2006-01-01

26

Hen Harrier (male) (Circus cyaneus)  

E-print Network

Hen Harrier (male) (Circus cyaneus) Habitat selection of hunting Hen Harriers (Circus cyaneus) & Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus) on the East Frisian Islands Manuela Schröder1, Nadine Oberdiek1. Bruzinski Marsh Harrier (female) (Circus aeruginosus) Source: www.moosbach.at References: Jacobs, J. (1974

Kleyer, Michael

27

The influence of cage versus floor pen management of broiler breeder hens on subsequent performance of cage reared broilers.  

PubMed

Chicks from breeder hens maintained in cages or floor pens were reared in Lohman battery cages in three separate trials. The ages of the breeder flock at the time of egg collection were 29, 36, and 54 weeks, respectively. The fertility of the artificially inseminated caged hens was significantly (P less than .05) lower than that of the naturally mated hens. The source of hatching eggs had no effect on early embryonic mortality, feed conversion, or growing period mortality in any broiler trials. Hatchability of all eggs set was significantly (P less than .05) lower for caged breeders in Trials 2 and 3. In all trials, eggs from caged hens produced significantly (P less than .05) larger day-old chicks than their floor-housed counterparts; however, these chicks were significantly (P less than .05) heavier at slaughter only in Trial 2. Carcass evaluations for breast blisters, keel malformations, and leg abnormalities revealed that the severity of each condition was associated with the sex of the broiler and that, within sexes, maternal housing management had no effect. PMID:6622365

Petitte, J N; Hawes, R O; Gerry, R W

1983-07-01

28

Phage and MLVA typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from layers and humans in Belgium from 2000-2010, a period in which vaccination of laying hens was introduced.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to characterize isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from humans and layer farms in Belgium collected during 2000-2010. Three periods were compared, namely (i) before implementation of vaccination (2000-2004), (ii) during voluntary vaccination (2005-2006) and (iii) during implementation of the national control program (NCP) for Salmonella including mandatory vaccination against S. Enteritidis (2007-2010). The characteristics compared across time periods were distributions of phage type and multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA). While PT4 and PT21 were predominantly isolated in Belgium in layers and humans before 2007, a significant reduction of those PTs was observed in both populations in the period 2007-2010. The relative proportion of PT4b, PT21c and PT6c was found to have increased considerably in the layer population since 2007. In the human population, PT8, PT1 and the group of 'other' PTs were more frequently isolated compared to the previous periods. When comparing the proportion of the predominant MLVA types Q2 and U2, no significant difference was found between the layer and human population in the three periods and between periods within each category (layer and human). A significant difference in isolate distribution among MLVA clusters I and II was found between human and layer isolates recovered during Period 3 and in the human population between Period 1 and 3. Results suggest that the association between S. Enteritidis in layers and the occurrence of the pathogen in humans changed since implementation of the NCP in 2007. PMID:24268005

Dewaele, I; Heyndrickx, M; Rasschaert, G; Bertrand, S; Wildemauwe, C; Wattiau, P; Imberechts, H; Herman, L; Ducatelle, R; Van Weyenberg, S; De Reu, K

2014-09-01

29

Teen Chick Lit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

Meloni, Christine

2006-01-01

30

Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen’s egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen’s egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients’ IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun

2005-01-01

31

Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens. PMID:21673156

Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

2011-07-01

32

Tissue-specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in egg and tissues of newly hatched chicks from wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), free-range guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), hen (Gallus domesticus) and domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and intensively housed hens. Carotenoid concentrations in the egg yolk of free-range guinea fowl, pheasant and wild mallard were similar (61.3-79.2 microg/g). Egg yolks from ducks and intensively housed hens were characterised by the lowest carotenoid concentration comprising 11.2-14.8 microg/g. However, carotenoid concentration in eggs from free-range ducks and hens was less than half of that in free-range guinea fowl or pheasant. Depending on carotenoid concentration in the livers of species studied could be placed in the following descending order: free living pheasant>free-range guinea fowl>free-range hen>intensively housed hen>wild mallard>housed duck>free-range duck. The carotenoid concentrations in other tissues of free-range guinea fowl and pheasant were substantially higher than in the other species studied. Egg yolk of housed hens was characterised by the highest alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. In accordance with the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk, the birds can be placed in the following descending order: intensively housed hen>wild mallard>free-living pheasant>free-range duck>free-range hen=free-range guinea fowl>housed duck. The main finding of this work is species- and tissue-specific differences in carotenoid and vitamin E distribution in the various avian species studied. PMID:15936711

Karadas, Filiz; Wood, Nicholas A R; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nicholas H C

2005-04-01

33

Chick tooth induction revisited.  

PubMed

Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

2009-07-15

34

Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.  

PubMed

A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:20235460

Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

2009-12-01

35

GROWTH IN HEN HARRIERS (Circus cyaneus cyaneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual dimorphism of adult Hen Harriers (Circus cyaneus cyaneus) was described and compared to other European harriers by Nieboer (1973). Scharf and Hamer- strom (1975) and Picozzi (1982) describe adult sexual dimorphism in live, wild-caught populations comparing Hen Harriers with Northern Harriers (C. c. hudsonius). The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism and growth of Hen Harrier nestlings identified by sex

M C. SCH

36

Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?  

PubMed

The plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (Microtinae spp.) and grouse (Tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast depression hypothesis; MDH). The predation facilitation hypothesis (PFH) in turn states that increased searching activity of vole-eating predators during or after the decline year of voles disturbs incubating and brooding grouse females. The behaviours used by grouse to avoid these terrestrial predators make them more vulnerable to predation by goshawks. We tested the main predictions of the MDH and PFH by collecting long-term (21-year) data from black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens and cocks killed by breeding goshawks supplemented with indices of bilberry crop, vole abundance and small carnivores in the vicinity of Oulu, northern Finland. We did not find obvious support for the prediction of the MDH that there is a negative correlation of bilberry crop in year t with vole abundance and with predation index of black grouse hens in year t + 1. We did find obvious support for the prediction of the PFH that there is a positive correlation between predator abundance and predation index of grouse hens, because the stoat Mustela erminea abundance index was positively related to the predation index of black grouse hens. We suggest that changes in vulnerability of grouse hens may mainly be caused by the guild of vole-eating predators, who shift to alternative prey in the decline phase of the vole cycle, and thus chase grouse hens and chicks to the talons of goshawks and other avian predators. PMID:21181416

Tornberg, Risto; Helle, Pekka; Korpimäki, Erkki

2011-07-01

37

Olive Oil Prevents the Adverse Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Chick Hatchability and Egg Quality1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases yolk 18:1(n-9), induces chick embryonic mortality and alters egg quality. A study was conducted to determine whether olive oil would prevent these adverse effects of CLA. Hens (15 per treatment) were fed diets containing 0.5 g corn oil\\/100 g (CO), 0.5 g CLA\\/100 g (CLA), 0.5 g corn oil plus 10 g olive oil\\/100

Rahim Aydin; Michael W. Pariza; Mark E. Cook

38

Embryonic cell invasiveness: an in vitro study of chick gastrulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An investigation has been made into some of the possible mechanisms underlying the invasionary activity of gastrulating cells at the primitive streak of the early chick embryo. At gastrulation, epithelial cells in the upper epiblast layer of the embryo undergo a transformation into fibroblastic mesen- chyme cells by passage through the primitive streak and penetration of a basement membrane.

E. J. SANDERS

39

Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2006-01-01

40

Effects of incubation humidity and hatching time on heat tolerance of neonatal chicks: growth performance after heat exposure.  

PubMed

Three experiments were performed with 300 neonatal Hisex Brown layer chicks in each. The chicks hatched from eggs incubated at a relative humidity (RH) of 55 or 45%. Within each RH group, two groups were separated based on hatching time (early and late hatch groups). After hatch, 60 chicks served as controls. The other chicks were exposed to 35, 37, or 39 C for 48 h. After exposure, a 4-wk experimental growing period started at Day 2 of age. Chicks exposed to the experimental temperature regimens for 2 days had lower body weights at the end of exposure and grew less than controls during the 1st wk afterwards. At Day 2 of age, chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 45% RH had higher body weights than chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH. These chicks also had higher body weight gain in the 1st and 2nd wk following exposure to 39 C than chicks hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH. Chicks hatching late were heavier at Day 2 than early-hatching ones, but body weight gain was similar. Chicks exposed to the experimental temperature regimens had lower rectal temperatures than controls at the end of the 1st and 2nd wk. Incubation RH, hatching time, and sex did not affect feed intake, feed conversion, or rectal temperature. After exposure to 39 C, fewer chicks that had hatched from eggs incubated at low RH died compared with chicks that had hatched from the 55% RH group. Early-hatching chicks had a significantly higher risk of dying than late-hatching ones. PMID:1886861

Hamdy, A M; Henken, A M; Van der Hel, W; Galal, A G; Abd-Elmoty, A K

1991-07-01

41

Effects of supplementation of multi-enzyme and multi-species probiotic on production performance, egg quality, cholesterol level and immune system in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate enzyme and probiotic feed supplements as alternative feed additives to alleviate the problems associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics from layer diet. A total of 180 Hy-Line W-98 hens, 40 weeks old, were assigned into four treatment groups so that there were 45 laying hens in each group. Four dietary treatments were randomly assigned

Sohail Hassan Khan; Muhammad Atif; Nasir Mukhtar; Abdul Rehman; Ghulam Fareed

2011-01-01

42

The hen's egg: Genetics of taints in eggs from hens fed on rapeseed meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Fishy taints in eggs from hens fed on rapeseed meal, which have been reported to occur in brown?shelled eggs of some hens with Rhode Island Red ancestry, occur also in white?shelled eggs of some hens of a strain of Brown Leghorns.2. Genetic tests have demonstrated that tainting in these circumstances is conditional on the presence in the hen, in

W. Bolton; T. C. Carter; R. Morley Jones

1976-01-01

43

Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57  

E-print Network

III IV V VI _____________ UR 3331 CTURE INST Hartwig Hen one: (954) 57 mail: hhhochm ACHING ASS jid (FLREC Fo eed Lab 404A m-3pm, Wedne :55pm (per. 8 (per. 9) ass: 04/17/12 ERIALS: tt (2000): Ele. F per and one ass exc 3. T be CO The inst _____________ RADING PO R 3331+SUR rade Pe 90 - 87 + 85 77

Slatton, Clint

44

BY MASHA CESSEN hen Muscavites  

E-print Network

BY MASHA CESSEN hen Muscavites poured into the s t l e e t s ~ 2 0 t o W t h eattempt ed coup d'6 s t L d, 'My apsrbwnt hasbeen t&ed intop-ly themostad- vanced underground printing p h t in Moscow right, Macintosh computer, and laser printer-bought by U.SorganizPtionsand delivered to Moscowjust weeks

Brody, James P.

45

CHICK GROWTH, SIBLING RIVALRY, AND CHICK PRODUCTION IN AMERICAN BLACK OYSTERCATCHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied chick growth, sibling rivalry, and chick production in a population of American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) on Cleland Island, British Columbia from 1975 to 1978. For these birds, survival from hatching until time of first flight is the critical life-history stage. Chick growth varied with brood size, and heavier chicks had higher survival to the time of first

SARAH GROVES

46

Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens  

E-print Network

Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age as well as an economical problem. Parallel with reduced shell quality the bone strength declines

47

Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.  

PubMed

Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance. PMID:17312759

Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J

2005-09-01

48

CYP1B1 expression in ovarian cancer in the laying hen Gallus domesticus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. The genetic and molecular mechanisms that cause it still remain largely unknown. CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of estrogens to genotoxic catechol estrogens which may cause DNA mutations and initiate ovarian epithelial cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate CYP1B1 expression, distribution and localization in the hen ovary and to determine if there is an increased CYP1B1 expression associated with, and possibly involved in the initiation of ovarian cancer. Methods Two groups of hens were used: 1. young (50 weeks of age; devoid of cancer) and 2. old (165 weeks of age; divided into two groups: age-matched normal and ovarian cancer). CYP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in cancerous ovaries, ovaries of age-matched normal and/or young hens by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RNA was extracted from tissue preserved in RNAlater for qRT-PCR. Tissue frozen in liquid nitrogen was used for ISH. Tissue fixed in neutral buffered formalin was subjected to IHC. Results Higher expression of CYP1B1 mRNA was observed in cancerous ovaries as compared to ovaries of young and age-matched normal hens by qRT-PCR. ISH and IHC confirmed that the expression of CYP1B1 was much higher in ovarian tumors compared to ovaries of age-matched normal hens. CYP1B1 mRNA and protein were distributed extensively throughout the carcinoma, while primarily localized to the granulosa layer surrounding the follicle in age-matched normal hens. IHC also showed nuclear localization of CYP1B1. Highly expressed CYP1B1 was found in POF-3 from young and age-matched normal hens as compared to POF-1 and POF-2 by qRT-PCR. No significant difference was found in the expression of CYP1B1 between the distal (site of rupture) and the proximal (site of attachment to the ovary) of POF-1 from young and age-matched normal hens. Conclusions High expression of CYP1B1 in the hen ovary is associated with ovarian cancer and our data suggest that CYP1B1 may play an important role in the initiation of ovarian cancer and may prove to be a target for intervention. Moreover, the results of this study further confirm that the laying hen is a good model to study human ovarian cancer. PMID:18973935

Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J.; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, Dale B.

2009-01-01

49

Observations of environmental thermoregulation by chicks.  

PubMed

Chicks, 8 days of age, were housed at 20 C in a 48 x 45 cm chamber with a microswitch in one wall. Pressing the microswitch provided radiant heat from an infrared bulb located above the switch. Six experiments were conducted using from two to eight chicks per group. Heat was provided for 2 or 3 min. In two experiments chicks were on litter; in four experiments chicks were on wire floors. Chicks provided themselves with heat without difficulty and reduced heat demand when housed on litter rather than wire. Less total heat was provided with reward times of 2 min. No diurnal rhythm was evident. PMID:6634621

Morrison, W D; Curtis, S E

1983-09-01

50

Influence of the type of management system on corticosterone transfer into eggs in laying hens.  

PubMed

The effect of free-range versus cage management system on corticosterone transfer into the eggs was studied in laying hens. Hungarian Yellow laying hens (age: 21 weeks, body weight: 2.0 +/- 0.5 kg) were divided into two groups in the spring: Group I, free-range keeping (n=15 layers, density: > 0.5 bird/m2) in outdoor runs, with continuous access to a commercial layer feed; Group II, hens kept in battery cages (n=17 layers, density: 2 birds/m2, natural light, continuous access to feed and water). Eggs were collected after a one-week adaptation period on days 2, 7 and 16. Corticosterone (CST) was extracted from homogenised egg samples using an ASE-200 Accelerated Solvent Extractor and then assayed by liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) [Thermo Quest Surveyor high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced via Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) ion source to Finnigan/Thermo Quest LCQ Deca MS/MS] using dexamethasone as internal standard with positive APCI ionisation. CST concentrations of whole eggs laid by free-range hens on days 2, 7 and 16 were 0.370 +/- 0.218, 0.259 +/- 0.066 and 0.915 +/- 0.745 ng x g(-1), respectively, while those of eggs laid by caged hens were 0.206 +/- 0.157, 0.223 +/- 0.165 and 0.184 +/- 0.110 ng x g(-1) at the above sampling times. It is concluded that in free-range laying hens the sharp changes of environmental weather conditions significantly increased the corticosterone content of eggs, while the environmentally controlled and closed battery cage management technology resulted in relatively uniform corticosterone concentrations in the whole eggs. PMID:17020138

Sas, B; Domány, G; Gyimóthy, Ilse; Gaál Kovácsné, Katalin; Süth, M

2006-09-01

51

Effects of relative humidity during the last five days of incubation and brooding temperature on performance of broiler chicks from young broiler breeders.  

PubMed

Broiler hatching eggs were subjected to one RH condition (53% RH) from 0 to 16 d and switched to one of three different RH conditions (43, 53, or 63%) from transfer at 16 d to pull time at 21.67 d of incubation. The broiler breeder ages were 27, 29, and 31 wk for Trial 1, and 26, 28, and 30 wk for Trial 2 in Experiment 1. For both trials, BW at hatch, BW at pull, hatch time, and chick weight loss between hatching and pull were measured. All unhatched eggs were opened and examined macroscopically. Experiment 2 was conducted using the chicks produced in Experiment 1. The chicks were immediately placed after pull and randomly distributed by sex into brooding pens by RH treatment in Trial 1, and by sex, RH, and brooding temperature in Trial 2. Two brooding conditions, warm and cool, were used in Trial 2. Body weight at placement, BW gain to 12 d, feed conversion, and mortality were recorded. There was no effect of RH treatment on fertile hatchability. Body weight at hatch, pull, and placement increased with hen age. Mortality was higher for the late-hatching chicks in the warm brooding conditions in Trials 1 and 2 of Experiment 2, whereas mortality was significantly greater for the early-hatching chicks and those chicks hatched at 43% RH under the cool-brooding temperature conditions. Relative humidity treatment had no effect on chick performance in the presence of warm brooding conditions. Warm brooding conditions improved BW gain to 12 d compared with cold brooding conditions. Overall, optimal chick performance was achieved at 53% RH. Chick quality problems that may be due to high or low RH during incubation can be ameliorated by proper brooding conditions. PMID:11055841

Bruzual, J J; Peak, S D; Brake, J; Peebles, E D

2000-10-01

52

Nitrogen incorporation in ultrathin gate dielectrics: A comparison of He/N2O and He/N2 remote plasma processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin Si oxynitride films grown by low-temperature remote plasma processing were examined by on-line Auger electron spectroscopy and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the concentration, spatial distribution, and chemical bonding of nitrogen. The films were grown at 300 °C on Si(100) substrates using two radio-frequency remote plasma processes: (i) He/N2O remote plasma-assisted oxidation (RPAO) and (ii) two-step remote plasma oxidation/nitridation. A 5 min He/N2O RPAO process produces a 2.5 nm oxynitride film incorporating approximately 1 monolayer of nitrogen at the Si-SiO2 interface. The interfacial nitrogen is bonded in a N-Si3 configuration, as in silicon nitride (Si3N4). By comparison, a 90 s He/N2 remote plasma exposure of a 1 nm oxide (grown by 10 s He/O2 RPAO) consumes substrate Si atoms creating a 1 nm subcutaneous Si3N4 layer. The nitrogen areal density obtained via the two-step process depends on the initial oxide thickness and the He/N2 remote plasma exposure time. Moreover, as the oxide thickness is increased (by increasing the He/O2 remote plasma exposure), the nitrogen distribution shifts away from the Si-SiO2 interface and into the oxide. More nitrogen with a tighter distribution is incorporated using He versus Ar dilution. Insight into the remote plasma chemistry was provided by optical emission spectroscopy. Strong N2 first positive and second positive emission bands were observed for He/N2O and He/N2 remote plasmas indicating the presence of N2 metastables and ground-state N atoms.

Khandelwal, Amit; Smith, Bradley C.; Lamb, H. Henry

2001-09-01

53

Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

2009-02-01

54

Presence of naturally occurring Campylobacter and Salmonella in the mature and immature ovarian follicles of late-life broiler breeder hens.  

PubMed

Campylobacter and Salmonella are known to cause acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Raw poultry products have been implicated as a significant source of these infections. Five trials were conducted to determine whether Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. exist naturally in the mature and immature ovarian follicles of late-life broiler breeder hens. Broiler breeder hens ranging from 60 to 66 wk of age were obtained from four different commercial breeder operations. For each trial, the hens were removed from the commercial operation and held overnight at the University of Georgia processing facility. The hens were euthanized, defeathered, and aseptically opened. To reduce the possibility of cross-contamination between samples, first the mature and immature ovarian follicles, then the ceca, were aseptically removed. Individual samples were placed in sterile bags, packed on ice, and transported to the laboratory for evaluation. Overall, Campylobacter was found in 7 of 55 immature follicles, 12 of 47 mature follicles, and 41 of 55 ceca. Campylobacter was found in at least one of each sample of mature follicles and in ceca in each of the five trials. Salmonella was found in 0 of 55 immature follicles, 1 of 47 mature follicles, and 8 of 55 ceca. In this study, the recovery rate of Salmonella from late-life broiler breeder hen ovarian follicles was relatively low. However, the recovery rate of Campylobacter from the hen ovarian follicles was reasonably high, suggesting that these breeder hens could be infecting fertile hatching eggs. Determining how Campylobacter contaminated these ovarian follicles and how many chicks could be colonized from this source are the next steps in helping to elucidate a better understanding of this ecology and the control of Campylobacter in poultry production. PMID:16094836

Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Cosby, D E; Wilson, J L; Hiett, K L; Siragusa, G R; Bourassa, D V

2005-06-01

55

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

56

Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang

2010-02-10

57

Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

58

Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

2014-06-01

59

Formation of micronuclei in incubated hen's eggs as a measure of genotoxicity.  

PubMed

The formation of micronuclei (MN) is a widely used and accepted endpoint of genotoxicity testing. The micronucleus assay provides a simple and rapid indirect measure of the induction of structural or numerical chromosome aberrations. In this work we describe hen's eggs, incubated for 11 days, as ex vivo assay system for the detection of micronucleus formation in young erythrocytes (Hen's Egg Test for Micronucleus Induction, HET-MN). At this stage of development the chick embryo presents a high metabolic competency which allows an adequate activation of several types of promutagens, as previously reported by several authors. As all stages of maturing erythrocytes are present in the bloodstream of the chick embryo, we could conveniently use samples of peripheral blood for scoring micronuclei as well as for determining the ratio between mature and immature erythrocytes as a measure of an undisturbed erythropoiesis. The obtained blood smears were stained by a modified May-Gruenwald-Giemsa procedure and scored microscopically. The examinations were facilitated by using a semiautomatic image analysis system. We could demonstrate a strong increase of the micronucleus frequency after the administration of the promutagens diethylnitrosamine (DENA), 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA), cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosphamide (IF), mitomycin C (MMC), and the direct-acting mutagen methanesulfonic acid methyl ester (MMS) compared to the concomitant negative controls. CP was used to demonstrate a dose-response relation and the effect of using two different routes of application (air cell and albumen). Nuclear aberrations, other than MN, were demonstrated after application of high doses of CP or IF. Expanded exposure times revealed a similar effect. The HET-MN, as an ex vivo assay, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay system for genotoxicity testing, positioned between pure in vitro and in vivo assays, strictly in line with animal protection regulations and ethical aspects. PMID:9434855

Wolf, T; Luepke, N P

1997-11-27

60

Desperado siblings: uncontrollably aggressive junior chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the desperado sibling hypothesis, chicks of obligately siblicidal species kill their junior broodmates as early as possible because junior broodmates face dire ecological prospects and are consequently predisposed to aggressively overthrow elder broodmates by all-out aggression. The agonistic behavior of junior chicks is virtually unknown because they die so young. We investigated the agonistic behavior of hypothetical desperados

Hugh Drummond; Cristina Rodríguez; Adriana Vallarino; Claudia Valderrábano; Gabriela Rogel; Emilio Tobón

2003-01-01

61

Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

Rodriguez-Burgos, Antonio

2003-01-01

62

Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR. PMID:24650216

2014-01-01

63

Spatiotemporal expression profile of a putative ? propeller WDR72 in laying hens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression profile of a novel gene WDR72 in laying hens. Sixty-week old Hy-line Brown layers with similar laying sequence, egg weight, and shell strength, were selected and divided into 5 groups. The oviduct segments, such as magnum, white isthmus, and uterus, were sampled from each group of hens which were killed at 3 h post-oviposition (3 h P.O.), 4.15-4.5 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., 12 h P.O. and 18 h P.O., respectively. To the 8.5-9 h P.O. hens, additional organs were also sampled besides oviduct tissues. Moreover, another group of hens with weak shell strength were selected and their oviduct segments were sampled at 12 h P.O. Then the expression profile of WDR72 was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed as follows. (1) WDR72 transcripts specifically distributed in parts of organs investigated. At 8.5-9 h P.O., WDR72 appeared to be much more abundantly expressed in hens' oviduct sections, then followed in turn by brain, kidney, lung, glandular stomach and spleen. However, there were almost no WDR72 transcripts expressed in pectoral muscle, liver, heart and jejunum. (2) During the process of an "egg" passing through an oviduct, the expression of WDR72 in the magnum was greatly superior to that in the other two oviduct segments at 3 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., and 12 h P.O.; while it was white isthmus in which WDR72 transcript levels were the highest at 4.15-4.5 h P.O. and 18 h P.O. (3) To any oviduct segment, not only uterus but also magnum and white isthmus, the expression of WDR72 in which was significantly up-regulated at the stages of active calcification. (4) WDR72 transcript levels in any oviduct segments of strong-shell hens were significantly higher than that of weak-shell layers (P < 0.01), which arose the possibility that WDR72 was positively associated with chicken eggshell strength. In conclusion, the expression profile of WDR72 gene in laying hens has been characterized, which would facilitate to further probe into its functions. PMID:23666062

Liu, Zhangguo; Li, Bingyi

2013-09-01

64

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SORA AND VIRGINIA RAIL CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sora (Porzana carolina) and Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) chicks were ob- served in the wild and in captivity. In both species the chicks are precocial in ground and aquatic locomotion, semiprecocial in feeding themselves, and altricial in feather develop- ment, flight, and possibly thermoregulation. Sora chicks had more conspicuous head col- oration and begging display than did Virginia Rail chicks,

GERALD W. KAUFMANN

65

Chick Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Is Secreted via a Nonclassical Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to mammalian ciliary neurotrophic factors (CNTFs), chick CNTF is secreted, although it lacks an N-terminal signal. We determined that a 52 aa region of chick CNTF containing an internal hydrophobic domain could direct secretion of rat CNTF. Using a stable cell line that overexpressed chick CNTF, we found that chick CNTF immunoreactivity was punctate throughout the cytosol. Cellular

C. Gary Reiness; Midori J. Seppa; Danielle M. Dion; Sean Sweeney; Douglas N. Foster; Rae Nishi

2001-01-01

66

Effect of perches on liver health of hens.  

PubMed

Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. PMID:24812236

Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

2014-07-01

67

Effects of beta-mannanase in corn-soy diets on commercial leghorns in second-cycle hens.  

PubMed

beta-Mannanase (Hemicell) is a unique enzyme-based feed ingredient that can hydrolyze beta-mannan, an antinutritional fiber in feed. Because soybean meal contains beta-mannan and its derivatives, addition of beta-mannanase may improve soybean-meal utilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of beta-mannanase on performance of commercial Leghorns fed corn-soybean meal based diets. In this experiment, 3 diets were formulated. The metabolizable energy content for diet 1 (high-energy diet) was 2,951 kcal/kg, which was 120 kcal/kg higher than diet 2 (low-energy diet supplemented with beta-mannanase) and diet 3 (low-energy diet without beta-mannanase). Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 720, 98 wk old) were randomly divided into 3 dietary treatments (16 replicates of 15 hens per treatment). The trial lasted for 12 wk. Overall average feed conversion of hens fed the low-energy diet supplemented with beta-mannanase was similar to that of hens fed the high-energy diet, and both were significantly lower than that of hens fed the low-energy diet without beta-mannanase. There were no significant differences in overall average egg production and egg mass among 3 dietary treatments for the 12-wk period. However, the addition of beta-mannanase significantly increased average egg production and egg mass of hens fed the low-energy diet from wk 5 to 8. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg specific gravity, egg weight, mortality, body weight, and body weight variability among the 3 dietary treatments. beta-Mannanase supplementation improved energy utilization of corn-soybean layer diets and has potential to reduce the cost of practical laying hen diets containing beta-mannan. PMID:15971526

Wu, G; Bryant, M M; Voitle, R A; Roland, D A

2005-06-01

68

Evaluation of Cellulolytic Enzyme Supplementation on Production Indices and Nutrient Utilization of Laying Hens Fed Soybean Hull Based Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate cellulolytic enzyme supplementation on production indices and nutrient utilization of laying hens fed soybean hull based diets. Seven experimental layers diets were formulated incorporating soybean hull meal at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% (without enzyme supplementation) and 10, 20 and 30% (with 2.0% enzyme supplementation) dietary levels respectively. One hundred and forty seven

2005-01-01

69

Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. Effect of estrogen on the sequence and population complexity of chick oviduct poly(A)-containing RNA.  

PubMed

Total cellular RNA preparations were isolated from chicken oviducts at three different development stages: (a) immature chicks which were chronically stimulated with estrogen; (b) estrogen-stimulated chicks which were then withdrawn from hormone for 12 days; and (c) laying hens. Total cellular RNA containing 3'-poly(A) sequences (poly(A)-RNA) were than isolated from these preparations using oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography. The number average nucleotide length of the poly(A)-RNA preparations in each case was approximately 2000 nucleotides. The number average nucleotide length of the poly(A) residues at the 3'-terminal end of each RNA preparation was approximately 70 adenylate residues. Complementary DNA (cDNA) copies to each preparation of poly(A)-RNA were synthesized using avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase. The cDNApoly(A) preparations were then utilized in DNA excess hybridization experiments to analyze the complexity of the DNA sequences from which these RNAs were transcribed. Approximately 22% of each of the total cellular poly(A)-RNAs were transcribed from repeated DNA sequences (average repeat frequency of 35 copies/genome) while the remaining majority were transcribed from single copy or unique sequence DNA. It was possible to estimate the number of different poly(A)-RNA sequences per cell by analyzing the kinetics of hybridization of these cDNApoly(A) preparations to total cellular poly(A)-RNA extracts under conditions of RNA excess. The results revealed that 41% of the poly(A)-RNA from laying hen oviduct consisted of, on the average, three different sequences/cell, each of which was present in approximately 25,000 copies/cell. The remainder of the poly(A)-RNA in this tissue consisted of approximately 25,000 different sequences/cell, which were present largely in only two or three copies/cell. A somewhat similar sequence complexity was found for oviduct cells prepared from estrogen-stimulated chicks. We estimated that there were approximately 20,000 different poly(A)-RNA sequences/cell, each represented in only one to two copies/cell. However, there were five sequences which were present, on the average, in a concentration of 5600 copies/cell. The poly(A)-RNAs from hormone-wtihdrawn tissue, on the other hand, had a lower sequence complexity. There were only approximately 10,000 different poly(A)-RNA sequences/cell, each present in about three copies/cell. Furthermore, the few sequences present in a great abundance in hen and hormone-stimulated tissues were apparently absent in oviduct tissue from hormone-wtihdrawn chicks, suggesting that the intracellular concentrations of these high frequency RNA sequences are dependent on estrogen. PMID:932004

Monahan, J J; Harris, S E; O'Malley, B W

1976-06-25

70

PREVALENCE AND IN VITRO ANTIBIOGRAM OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH OMPHALITIS IN CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted for the isolation of bacterial agents and in vitro antibiogram of the isolates from the yolk and visceral organs of up to one week old broiler and layer chicks suffering from omphalitis. Samples from the yolk and visceral organs were aseptically collected and cultured on various selective and differential media. The isolated organisms were identified

M. IQBAL; I. A. SHAH; A. ALI; M. A. KHAN; S. JAN

71

The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens  

E-print Network

Roles of Amino Acids in Protein Synthesis . . 8 III THE INFLUENCE OF LYSINE ON EGG COMPONENT YIELD AND COMPOSITION IN LAYER HENS 10 Introduction Materials and Methods Experimental Design Ration Preparation Liquid Egg Analyses Total Solids... Introduction Materials and Methods Experimental Design Ration Preparation Liquid Egg Analyses Protein Determination Data Analysis . Results 22 22 22 23 25 25 27 28 V DISCUSSION 38 Possible mechanisms of increasing protein levels. . . 42 VI...

Prochaska, Jerry Fred

2012-06-07

72

Endoderm/mesoderm multiplication rates in stage 5-12 chick embryos  

SciTech Connect

Multiplication rates for the endoderm/mesoderm layer of the head-process to 17-somite-stage chick embryo were studied by implanting essentially identical transplants labeled with tritiated thymidine into paired recipient embryos. One recipient was fixed as soon as the transplant had healed (after 30 min) and the other was reincubated an additional 3.5 to 22.5 hr; the ratios of labeled cells in the paired embryos provided points on a graph that indicated that doubling of endoderm/mesoderm cells in head-process-stage chick embryos occurs at approximately 4.0 and 17.2 hr of reincubation.

Rosenquist, G.C.

1982-01-01

73

Evaluation of limit feeding varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted with 672 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with corn, wheat middlings, and soybean hulls on long-term laying hen postmolt performance. The control molt treatment consisted of a 47% corn:47% soybean hulls (C:SH) diet fed ad libitum for 28 d. Hens fed the other 7 treatments were limit fed 65 g/hen per day for 16 d, and then fed 55 g/hen per day for 12 d. Hens on treatments 2 and 3 were fed 49% C:35% wheat middlings (WM) or SH:10% DDGS diets (C:WM:10DDGS, C:SH:10DDGS). Hens on treatments 4 and 5 were fed 49% C:25% WM or SH:20% DDGS diets (C:WM:20DDGS, C:SH:20DDGS). Those on treatments 6 and 7 were fed 47% C:47% DDGS (C:DDGS) or 47% WM:47% DDGS (WM:DDGS) diets. Those on treatment 8 were fed a 94% DDGS diet. At 28 d, all hens were fed a corn-soybean meal layer diet (16% CP) and production performance was measured for 36 wk. None of the hens fed the molt diets went completely out of production, and only the C:SH and C:SH:10DDGS molt diets decreased hen-day egg production to below 5% by wk 4 of the molt period. Postmolt egg production was lowest (P < 0.05) for the C:WM:20DDGS treatment. No differences (P > 0.05) in egg weights were detected among treatments throughout the postmolt period. In addition, no consistent differences were observed among treatments for egg mass throughout the postmolt period. Overall results of this study indicated that limit feeding diets containing DDGS at levels of 65 or 55 g/hen per day during the molt period did not cause hens to totally cease egg production. PMID:21248328

Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Studer, D L; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

2011-02-01

74

Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

2014-11-01

75

Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.  

PubMed

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

2014-12-01

76

Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

77

Ultrastructural studies on the cerebellar histogenesis. I. Differentiation of granule cells and development of Glomeeruli in the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuum of transitional forms between the cells in the external (transitory) granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and the granule cells in the internal (definitive) granular layer has been identified with the electron microscope in chick embryos 17–20 day old. This confirms that at least a number of the granule neurons is derived from the cells of the external

Enrico Mugnaini; Paul F. Forstrønen

1967-01-01

78

Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.  

PubMed

The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks. Q2 chicks showed lower post-hatch growth compared to Q1 chicks but effects on flock performance at slaughter weight were limited because early mortality in Q2 chicks was high (62.50% at 7 days). We concluded that chick qualitative scores and the incidence of Q2 chicks may be informative for the quality of incubation, but are not predictive for post-hatch flock performance. Culling Q2 chicks after hatch is well-founded in terms of both animal welfare and profitability. PMID:22717141

van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

2012-10-01

79

Behavioral, morphological, and biochemical changes after in ovo exposure to methylmercury in chicks.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant known to induce neurotoxicity in several animal species, including humans. However, studies focusing the effects of MeHg poisoning in chicks were based on phenomenological approaches and did not delve into the molecular mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postnatal consequences of the in ovo exposure to MeHg on behavioral, morphological and biochemical parameters in chicks. At the fifth embryonic day (E5), Gallus domesticus eggs were submitted to a single injection of 0.1 microg MeHg/0.05 ml saline. After treatment, the eggs returned to the incubator until hatching (E21). From first to fifth postnatal days (PN 1-PN 5), the MeHg-treated chicks showed lower frequency of exploratory movements and a significantly higher frequency of wing and anomalous movements. Cerebellar glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of the GSH-related enzymes GSH reductase and GSH peroxidase were significantly higher (70, 72, and 80%, respectively) in MeHg exposed chicks in comparison to controls. Mercury impregnation was densest in the granular layer, followed by the Purkinje and molecular layers of treated chicks. A significant reduction of the number of Purkinje cells, as well as a greater distance between these cells were observed in chicks of MeHg group. Our results disclose that the prehatching exposure to MeHg induced motor impairments, which were correlated to histological damage and alterations on the cerebellar GSH system's development from PN 1 to PN 5. PMID:18684774

Carvalho, Márcia C; Nazari, Evelise M; Farina, Marcelo; Muller, Yara M R

2008-11-01

80

Microsatellites linked to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis burden in spleen and cecal content of young F1 broiler-cross chicks.  

PubMed

Contamination of poultry and poultry products by Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis (SE) continues to be problematic even though biosafety management practices have aided in reduction of the SE burden. Identification of molecular markers linked to disease resistance loci would further reduce SE burden by enabling selection for genetic resistance. The objectives of this study were therefore to evaluate specific genomic regions for resistance to SE burden in young broiler-cross chicks and to evaluate the interaction of allele with dam line and sex. Three hatches of F1 chicks were produced by crossing sires from a broiler breeder male line with hens from three highly inbred lines (Fayoumi 15.2, and MHC-congenic G-B1 and G-B2 Leghorn). At 1 d of age, the chicks were intraesophageally inoculated with SE phage type 13a. Spleen and cecal content samples were harvested at 1 wk, and the levels of SE were quantified by serial plate dilution. Each of the F1 chicks was genotyped with four microsatellites that had previously been shown to be linked to antibody response to SE vaccine. All four microsatellites had a significant (P < or = 0.05) main effect or interaction with dam line or sex on the level of SE in spleen and cecal contents. PMID:12033415

Kaiser, M G; Lamont, S J

2002-05-01

81

The case for chick lit in academic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to prove that chick lit is a legitimate and important area of collection for academic libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article presents a definition of chick lit with an overview of the origin and significance of the term itself, discusses chick lit's impact on publishing, and its relationship to academia and women's writing.

Stephanie Davis-Kahl

2008-01-01

82

Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

Olsen, G.H.

2004-01-01

83

Disorders of Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Old Egg-Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol me tabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320

ETSUKO ABE; HIROSHI HORIKAWA; TADAHIRO MASUMURA; MICHIHIRO SUGAHARA; MINORU KUBOTA

84

Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

2013-01-01

85

Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.  

PubMed

1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

Ayerza, R; Coates, W

2002-05-01

86

Flexibility and operability analysis of a HEN-integrated natural gas expander plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the heat-exchanger network (HEN) literature, synthesis, design, and flexibility analyses of HENs are done independently from processes to which HENs are integrated. Such analyses are made mostly based on nominal operating conditions at which the HEN's source- and target-stream properties are evaluated. However, terminal-stream properties of HENs depend upon temperatures, pressures, and compositions of the process connected to the

Alp Er S. Konukman; Ugur Akman

2005-01-01

87

Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (ir-LH) cells in the lung and stomach of chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactivity was detected in the lung and stomach of chick embryos by the immunoperoxidase staining technique using specific antiserum to chicken LH. Immunoreactive LH (ir-LH) cells first appeared in the primordial cells of the epithelial layer of lung bud and foregut as well as of Rathke's pouch in the 3-day-old embryo, Hamburger and Hamilton stage 21. Ir-LH

Nobuyuki Shirasawa; Masataka Shiino; Yoshifusa Shimizu; Haruo Nogami; Susumu Ishii

1995-01-01

88

Comparison of the prelaying behavior of nest layers and litter layers.  

PubMed

The Swiss Animal Welfare Act decrees that the housing conditions of farm animals must guarantee animal welfare. In the process of developing a method to test nest boxes for their suitability for laying hens, we conducted an investigation using preference testing. It was aimed at verifying the occurrence of different types of layers within the same laying strain and to investigate the choice of a nest site. At the onset of lay, 24 individually housed hens were given the choice of 2 nest sites: a nest box or a litter tray. The chosen nest site and the behavior of the hen, 1 h prior to oviposition, were recorded at 3 stages during the period in which the first 20 eggs were laid. The majority (17) of the hens laid consistently in the nest box, and 7 hens laid consistently in the litter tray. Litter layers spent more time exploring during the hour prior to oviposition than did nest layers, and their final nest visit (when an egg was laid) was shorter. There was no significant difference in the number of entries into the chosen nest site between layers of the 2 types. As expected, the level of restlessness of hens decreased with laying experience. In the hour prior to oviposition, the frequency of foraging and resting increased, whereas the frequency of exploring and nest seeking decreased, and the number of nest-site visits declined. We conclude that there may be at least 2 different types of laying hens that show different nest-site preferences, with concomitantly different prelaying behavior. PMID:18281565

Zupan, M; Kruschwitz, A; Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B; Stuhec, I

2008-03-01

89

HAEMOPROTEUS BALEARICAE AND OTHER BLOOD PARASITES OF FREE-RANGING FLORIDA SANDHILL CRANE CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pra- tensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell

Robert J. Dusek; Marilyn G. Spalding; Donald J. Forrester; Ellis C. Greiner

90

Individual sibling recognition in experimental broods of common tern chicks.  

PubMed

Studies of kin recognition in birds have usually examined parent-offspring recognition, while studies of sibling recognition are relatively rare. Using choice experiments, we studied the development of sibling recognition among common tern, Sterna hirundo, chicks and tested the cues used for recognition. We collected newly hatched common tern chicks and raised them in a laboratory in 10 artificial broods of three. Chicks showed a significant preference for broodmates ('siblings') over familiar nonsiblings (nonsiblings from neighbouring broods) when first tested at 4 days posthatching, earlier than previously reported. Preferential approach to siblings was most common in broods with low levels of intrabrood aggression. Responsiveness of test chicks was highest when test chicks and stimulus chicks could both see and hear each other and lowest when they could only hear each other. Sibling-biased approach did not depend on stimulus and test chicks seeing each other, only on test chicks seeing (and probably hearing) stimulus chicks. Surprisingly, no preference was shown for siblings over strange nonsiblings, suggesting that a preference for siblings may involve learning the identity of not only siblings, but also of chicks from neighbouring broods. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10458889

Palestis; Burger

1999-08-01

91

Molecular cloning of a steroid-regulated 108K heat shock protein gene from hen oviduct.  

PubMed

The natural gene for a steroid inducible 108K heat shock protein has been isolated from a lambda genomic library prepared from hen oviduct tissue. Genomic DNA blots indicate that it exists as a single copy gene in the chick oviduct haploid genome. The 9.9 kilobase gene codes for a messenger RNA of 2733bp (21) and is split into 18 exons as established by sequence comparison of cDNA and genomic clones. The 3' end of the gene contains a repetitive element which shares homology with the CR1 family of repeats. The first exon contains both the untranslated leader and coding regions of the gene. The promoter region is rich in G + C residues (70%) and the dinucleotide CG. This 5' flanking segment contains bases similar both in sequence and location to the Goldberg-Hogness TATA homology and consensus sequence CCAAT. A consensus sequence located upstream of steroid hormone responsive chicken genes is found at -267 and on a reverse orientation at -593. The structure of this gene is of interest since the presence of introns in heat shock genes is rare in any species examined to date. Furthermore, this gene lacks the previously described heat shock promoter consensus sequence (C-GAA-TTC-G) present in other species. PMID:3027654

Kleinsek, D A; Beattie, W G; Tsai, M J; O'Malley, B W

1986-12-22

92

Binding, Migration, and Scalability in CORBA Michi Henning  

E-print Network

Binding, Migration, and Scalability in CORBA Michi Henning michi@dstc.edu.au CRC for Distributed to support object migration and to scale to very large numbers (millions) of objects. This article explains

Reverbel, Francisco

93

Teratogenicity of cytochalasin D in chick embryos.  

PubMed

The effects of cytochalasin D on chick embryos were analyzed in the present study. Cytochalasin D was dissolved in DMSO and injected into embryonating chicken eggs at dosages ranging from 0.001 to 0.014 mg per egg. The injections were made into the air sacs of eggs at days 0, 1, 2 and 3 of incubation. The volume of each injection was 0.1 ml per egg. In all, 864 chicken eggs were used for this study. All embryos were examined on day eleven. The following malformations were observed: exencephaly, microphthalmia, everted viscera, body hemorrhage, edema, anophthalmia and a reduced body size. The dose-response relationship was observed in all of the groups tested. The results of the present study indicate that cytochalasin D is embryolethal and has some tendency to cause malformations in the chick embryos tested. PMID:3783443

Gilani, S H; Kreshal, C

1986-01-01

94

Cardiotoxicity of trastuzumab (herceptin) in chick embryos.  

PubMed

The cardiac toxicity of trastuzumab was studied in chick embryos. Fertilized eggs of White Leghorns were incubated and investigated. Trastuzumab 5 mg/egg (low dose) or 15 mg/egg (high dose) was injected into the air sac of a fertilized egg on the 16th day of incubation. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded 0 to 60 min after the injection. After low dosing of trastuzumab, the heart rate was not different compared with the control. However, the heart rate was significantly decreased by high dosing of trastuzumab. In addition, arrhythmia was produced by high dosing of trastuzumab. These findings indicate that trastuzumab has a marked dose- and time-dependent influence on the heart rate in chick embryos. PMID:12808308

Yoshiyama, Yuji; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanke, Motoko

2003-06-01

95

The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

deficiency Per cent Units of vitamin A in -- .- of original potency in 100 grams experi- Per cent chicks of chick teed ment 1 1-2 3-4 6 7-8 9-10 11-12 I Per Nnrnher rema~n~ng healthy wks. wks. wks. wks. wks. wks. Total cent at close chicks at close... deficiency Per cent Units of vitamin A in -- .- of original potency in 100 grams experi- Per cent chicks of chick teed ment 1 1-2 3-4 6 7-8 9-10 11-12 I Per Nnrnher rema~n~ng healthy wks. wks. wks. wks. wks. wks. Total cent at close chicks at close...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1936-01-01

96

Synaptic junctional glycoconjugates from chick brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forebrains from day-old chicks were homogenized and fractionated by differential sedimentation and density gradient centrifugation to yield subcellular fractions. The synaptosomal plasma membrane fraction was further treated with Triton X-100 to yield subsynaptic membrane fractions including synaptic junctions. Glycoproteins from these subsynaptic membrane fractions were identified after separation by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by incubating the gel slabs with radioiodinated concanavalin

Joseph C. Webster; Jack D. Klingman

1980-01-01

97

Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks.  

E-print Network

with anti-rachitic rations include Bethke (1, 2), Buckner (3, 4, 5), Halpin (6), Hart (7), Hunter (8), Massengale (9), Mussehl (10, ll), Titus (12, 131, Wilgus (14), and their associates. The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station started work...- factory in that slipped tendons developed even though excessive amousts of phosphoric acid were not fed. It was later brought out by Titus (12) and Titus and Ginn (13) that rice bran protects chicks against slipped tendons when fed rations...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1932-01-01

98

Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, Junior Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Ad? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1980 Maj or Subj ect: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, , Junior Approved as to style and content by: '(Member ) (Member (Head of Dep tment) August 1980 ABSTRACT...

Brister, Roy David

2012-06-07

99

Salinomycin Concentration in Eggs and Tissues of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Šinigoj- g a?nik K., Zorman Rojs o : Salinomycin Concentration in Eggs and Tissues of Laying Hens. a cta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 423-429. The objective of our study was to monitor the presence of salinomycin in eggs and tissues of laying hens fed with rations containing 60 mg·kg -1 salinomycin sodium for five days. Residues of salinomycin were determined

K. Šinigoj-Ga?nik; O. Zorman Rojs

2008-01-01

100

Prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in Canada.  

PubMed Central

In Canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. The mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. An increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. This paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. These are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. Methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9220131

Samson, J

1997-01-01

101

Prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in Canada.  

PubMed

In Canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. The mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. An increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. This paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. These are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. Methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed. PMID:9220131

Samson, J

1997-07-01

102

Histological changes during development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo exposed to a static magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Few studies have been performed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes that exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) can cause to the processes of cell migration and differentiation in the cerebellum during development. Thus, the authors have studied the development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo (n = 144) under a uniform SMF (20 mT). All of their observations were done on folium VIc of Larsell`s classification. The cerebella of chick embryos, which were exposed solely on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 13 of incubation [short exposure (S)1; n = 24], showed an external granular layer (EGL) that was less dense than the EGL in the control group (n = 24). The molecular layer (ML) exhibited a low number of migratory neuroblastic elements. Moreover, the internal granular layer (IGL) was immature, with the cellular elements less abundant and more dispersed than in controls. In chick embryos exposed on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 17 (S2; n = 24), the outstanding feature was the regeneration of the different layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex of chick embryos exposed continuously to an identical field from the beginning of the incubation up to day 13 [long exposure (L)1; n = 24] or day 17 (L2; n = 24) of incubation showed a higher number of alterations than that of group S1. Electron microscopy confirmed the findings from light microscopy and, at the same time, showed clear signs of cell degeneration and delay in the process of neuronal differentiation. This was more apparent in groups L1 (100%) and L2 (100%) than in groups S1 (95.4%) and S2 (65.2%). In conclusion, the present study showed that SMF can induce irreversible development effects on the processes of cell migration and differentiation of the chick cerebellar cortex.

Espinar, A.; Carmona, A.; Guerrero, J.M. [Univ. of Seville School of Medicine (Spain)] [Univ. of Seville School of Medicine (Spain); [Virgen Macarena Hospital, Seville (Spain); Piera, V. [Univ. of Rovirai Virgili School of Medicine, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences] [Univ. of Rovirai Virgili School of Medicine, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences

1997-03-01

103

Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

104

The effect of a helium-oxygen atmosphere on chick embryo development and subsequent chick performance  

E-print Network

in a helium-o y?c!! atmosphere. Lipon ha' ch!n, -, the chicks werc win ~ I. ended, wcii&hcd, !accinatcd I' or Xewcastle diseas . &nd bror. chit is and placed in. 1s!ttcry broodcrs. At intervals post-hatch, &eoi, , hts& hi:!&!aioi r&ts homo... in a helium-o y?c!! atmosphere. Lipon ha' ch!n, -, the chicks werc win ~ I. ended, wcii&hcd, !accinatcd I' or Xewcastle diseas . &nd bror. chit is and placed in. 1s!ttcry broodcrs. At intervals post-hatch, &eoi, , hts& hi:!&!aioi r&ts homo...

Valera, Juan

2012-06-07

105

Effects of social interaction on monocular\\/unihemispheric sleep in male and female domestic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monocular\\/unihemispheric sleep was studied in male and female domestic chicks reared socially. In first week post-hatching, chicks were reared in couples whilst during the second week, for half of the chicks the cospecific was maintained (Conspec-chicks) and for the other half the conspecific was removed (No-Conspec-chicks). During the first week, female chicks showed a bias for more left-eye closure\\/right

Daniela Bobbo; Giorgio Vallortigara; Gian G. Mascetti

2006-01-01

106

Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.  

PubMed

Bird embryogenesis takes place in a relatively protected environment that can be manipulated especially well in domestic fowl (chickens) where incubation has long been a commercial process. The embryonic developmental process has been shown to begin in the oviduct such that the embryo has attained either the blastodermal and/or gastrulation stage of development at oviposition. Bird embryos can be affected by "maternal effects," and by environmental conditions during the pre-incubation and incubation periods. "Maternal effects" has been described as an evolutionary mechanism that has provided the mother, by hormonal deposition into the yolk, with the potential to proactively influence the development of her progeny by exposing them to her particular hormonal pattern in such a manner as to influence their ability to cope with the expected wide range of environmental conditions that may occur post-hatching. Another important aspect of "maternal effects" is the effect of the maternal nutrient intake on progeny traits. From a commercial broiler chicken production perspective, it has been established that greater cumulative nutrient intake by the hen during her pullet rearing phase prior to photostimulation resulted in faster growing broiler progeny. Generally, maternal effects on progeny, which have both a genetic and an environmental component represented by yolk hormones deposition and embryo nutrient utilization, have an important effect on the development of a wide range of progeny traits. Furthermore, commercial embryo development during pre-incubation storage and incubation, as well as during incubation per se has been shown to largely depend upon temperature, while other environmental factors that include egg position during storage, and the amount of H2O and CO2 lost by the egg and the subsequent effect on albumen pH and height during storage have become important environmental factors to be considered for successful embryogenesis under commercial conditions. Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens. PMID:25158087

Yahav, S; Brake, J

2014-01-01

107

Ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism in pygoscelid penguin chicks.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism of chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins was studied on King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. The major findings of this study are: Chinstrap and gentoo penguin chicks hatched completely poikilothermic, due to their poor heat-production ability at low ambient temperatures. They were able to maintain high body temperatures and metabolic rates only by being brooded by adults. Newly hatched chinstrap penguin chicks had, at a specified ambient temperature, significantly higher metabolic rates than newly hatched gentoos. Moreover, chinstrap chicks maintained a significantly higher body temperature. It is suggested that this is a non-acclimatory metabolic adaptation of chinstrap penguin chicks to the lower mean temperatures of their breeding areas. On the 15th day after hatching, chinstrap chicks were completely, and gentoo chicks almost completely, homeothermic. In spite of their high thermogenic capacity from about day 10, chicks were not at that time capable of controlling heat dissipation, and were still dependent on their parents. In older downy chicks and fledglings, heat loss at low temperatures, expressed as heat conductance (CA), was similar to that found for the adults of other penguin species. Just before moulting the CA of chicks was lower than after moulting. Moulting alone did not cause a clear increase in CA. Towards the end of their stay on land the CA of pre-fledged gentoos decreased by 31%. This decrease was not connected with the development of feathers or growth in the chicks' weight. The combination of the low CA and high SMR of chicks gave very low lower critical temperatures, near -15 degrees C. The wide thermoneutral zones of the chicks covered the whole range of air temperature variations in the breeding colonies of both species studied on King George Island. The CA values of homeothermic chinstrap chicks were not lower than those of gentoos, despite the more southern breeding range of the former species. The older chicks of both species are well protected against cold. Any further increase in insulation in chinstrap chicks would be of no adaptative importance. PMID:3837032

Taylor, J R

1985-01-01

108

SEX DETERMINATION IN GLOSSY IBIS CHICKS BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY.—Sex determination in glossy ibis chicks based on morphological characters. Aims: We derived two discriminant equations to sex glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus chicks (2 - 5 we- eks old) based on morphological characters. Location: Doñana, South-West Spain. Methods: Wing length and tarsus length and width of 198 individuals were measured in the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons. Results: Tarsus width

Jordi FIGUEROLA; Luís GARCIA; Andy J. GREEN; Fernando IBAÑEZ; Manuel MAÑEZ; José Luís DEL VALLE; Héctor GARRIDO; José Luís ARROYO; Rubén RODRÍGUEZ

109

Volumes of chick and rat osteoclasts cultured on glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationship between the number of nuclei of an osteoclast and its volume. Chick and rat cells were released from long bones by chopping the shafts and flushing the fragments in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium with added 10% fetal calf serum. The bone cell suspension was seeded onto glass coverslips. In Experiment 1, rat and chick cells

K. Piper; A. Boyde; S. J. Jones

1995-01-01

110

Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Sources Using Broiler Chick Bioassays1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to test the potencies of nine sources of cholecalciferol using a chick bioassay. The tested products were compared with a Sigma Reference Standard (SRS). All of the diets fed to the chicks were prepared from corn-soybean meal. Each of the products was in premix form containing cholecalcif- erol. Their physical characteristics reflected the methods used to

A. B. Kasim; H. M. Edwards

2000-01-01

111

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

1986-04-01

112

Effect of Sulphur on Chick Nutrition.  

E-print Network

. The chicks in these studies were either Single Comb White Leghorns or New Hampshires. In the ex- -. *Major J. Russell Couch and Captain Lee James are on leave for service in our ---A 1 forces. v BULLETIN NO. 633, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT EXFATION.... licks used were New Hampshires. The diets fed Experiment 96 led % per cent of 400-D fish liver oil; while the diets fed Ex- nt 111 contained only % per cent of the same oil. This difference ,unt of fish liver oil was used in order to study the sulphur...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1943-01-01

113

Factors affecting molybdenum metabolism in the chick  

E-print Network

#. Table 13 37 Effect of Molybdenum, Sulfate and Copper on Growth of Chicks Treatment 4-week Weight Percent (gms.) of Basal Basal 370 100 2000 ppm Molybdenum1 174 47 2000 ppm Molybdenum + 4000 ppm Sulfate2 206 56 1000 ppm Copper3 193 52 1000 ppm... Copper .+ 2000 ppm Molybdenum 110 lf 1000 ppm Copper + 2000 ppm Molybdenum + 4000 ppm Sulfate 148 40 -^As N&^ jMoO^ .. 2H;gO aAs NagSO4 3As CuC03.Cu(0H)2.Ha0 38 Effect of Molybdenum and. Copper on Growth, Packed Cell Volume and Red Cell Count...

Davies, Ronald Edgar

2013-10-04

114

Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs.2.?Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to

V. Guesdon; A. M. H. Ahmed; S. Mallet; J. M. Faure; Y. Nys

2006-01-01

115

Genetic variations alter physiological responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) is a major problem experienced by the poultry industry during high-temperature conditions. The ability to manage the detrimental effects of HS can be attributed to multiple factors, including genetic background of flocks. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variation in HS effects on laying hens' physiological homeostasis. Ninety 28-wk-old White Leghorn hens of 2 strains were used: a commercial line of individually selected hens for high egg production, DeKalb XL (DXL), and a line of group-selected hens for high productivity and survivability, named kind gentle bird (KGB). Hens were randomly paired by strain and assigned to hot or control treatment for 14 d. Physical and physiological parameters were analyzed at d 8 and 14 posttreatment. Compared with controls, HS increased hen's core body temperature (P < 0.05) and decreased BW (P < 0.05) at d 8 and 14. Heat shock protein 70 concentrations in the liver were greater in hens exposed to HS (P < 0.05). Compared with DXL hens, KGB hens had higher heat shock protein 70 concentrations (P < 0.05). The hens' liver weight decreased following HS, with less of a response in the KGB line (P < 0.05). The data indicate HS has detrimental effects on the physiology of laying hens due to genetic variations. These data provide evidence that is valuable for determining genetic interventions for laying hens under HS. PMID:22700497

Felver-Gant, J N; Mack, L A; Dennis, R L; Eicher, S D; Cheng, H W

2012-07-01

116

Parental preference for red mouth of chicks in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Parental preferences during feeding and care-giving may select for ornamental traits in young, such as bright coloration. For chicks of coots, there is experimental evidence for this idea. We examined the hypothesis that bright yellow, orange and red mouths of chicks of songbirds have been favoured by feeding preferences in parents. In a field experiment, the orange–yellow mouths of great tit nestlings were dyed brightly red, and the feeding response of parents recorded. In nest boxes with extra daylight through a window, experimental chicks were on average given twice as much food (biomass) as control chicks (sham dyed). In normal nest boxes, the tendency was similar, but not significant. Thus, at least in good light, great tit parents prefer to feed young with red mouths, a preference for colourfulness that helps explain the evolution of bright gapes in chicks of songbirds (passerine birds).

Gotmark, F.; Ahlstrom, M.

1997-01-01

117

Binding of HenV clusters to ?-Fe grain boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to explore the formation/binding energetics and length scales associated with the interaction between HenV clusters and grain boundaries in bcc ?-Fe. In this work, we calculated formation/binding energies for 1-8 He atoms in a monovacancy at all potential grain boundary (GB) sites within 15 Å of the ten grain boundaries selected (122106 simulations total). The present results provide detailed information about the interaction energies and length scales of 1-8 He atoms with grain boundaries for the structures examined. A number of interesting new findings emerge from the present study. First, the ?3(112) "twin" GB has significantly lower binding energies for all HenV clusters than all other boundaries in this study. For all grain boundary sites, the effect of the local environment surrounding each site on the HenV formation and binding energies decreases with an increasing number of He atoms in the HenV cluster. Based on the calculated dataset, we formulated a model to capture the evolution of the formation and binding energy of HenV clusters as a function of distance from the GB center, utilizing only constants related to the maximum binding energy and the length scale.

Tschopp, M. A.; Gao, F.; Solanki, K. N.

2014-06-01

118

Teratogenicity of metals to chick embryos.  

PubMed

The present study examines the effects of heavy metals on chick embryogenesis. The metals included were cadmium, arsenic, cobalt, copper, indium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. Salts of each of the metals were dissolved in saline and injected into the air sacs on d 2 of incubation. Dose levels varied with the metal to be tested. Control eggs were injected with an equivalent volume of saline (0.1 ml/egg). On d 14, the live embryos were removed from the eggs and examined for gross malformations. From the LD50 values, the toxicity relationship between the metals is cadmium greater than arsenic greater than cobalt greater than copper greater than indium greater than molybdenum greater than manganese greater than iron. The LD50 values were 3, 9, 38, 58, 121, 333, 765, and 1185 micrograms/egg, respectively. The gross malformations observed were reduced body size, micromelia, twisted neck, hemorrhage, everted viscera, and microphthalmia. Arsenic and cobalt were observed to be more teratogenic than other metals. This study showed that the metals tested were both toxic and teratogenic to varying degrees in chick embryogenesis. PMID:2348478

Gilani, S H; Alibhai, Y

1990-05-01

119

Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2011-01-01

120

Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of Common Loon chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly

Kevin P. Kenow; Michael W. Meyer; Francois Fournier; William H. Karasov; Abdulaziz Elfessi; Steve Gutreuter

121

Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements  

E-print Network

BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Poultry Science (Physiology) BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm' ee ad o Department) Member Member '7 I ls&wr g ~, /0...

Moore, David Joe

2012-06-07

122

Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.  

PubMed

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

2013-09-01

123

Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E2 in laying hen ovaries  

PubMed Central

Prevention of ovarian cancer is the best approach for reducing the impact of this deadly disease. The laying hen is a robust model of spontaneous ovarian cancer that recapitulates the human disease. Dietary intervention with flaxseed, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) and phytoestrogen lignans, demonstrate the potential for effective prevention and amelioration of ovarian cancer by targeting inflammatory prostaglandin pathways. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to investigate the effect of flaxseed supplementation for one year on ovarian cancer and correlate its effects to expression of COX enzymes and concentrations of prostaglandins. White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for one year. The severity of ovarian cancer was determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 localization and protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGE3 concentrations in ovaries were measured by IHC, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors in the flaxseed-fed hens compared with the control diet-fed hens. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity, concentrations of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. PGE3 concentrations were below the level of detection. The results demonstrated that in normal ovaries, COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer surrounding the follicles and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) whereas COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle. Extensive COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression was found throughout the ovarian carcinoma. Our findings suggest that the flaxseed-mediated reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer in hens is correlated to the reduction in PGE2 in the ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials of dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23978451

Eilati, Erfan; Hales, Karen; Zhuge, Yan; Fricano, Kristine Ansenberger; Yu, Rui; van Breemen, Richard B.; Hales, Dale Buchanan

2013-01-01

124

Some new methodological aspects of the hen's egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN).  

PubMed

In a previous publication we introduced the hen's egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN) as an extremely simple, inexpensive and rapid animal free genotoxicity assay which is positioned between pure in vitro and in vivo assays, strictly in line with animal protection regulations and ethical aspects. The HET-MN combines the use of the commonly accepted genetic endpoint "formation of micronuclei" with the well characterized and complex model of the chick embryo. The high metabolic competency provided by this model enables metabolic activation, elimination and excretion of xenobiotics including mutagens and promutagens. In this paper we present some new methodological aspects, which are important for improving the experimental protocol. We used cyclophosphamide (CP) and 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as model substances. Dose-response-relationship for both chemicals and cytotoxic effects for CP are described. In addition to the standard proliferation marker PCE/NCE-ratio we found an increased frequency of primitive erythrocytes (E I) and the appearance of proerythroblasts and erythroblasts as further alerting signals for cytotoxic or erythrosuppressive effects. From the total cell population we could further qualify the group of target cells. We found that all definite erythrocytes (E II), observed at day 11 (d11), are relevant target cells, independent from their stage of maturity (polychromatic as well as normochromatic definite erythrocytes). E I cells do not belong to the group of target cells, however. An additional important methodological aspect is the optimal time frame. We found the time period from d8 of incubation (administration of the test substance) up to d11 (time point of blood sampling) as most favorable. In this way an exposure period of up to 72h is covered. Further results indicate that the air cell route provides a higher response to the test substances than the albumen route. The consideration of the described methodological aspects will contribute to the improvement of the experimental protocol of the HET-MN. PMID:11815245

Wolf, Thorsten; Niehaus-Rolf, Christel; Luepke, Niels Peter

2002-02-15

125

Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.  

PubMed

In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova. PMID:24554734

Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

2014-04-01

126

Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

1986-01-01

127

Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun

2005-01-01

128

By Michael Timm hen heavy rains and flooding  

E-print Network

9 9 By Michael Timm W hen heavy rains and flooding collapsed an East Side manhole, turning an urban agreement about a pre- cipitation increase in late winter and spring. "Most of flooding takes place- creases in stormwater runoff could overwhelm existing infrastructure, resulting in greater flood risk

Sheridan, Jennifer

129

Reliability-Constrained Latent Structure Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning  

E-print Network

allow you to estimate reliability of your measure of the fuzzy concept · LSMs allow you to estimate cannot identify reliability. · LSMs cannot identify relationships between fuzzy concepts. · LSMs cannotReliability-Constrained Latent Structure Models Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning Texas Tech

Westfall, Peter H.

130

Reliability-Constrained Latent Structure Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning  

E-print Network

Reliability-Constrained Latent Structure Models Peter Westfall and Kevin Henning Texas Tech science, often for survey data analysis Goal: Model fuzzy concepts, "Love of humanity," "Adventurousness," etc. The Social Science Paradigm: (fuzzy concept is to observed measure) as (genotype is to phenotype

Westfall, Peter H.

131

UTILITY OF POULT-HEN COUNTS TO INDEX  

E-print Network

Marcos, TX 78666, USA Abstract: Many states use poult-hen counts to index wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) population parameters such as reproduction, recruitment, and density. Texas Parks and Wildlife be obtained. Proceedings of the National Wild Turkey Symposium 9:159�168 Key words: density, Kansas, Meleagris

132

hen we fall sick, we take a medicine that (hope-  

E-print Network

I/O VIVAT 28.1 //2 W hen we fall sick, we take a medicine that (hope- fully) makes us improve that amount of exactly those substances to get better? And what do computers have to do with this in a research on tissue generation, aimed at making life easier for people affected by osteo- arthritis

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

133

Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

2011-09-01

134

Epithelial cell tumors of the hen reproductive tract.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of preclinical models that simulate the development of ovarian tumors in humans. At present, the egg-laying hen appears to be the most promising model to study the spontaneous occurrence of ovarian tumors in the clinical setting. Although gross classification and histologic grade of tumors have been used prognostically in women with ovarian tumors, there is currently no single system that is universally used to classify reproductive tumors in the hen. Four hundred and one 192-wk-old egg-laying hens were necropsied to determine the incidence of reproductive tumors using both gross pathology and histologic classification. Gross pathologic classifications were designated as follows: birds presenting with ovarian tumors only (class 1), those presenting with oviductal and ovarian tumors (class 2), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract (class 3), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract and other distant organs (class 4), those with oviductal tumors only (class 5), those with oviductal tumors that metastasized to other organs with no ovarian involvement (class 6), and those with ovarian tumors that metastasized to other organs with no oviductal involvement (class 7), including birds with gastrointestinal tumors and no reproductive involvement (GI only) and those with no tumors (normal). Histopathologic classifications range from grades 1 to 3 and are based on mitotic developments and cellular differentiation. An updated gross pathology and histologic classification systems for the hen reproductive malignancies provides a method to report the range of reproductive tumors revealed in a flock of aged laying hens. PMID:24758120

Harris, Elizabeth A; Fletcher, Oscar J; Anderson, Kenneth E; Petitte, James N; Kopelovich, Levy; Mozdziak, Paul E

2014-03-01

135

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify “chick-a-dee” calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species’

Laurie L. Bloomfield; Christopher B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

136

Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.  

PubMed

Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

1994-04-01

137

Competitive Exclusion of Heterologous Campylobacter spp. in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken and human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were used to provide oral challenge of day-old broiler chicks. The isolation ratio of the competing challenge strains was monitored and varied, depending upon the isolates used. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay of the flagellin gene (flaA) was used to discriminate between the chick-colonizing isolates. Our observations indicated that the selected C.

HUI-CHENG CHEN; NORMAN J. STERN

2001-01-01

138

Evaluation of limit feeding corn and distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 504 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments. These treatments consisted of a 47% corn:47% soy hulls diet (C:SH) fed ad libitum; a 94% corn diet fed at a rate of 36.3, 45.4, or 54.5 g/hen per day (CORN 36, CORN 45, and CORN 54, respectively); and a 94% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diet fed at the same rates as the previous corn diets (DDGS 36, DDGS 45, and DDGS 54, respectively) during the molt period of 28 d. The intent was to feed the DDGS diets for 28 d; however, all hens on these diets had very low feed intakes and greater than anticipated BW loss. Thus, they were switched to a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet on d 19 of the molt period. At d 28, hens on all treatments were fed the same corn-soybean meal layer diet for 39 wk (73 to 112 wk of age). All DDGS diets and the CORN 36 diet resulted in total cessation of egg production during the molt period and egg production of hens fed the CORN 45, CORN 54, and C:SH diets had decreased to 3 and 4%, respectively, by d 28. Body weight loss during the 28-d molt period ranged from 14% for the CORN 54 diet to approximately 23% for the 3 DDGS diets. Postmolt egg production (5 to 43 wk) was higher for hens fed the DDGS molt diets than those fed the corn diets. There were no consistent differences in egg mass, egg-specific gravity, feed efficiency, or layer feed consumption among molt treatments for the postmolt period. These results indicate that limit feeding corn diet and DDGS diet in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs will yield long-term postmolt performance that is comparable to that observed by ad libitum feeding a C:SH diet. PMID:20181852

Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

2010-03-01

139

The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

2013-06-01

140

Sensory tract abnormality in the chick model of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida aperta (SBA) is an open neural tube defect that occurs during the embryonic period. We created SBA chicks by incising the roof plate of the neural tube in the embryo. The area of the dorsal funiculus was smaller in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. Additionally, the SBA group had fewer nerve fibres in the dorsal funiculus than the normal controls. The pathway of the ascending sensory nerves was revealed by tracing the degenerated nerve fibres using osmification. We cut the sciatic nerve (L5) of the control and SBA chicks at the central end of the dorsal root ganglion 1 day after hatching and fixed the tissue 3 days later. Degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus in the control chicks. In contrast, degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi of the spinal cord in the SBA chicks. Consequently, fewer sensory nerve fibres ascended to the thoracic dorsal funiculus in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. This is the first report of abnormal changes in the ascending sensory nerve fibres in SBA. PMID:21658418

Tsujimura, Ryusuke; Mominoki, Katsumi; Kinutani, Masae; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

2011-09-01

141

West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

2013-01-01

142

West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

2013-01-01

143

Isolation and characterization of the leucine-rich proteoglycan nyctalopin gene (cNyx) from chick.  

PubMed

We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of the chick ortholog of nyctalopin (NYX), the gene responsible for X-linked complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1, also known as cCSNB). Chick Nyx (cNyx) comprises four exons spanning approximately 6.2 kb on Chromosome 1 and encodes a protein of 473 amino acids that shares 55% identity overall with its human counterpart. cNyx is expressed in both the developing and the fully differentiated retina. Transcripts are localized primarily to cells within the outer half of the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL), a pattern consistent with the principal electrophysiologic findings in CSNB1 that suggest a main defect in depolarizing ON-bipolar cells normally located in the outer half of the INL. Expression (albeit weaker) was also detected in the cerebrum and cerebellum and in non-neuronal tissues. Finally, we also report the identification of three novel splice variants, one of which predominates in the retina. PMID:16261423

Bech-Hansen, N Torben; Cockfield, Josh; Liu, Dan; Logan, C Cairine

2005-10-01

144

Effect of melamine-contaminated diet on tissue distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid, blood variables, and egg quality in laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melamine-contaminated feed (100 mg/kg) on the distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid in the tissues of laying hens. The effect of a 5-week melamine administration in feed on the egg quality and blood variables of layers was also investigated. 2. A total of twenty 36-week-old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The layers were equally divided into an experimental melamine group (n = 10) and a control group without melamine (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, samples of liver, kidney, breast and thigh muscles were collected from all hens and analysed for the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. 3. Layers receiving the melamine-contaminated diet laid eggs with decreased eggshell strength. The decrease in shell strength was found in weeks 3 and 4 compared to the initial state (week 0) and week 1. 4. Hens receiving the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited a higher total red blood cell count and lower mean corpuscular haemoglobin compared to the control group. However, melamine at 100 mg/kg feed had no effects on the blood variables of layers. 5. Melamine was detected in all analysed tissues of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet, with its mean concentrations decreasing in the following order: kidney (7.43 mg/kg) > breast muscle (3.88 mg/kg) > liver (3.11 mg/kg) > thigh muscle (1.91 mg/kg). The kidney and liver of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited the presence of cyanuric acid. 6. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that the biotransformation of melamine into cyanuric acid proceeded mainly in the liver, and cyanuric acid was eliminated in urine. PMID:24730385

Suchý, P; Novák, P; Zapletal, D; Straková, E

2014-01-01

145

Review: welfare perspectives on hens kept for egg production.  

PubMed

The wild ancestors of chickens, along with those of most other farm animals, were preadapted to domestication because their lack of specialized requirements allowed them to adapt to a wide variety of environments provided by humans. Currently most commercial chickens kept for table-egg production are incubated, reared, and maintained as productive adults in high-density, artificial environments. Nevertheless, there are limits to adaptability as indicated by behavioral, physiological, immunological, and individual productivity indicators when environmental conditions become extreme. However, with the exception of obvious injury, no single criterion is likely to be adequate. Multiple indicators are required to obtain reliable evaluation of whether husbandry practices and environmental conditions reduce hens' welfare significantly. Concern for the well-being of hens has led to the phasing out of cages in two European countries. Although cages are known to be associated with some problems of well-being, it is known also that they have some welfare advantages for hens over alternative systems of production and they have definite economic advantages for producers. Therefore, it is doubtful whether the use of cages should be denied without exploring further the possibilities of cage modification or genetic selection aimed at improving the well-being of hens in such environments. Ethical perspectives relative to animals have been evolving since the time of Aristotle more than 300 yr B.C. Recent developments include divergence of welfare concerns between utilitarian and animal rights based philosophies. The utilitarians generally agree that animals may be used for human benefit if unnecessary pain and suffering are avoided and humane care and management criteria are met. Fundamentally, rights-oriented groups reject such exploitation. The general public exhibits a continuum of attitudes towards animals. However, there are indications that they are moving towards a protectionist attitude toward farm animals. Many requirements for good husbandry are known. However, uncertainty prevails in some areas, particularly with the necessity of routine procedures such as beak trimming and the amount of space needed, optimal group size, and whether nests, roosts, litter, and other quality of environment features are necessities or luxuries in terms of hens' welfare. Floor and feeder space and group size seem to be of paramount importance, and space that is adequate for well-being seems to be greater than that which yields the greatest net income. Genetic solutions to several behavior-related problems that compromise hens' well-being seem to be feasible and worthy of greater emphasis by commercial poultry breeders. PMID:7937480

Craig, J V; Swanson, J C

1994-07-01

146

Effects of dietary phosphorus and high ambient temperature on egg shell quality in hens  

E-print Network

Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C, R. Creger Egg shell quality and associated egg production traits were determined on laying hens fed three different diets anc1 maintained at two ambient temperatures. Commier- c ial laying hen diets were fed... temperature. mortality decreased with increasing phos- phorus content oi the diet. The activity of serum alkaline phosphatase and creat'ne phosphokinase was inversely related to the phosphorus content of the di. et. It was concluded that hens fed a diet...

Bailey, Christopher Anthony

2012-06-07

147

The size and migratory origins of the population of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus wintering in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The majority of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus that spend the winter in England are derived from the British breeding population.Aims To investigate the popular hypothesis that Hen Harriers which over-winter in England are derived principally from breeding populations in mainland Europe.Methods Demographic data were used to estimate numbers of Hen Harriers in Britain at the end of the breeding

Andrew D. M. Dobson; Michèle Clarke; Nils Kjellen; Roger Clarke

2012-01-01

148

Embryopathic effects of caffeine in the chick.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern about the potential teratogenic effects of caffeine. Laboratory rodents were widely used for the teratological evaluation of caffeine. However, few studies have been carried out in non-mammalian organisms. Caffeine, dissolved in sterile water, was injected into the air sacs of fertile White Leghorn chick eggs at doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 700, 900, and 1,100 micrograms per egg. Control eggs were injected with an equivalent volume of sterile water (0.1 ml/egg). The embryos were treated at either 48, 72, or 96 hours incubation. On day 9, live embryos were recovered and examined for external malformations after staging and weighing. Treatment with 400 and 1,100 micrograms caffeine at 48 hours incubation resulted in a significantly high incidence of abnormal embryos, compared to the controls. The most common malformations included reduced body, microphthalmia, exencephaly, everted viscera and short neck. A significant number of embryos died following treatment with 1,100 micrograms caffeine at 48 hours incubation, and 400 and 700 micrograms at 72 hours incubation. Embryonic growth was not affected. Even though it is not possible to extrapolate these findings directly to humans, moderation in the consumption of caffeine-containing beverages during pregnancy is recommended. PMID:6682801

Gilani, S H; Giovinazzo, J J; Persaud, T V

1983-01-01

149

EXPERIMENTAL GONOCOCCUS INFECTION OF THE CHICK EMBRYO  

PubMed Central

1. The reaction of the chick embryo to nine strains of gonococci was studied. Four of these were inoculated intra-amniotically in 14 to 15 day embryos. 2. Infection of the 10 day chorio-allantoic membrane was localized and accompanied by polymorphonuclear leucocytic phagocytosis. 3. Infection was either transitory or persisted until hatching. Several strains killed the 10 day embryo in 3 days. 4. Chicken immune sera placed on the infected membranes failed to affect phagocytosis. 5. Slight sinusitis, bronchitis, and infection of the pulmonary alveoli were common following intra-amniotic injection of 14 to 15 day embryos. Infection also extended to the pulmonary and abdominal air sacs. 6. Serial passage on the membrane so modified one strain that it killed a greater percentage of both 10 day and 14 day embryos. The infection after modification was also accompanied by bacteremia and meningitis in one embryo. 7. The ability of meningococci to invade tissue and produce septicemia is contrasted with the inability of gonococci to produce more than a superficial infection. 8. The infection of the embryo with gonococci reproduces all of the essential characteristics of the disease in man. 9. Gonococci were found within columnar epithelial cells in a case of acute human urethritis. PMID:19871142

Bang, Frederik

1941-01-01

150

Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

2007-06-01

151

PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PERSONAL SAFETY INFORMATION CHECKLIST For Hennings, Hebb and Chemistry/Physics Labs  

E-print Network

PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PERSONAL SAFETY INFORMATION CHECKLIST For Hennings, Hebb and Chemistry this form in your lab with other safety information sheets. Personal Safety Information Checklist for (Name

Plotkin, Steven S.

152

Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  

PubMed

Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P < 0.001] than their respective controls. Among H-DXL hens, egg weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions. PMID:23300291

Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

2013-02-01

153

Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.  

PubMed

Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

2012-09-01

154

Predicting and scaling hens' preferences for topographically different responses  

PubMed Central

Six hens were exposed to several concurrent (second-order) variable-interval schedules in which the response requirements on the alternatives were varied. The response requirements were one key peck versus five key pecks, one key peck versus one door push, and five key pecks versus one door push. Response- and time-allocation ratios undermatched the obtained reinforcement ratios but were well described by the generalized matching law. Time and response bias estimates from two pairs of response requirements were used to predict bias in the third pairing. The predicted values were close to those obtained; this result supports the notion that both numerically and topographically different responses act as constant sources of bias within the generalized matching law. The differences between the response and time biases could be accounted for by the different times needed to complete each response requirement. The results also suggest that the door push is a useful operant for research with domestic hens. PMID:16812754

Sumpter, Catherine E.; Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William

1995-01-01

155

ENVIRONMENT, WELL-BEING, AND BEHAVIOR Comparison of the Prelaying Behavior of Nest Layers and Litter Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swiss Animal Welfare Act decrees that the housing conditions of farm animals must guarantee animal welfare. In the process of developing a method to test nest boxes for their suitability for laying hens, we conducted an investigation using preference testing. It was aimed at verifying the occurrence of different types of layers within the same laying strain and to

M. Zupan; A. Kruschwitz; T. Buchwalder; B. Huber-Eicher; I. Stuhec

156

Phase feeding of protein and energy for laying hens  

E-print Network

. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Introduction. Literature Review. Experimental Procedure. Results and Discussion. 22 Summary and Conclusions. Bibliography LIST OP TABLES Table Page Composition of the experimental diets Experimental design showing... the dietary treatments schedule. . . . . 16 Protein and energy values used in calculating the diets. . . . 18 Sources of variation and degrees of freedom 20 Percent mortality, average body weight, hen-day production and egg weight as influenced by diet...

Zotz, Joseph Ernest

2012-06-07

157

Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President - BULLETIN NO. 317 ZBRUARY, 1924 -- DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY COMPARATIVE INFLUENCES OF VARIOUS PROTEIN FEEDS ON LAYING HENS B.... PETERSON. B. S., Assistant Chemist J. E. TEAGUE, B. S.. Assistant Chemist J. K. BLUM. B. S., Assistant Chemist HORTICULTURE: A. T. POTTS, M. S., Chief ANIMAL INDUSTRY: J. M. JONES, A. M.. Chief J. L. LUSH, Ph. D., Animal Husbandman, Breeding G. R...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1924-01-01

158

Modeling Chick to Assess Diabetes Pathogenesis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

Datar, Savita P.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

2011-01-01

159

Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment.  

PubMed

Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R

2011-01-01

160

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the  

E-print Network

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have

161

Photo hen's egg test: a model for phototoxicity.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to establish a new model for phototoxicity which is more advanced than the widely used cultures of yeasts, bacteria or cells of various origin, and at the same time to avoid animal testing. We studied the extraembryonal vasculature of the incubated hen's egg. This model was originally introduced by toxicologists as an alternative to the rabbit's eye irritation test (Draize test). In the photo hen's egg test, substances are applied to the embryo's yolk-sac blood vessel system at a non-toxic concentration and are irradiated with 5 J/cm2 ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm). Promethazine, haematoporphyrin, ciprofloxacin and 8-methoxypsoralen were tested in this system. Death of the embryo, membrane discoloration and haemorrhage are parameters for phototoxic damage, which were recorded during an observation period of 24 h. These well-known phototoxic substances induced pronounced damage of the yolk-sac membrane and blood vessels which was not found in the controls (test substance alone, UVA alone or untreated) using a 2 x 2 factorial test design. The photo hen's egg test serves as a valid screening model for substances supposed to be photosensitizers owing to a phototoxic mechanism. PMID:9115909

Neumann, N J; Hölzle, E; Lehmann, P; Rosenbruch, M; Klaucic, A; Plewig, G

1997-03-01

162

Endotoxin-neutralizing activity of hen egg phosvitin.  

PubMed

Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is responsible for initiating host responses leading to inflammation and sometimes unwanted sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents to date are efficacious enough to protect patients from LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, egg yolk protein phosvitin (Pv) in zebrafish has been shown to act as a pattern recognition receptor, capable of binding to the microbial cell wall components including LPS, we therefore wonder if it has the capacity to block LPS toxicity. In this study we first demonstrated that hen Pv, a naturally occurring protein rich in egg yolk, had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under thermal stress, and then showed that Pv was able to bind to LPS, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan as well as the microbes E. coli and S. aureus. More importantly, we revealed that Pv significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-? release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-? level in mice. Additionally, hen Pv could promote the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, hen Pv displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity towards human red blood cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Pv is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:23079731

Ma, Jie; Wang, Hongmiao; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui

2013-04-01

163

Feeding Behavior and Growth of Broiler Chicks Fed Larvae of the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobiusdiaperinus(Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552:t 172(mean :t SD) larvae

JOSEPH L. DESPINS; RICHARD C. AXTELL

164

Does extra corticosterone elicit increased begging and submissiveness in subordinate booby ( Sula nebouxii) chicks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether in two-chick broods of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) elevated circulating corticosterone in the socially subordinate broodmate facilitates submissive behavior and\\/or enhances food solicitation. Implanting corticosterone in 17 subordinate chicks (experimental broods) produced changes in the behavior of chicks and parents over the first two days, relative to 17 matched families (control broods) where subordinate chicks were

A. Vallarino; J. C. Wingfield; H. Drummond

2006-01-01

165

EMBRYONIC CHICK INTESTINE IN ORGAN CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Duodena from 20-day-old chick embryos can be maintained in large scale organ culture on specially designed stainless-steel grids in contact with serum-free medium for 48 h with excellent preservation of mucosal structure at both the light and electron microscope levels. Although mitotic rate was subnormal, several other factors attest to the essential viability of the cultured intestine: L-leucine incorporation into protein, as well as the synthesis of a specific vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP), increased over a 48-h culture period, and the electropotential gradient across the intestine was maintained throughout the culture period as was a concentration gradient for calcium. The tissue responded to vitamin D3 in the medium by synthesizing the calcium-binding protein within 6 h and by exhibiting enhanced 45Ca uptake within 12–24 h. Concentrations of vitamin D3, or its 25-hydroxylated derivative, higher than necessary for CaBP induction, also increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The 1,25-dihydroxylated derivative of vitamin D3, at a level extremely potent in CaBP induction, did not stimulate alkaline phosphatase. Mucosal to serosal transport of 45Ca could also be measured in everted duodenal sacs, subsequent to culture under similar conditions, and was also increased by vitamin D3 in the medium. Other embryonic organs, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, lung, skin, and muscle, did not produce CaBP in response to vitamin D3 in the culture medium. However, CaBP-synthesizing capacity was present in the entire intestinal tract, exclusive of the rectum. 59Fe and 32P uptake by cultured duodenum were also stimulated by vitamin D3. The system has proven quite useful in the study of the vitamin D-mediated calcium absorptive mechanism but should be applicable to the study of the absorption of other nutrients, drugs, hormones, etc., as well as other studies of intestinal function. PMID:4353639

Corradino, R. A.

1973-01-01

166

Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.  

PubMed

Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

2013-09-01

167

Interrelationship between environmental temperature and dietary nonphytate phosphorus in laying hens.  

PubMed

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphorus nutrition on laying hens exposed to heat stress (HS). Hens were fed their respective diet for at least 3 wk prior to initiation of each experiment to allow the hens fed low-P diets to become P deficient. In most experiments, hens housed in non-HS conditions were pair-fed to the HS hens to maintain equal feed intake. In experiments 1 and 2, two levels of nonphytate P (NPP; deficient at 0.10 or 0.16% vs. control at 0.45%) and two temperatures (constant thermoneutral at 21 degrees C or cyclic HS up to 35 degrees C) were evaluated. Low NPP significantly reduced feed intake and hen-day egg production, but the cyclic heat treatment had no effect on hen performance. Experiment 3 was similar to experiments 1 and 2 except that constant HS was implemented. Both constant HS and low dietary NPP reduced feed intake and egg production, and there was no significant interaction between HS and dietary NPP level. In experiment 4, hens were fed 0.10 or 0.45% NPP diets and exposed to a more severe HS (38 degrees C) for 8 h. Hens fed the deficient NPP level showed a 16% incidence of severe heat distress (unable to stand, unresponsive). Our results generally indicated that there was no interaction between dietary NPP level and HS in laying hens. However, subjecting hens that had been fed a P-deficient diet to an acute HS of 38 degrees C did increase the incidence of severe heat distress. PMID:14653471

Persia, M E; Utterback, P L; Biggs, P E; Koelkebeck, K W; Parsons, C M

2003-11-01

168

An estimation of Citrullus colocynthis toxicity for chicks.  

PubMed

Citrullus colocynthis seed was fed at 2% and 10% of the basal diet to 7-d-old Bovans-type chicks for 6 w. Average body weights and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly depressed in the chicks on 10% Citrullus feed, and the serum activities of LDH, AST and CK and concentrations of total lipid and zinc were significantly increased. The concentration of serum total iron binding capacity was particularly reduced in chicks on 2% Citrullus feed. The concentrations of other serum and blood constituents and of hepatic copper, manganese and zinc were not significantly changes. Lesions seen in the intestines, livers, kidneys and other tissues were fully reversed 4 w after removal from the experimental diet. PMID:8540228

Bakhiet, A O; Adam, S E

1995-08-01

169

Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

1998-01-01

170

Food allocation in crimson rosella broods: parents differ in their responses to chick hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allocation in many asynchronously hatching bird species favours large, competitively superior chicks. In contrast, food is usually distributed equally within broods of crimson rosellas, Platycercus elegans, implying that parents do not simply feed the most competitive chick. We used two temporary removal experiments to manipulate hunger of: (1) individual first- or last-hatched chicks, or (2) the whole brood. When

Elizabeth A. Krebs; Robert D. Magrath

2000-01-01

171

Cardiac responses to first ever submergence in double-crested cormorant chicks ( Phalacrocorax auritus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rates were recorded from double-crested cormorant chicks during their first ever and subsequent voluntary head submergences and dives, as well as during longer dives made after the chicks were accustomed to diving. Despite variation between chicks, the cardiac response to first ever and subsequent voluntary submergence (head submergences and dives) was similar to the response observed in adult cormorants.

Manfred R Enstipp; Russel D Andrews; David R Jones

1999-01-01

172

Interactive Effects of Sodium Bentonite and Coccidiosis with Monensin or Salinomycin in Chicks1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of sodium bentonite (NaB) with the efficacy of monensin (MON) or salinomycin (SAL) in coccidiosis-infected chicks. Male broiler chicks 5 to 14 d of age were used, and each treatment was replicated with eight (Exp. 1) or four (Exp. 2 and 3) pens of five chicks each. In Exp. 1,

S. J. GRAY; T. L. WARD; D. R. INGRAM

173

Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to

A. S. Kitaysky; E. V. Kitaiskaia; J. F. Piatt; J. C. Wingfielda

2003-01-01

174

Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus  

E-print Network

Feature weighting in "chick-a-dee" call notes of Poecile atricapillus Carly M. Nickerson, Laurie L from the black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus "chick-a-dee" call. Each individual note notes of the "chick-a-dee" call of the black- capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus . A. Note

Dawson, Michael

175

An evaluation of sesame oil meal and Peruvian fish for egg-strain and broiler-type breeder hens  

E-print Network

meal as protein sources for egg-strain hens . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ 16 Composition of. laying hen diets . . . . . . ~ . 17, 18 Calculated percent protein and certain amino acid content in laying hen diets from analyses of ingredients... . . . , . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ , 19 Experimental design . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . 20 Composition of broiler-type breeder diets ~ . . 21 Calculated protein and certain amino acid con- tent in broiler-type breeder hen diets from analy- ses of ingredients...

Smith, Edwin B

2012-06-07

176

Feeding laying hens a bioavailable soy sterol mixture fails to enrich their eggs with phytosterols or elicit egg yolk compositional changes.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Elevated levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), and particularly plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), are primary contributing factors to CHD. Dietary plant sterols (phytosterols) have been shown to significantly reduce plasma TC and LDLC in humans, primarily through inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, and are potentially effective agents for reduction of CHD risk. Although a variety of phytosterol-containing foods are currently available, phytosterol-enriched eggs, which represent a potential value-added product, are conspicuously absent from the marketplace. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to enrich shell eggs with phytosterols; and 2) to determine if feeding phytosterols to hens elicits egg compositional changes, particularly that of yolk cholesterol content. Sixteen 32-wk-old White Leghorn hens were fed a corn-soy-based layer diet without (n = 8) or with (n = 8) 1 g of supplemental soy sterols/100 g of diet for 28 d.. Hen performance was determined on an individual basis, and 1 egg/hen per week was collected, processed, and analyzed for yolk cholesterol, CP, crude fat (CF), and phytosterol content. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of supplemental dietary phytosterols on 28-d weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma TC, hen-day egg production, egg weights, egg component weights, and yolk cholesterol, CP, and CF contents. Small amounts of campesterol were present in most of the eggs (average of 0.29 and 1.02 mg/yolk for control vs. soy sterol-fed hens, respectively; P < or = 0.05), whereas only 3 of the 80 analyzed eggs contained trace amounts of beta-sitosterol and none contained any detectable stigmasterol. It was concluded that phytosterols are either poorly absorbed from the chicken intestine or, if they are absorbed, they are efficiently secreted back into the intestinal lumen, most likely via as yet uncharacterized adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. PMID:19096069

Elkin, R G; Lorenz, E S

2009-01-01

177

Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

1985-01-01

178

Influence of Ascaridia galli infections and anthelmintic treatments on the behaviour and social ranks of laying hens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effects of an experimental Ascaridia galli infection and anthelmintic treatment on the behaviour and social status of laying hens of two different lines were studied. Sixty white (Lohmann LSL; LSL) and 60 brown (Lohmann Brown; LB) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions. The hens of each line were divided into four groups. The birds in

M. Gauly; C. Duss; G. Erhardt

2007-01-01

179

SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN  

E-print Network

hen, a food addi- tive has been tested on 84 hens raised in individual cages and distributed into4 An experiment was carried out on 120 pullets to determine the effects of a lysine deficiency during the growing laying diet (C). Lysine deficiency during the growing period (LN and LC) reduced live weight, feed intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Final-state interactions in the system {sup 8}He+n  

SciTech Connect

Final-state interactions in the systems {sup 6}He+n and {sup 8}He+n have been studied via the breakup of 30 MeV/u {sup 10,11,12}Be beams on a {sup 9}Be target. The results for the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions of the outgoing neutron and fragment are presented and discussed.

Chen, L.; Govaert, K.; Blank, B.; Chartier, M.; Galonsky, A.; Hansen, P. G.; Kruse, J.; Maddalena, V.; Thoennessen, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Ieki, K.; Iwata, Y.; Higurashi, Y.; Takeuchi, S. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Deak, F.; Horvath, A.; Kiss, A. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Seres, Z. [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

1998-12-21

181

Allergy to eggs from duck and goose without sensitization to hen egg proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eggs are among the foods most frequently causing allergy. Hen eggs are the most important. Those of other birds are of lesser significance. Objective: We report an unusual case of food allergy after consumption of eggs from duck and goose in an adult patient without hen egg allergy. Methods: Skin prick tests were performed with fresh white and yolk

Belén Añíbarro; F. Javier Seoane; Concepción Vila; Manuel Lombardero

2000-01-01

182

The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler

183

Formation of amyloid fibrils from fully reduced hen egg white lysozyme  

E-print Network

Formation of amyloid fibrils from fully reduced hen egg white lysozyme AONENG CAO, DAOYING HU residues may play an important role. Keywords: Amyloid fibril formation; hen lysozyme; disulfide reduction Alzheimer's disease (the fourth most common cause of death in the Western world), Parkinson's disease, type

Luhua, Lai

184

Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

2014-11-01

185

[Effect of epitalon on the immunity and hemostasis in hypophysectomized chicken and old hens].  

PubMed

Neonatal hypophysectomy in chicken, as well as that in old hen has been established to entail in 1,5 months after surgery cellular and humoral immunity disturbances, pronounced hypercoagulation and fibrinolysis depression. Administration of Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) to a large extent eliminates revealed shifts. This effect appeared to be stronger in neonatally hypophysectomized chicken than in old hens. PMID:15490730

Kuznik, B I; Pateiuk, A V; Khavinson, V Kh; Malinin, V V

2004-01-01

186

Changes in pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs associated with ovarian regression in the turkey hen ( Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with incubation behavior and ovarian regression in turkey hens. Preliminary data show that tamoxifen, a partial estradiol receptor antagonist, may effect ovarian regression. The objectives of the study were to induce ovarian regression in egg-laying turkey hens by administration of tamoxifen, to determine whether incubation behavior would be effected by tamoxifen treatment and to examine the

Ramachandran Ramesh; John A. Proudman; Wayne J. Kuenzel

1995-01-01

187

A generalized method for HEN synthesis using stochastic optimization – I. General framework and MER optimal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of heat-exchanger networks (HENs) based on genetic algorithms (GAs). The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on the solution of relatively simple HEN synthesis problems in which maximum energy recovery (MER) is desired and which can be resolved without resorting to stream splitting. As a result, the parametric optimization problem is

Daniel R Lewin; Hao Wang; Ofir Shalev

1998-01-01

188

Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten

2011-01-01

189

The importance of pre-thicket conifer plantations for nesting Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus are threatened across much of their range and their conser- vation requires appropriate habitat management. The locations of 148 Hen Harrier nests found in the Republic of Ireland during national breeding surveys in 2000 and 2005 were used to assess nest-site selection. The distribution of these nests was compared to distri- butions of randomly located points

MARK W. WILSON; SANDRA IRWIN; DAVID W. NORRISS; STEPHEN F. NEWTON; KEVIN COLLINS; THOMAS C. KELLY

2009-01-01

190

Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

Dusek, R. J.; Spalding, M. G.; Forrester, D. J.; Greiner, E. C.

2004-01-01

191

Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks.  

PubMed

We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume = 13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. PMID:15650085

Dusek, Robert J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Forrester, Donald J; Greiner, Ellis C

2004-10-01

192

Virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from laying hens in Apulia, Southern Italy.  

PubMed

1. Escherichia coli isolated from lesions (Avian Pathogenic E. coli?-?APEC) of layer hens affected by colibacillosis and from intestinal contents of clinically-healthy birds (Avian Faecal E. coli?-?AFEC) were serotyped. All the isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence genes to determine which genes were more closely related to those from lesions. 2. A number of different serogroups were detected, O78 being predominant among the isolates from colibacillosis. 3. E. coli isolated from lesions were not linked to a specific pathotype (set of common virulence genes). 4. The presence of the virulence genes, with the exception of astA, was associated more generally with APEC strains. 5. Statistically, genes such as cva/cvi, tsh, iss, irp2 and iucD were more related to isolates from colibacillosis. 6. It is suggested that the detection of these genes in a rapid and inexpensive test for field practitioners could provide useful information about the potential virulence of E. coli isolated in commercial layer flocks. PMID:23130581

Circella, E; Pennelli, D; Tagliabue, S; Camarda, A

2012-01-01

193

Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

2013-01-01

194

The effect of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic maize and different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus on the performance of laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic corn (maize) (PTC) which has a phytase activity of 21 000 units (U) phytase per kg of maize on productive performance, egg quality, tibia bone quality and phosphorus (P) excretion in laying hens. 2. In the experiment, 1800 44-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 60 hens per replicate. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The layers in the control group (control) were given a basal diet with 0.36% non-phytate P (NPP), while the treatment groups received diets containing 360 U of exogenous phytase/kg with 0.26% NPP (EP) or 360 phytase U of PTC/kg diet with 0.26% (PTC1), 0.21% (PTC2) or 0.16% (PTC3) NPP. 3. The results showed that there was no significant difference in egg production, average daily feed intake, feed efficiency, rate of broken or soft-shell egg production or egg mass among the treatments. There was no significant difference in eggshell thickness or eggshell strength. On the other hand, no differences in any of the bone variables were found between treatments. The faecal P percentage content in EP, PTC1, PTC2 and PTC3 groups was significantly lower than the control group. 4. In summary, the PTC could be used in the feed of laying hens instead of EP to reduce P excretion without effecting production and bone mineralisation. PMID:23815753

Wang, S; Tang, C H; Zhang, J M; Wang, X Q

2013-01-01

195

LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail.  

PubMed

Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0 nmol in Cobb-500 chicks and the effect had diminished by 30 min post-injection. In Bobwhite quail all doses of LPLRFamide tested caused anorexia that remained throughout the 60 min observation period. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted and Cobb-500 chicks had increased food pecks early in the observation period and spent a greater amount of time in deep rest. Although food pecks were increased pecking efficiency was decreased. In Bobwhite quail, feeding pecks and the number of jumps were reduced after LPLRFamide treatment. We judged that these behaviors in both species were likely not competitive with ingestion and thus did not secondarily contribute to anorexia. These results demonstrate that LPLRFamide is associated with satiety-related processes in Cobb-500 chicks and Bobwhite quail, while threshold of responses are different. PMID:19646446

Cline, Mark A; Layne, Jessica E; Calchary, Wendy A; Sheehy, Robert R; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2010-01-15

196

Ionic Interconversion of Pacemaker and Nonpacemaker Cultured Chick Heart Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin-dispersed cells from hearts (ventricles) of 7 to 8 day chick embryos were cultured 3 to 21 days. The cells became attached to the culture dish and assembled into monolayer communities. By means of a bridge circuit, one microelectrode was used for simultaneously passing current and recording membrane potentials (Vm). The input resistance, calculated by the measured AV,~ for a

NICK SPERELAKIS; D. LEHMKUHL

1966-01-01

197

Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus) middle ear columella formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella

Jamie L Wood; Ami J Hughes; Kathryn J Mercer; Susan C Chapman

2010-01-01

198

Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

Rossman, Gabriel

2004-01-01

199

Responsiveness of chick statoacoustic ganglion neurons to morphogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory organs of the chicken inner ear are innervated by the peripheral processes of statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurons. Sensory organ innervation depends on a combination of axon guidance cues and survival factors, located along the trajectory of growing axons and\\/or within their sensory organ targets. Morphogens are expressed within and surrounding the chick inner ear during stages of SAG

Kristen Nicole Fantetti

2011-01-01

200

Chick clique: persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a preventative health cell phone application that helps motivate teenage girls to exercise by exploiting their social desire to stay connected with their peers. We targeted girls because they are more likely to become less active throughout adolescence and are more likely to use dangerous techniques for losing weight. The intent of Chick Clique is to provide

Tammy Toscos; Anne M. Faber; An Shunying; Mona Praful Gandhi

2006-01-01

201

Women Talk: Chick Lit TV and the Dialogues of Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subgenre of the chick-lit television series, best exemplified in programs such as Sex and the City, Lipstick Jungle, and The Cashmere Mafia, has often been the subject of postfeminist critique. This article examines this subgenre as intertextually related cluster texts that function through internal and intertextual dialogism. It explores these programs' focus on discursivity, multiplicity, and performativity in order

Kyra Hunting

2012-01-01

202

INTRODUCTION The chick homologue of Spemann's organizer, Hensen's node,  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The chick homologue of Spemann's organizer, Hensen's node, loses the ability to induce with the emergence of the prechordal mesendoderm from Hensen's node (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). Originally, Hensen's node, begins to lose its ability to induce a nervous system from area opaca epiblast cells

Stern, Claudio

203

Original article Use of an experimental chicks model  

E-print Network

of lymphocytes decreased by about 80%. The serological tests carried out with Complement Fixation test were neg proved to be a useful laboratory model for reproduction of Johne's disease. chick / Mycobacterium paratuberculosis / experimental infection / immunodepression Résumé ― Reproduction expérimentale de la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

Downie, J. R.

1979-01-01

205

A complete culture system for the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryonic lifespan of the chick is 22 days. Development in the first day takes place in the oviduct, and in the remaining 21 days in the shelled egg. There have been few attempts to culture oviductal embryos1-3, though methods covering the first few days of development in ovo are well established4 and a method for the final 18 days

M. M. Perry

1988-01-01

206

Stimulation of Bile Secretion in Chick Embryos by Cortisone  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN some preliminary experiments it was observed that the administration of cortisone to twelve-day old chick embryos caused their gall bladders to become distended and bile to flow prematurely into their intestines. Accordingly a substantial experiment was performed to confirm or deny these preliminary findings, and since there are certain difficulties associated with obtaining either rapid or complete absorption of

M. M. Mosbaugh; A. W. Ham

1951-01-01

207

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS  

E-print Network

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS By EUGENE E. WOEHLER AND JOHN M. GATES. J, January 1970 Pl'. 228-231 20-W #12;AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING·NECKED PHEASANT CHICKSl of Naturol Resources, Modison Abstract: Sex of newly hatched pheasants (Phasianus colchicm) can be easily

208

Haematological and morphological responses of broiler chicks to hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome

M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell

1990-01-01

209

Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

1984-03-01

210

ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN OSPREY CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and

John E. Elliott; Laurie K. Wilson; Charles J. Henny; Suzanne F. Trudeau; Frederick A. Leighton; Sean W. Kennedy; Kimberly M. Cheng

2001-01-01

211

Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

2012-01-01

212

Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

2008-01-01

213

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

214

Predicting chick survival and productivity of Roseate Terns from data on early growth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks is a strong predictor of chick survival and hence of productivity. We developed discriminant functions to predict chick survival from body-masses measured during the first 3 days of life. Productivity is estimated by assuming that almost all A-chicks (first-hatched in each brood) survive to fledging, and using the discriminant functions to predict survival of B-chicks (second-hatched in each brood). A relation between survival rates and classification rates is derived, allowing discriminant function results to be used in predicting survival rates. In the absence of predation, the resulting estimates of chick survival and productivity are almost as good as those obtained by more intensive methods, but require much less effort and much less disturbance. This approach might be useful for other seabird species in which chick survival is determined primarily by parental performance.

Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hatfield, J.S.; Link, W.A.; Spendelow, J.A.

1999-01-01

215

Viscoelastic material properties of the myocardium and cardiac jelly in the looping chick heart.  

PubMed

Accurate material properties of developing embryonic tissues are a crucial factor in studies of the mechanics of morphogenesis. In the present work, we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of the looping heart tube in the chick embryo through nonlinear finite element modeling and microindentation experiments. Both hysteresis and ramp-hold experiments were performed on the intact heart and isolated cardiac jelly (extracellular matrix). An inverse computational method was used to determine the constitutive relations for the myocardium and cardiac jelly. With both layers assumed to be quasilinear viscoelastic, material coefficients for an Ogden type strain-energy density function combined with Prony series of two terms or less were determined by fitting numerical results from a simplified model of a heart segment to experimental data. The experimental and modeling techniques can be applied generally for determining viscoelastic material properties of embryonic tissues. PMID:22482677

Yao, Jiang; Varner, Victor D; Brilli, Lauren L; Young, Jonathan M; Taber, Larry A; Perucchio, Renato

2012-02-01

216

The effect of dietary betaine on intestinal and plasma levels of betaine in uninfected and coccidia-infected broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks fed betaine supplemented diets and infected with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima had markedly higher levels of betaine in the duodenum and mid-gut than unsupplemented, infected chicks. Uninfected chicks fed betaine exhibited almost twice the levels of betaine in the gut as infected chicks. Plasma betaine levels were lower in E. maxima-infected chicks than in E. acervulina-or Eimeria tenella-infected

R. H. Fetterer; P. C. Augustine; P. C. Allen; R. C. Barfield

2003-01-01

217

General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches  

PubMed Central

Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study. PMID:25049618

Chen, D. H.; Bao, J.

2012-01-01

218

The enrichment of hen eggs with omega-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the omega-3 fatty acid compositions of enriched eggs obtained from hens by feeding flaxseed and fish oil. Laying hens were fed a diet containing fish oil (FOD) (1.5%) or a mixture of flaxseed (10%) and fish oil (FFOD) (1.5%) for 15 and 30 days. Another group was fed commercial diet as a control. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were not determined in the control group's eggs. However, the EPA level was 0.87% and 0.82% in the FOD group's eggs and 0.49% and 0.55% in the FFOD group's eggs, obtained after a 15- and 30-day feeding period, respectively. Corresponding values for DPA were 0.45% and 0.50% in the FOD group's eggs and 0.41% and 0.44% in the FFOD group's eggs. Docosahexaenoic acid contents of eggs obtained from the FOD group were 4.85% and 4.92% after a 15- and 30-day feeding period, respectively, compared with 3.29% and 3.91% in the FFOD group's eggs and 1.03% in the control group's eggs. The alpha-linolenic acid content of eggs was 0.45% and 0.49% in the FOD group's eggs after a 15- and 30-day feeding period, respectively, and 0.43% in the control group's eggs, whereas it was 3.61% and 4.10%, respectively, in the FFOD group's eggs. PMID:20406133

Yalçin, Hasan; Unal, Mustafa Kemal

2010-06-01

219

Hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test for irritation potential.  

PubMed

The increasingly large number of chemicals introduced onto the market and into the environment has necessitated the monitoring of environmental materials and specimen banking, as well as the development of rapid and reliable methods for the evaluation of toxicity. The Hen's Egg Test, or Hühner-Embryonen-Test (HET) is a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive toxicity test and can give information on embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, systemic and immunopathological effects, metabolic pathways and now, in developed form, on mucous-membrane irritation potencies of chemical substances. Testing with incubated hen's eggs is a borderline case between in vivo and in vitro systems and does not conflict with ethical and legal obligations especially animal protection laws. In the special field of mucous-membrane irritation testing, a specific score and classification scheme was developed for the HET, which allows risk assessments analogous to the Draize scheme. There is a good correlation between the results for HET tests on a variety of pyrithiones, phenols and isothiazolinones, and the corresponding data based on Draize tests. HET chorioallantoic membrane testing should and could not entirely replace current irritation tests in mammals, but it can diminish the number of investigations with mammals, as well as limit or eliminate pain and injury during animal experiments and allow regulators to set priority and toxicity categories. PMID:4040077

Luepke, N P

1985-02-01

220

Evaporative cooling of ventral regions of the skin in heat-stressed laying hens.  

PubMed

Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of water from the ventral regions of the bird. The type of plumage in the ventral regions and the exposed skin of the apteria enable more efficient wetting than is possible with dorsal cooling. A ventral cooling regime, comprising an initial period of frequent wettings followed by intermittent wetting for 10 s every 30 min was able to maintain normothermia of laying hens subjected to a 10-h period of heat exposure. Dorsal cooling was less efficient; body temperature and respiration rate were higher and skin temperatures were lower than in ventrally cooled hens. During 10 d of heat exposure, ventrally cooled hens maintained egg weight and shell index (mg/cm2), whereas their food intake decreased moderately. In contrast, egg weight, shell index, and food intake all decreased markedly in uncooled or dorsally cooled hens. Transient alterations in plasma concentrations of corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were noted in uncooled and dorsally cooled hens but not in ventrally cooled hens. Results indicate that ventral cooling is an efficient method to alleviate heat stress in laying hens during summer. Successful implementation of ventral cooling in poultry houses will depend on optimal installation of sprinklers and on minimal wetting of manure. PMID:11469662

Wolfenson, D; Bachrach, D; Maman, M; Graber, Y; Rozenboim, I

2001-07-01

221

Topical application of garlic reduces northern fowl mite infestation in laying hens.  

PubMed

Northern fowl mites (NFM) are external parasites that can lower egg production and cause anemia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was conducted with New Hampshire Red and Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens. Hens were individually caged and provided a complete laying diet and water ad libitum. Hens were assigned to groups in a way that assured that treatments, within each breed, would be applied to comparable numbers of birds with light and heavy mite infestations. Each hen was sprayed around the vent with either water or 10% garlic juice in water. Spraying continued each week for 3 wk. During the fourth week, each bird was scored for the presence of NFM on its skin and feathers. A small snippet of feathers was removed from below the vent of each hen and placed in a labeled petri dish with a round, white filter paper insert. The NFM content of each dish was scored by two individuals approximately 1 h after sampling. There was no significant difference in the NFM scores for hens based on breed or future treatment. After the birds were treated for 3 wk, there was no significant difference in external NFM scores based on breed. There were significantly fewer NFM on the birds treated with garlic juice compared with controls, based on external and petri dish scoring (P < 0.002 and P < 0.04, respectively). The reduction in external NFM score was also significant (P < 0.004), with controls declining approximately 0.2 units, whereas garlic-treated hens had a 1.8-unit decrease in external NFM score. Topical application of garlic juice may be an effective way to decrease NFM in laying hens. PMID:11092328

Birrenkott, G P; Brockenfelt, G E; Greer, J A; Owens, M D

2000-11-01

222

Volumes of chick and rat osteoclasts cultured on glass.  

PubMed

We have examined the relationship between the number of nuclei of an osteoclast and its volume. Chick and rat cells were released from long bones by chopping the shafts and flushing the fragments in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium with added 10% fetal calf serum. The bone cell suspension was seeded onto glass coverslips. In Experiment 1, rat and chick cells were allowed to settle for 15 minutes, more medium was then added, and the cells were cultured in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C for 4 hours. In Experiment 2, only rat cells were used, and the cells were cultured in the presence or absence of 10(-6) M 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (APD) in the medium for 4 or 6 hours. The coverslips were washed in 37 degrees C phosphate-buffered saline and fixed for 24 hours in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in isotonic cacodylate buffer (initially 37 degrees C). The chick cells were critical point dried (CPD) or freeze dried (FD); all rat cells were FD. After drying, cells were coated with gold by vacuum evaporation. The volumes and areas of osteoclasts were measured using a video-rate, line-confocal reflection laser scanning microscope and the number of nuclei in each cell was counted. The volumes and volumes per nucleus of the FD cells were larger than those of the CPD cells but there was no significant difference in plan-areas. Rat osteoclasts were larger than chick cells in all the measured parameters except the mean number of nuclei/cell. The correlation coefficients for the areas, volumes, and the numbers of nuclei for rat and chick cells were all high (r > 0.725). The volumes and volumes per nucleus, but not the areas or areas per nucleus, of the osteoclasts cultured with APD were significantly smaller than control cells. We conclude that FD causes less shrinkage than CPD; chick osteoclasts are about two-thirds the size of rat osteoclasts; and 10(-6) M APD caused a reduction of rat osteoclast volume and volume per nucleus of 21%. PMID:7621346

Piper, K; Boyde, A; Jones, S J

1995-05-01

223

Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.  

PubMed

Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium, and high illuminance groups did not differ from the concentrations measured at 8 AM. On day 90, low DOPAC concentrations were associated with emmetropia (+0.63 ± 3.61), steep cornea, and shallow vitreous chamber. We concluded that ambient light over a log illuminance range of 1.69-4 is linearly related to vitreal DOPAC concentration. Under both light-dark cycles and continuous light, the intensity of ambient light regulates the release of retinal dopamine. Refractive development is associated with illuminance dependent dopamine release. PMID:22960317

Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

2012-10-01

224

The Effects of Supplementation of Humate and Probiotic on Egg Production and Quality Parameters During the Late Laying Period in Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study,was,designed,to investigate whether,inclusions of humate,and probiotic into diets of hens during,the late laying period increases egg produc- tion and improves,egg quality. Hisex Brown,layers (n = 300), 54 wk of age, were fed a control diet, 0.1% humate, 0.2% humate, 0.1% probiotic, or 0.2% probiotic for 75 d. Active ingredients,of humate,and,probiotic were,poly- meric polyhydroxy acids (humic, fulvic, ulmic, and

M. A. Yo Ruk; M. Gul; A. Hayirli; M. Macit

225

The effects of storage time on vitelline membrane protein banding patterns and interior egg quality of eggs from non-molted and molted hens  

E-print Network

bands between 60 to 100 kDa. In each of two trials, an additional one hundred forty eggs were gathered at the same time from the same flock and stored at 4°C. Twenty eggs were evaluated for quality on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for eggs from...????????????????????????..????.. 136 CHAPTER ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page III-1 Measurement of OD/µ g values from SDS-PAGE gels for GP-II protein in the whole layer for 72 wk pre-molted hens; Experiment 1???..?..???? 33 III-2 Measurement of OD/µ g values from SDS...

Kelley, Angela Jean

2004-09-30

226

Effects of different colony cage management practises on the performance of laying hens  

E-print Network

-Mash Diet Fed to Birds in Both Colony Cage Experiments 1 and 2. Hen. -Day Egg Production as Influenced by Feeder Space and Cage Size in Experiment No. 1 Hen-Day Egg Production as Influenced by Feeder Space Level arid Cage Size in Experiment No. 1 Hen...-Day Production as Irfluenced by Nests in the Cage in Experimer. t No, l. Average Egg Size as Influenced by Feeder Space Level in Experiment No. 1 Average Egg Size ss Influenced by Cage Size in Experiment No. 1 Average Egg Size as Influenced by Feeder Space...

Gonzalez Martinez, Francisco Daniel

2012-06-07

227

Expression pattern of the homeotic gene Bapx1 during early chick gastrointestinal tract development.  

PubMed

Regulation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is essential for the normal development of vertebrate gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but also for the differentiation of the digestive mesenchymal layer into smooth muscles and submucosal layer. Different studies demonstrated that Bapx1 (for bagpipe homeobox homolog 1) negatively regulates the BMP pathway, but its precise expression pattern during the development and the differentiation of the GI tract mesenchyme actually remains to be examined. Here, we present the spatio-temporal expression profile of Bapx1 in the chick GI tract. We show that Bapx1 is first expressed in the undifferentiated mesenchyme of the gizzard and the colon. After the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme, we found Bapx1 strongly expressed in the gizzard smooth muscle and in the submucosa layer of the colon. This expression pattern provides new insights into the roles of Bapx1 during the regionalization of the GI tract and the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme of the colon and the stomach. PMID:23727297

Faure, Sandrine; Georges, Maxime; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

2013-12-01

228

Role of loose feathers on the development of feather pecking in laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The effect of the presence of loose feathers (on the floor) on the behaviour and plumage condition of laying hens (Lohmann Silver, LS) was studied during the rearing and laying periods. 2. From one day old, 60 birds in each of 4 straw-bedded pens (n = 240 in total) with 6.5 birds/m(2) were either kept under conventional rearing and management conditions (CT: control group with feathers on the floor; n = 120) or in pens from which the feathers were collected from the floor 4 times/week (FR: feathers removed; n = 120). Fifty birds from each of these 4 groups (n = 200 in total) were randomly selected at the age of 16 weeks and allocated to 4 identical pens in a poultry layer house (PH; with perches and 1/3 slatted floor) with access to an outside area (winter garden, WG) at a stocking density of 6 birds/m(2) in both PH and WG. 3. Observations on feather pecking and other behaviours (feeding, drinking, preening, standing, sitting, foraging, moving and dust bathing) were carried out at 8 ages: 6, 10, 15 (rearing period), 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 weeks (laying period). Feather scoring was carried out at 15, 32 and 39 weeks of age. 4. There were no differences in feather pecking rates, forms (gentle, severe and aggressive pecks) as well as in the plumage condition between groups at the end of the rearing period. 5. Birds in the FR group exhibited lower rates and less severe feather pecking during the laying period. Accordingly, birds in the control group had worse feather condition at 32 and 39 weeks of age. Feather pecking rates within groups were, in general, greater in the afternoon compared to the morning periods. Birds in the control group were more active in walking. 6. Wings, rump, tail and back were the main targets for feather pecking. The majority of feather pecking occurred on the floor (66%) followed by feeding area (26%), perches (4%) and slats (4%). 7. Our results suggest that loose feathers on the floor may play an important role in the development and severity of feather pecking behaviour in laying hens and support the hypothesis (McKeegan and Savory, 1999) that feather pecking can be viewed as redirected foraging behaviour. PMID:18568748

Ramadan, S G A; von Borell, E

2008-05-01

229

Interactive and vicarious acquisition of auditory preferences in Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar call 24 hr following exposure and significantly greater preferences than chicks given noncontingent exposure. Chicks given vicarious exposure to recordings of another chick interacting with the maternal call showed significant deviations from chance responding; however, the direction of chick preference (toward the familiar or unfamiliar) depended on the particular call used. These results indicate that both direct and indirect (vicarious) exposure to stimulus contingency can enhance the acquisition of auditory preferences in precocial avian hatchlings. Precocial avian hatchlings thus likely play a more active role in directing their own perceptual and behavioral development than has typically been thought. PMID:17696658

Harshaw, Christopher; Lickliter, Robert

2007-08-01

230

Interactive and Vicarious Acquisition of Auditory Preferences in Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Chicks  

PubMed Central

Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar call 24 hr following exposure and significantly greater preferences than chicks given noncontingent exposure. Chicks given vicarious exposure to recordings of another chick interacting with the maternal call showed significant deviations from chance responding; however, the direction of chick preference (toward the familiar or unfamiliar) depended on the particular call used. These results indicate that both direct and indirect (vicarious) exposure to stimulus contingency can enhance the acquisition of auditory preferences in precocial avian hatchlings. Precocial avian hatchlings thus likely play a more active role in directing their own perceptual and behavioral development than has typically been thought. PMID:17696658

Harshaw, Christopher; Lickliter, Robert

2008-01-01

231

All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘chick-a-dee’ call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work

L. L. Bloomfield; T. M. Farrell; C. B. Sturdy

2008-01-01

232

A detailed paraxial schematic eye for the White Leghorn chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the normal ocular development of the chick (Gallus gallus domesticus, White Leghorn) up to 15 days of age using both longitudinal and cross-sectional methods. The change in refractive error,\\u000a corneal curvature and axial ocular distances were used to construct schematic eyes. Equations are presented which allow prediction\\u000a of refractive error changes associated with changes in vitreous chamber depth. The

Natalia V. Avila; Sally A. McFadden

2010-01-01

233

Leucocyte profiles and corticosterone in chicks of southern rockhopper penguins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system is essential for health and survival of vertebrates, yet still little is known about the ontogeny of the\\u000a immune system in wild birds. The southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) is a semi-altricial seabird with a long developmental period and reversed hatching asynchrony, favouring the survival of\\u000a B-chicks. We compared leucocyte counts and baseline corticosterone levels of

Nina Dehnhard; Maud Poisbleau; Laurent Demongin; Olivier Chastel; Hendrika J. van Noordwijk; Petra Quillfeldt

2011-01-01

234

The cytoskeleton of chick retinal pigment epithelial cells in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gelatin-coated slides were used to obtain en face preparations of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from 6-to 21-day-old chick embryos in order to study the distribution of F-actin in microfilaments (MF) and the MF-associated proteins, myosin, tropomyosin,a-actinin and vinculin in situ at different stages of development by fluorescence microscopy. The epithelial sheets were fixed in formaldehyde and then extracted in

Kursad Turksen; Vitauts I. Kalnins

1987-01-01

235

Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease  

PubMed Central

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier.

Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

2014-01-01

236

Modification of chicks’ pecking preferences: Food imprinting or instrumental conditioning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Hess’ technique, 35 small groups of chicks of age 2–3 days or beyond were reinforced in training with food for pecking\\u000a at one visual stimulus (S+) and nonreinforced for pecking at another (S?) and subsequently tested in extinction. In training,\\u000a pecking was strongly conditioned to S+, but in testing, both number of pecks to and preference for S+ declined

Robert T. Brown

1975-01-01

237

Expression of Fgf19 in the developing chick eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a new member of the FGF family of growth factors. Here, we describe the localization of Fgf19 mRNA in the developing chick retina and lens in stages from the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 15 (HH15) to postnatal day 30 (P30). Fgf19 was expressed in a transient manner in postmitotic neuroblasts during the migration from

Javier Francisco-Morcillo; Hortensia Sánchez-Calderón; Yasuhiko Kawakami; Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte; Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez; Gervasio Martín-Partido

2005-01-01

238

Three-dimensional OCT imaging of the embryonic chick heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful new high resolution imaging modality which can provide new insight into normal and abnormal cardiac development in animal models. Here we demonstrate for the first time the application of OCT for three-dimensional imaging of the developing cardiovascular system of the chick embryo. Using this three-dimensional data, we compared cross-sectional OCT images with histological cross-sections and we generated volumetric reconstructions of the early heart tube.

Choma, Michael A.; Yelbuz, T.; Thrane, Lars; Kirby, Margaret L.; Izatt, Joseph A.

2003-07-01

239

Differential Expression of a Proteasomal Subunit during Chick Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of cardiac neural crest disrupts normal development of the heart and pharynx. Subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed messages after neural crest ablation in chick embryos. A 1 kb clone, homologous toPROS-28,a 28 kD ? subunit of aDrosophilaproteasome, was differentially expressed in embryos lacking neural crest. An increase ofGPROS-28expression in the head and pharyngeal arches of stages

Mary R. Hutson; Michele R. Rhodes; Margaret L. Kirby

1997-01-01

240

Neural tube closure in the chick embryo is multiphasic.  

PubMed

Progression of neurulation in the chick embryo has not been well documented. To provide a detailed description, chick embryos were stained in ovo after the least manipulation possible to avoid distortion of the neural plate and folds. This allowed a morphological and morphometric description of the process of neurulation in relatively undisturbed chick embryos. Neurulation comprises several specific phases with distinct closure patterns and closure rates. The first closure event occurs, de novo, in the future mesencephalon at the 4-6 somite stage (sst 4-6). Soon afterwards, at sst 6-7, de novo closure is seen at the rhombocervical level in the form of multisite contacts of the neural folds. These contacts occur in register with the somites, suggesting that the somites may play a role in forcing elevation and apposition of the neural folds. The mesencephalic] and rhombocervical closure events define an intervening rhombencephalic neuropore, which is present for a brief period before it closes. The remaining pear-shaped posterior neuropore (PNP) narrows and displaces caudally, but its length remains constant in embryos with seven to ten somites, indicating that the caudal extension of the rhombocervical closure point and elongation of the caudal neural plate are keeping pace with each other. From sst 10 onward, the tapered cranial portion of the PNP closes fast in a zipper-like manner, and, subsequently, the wide caudal portion of the PNP closes rapidly as a result of the parallel alignment of its folds, with numerous button-like temporary contact points. A role for convergent extension in this closure event is suggested. The final remnant of the PNP closes at sst 18. Thus, as in mammals, chick neurulation involves multisite closure and probably results form several different development mechanisms at varying levels of the body axis. PMID:8922530

Van Straaten, H W; Janssen, H C; Peeters, M C; Copp, A J; Hekking, J W

1996-11-01

241

Transplantation of neural tissue: quail-chick chimeras.  

PubMed

Tissue transplantation is an important approach in developmental neurobiology to determine cell fate, to uncover inductive interactions required for tissue specification and patterning as well as to establish tissue competence and commitment. Avian species are among the favorite model systems for these approaches because of their accessibility and relatively large size. Here we describe two culture techniques used to generate quail-chick chimeras at different embryonic stages and methods to distinguish graft and donor tissue. PMID:24048938

Streit, Andrea; Stern, Claudio D

2014-01-01

242

Comparative Values of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, A & h7 COLLEGE, CAhfpUS. A82-1238-6M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CQNNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS RTTTjTJETIN NO. 569 JANUARY 1939 - DIVISION OF POULTRY HUSBANDRY Comparative Values... of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] This bulletin is a report of five experiments conducted for the purpose of comparing five protein feeds...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

1939-01-01

243

Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

1986-03-01

244

Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

1993-01-01

245

Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)  

PubMed Central

In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

2013-01-01

246

[Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

2003-03-01

247

Reference guide to the stages of chick heart embryology.  

PubMed

Cardiac progenitors of the splanchnic mesoderm (primary and secondary heart field), cardiac neural crest, and the proepicardium are the major embryonic contributors to chick heart development. Their contribution to cardiac development occurs with precise timing and regulation during such processes as primary heart tube fusion, cardiac looping and accretion, cardiac septation, and the development of the coronary vasculature. Heart development is even more complex if one follows the development of the cardiac innervation, cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, endocardial cushions, valves, and even the importance of apoptosis for proper cardiac formation. This review is meant to provide a reference guide (Table 1) on the developmental timing according to the staging of Hamburger and Hamilton (1951) (HH) of these important topics in heart development for those individuals new to a chick heart research laboratory. Even individuals outside of the heart field, who are working on a gene that is also expressed in the heart, will gain information on what to look for during chick heart development. This reference guide provides complete and easy reference to the stages involved in heart development, as well as a global perspective of how these cardiac developmental events overlap temporally and spatially, making it a good bench top companion to the many recently written in-depth cardiac reviews of the molecular aspects of cardiac development. PMID:15986452

Martinsen, Brad J

2005-08-01

248

Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick  

SciTech Connect

Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

Lee, S.R.

1984-01-01

249

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROTEIN NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND IMMUNOCOMPETENCE IN NORTHERN BOBWHITE CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRCr.--We investigated the effects of dietary protein quality on the development and functioning of the immune system in four-week-old Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks. Chicks were fed isocaloric diets containing 8, 15, or 33% protein over a three-week period. Significant reductions in the rate of body growth were evident in chicks receiving 8 and 15% protein. Development of the bursa

ROBERT L. LOCHMILLER; MICHELLE R. VESTEY; JON C. BOREN

250

Predicting Starling Chick Carcass PCB Concentrations from PCB Concentrations in Ingested Animal Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Preremediation studies at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) revealed statistically significant accumulations\\u000a of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and effects in starling chicks (Sturnus vulgaris) from contaminated sites, including decreased nest attentiveness, decreased fledging success, and an increase in chick mortality.\\u000a Although the expected route of exposure for starling chicks is thought to be via diet, this has not previously

S. M. Arena; R. S. Halbrook; C. A. Arenal

1999-01-01

251

Effects of a Probiotic and Other Feed Additives on Performance and Immune Response of Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation of a probiotic, Toxiban, Formycine and probiotic-Toxiban mixture on,performance,and,immune,response,of broiler chicks,were,investigated. In a completely randomized design, one hundred fifty 14-days-old broiler chicks were assigned to 5 treatments with 5 replicatesand,6 chicks in experimental unit. The experimental treatments were added,to basal (starter and finisher)diets as follow: T (1): control group (C) that received starter and

E. Rowghani; M. Arab; A. Akbarian

2007-01-01

252

Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older.

Thomas W. Custer; Christine M. Custer

1995-01-01

253

RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

254

FGF2 Delays Tectal Neurogenesis, Increases Tectal Cell Numbers, and Alters Tectal Lamination in Embryonic Chicks  

PubMed Central

Intraventricular injections of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are known to increase the size of the optic tectum in embryonic chicks. Here we show that this increase in tectum size is due to a delay in tectal neurogenesis, which by definition extends the proliferation of tectal progenitors. Specifically, we use cumulative labeling with the thymidine analog EdU to demonstrate that FGF2 treatment on embryonic day 4 (ED4) reduces the proportion and absolute number of unlabeled cells in the rostroventral tectum when EdU infusions are begun on ED5, as one would expect if FGF2 retards tectal neurogenesis. We also examined FGF2?s effect on neurogenesis in the caudodorsal tectum, which is born 2-3 days after the rostroventral tectum, by combining FGF2 treatment on ED4 with EDU infusions beginning on ED8. Again, FGF2 treatment reduced the proportion and number of EdU-negative (i.e., unlabeled) cells, consistent with a delay in neurogenesis. Collectively, these data indicate FGF2 in embryonic chicks delays neurogenesis throughout much of the tectum and continues to do so for several days after the FGF2 injection. One effect of this delay in neurogenesis is that tectal cell numbers more than double. In addition, tectal laminae that are born early in development become abnormally thin and cell-sparse after FGF2 treatment, whereas late-born layers remain unaffected. Combined with the results of prior work, these data indicate that FGF2 delays tectal neurogenesis and, thereby, triggers a cascade of changes in tectum size and morphology. PMID:24265789

McGowan, Luke D.; Alaama, Roula A.; Striedter, Georg F.

2013-01-01

255

Studies on the utilization of the 13-cis vitamin A acetate isomer by the broiler chick  

E-print Network

Chicks Experiment 1. The Effect of Feeding Vitamin A Palmitate and 4'go, and 25'go 13-cis Vitamin A Acetate on the Vitamin A Liver Storage of Broiler Chicks Experiment 2. The Effect of Feeding Vitamin A Palmitate and 4' and 25fo 13-cis Vitamin A... Acetate on the Average Weights and Feed Conversion of Broiler Chicks Experim. nt 2. The Effect of Feeding Vitamin A Palmitate and 4' and 25fo 13-cis Vitamin A Acetate on the Vitamin A Liver Storage of Broiler Chicks Experiment 3. The Effect...

Rayton, John Kenyon

2012-06-07

256

The Value of Various Feeds in the Control of Coccidiosis in Chicks.  

E-print Network

of the chicks dying, after this time, appeared emaciated and very enemic. During the three-weeks period noted above, mogt of the chicks in all of the lots showed the characteristic symptoms of the disease. *Credit is due Dr. R. C. Dunn, of the Veterinary... of the chicks dying, after this time, appeared emaciated and very enemic. During the three-weeks period noted above, mogt of the chicks in all of the lots showed the characteristic symptoms of the disease. *Credit is due Dr. R. C. Dunn, of the Veterinary...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1925-01-01

257

The development of responses to novel-coloured objects in male and female domestic chicks.  

PubMed

Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel colour was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar colour were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex difference was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in colour prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of colour. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935

Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M

1994-04-01

258

Effects of selected enzyme inhibitors on blood and eggshell parameters in the laying hen  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARAMETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fullfilment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARANETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Approved as to style and content by: T. . Odom (Chairman...

Long, Jody Renee

2012-06-07

259

Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal\\/kg of gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Processing Inc., Sergeant Bluff, IA). A total of forty-eight 40-wk-old laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were

P. J. Lammers; B. J. Kerr; M. S. Honeyman; K. Stalder; W. A. Dozier III; T. E. Weber; M. T. Kidd; K. Bregendahl

2008-01-01

260

Egg Shell Quality and Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Aged Laying Hens1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-binding protein D28K (calbindin) synthesis, vitamin D metabolism and shell quality were investigated in young and aged laying hens fed diets con taining either cholecalciferol (CC) or its 1-hydroxylated de rivatives. Duodenal calbindin concentration was similar in the young and in the aged laying hens. Exogenous 1-hy droxylated CC derivatives increased duodenal calbindin concentration, regardless of age. Shell weight and

ARIE BAR; JACOB ROSENBERG

261

Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. (Technological Education Institute, Larissa (Greece)); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. (Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))

1989-05-01

262

Histopathology of ovarian tumors in laying hens, a preclinical model of human ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

The high mortality rate due to ovarian cancer is attributed to the lack of an effective early detection method. Due to the non-specificity of symptoms at early stage, most of the ovarian cancer cases are detected at late stages. This makes the access to women with early stage disease problematic and presents a barrier to development and validation of tests for detection of early stage of ovarian cancer in humans. Animal models are used to elucidate disease etiologies and pathogenesis that are difficult to study in humans. Laying hen is the only available animal that develops ovarian cancer spontaneously; however, detail information on ovarian tumor histology is not available. The goal of this study was to determine the histological features of malignant ovarian tumors in laying hens. A total of 155 young and old (1-5 years of age) laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were selected randomly and evaluated gross and microscopically for the presence of ovarian tumors. Histological classification of tumors with their stages and grades were performed with reference to those for humans. Similar to humans, all four types including serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell or mixed carcinomas were observed in hen ovarian tumors. Some early neoplastic as well as putative ovarian lesions were also observed. Similarities in histology, metastasis and stages of hen ovarian cancer to those of humans demonstrate the feasibility of the hen model for additional delineation of the mechanism underlying ovarian carcinogenesis, preclinical testing of new agents for the prevention and therapy of this disease. PMID:19509547

Barua, Animesh; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Dirks, Angela L; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale B.; Bradaric, Michael J.; Edassery, Seby L; Rotmensch, Jacob; Luborsky, Judith L.

2009-01-01

263

Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.  

PubMed

1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption. PMID:24256463

Yalçin, S; Izzeto?lu, G T; Akta?, A

2013-01-01

264

Effect of adding extracted hesperetin, naringenin and pectin on egg cholesterol, serum traits and antioxidant activity in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study three feed additives (hesperetin, naringenin and pectin) for laying hens were investigated on their influence on the egg yolk cholesterol, serum traits and antioxidant activities in hens. Additives were extracted from citrus and grapefruit peels and contained 31.5% crude hesperetin, 39% crude naringenin and 60% galacturonic acid (pectin). Eighty 30-week-old Leghorn laying hens were randomly assigned to

Tu Fa Lien; Hui Shuang Yeh; Wu Tien Su

2008-01-01

265

Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA\\/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) domain and a long N-terminal extension

Karolina L Tkaczuk; Agnieszka Obarska; Janusz M Bujnicki

2006-01-01

266

Decreased severity of ovarian cancer and increased survival in hens fed a flaxseed enriched diet for one year  

PubMed Central

Objective With the exception of the laying hen, no other animal model of spontaneous ovarian surface epithelial cancer replicates the human disease. Flaxseed is the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids, which are chemopreventative in breast cancer and may be important in other cancers. The objective of this study was to determine if a flaxseed enriched diet had a chemopreventative effect on ovarian cancer in the laying hen. Methods White leghorn hens were fed a 10% flaxseed enriched or standard diet for one year. The incidence and severity of ovarian cancer were determined by gross pathology and histology in the two groups. General health markers were also measured. Eggs were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography to determine omega-3 fatty acid levels. Results A significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors was detected in the flaxseed fed hens. Incidence rates of ovarian cancer were not significantly different between the two groups. The results indicate that a flaxseed diet increases overall survival in the laying hen. Flaxseed fed hens’ eggs incorporated significantly more omega-3 fatty acids compared to control hens. Conclusions These findings show that 10% flaxseed supplementation for one year in the laying hen results in a significant reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer, but no change in the incidence of the disease. Hens fed flaxseed had overall better health and reduced mortality. These findings may provide the basis for a clinical trial that evaluates the efficacy of flaxseed as a chemosuppressant of ovarian cancer in women. PMID:20153884

Ansenberger, Kristine; Richards, Cassandra; Zhuge, Yan; Barua, Animesh; Bahr, Janice M.; Luborsky, Judith L.; Hales, Dale Buchanan

2010-01-01

267

Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.  

PubMed

Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

Stienen; Brenninkmeijer

1999-05-01

268

Timing of Presentation of Prenatal Auditory Stimulation Alters Auditory and Visual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

One group of bobwhite quail embryos (Colinus virginianus) was exposed to 10 min\\/hr of bobwhite chick contentment calls immediately followed by 10 min\\/hr of bobwhite chick distress calls. A 2nd group of embryos was exposed to the same auditory stimulation but in the opposite order of presentation. Postnatal testing revealed that chicks exposed prenatally to the bobwhite chick contentment call

Merry J. Sleigh; Robert Lickliter

1998-01-01

269

Endocrine correlates of dominance in chicks of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii): testing the Challenge Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-chick broods of the blue-footed booby develop a dominance relationship during the junior chick’s first 2 weeks of life, when behaviour of the subordinate chick is conditioned through aggression by its 4-day-older sibling. We used natural and experimental situations to test the Challenge Hypothesis, which predicts a rise in testosterone to regulate aggression only in socially unstable situations, and to

G. Ramos-Fernández; A. Núñez-de la Mora; J. C. Wingfield; H. Drummond

2000-01-01

270

The role of helpers in feeding chicks in cooperatively breeding green (red-billed) woodhoopoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made of ten green (red-billed) woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus flocks during the breeding season in order to quantify the relationship between flock size and the amount of food delivered to chicks. The study period was kept short specifically to minimize the effects of environmental stochasticity. Neither woodhoopoe feeding visit rates nor the total amount of food brought to chicks

Morné A. Plessis

1991-01-01

271

Interactive and Vicarious Acquisition of Auditory Preferences in Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar

Christopher Harshaw; Robert Lickliter

2007-01-01

272

Goosecoid misexpression alters the morphology and Hox gene expression of the developing chick limb bud  

E-print Network

Goosecoid misexpression alters the morphology and Hox gene expression of the developing chick limb have analyzed the role it plays during chick limb development. Expression is initially observed at stage 20 in a prox- imal-anterior-ventral domain of the early limb bud which expands during subsequent

Tabin, Cliff

273

Nest location affects chick growth rates in Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule?Body mass of Whiskered Tern chicks from the central parts of subcolonies grew at a higher rate in comparison to chicks hatched in the peripheral zones. Growth rates of both body mass and head length correlated positively with nest density. We suggest that spatial distribution of pair quality within the colony of Whiskered Terns follows a central–periphery gradient.

Piotr Minias; Bartosz Lesner; Tomasz Janiszewski

2012-01-01

274

Nutritional, Genetic and Morphological Studies of an Abnormal Cartilage Formation in Young Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the occurrence of an abnormal cartilage formation in the bones of young chicks have been studied. The condition occurs in chicks fed a purified diet and is prevented by the use of natural feed ingredients. The incidence of this abnormality can be increased by genetic selection. The abnormal cartilage formation is characterized by an accumulation of immature chondrocytes

R. M. LEACH; J. R. ANDM; C. NESHEIM

275

Analysis of aggregation, a worked example: numbers of ticks on red grouse chicks  

E-print Network

ricinus on red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus chicks to temporal (year), spatial (altitude and location linear mixed model, Ixodes ricinus, Lagopus lagopus scoticus, Poisson- lognormal distribution, variance. ricinus on chicks of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus as an example. The Poisson distribution

Lambin, Xavier

276

Mercury dynamics in young Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from a polluted environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mercury concentrations and amounts in tissues of 19 starved young Common Tern chicks (median age 4 days) and in eggs from the same colony. Concentrations and burden were similar between eggs and newly hatched chicks. Mercury concentrations were highest in down, which contained at least 38% of the body mercury. The mercury burden of the whole body and

Peter H. Becker; Robert W. Furness; Diana Henning

1993-01-01

277

Use of Implanted Radiotransmitters to Estimate Survival of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced chick survival has been implicated in declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Because monitoring survival of unmarked sage-grouse chicks is difficult, radiotelemetry may be an effective technique to estimate survival rates, identify causes of mortality, and collect ecological data. Previous studies have used subcutaneous implants to attach radiotransmitters to hatchlings of several species of birds with precocial young.

MICHAEL A. GREGG; MIKE R. DUNBAR; JOHN A. CRAWFORD

2007-01-01

278

J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):1220, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

E-print Network

determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from Meleagris gallopavo intermedia desde el tiempo en que nacen hasta que pueden pernoctar en a´rboles. El las relaciones entre habitat y sobrevivencia. Key words: chick, Kaplan-Meier, Meleagris gallopavo

Wallace, Mark C.

279

Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks.  

PubMed

Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for investigating links between recognition, learning, and their fitness consequences. One major evolutionary puzzle has continued to capture the attention of naturalists for centuries: why do hosts of brood parasites generally fail to recognize parasitic offspring after they have hatched from the egg, even when the host and parasitic chicks differ to almost comic degrees? One prominent theory to explain this pattern proposes that the costs of mistakenly learning to recognize the wrong offspring make recognition maladaptive. Here we show that American coots, Fulica americana, can recognize and reject parasitic chicks in their brood by using learned cues, despite the fact that the hosts and the brood parasites are of the same species. A series of chick cross-fostering experiments confirm that coots use first-hatched chicks in a brood as referents to learn to recognize their own chicks and then discriminate against later-hatched parasitic chicks in the same brood. When experimentally provided with the wrong reference chicks, coots can be induced to discriminate against their own offspring, confirming that the learning errors proposed by theory can exist. However, learning based on hatching order is reliable in naturally parasitized coot nests because host eggs hatch predictably ahead of parasite eggs. Conversely, a lack of reliable information may help to explain why the evolution of chick recognition is not more common in hosts of most interspecific brood parasites. PMID:20016486

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2010-01-14

280

Counteracting Fusarium proliferatum Toxicity in Broiler Chicks by Supplementing Drinking Water with Poultry Aid Plus®1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether Poultry Aid Plus® (PAP, a commercial product for drinking water application) could reduce the stress on broiler chicks caused by Fusarium proliferatum contamination of feed, water (with or without PAP application, according to the manufac- turer's instructions), and feed (experimentally infected with F. proliferatum fermented and dried corn culture material, CM) were provided to broiler chicks for

W. WU

281

Effects of Feed Restriction and Realimentation on Digestive and Immune Function in the Leghorn Chick  

E-print Network

by determining the difference between intake rates and excretory loss rates of DM during periods of ad libitum cockerel chicks undergoing food restriction and realimentation. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 groups restriction (AN- Key words: food restriction, realimentation, digestive efficiency, mucosal immune system

Mladenoff, David

282

Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2011-03-22

283

Diet of chicks of Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of Cattle Egret chicks in the lower Soummam valley, Algeria, was investigated in 1998 and 2006, when 145 and 23 regurgitates were collected, respectively. In 1998, 1 698 individual prey items were identified. Insects formed the bulk of the diet of chicks: 94% in terms of frequency, 71% in terms of mass. Orthopterans were dominant, especially in terms

Rachida Gherbi-Salmi; Salaheddine Doumandji; Claire Voisin

2012-01-01

284

In vitro Phosphate Transport in Chick Ileum: Effect of Cholecalciferol, Calcium, Sodium and Metabolic Inhibitors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three parameters of phosphate transport were monitored in everted gut sacs prepared from the ileum of rachitic chicks injected with cholecalciferol 48 hours before use and untreated rachitic chicks by measuring tracer T movement: transfer from the outside ( mucosa) ) compartment to inside ( serosa! ) compartment; total transfer out of mucosa! compartment, i.e., into intestinal tissue plus serosal

ALAN N. TAYLOR

285

Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

McLachlan, John C.

1981-01-01

286

Individual Variation in Field Metabolic Rate of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the Chick-Rearing Period  

E-print Network

343 Individual Variation in Field Metabolic Rate of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the Chick), using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, was measured in free-ranging adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) early and late in the chick-rearing period at Svalbard, Norway. Individual variation in FMR

Bech, Claus

287

Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct.  

PubMed

Mercurated UTP was used as a substrate for RNA polymerases in the in vitro transcription of chromatin so that newly synthesized RNA could be efficiently separated from endogenous chromatin RNA by means of sulfhydryl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Utilizing this technique, it was possible to examine the effect of varying enzyme to DNA ratios on the transcription of specific genes from chromatin. For both Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and wheat germ RNA polymerase II, lowering the enzyme to DNA ration resulted in an increase in the percentage of ovalbumin mRNA sequences transcribed from chick oviduct chromatin. Similar results were also obtained for the transcription of the globin gene from chick reticulocyte chromatin. On the other hand, transcription of the globin gene from oviduct chromatin or the ovalbumin gene from reticulocyte chromatin or deproteinized chick DNA was not significantly affected by varying enzyme to DNA ratios. These results indicate that preferential transcription of certain chromatin genes relative to total RNA synthesis can occur and that this process is dependent on the presence of chromosomal proteins. Utilizing a cDNA probe complementary to the anticoding strand of the ovalbumin gene, the degree of asymmetry of the in vitro transcription of this gene was also examined. The percentage of ovalbumin RNA sequences homologous to the anticoding strand was not significantly affected when the enzyme to DNA ratio was lowered 16-fold. Since the percentage of coding ovalbumin mRNA sequences increased more than 6-fold over the same range, the percentage of asymmetric transcription of this gene increased. At the lowest enzyme to DNA ratio tested, the transcription of the ovalbumin gene from oviduct chromatin was almost totally asymmetric and, thus, closely resembled the pattern of gene transcription characteristic of the in vivo state. PMID:321457

Towle, H C; Tsai, M J; Tsai, S Y; O'Malley, B W

1977-04-10

288

Temporal and sequential structure of behavior and facility usage of laying hens in an enriched environment.  

PubMed

Improved housing for laying hens may start from the translation of their behavioral needs into welfare-based design parameters for laying hen houses. The objective of our research was to gain insights into the facility usage and behavioral needs of the hen over 24 h when there are no obvious restraints. Twenty ISA Brown commercial laying hens (Gallus domesticus) that were 18 wk old and not beak trimmed, were accommodated in a pen (4 x 6 m) at 19 + 2 degrees C on a light-dark cycle of 10L:14D. The pen providing nest boxes, drinkers, feeders, perches, sand, and wood shaving was designed to accommodate the hens for the experimental period. Video recordings were made for 10 d. Behavioral analyses were conducted on 5 birds for 5 d. Time spent on each behavior, log survivor analysis of events and inter-event intervals, bout analysis, diurnal pattern in events and bouts, occurrence of behavior in different segments and the corridor of the pen, and sequence analysis were performed to gain insights into the temporal and sequential structures of behavior. Hens spent 97% of the day on nest use, preening, drinking, feeding, still, walking, perching, and resting; 43% on commodity-dependent behavior; and 57% not on commodity-oriented behaviors. Behavioral events were short (around 70% event <2 min) and frequent (around 70% inter-event intervals <40s). The pen corridor was the preferred place for attack, escape, flying, resting, walking, and wing flapping. Feeding-drinking-feeding, preening-resting-preening, scratching-resting-scratching, dust bathing-resting-preening, or dust bathing-resting-wing stretching-dust bathing were the preferred sequences of behavior. Although hens interrupted ongoing behaviors and changed behaviors frequently, they nonetheless clustered behavioral events. PMID:16050113

Mishra, A; Koene, P; Schouten, W; Spruijt, B; van Beek, P; Metz, J H M

2005-07-01

289

Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2010-01-01

290

The role of invertebrates in the diet, growth and survival of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of diet on the growth, survival and movement of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus chicks was examined. We compared two areas of moorland in Scotland: a dry heath with a low density of red grouse and poor chick survival; and a wetter heath\\/bog with relatively higher red grouse numbers and higher rates of chick survival. There were no

K. J. Park; P. A. Robertson; S. T. Campbell; R. Foster; Z. M. Russell; D. Newborn; P. J. Hudson

2001-01-01

291

Mass and date at departure affect the survival of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus chicks after leaving the colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

I compared the timing of colony departure and body mass of 53 Ancient Murrelet Synth- liboramphus antiquus chicks that were retrapped as adults in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, with those of 3992 chicks not retrapped. If the probability of recapture is a measure of survival, survival was related to both mass and date. Chicks that left the colony at 26

ANTHONY J. GASTON

1997-01-01

292

Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

1985-01-01

293

Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick  

SciTech Connect

First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

Kim, Y. S.

1989-01-01

294

The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research.  

PubMed

A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome, the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance, suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

Kain, Kristin H; Miller, James W I; Jones-Paris, Celestial R; Thomason, Rebecca T; Lewis, John D; Bader, David M; Barnett, Joey V; Zijlstra, Andries

2014-02-01

295

Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

2007-01-01

296

The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research  

PubMed Central

A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

2014-01-01

297

Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

SciTech Connect

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M. [National Biological Survey, LaCrosse, WI (United States)

1995-03-01

298

Effects of Mycotoxin Contaminated Diets on Immunosuppression or Interference with Other Physiological Parameters in Commercial-Strain Laying Chicks, Pullets or Hens  

E-print Network

with or without the addition of DC. .......................................................... 39 Table 4 Relative organ weight (%) of bursa, spleen, and thymus of Lohmann LSL Lite pullets fed diets contaminated with DON... with or without the addition of DC. .......................................................... 42 Table 6 Histopathological assessment of bursa, spleen, and thymus of Lohmann LSL Lite pullets fed diets contaminated with DON...

Iselt, Stephanie Mae

2013-04-08

299

Acid glycosidases from hen oviduct and egg albumen.  

PubMed

Activities of seven acid glycosidases: beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-HEX), alpha- and beta-galactosidase (alpha- and beta-GAL), alpha- and beta-mannosidase (alpha- and beta-MAN), alpha-glucosidase and alpha-fucosidase in magnum region of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) oviduct, and four acid glycosidases: beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN in egg albumen, were investigated. beta-HEX from magnum and egg albumen hydrolysed 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylhexosamine-6-sulphate (4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4)) like mammalian beta-HEX form A. Multiple forms of magnum and egg albumen beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN were separated by strong anion exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing method. Chromatofocusing of the magnum resulted in the appearance of multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.18, 5.43, 5.55, 5.34, 5.27 and 5.16, for beta-GAL with pI of 4.98, 4.84, 4.77, 4.64 and 4.68-4.63, for alpha-MAN with pI of >or=7.4, 6.75, 6.62 and 6.26, and for beta-MAN two forms with pI of 6.37 and 5.77. Chromatofocusing of egg albumen yields multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.24, 6.08, 5.55 and 5.35, for beta-GAL two forms with pI of 5.10 and 4.86-4.80 for alpha-MAN multiple forms with pI of >or=7.4, 6.80, 6.60 and 6.30, and for beta-MAN forms with pI of 6.30 and 5.77. In conclusion, this study was the first to show beta-HEX activity against 4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4) in the magnum and albumen of bird eggs, corresponding to beta-HEX A activity in mammals. Main multiple forms of beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN occurring in the magnum were revealed in the egg albumen. Comparison with a cock of the same breed showed that hen egg magnum and albumen has the same multiple forms of the enzymes that are found in the epididymides and seminal plasma of the cock. PMID:16236536

Droba, M; Droba, B; B?edniak, D

2005-12-01

300

Critical assessment of chick quality measurements as an indicator of posthatch performance.  

PubMed

For hatcheries, not only is it important to have a high level of hatchability, but the quality of the chicks provided also has to be good, because broiler farmers are looking for chicks with a high growth potential, resulting in a greater slaughter yield at the end of the rearing period. However, chick quality has proven to be a difficult and subjective matter to define. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of different chick quality measurements for BW at slaughter age. Body weight, chick length, shank length, and toe length measurements as well as Tona score determination were performed on 1-d-old chicks and were linked to posthatch performance parameters. Different breeder lines (Cobb and Ross) and breeder ages (39, 42, and 53 wk of age) were used to investigate line and age effects. In addition, variability between people and repeatability in time of these quality measurements were determined. Body weight at 7 d of age appeared to be the best predictor of BW at slaughter age among all the quality measurements performed. Body weight at 1 d of age had the second greatest predictive value, closely followed by the ratio between BW at 1 d of age and chick length squared. Chick length and shank length both had low to no predictive value whatsoever for posthatch performance. The lack of significant correlations between the Tona score and posthatch performance could be explained by the absence of day-old chicks with anomalies (and thus a suboptimal Tona score) because a distinction had already been made, as is done in practice, between top-grade and lower grade chicks. PMID:18931188

Willemsen, H; Everaert, N; Witters, A; De Smit, L; Debonne, M; Verschuere, F; Garain, P; Berckmans, D; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

2008-11-01

301

Physiological and fitness correlates of experimentally altered hatching asynchrony magnitude in chicks of a wild seabird.  

PubMed

Nest-bound chicks depend entirely on their parents for food, often leading to high sibling competition. Asynchronous hatching, resulting from the onset of incubation before clutch completion, facilitates the establishment of within-nest hierarchy, with younger chicks being subject to lower feeding and growth rates. Because social and nutritional stresses affect baseline stress hormone levels in birds, younger chicks are expected to have higher levels of corticosterone than their siblings. As previous studies showed that hatching asynchrony magnitude influences the course of sibling competition, it should also affect baseline corticosterone. We measured baseline corticosterone at age 5 days in nestling black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in 3 types of experimental broods: synchronous, asynchronous, and highly asynchronous. Sexual dimorphism takes place during chick-rearing and might also influence baseline corticosterone, we thus included chick sex in our analyses and also monitored chick growth and survival. Baseline corticosterone did not differ among A-chicks, but was higher in B-chicks from highly asynchronous broods compared with the other brood types, in line with the presumed increase in nutritional stress. In asynchronous broods, A-chicks had higher baseline corticosterone than their siblings, contrary to our expectations. We interpret that result as a cost of dominance among A-chicks. In line with previous studies, mass gain was negatively correlated with baseline corticosterone levels. We found that baseline corticosterone predicted survival in a sex-specific way. Regardless of hatching rank, males with higher baseline corticosterone suffered higher mortality, suggesting that males were more sensitive to high level of stress, independently of its cause. PMID:24380674

Merkling, Thomas; Chastel, Olivier; Blanchard, Pierrick; Trouvé, Colette; Hatch, Scott A; Danchin, Etienne

2014-03-01

302

Exploring RPE as a Source of Photoreceptors: Differentiation and Integration of Transdifferentiating Cells Grafted into Embryonic Chick Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the possibility of generating photoreceptors through programming RPE transdifferentiation by examining cell differentiation after transplantation into the developing chick eye. Methods RPE was isolated, and the cells were dissociated, cultured, and guided to transdifferentiate by infection with retrovirus expressing neuroD (RCAS-neuroD), using RCAS–green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a control. The cells were then harvested and microinjected into the developing eyes of day 5 to day 7 chick embryos, and their development and integration were analyzed. Results Cells from the control culture integrated into the host RPE. When grafted cells were present in large number, multilayered RPE-like tissues were formed, and the extra tissues consisted of grafted cells and host cells. None of the cells from the control culture expressed photoreceptorspecific genes. In contrast, most cells from RCAS-neuroD–infected culture remained depigmented. A large number of them expressed photoreceptor-specific genes, such as visinin and opsins. Antibodies against red opsin decorated the apical tips and the cell bodies of the grafted, transdifferentiating cells. In the subretinal space, visinin+ cells aligned along the RPE or an RPE-like structure. When integrated into the host outer nuclear layer, grafted cells emanated elaborate, axonal arborization into the outer plexiform layer of the host retina. Conclusions Cultured RPE cells retained their remarkable regenerative capabilities. Cells guided to transdifferentiate along the photoreceptor pathway by neuroD developed a highly ordered cellular structure and could integrate into the outer nuclear layer. These data suggest that, through genetic programming, RPE cells could be a potential source of photoreceptor cells. PMID:17065528

Liang, Lina; Yan, Run-Tao; Ma, Wenxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Wang, Shu-Zhen

2006-01-01

303

Variability and possible rapid evolution of the hot post-AGB stars Hen 3-1347, Hen 3-1428, and LSS 4634  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for three hot southern-hemisphere post-AGB objects, Hen 3-1347 = IRAS 17074-1845, Hen 3-1428 = IRAS 17311-4924, and LSS 4634 = IRAS 18023-3409. In the spectrograms taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in 2012, we have measured the equivalent widths of the most prominent spectral lines. Comparison of the new data with those published previously points to a change in the spectra of Hen 3-1428 and LSS 4634 in the last 20 years. Based on ASAS data, we have detected rapid photometric variability in all three stars with an amplitude up to 0{·/ m }3-0{·/ m }4 in the V band. A similarity between the patterns of variability for the sample stars and other hot protoplanetary nebulae is pointed out. We present the results of UBV observations for Hen 3-1347, according to which the star undergoes rapid irregular brightness variations with maximum amplitudes ? V = 0{·/ m }25, ? B = 0{·/ m }25, and ? U = 0{·/ m }30 and shows color-magnitude correlations. Based on archival data, we have traced the photometric history of the stars over more than 100 years. Hen 3-1347 and LSS 4634 have exhibited a significant fading on a long time scale. The revealed brightness and spectrum variations in the stars, along with evidence for their enhanced mass, may be indicative of their rapid post-AGB evolution.

Arkhipova, V. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Komissarova, G. V.; Tekola, A.

2014-08-01

304

Temporal changes in distribution, prevalence and intensity of northern fowl mite ( Ornithonyssus sylviarum) parasitism in commercial caged laying hens, with a comprehensive economic analysis of parasite impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment and spread of Ornithonyssus sylviarum were documented through time on sentinel hens (50 per house of 28,000–30,000 hens) in the first egg production cycle of three large commercial flocks (12 houses) of white leghorn hens. Mites were controlled using acaricide, and the impacts of treatment on mite populations and economic performance were documented. Mite prevalence and intensity increased rapidly

Bradley A. Mullens; Jeb P. Owen; Douglas R. Kuney; Coralie E. Szijj; Kimberly A. Klingler

2009-01-01

305

Influence of front curtain design on nest choice by laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of front curtains, one-piece (OP) or sliced in stripes (SL), on the hens' nest preference and laying behaviour in an aviary system. We predicted that hens prefer SL-nests as they could perform nest inspections and enter and leave the nest along its whole width leading to fewer conflicts and more settled laying behaviour. 2. Eight pens containing 20 White Leghorn laying hens were equipped with two roll-away nests, one with OP and one with SL curtains. Laying behaviour was recorded for two days at peak lay in weeks 25 and 26. 3. More nest visits and more nest entries and exits along the whole width of the nest were counted in SL-nests. More sitting events without egg laying were performed in the OP-nests. No differences were found in the number of hens visiting the nests, egg number or aggressive behaviour. 4. Hens appeared to value the seclusion and protection provided by a closed front curtain. However, sliced curtains provided more opportunities to perform nest inspections. PMID:23281747

Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

2012-01-01

306

The effect of keel fractures on egg production, feed and water consumption in individual laying hens.  

PubMed

The impact of keel bone fractures on egg production, egg weight and feed and water consumption in individual laying hens. A total of 165 Lohmann brown laying hens were obtained from a commercial farm that consisted of 105 with keel fractures and 60 without keel fractures. 2. After a 4-d period of acclimatisation, hens were individually housed and provided with ad libitum food and water for a 24-h period. The number of eggs laid, egg weight, feed and water consumption during this period were recorded. Keel bone strength was also assessed. 3. Hens free from keel fractures laid more eggs (91.7% vs. 84.9%) of significantly heavier weight (61.9 g vs. 60.2 g), ate less feed (139 g vs. 151 g) and drank less water (212 ml vs. 237 ml) than hens with fractures. 4. There was a significant positive association between keel fracture severity and water consumption, and a significant negative association between keel fracture severity and egg weight and keel bone strength. 5. This small-scale study on individual birds shows that keel bone fractures may have an impact on the economics of egg production. PMID:23647178

Nasr, M A F; Murrell, J; Nicol, C J

2013-01-01

307

Hen1 is required for oocyte development and piRNA stability in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germ line-specific small RNA molecules that have a function in genome defence and germ cell development. They associate with a specific class of Argonaute proteins, named Piwi, and function through an RNA interference-like mechanism. piRNAs carry a 2?-O-methyl modification at their 3? end, which is added by the Hen1 enzyme. We show that zebrafish hen1 is specifically expressed in germ cells and is essential for maintaining a female germ line, whereas it is dispensable in the testis. Hen1 protein localizes to nuage through its C-terminal domain, but is not required for nuage formation. In hen1 mutant testes, piRNAs become uridylated and adenylated. Uridylation frequency is highest on retro-transposon-derived piRNAs and is accompanied by decreased piRNA levels and mild derepression of transposon transcripts. Altogether, our data suggest the existence of a uridylation-mediated 3?–5? exonuclease activity acting on piRNAs in zebrafish germ cells, which is counteracted by nuage-bound Hen1 protein. This system discriminates between piRNA targets and is required for ovary development and fully efficient transposon silencing. PMID:20859253

Kamminga, Leonie M; Luteijn, Maartje J; den Broeder, Marjo J; Redl, Stefan; Kaaij, Lucas J T; Roovers, Elke F; Ladurner, Peter; Berezikov, Eugene; Ketting, Rene F

2010-01-01

308

[The effect of the husbandry system on comb size and comb color in hens].  

PubMed

The comb size and comb colour of 84 hens (white and brown Hisex), living in battery cages or at free range were investigated. The main question was: does the comb size and colour correlate with the keeping systems i.e. with the quality and intensity of light and the ambient temperature? The results confirm these hypotheses and also show the genetic influence. The crest size of Hisex white hens is larger and paler compared with those of Hisex brown hens. This tendency is more distinct under the conditions of artificial light, less light and higher temperature of the environment in battery cage systems. Comb size and colour are used as a criterium for health and egg production of the hens. The combs are very important for the hen's health for the regulation of the body temperature and for absorbing light and also for the social structure of the flock; the comb form is an essential characteristic to identify the individual animal. PMID:8165660

Fölsch, D W; Sulzer, B; Meier, T; Huber, H U

1994-02-01

309

Hematology of chicks experiencing marginal vitamin B6 deficiency.  

PubMed

An economical vitamin B6-deficient ration, which was palatable to broiler chickens, was prepared and fed to 1-day-old broiler chicks. The experimental ration was a glucose-soybean meal diet. Vitamin B6 was removed by washing the soybean meal with water. Microbiological analysis revealed that the washed ration contained .45 mg vitamin B6 activity/kg. Experimental rations were formulated to contain .5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg added pyridoxine HCl/kg of ration. These supplemental levels produced total pyridoxine concentrations, as assayed, of .95, 1.48, and 3.18 mg pyridoxine HCl activity/kg of diet. Chicks were grown to 7 weeks of age and characteristic B6 deficiency traits, including increased mortality, decreased body weight gain, and increased incidence of abnormal leg conformation, were quantitated or observed. An extensive hematological evaluation at 4 weeks of age indicated that this marginal B6 deficiency resulted in increased erythrocyte numbers, decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, and increased erythrocyte fragility. No changes in hematocrits, total hemoglobin level, intracellular hemoglobin concentration, or reticulocyte number were found. These results indicate that anemia did not occur in broilers experiencing a moderate vitamin B6 deficiency. The hematological condition is described as microcytic, normochromic polycythemia. PMID:6739414

Blalock, T L; Thaxton, J P

1984-06-01

310

Dietary L-homoserine spares threonine in chicks.  

PubMed

Four chick bioassays were conducted to evaluate the threonine (Thr) replacement value of l-homoserine (HS). Growth rate was increased (P < 0.05) by dietary addition of 800 mg l-HS/kg diet to a purified diet severely deficient in Thr or by the addition of 800 or 1000 mg of l-HS/kg diet to a corn-peanut meal diet distinctly deficient in Thr. The addition of an isomolar level of alpha-ketobutyrate, a catabolic product of both Thr and HS, did not elicit a response. Standard-curve methodology predicted a Thr replacement value of 38 +/- 9% for HS. Interactions (P < 0.01) were observed in assays 2 and 4 between dietary Thr adequacy and 800 or 1000 mg l-HS/kg supplementation. Thus, HS improved growth performance when added to a Thr-deficient diet (0.46 g Thr/100 g diet), but it decreased growth performance when added to the same diet containing surfeit Thr (0.80 g Thr/100 g diet). The results indicate that low levels of HS elicit a growth response in young chicks fed Thr-deficient diets. PMID:19474159

Bryant, Kasey I; Dilger, Ryan N; Parsons, Carl M; Baker, David H

2009-07-01

311

ATP-induced noncooperative thermal unfolding of hen lysozyme  

SciTech Connect

To understand the role of ATP underlying the enhanced amyloidosis of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, combined with tryptophan fluorescence, dynamic light-scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry, is used to examine the alterations of the conformation and thermal unfolding pathway of the HEWL in the presence of ATP, Mg{sup 2+}-ATP, ADP, AMP, etc. It is revealed that the binding of ATP to HEWL through strong electrostatic interaction changes the secondary structures of HEWL and makes the exposed residue W62 move into hydrophobic environments. This alteration of W62 decreases the {beta}-domain stability of HEWL, induces a noncooperative unfolding of the secondary structures, and produces a partially unfolded intermediate. This intermediate containing relatively rich {alpha}-helix and less {beta}-sheet structures has a great tendency to aggregate. The results imply that the ease of aggregating of HEWL is related to the extent of denaturation of the amyloidogenic region, rather than the electrostatic neutralizing effect or monomeric {beta}-sheet enriched intermediate.

Liu, Honglin; Yin, Peidong; He, Shengnan; Sun, Zhihu [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Zhuang, Hao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Guobin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wei, Shiqiang, E-mail: sqwei@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

2010-07-02

312

Elastic constants in orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic sound velocities of cross-linked orthorhombic hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals, including a large amount of water in the crystal, were measured using an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. As a result, seven elastic constants of orthorhombic crystals were observed to be C11 = 5.24 GPa, C22 = 4.87 GPa, C12 = 4.02 GPa, C33 = 5.23 GPa, C44 = 0.30 GPa, C55 = 0.40 GPa, and C66 = 0.43 GPa, respectively. However, C13 and C23 could not be observed because the suitable crystal planes could not be cut from bulk crystals. We conclude that the observed elastic constants of the cross-linked crystals are coincident with those of the intrinsic crystals without cross-linking. Moreover, the characteristics of the elastic constants in orthorhombic HEWL crystals are due to the fact that the shear elastic constants, C44, C55, and C66, are softer than in tetragonal crystals. That is, the shear components, C44, C55, and C66, are one half of those of the tetragonal crystals.

Kitajima, N.; Tsukashima, S.; Fujii, D.; Tachibana, M.; Koizumi, H.; Wako, K.; Kojima, K.

2014-01-01

313

Myricetin prevents fibrillogenesis of hen egg white lysozyme.  

PubMed

Myricetin is a natural flavonol found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, and herbs as well as other plants. Recent studies have identified potential antiamyloidogenic activity for this compound. In this study, the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation by hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the antifibril-forming activity of myricetin were investigated. We demonstrate that myricetin significantly inhibits the fibrillation of HEWL and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect toward HEWL fibrillation was stronger than that exerted by the previously characterized fibril-forming inhibitor quercetin, which has high structural similarity with myricetin. Spectrofluorometric and computational studies suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibitory action of myricetin at a molecular level is to reduce the population of partially unfolded HEWL intermediates. This action is achieved by the tight binding of myricetin to the aggregation-prone region of the ?-domain of HEWL and linking to the relatively stable ?-domain, thus resulting in the inhibition of amyloid fibril formation. PMID:25196984

He, Jianwei; Wang, Yu; Chang, Alan K; Xu, Linan; Wang, Na; Chong, Xiaoying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Jones, Gary W; Song, Youtao

2014-10-01

314

Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. 2. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). 3. The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. 4. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. 5. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period. PMID:25109942

Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

2014-10-01

315

Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations Between Feather Pecking and Open-Field Response in Laying Hens at Two Different Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and 30 weeks of age.

T. B. Rodenburg; A. J. Buitenhuis; B. Ask; K. A. Uitdehaag; P. Koene; J. J. van der Poel; J. A. M. van Arendonk; H. Bovenhuis

2004-01-01

316

Effects of Environmental and Social Factors on Incubation Behavior, Endocrinological Parameters, and Production Traits in Turkey Hens (Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hens raised in three different environ- ments were assessed for changes in egg production performance, the rate of incubation behavior expression, and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin for 20 wk following the laying of the first egg. The environments were individual (IFP) or collective floor pens (CFP) and individual battery cages (Cp and Cnp). The hens from

G. BEDECARRATS; D. GUEMENE; M. A. RICHARD-YRIS

317

Performance and Egg Characteristics of Laying Hens Fed Diets Incorporated with Poultry By-Product and Feather Meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effects of poultry by-product meal (PBPM) and feather meal (FM) incorporated separately and in combination in the diet on laying hen performance and egg characteristics during postpeak production were determined. Bovans White strain laying hens, 42 wk of age, were fed diets with 0% PBPM and FM, 5% FM, 5% PBPM, or 4% FM + 4% PBPM. Egg

N. Senkoylu; H. E. Samli; H. Akyurek; A. Agma; S. Yasar

318

Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages  

PubMed Central

Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

319

Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS).  

PubMed

1. A total of 192 ISA Brown hens were given diets containing a high concentration of maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and egg quality was determined. 2. Birds were allocated to 8 treatment groups with 12 replicates (cages) of two hens and were given, from week 26 to 55, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets with or without a high concentration of DDGS (200 g/kg). The diet containing DDGS was not supplemented or supplemented with enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius) and a mixture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan. 3. The inclusion of DDGS in the diet had no effect on number of eggs produced, total egg mass, mean egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio. Egg and eggshell quality parameters were also unaffected by dietary DDGS. The yolk colour score (points in Roche scale) was significantly increased by DDGS inclusion. DDGS in the diet caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were rather unfavourable from a dietary perspective (an increase of cholesterol content, and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio). 4. During the experimental period (26-55 weeks of age) supplementation of the diet containing a high concentration of DDGS with enzymes, inulin as well as chitosan, increased number of eggs produced and daily egg mass. In older hens (50 weeks of age) inulin positively affected eggshell quality parameters, i.e. shell percentage, thickness and density. Diet supplementation with herb extracts, inulin or chitosan, decreased the content of cholesterol in yolks. 5. The results of this study suggest that DDGS may be incorporated up to a concentration of 200 g/kg in the diet of laying hens without any negative effects on egg performance. Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of layers given diets with a high concentration of DDGS. PMID:23826901

?wi?tkiewicz, S; Arczewska-W?osek, A; Krawczyk, J; Pucha?a, M; Józefiak, D

2013-01-01

320

Internal hirudiniasis in a hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus)-The first report in literature  

PubMed Central

The leech is a blood sucking worm belonging to the class Hirudinea of the phylum Annelida. Leeches are commonly found in the waterland of temperate and tropical countries. Hirudiniasis, a rare condition with unusual symptoms, is caused by accidental introduction of leeches through natural orifices. In August 2011, a 1-year-old hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus) referred to private veterinary clinic in Iran with symptoms of severe respiratory distress, restless and inappetite. According to owner statement, the hen had a history of using spring water. After physical examination, black object was found attached to the internal mucous membrane of floor of mouth. The diagnosis was leech infection. The leech was removed by forceps without administration of drugsand detection, the hirudiniasis was caused by immature larvae of Limnatis nilotica (L. nilotica). According to author's knowledge, there is no report of Hirudiniasisin birds and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis due to L. niloticain hen in literature.

Bahmani, Mahmoud; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Ghotbian, Fereidon; Bahmani, Farzaneh

2013-01-01

321

Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.  

PubMed

Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites. PMID:22521709

Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba

2012-07-01

322

Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.  

PubMed

We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Chicks with small growth rate coefficients for body mass exhibited retarded growth of all body measures except wing length. This enabled these chicks to fledge in a shorter period of time than their slow growth would otherwise allow. The growth rate of body mass was observed to vary greatly between chicks. Fast-growing African black oystercatchers had a shorter pre-fledging period; were larger at fledging and were more likely to fledge successfully. African black oystercatchers display sibling rivalry, and once a dominance relationship is established, the larger chick remains so during the pre-fledging period. Larger siblings fledged earlier and at a heavier mass than the smaller siblings and this may improve their chances of survival. Neither hatching date nor brood size influenced the growth rate coefficients. PMID:18838259

Tjørve, Kathleen M C; Underhill, Leslie G

2009-01-01

323

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

324

Fat status in Lohmann Silver and Lohmann tradition laying hens kept in modified small group housing systems, small group housing systems, furnished cages and an aviary system.  

PubMed

The influence of different housing systems on adiposis of liver, abdomen and heart was evaluated in 670 Lohmann Silver (LS) and 240 Lohmann Tradition (LT) laying hens during two trials. Examinations took place in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th laying month. In addition, serum concentration of triglycerides (TRI) was analysed. Housing systems included in this study were a furnished cage system (Aviplus (AP)), a small group housing system (Eurovent 625a-EU (EV)), with perches on the same (first trial) and on different levels (second trial, MEV), and an aviary system (Voliere Natura (AV)). In both trials, a significantly lower fat status of abdomen and liver could be observed in hens housed in AV. Consistently in both trials, body weight and housing system had the largest influence on fat status of liver, abdomen and heart. Scores of fat status of liver and abdomen in EV and MEV were in between of those observed in AV and AP, while heart fat status did not differ among housing systems. With an increasing macroscopic fat status of the liver, liver weight and TRI concentration significantly increased. Different perch positions in MEV did not have a significant influence on fat status in layers. PMID:18277775

Rönchen, Swaantje; Scholz, Britta; Hamann, Henning; Distl, Ottmar

2008-01-01

325

Role of the Trypanosoma brucei HEN1 Family Methyltransferase in Small Interfering RNA Modification  

PubMed Central

Parasitic protozoa of the flagellate order Kinetoplastida represent one of the deepest branches of the eukaryotic tree. Among this group of organisms, the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) has been investigated in Trypanosoma brucei and to a lesser degree in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. The pathway is triggered by long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and in T. brucei requires a set of five core genes, including a single Argonaute (AGO) protein, T. brucei AGO1 (TbAGO1). The five genes are conserved in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. but are absent in other major kinetoplastid species, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major. In T. brucei small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated at the 3? end, whereas Leishmania (Viannia) sp. siRNAs are not. Here we report that T. brucei HEN1, an ortholog of the metazoan HEN1 2?-O-methyltransferases, is required for methylation of siRNAs. Loss of TbHEN1 causes a reduction in the length of siRNAs. The shorter siRNAs in hen1?/? parasites are single stranded and associated with TbAGO1, and a subset carry a nontemplated uridine at the 3? end. These findings support a model wherein TbHEN1 methylates siRNA 3? ends after they are loaded into TbAGO1 and this methylation protects siRNAs from uridylation and 3? trimming. Moreover, expression of TbHEN1 in Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis did not result in siRNA 3? end methylation, further emphasizing mechanistic differences in the trypanosome and Leishmania RNAi mechanisms. PMID:24186950

Shi, Huafang; Barnes, Rebecca L.; Carriero, Nicholas; Atayde, Vanessa D.

2014-01-01

326

Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roosters.  

PubMed

1. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caecectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs from 5 plant sources and one animal source. 2. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) to broilers and laying hens or from fasted EAA flow from caecectomised roosters. 3. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities did not differ between broilers and roosters for three of the 6 feed ingredients. 4. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed on the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). 5. The apparent TAA digestibilities were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caecectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). 6. The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers for three of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). 7. There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. 8. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but no different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. 9. The results from this study showed that both the apparent and standardised amino acid digestibility values in caecectomised roosters, laying hens, and broilers ingredients are similar for some, but not all, feed ingredients. 10. Nutritionists should, therefore, be cautious about using digestibility coefficients obtained by different methodologies as values may differ. PMID:19637035

Adedokun, S A; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M; Adeola, O; Lilburn, M S; Applegate, T J

2009-05-01

327

Social Facilitation Revisited: Increase in Foraging Efforts and Synchronization of Running in Domestic Chicks  

PubMed Central

Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation. PMID:21811436

Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

2011-01-01

328

Maternal vitamin E supplementation affects the antioxidant capability and oxidative status of hatching chicks.  

PubMed

The effects of maternal vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of chicks were investigated. Female breeder chicks were fed corn-soybean growing diets without supplemental vitamin E for a 17-wk developmental period. After 17 wk, the birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and fed corn-soybean diets supplemented with 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg/kg vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate), respectively. Blood samples were collected and pullets were artificially inseminated at 35 wk of age. Eggs laid beginning on d 2 after insemination were placed in an incubator. At the time of hatching, 12 chicks from each treatment were randomly sampled and killed. Livers and brains of chicks were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidant status. Plasma vitamin E concentrations increased linearly (P < 0.001; r = 0.997) with the increase in supplemental vitamin E, but those in egg yolk reached a plateau at 120 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, of chick brain decreased linearly (P < 0.01; r = -0.909) with the increase in supplemental vitamin E. Pullets given 160 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had lower plasma MDA concentrations than those given 0 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for the reactive oxygen species levels, an indicator of oxidative stress, of chick brain and liver. For antioxidant enzymes, chicks of pullets given 120 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had higher (P < 0.05) activities of liver catalase than those given 0-80 mg/kg. Chicks of pullets given 160 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had higher (P < 0.05) activities of brain superoxide dismutase than those given 0-40 mg/kg. These results indicated that maternal supplementation with high levels of vitamin E (120-160 mg/kg) enhances antioxidant capability and depresses oxidative stress in chicks. PMID:16177212

Lin, Yih-Fwu; Tsai, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Yi-Chun; Chang, Sue-Joan

2005-10-01

329

Individual variation in field metabolic rate of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the chick-rearing period.  

PubMed

Field metabolic rate (FMR), using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, was measured in free-ranging adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) early and late in the chick-rearing period at Svalbard, Norway. Individual variation in FMR was analysed by comparing FMR with body mass, sex, nest attendance, chick age, brood size, and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Mean FMR of kittiwakes during the chick-rearing period was 27.0+/-0.9 (SE) W kg(-1), while the individual variation (calculated as coefficient of variation [CV]) in FMR was 24%. Sex, time spent away from the nest, age of the chicks, and brood size contributed significantly to FMR and explained 65% of the variation in FMR. The FMR increased by 32% from early until late in the chick-rearing period. This occurred simultaneously with an increase in the time spent away from the nest. In 15 of 20 pairs, one of the mates had 15% or higher (mean of the 15 pairs, 22%+/-8%) FMR (W kg(-1)) than their partner, even though the mates spent equal amounts of time away from the nest. This indicates an intrapair conflict in FMR. The variation in total FMR of pairs was 40% less than the individual variation, and total FMR of pairs increased with age of the chicks. This indicates that the mates adjust their energy expenditure within a relatively constant FMR determined by the energy needs of the chicks. Individual variation in FMR could not be explained by variation in body mass or BMR. BMR measured late in the chick-rearing period was 26% lower than previous measurements of BMR from the prebreeding and incubation periods. The increase in FMR and simultaneous decrease in BMR caused a 40% increase in metabolic intensity (FMR/BMR) of kittiwakes during the chick-rearing period. It is suggested that the metabolic intensity is not a proper measure of the metabolic load in seabirds. PMID:11331506

Fyhn, M; Gabrielsen, G W; Nordøy, E S; Moe, B; Langseth, I; Bech, C

2001-01-01

330

Reversed hatching order, body condition and corticosterone levels in chicks of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).  

PubMed

In altricial and semi-altricial species, asynchronous hatching gives the first chicks to hatch an initial advantage over other siblings and often leads to the elimination of the smallest chicks. Both baseline corticosterone and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels have been shown to be higher in food deprived chicks than in chicks fed ad libitum. However, first-hatched chicks have also been shown to exhibit higher corticosterone levels than last-hatched chicks, suggesting an influence of the initial differences between eggs on corticosterone levels. We subjected single-chicks of southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome to a standardised capture-stress protocol. In this species having very dimorphic two-egg clutches, we examined whether corticosterone levels were different between the two chick categories and tested for the effect of body condition controlled by the chick category. Neither body sizes, nor corticosterone levels differed between A- and B-chicks at 18 days. In contrast to baseline corticosterone levels, acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone were negatively correlated to body condition: chicks with a good body condition had lower acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone than chicks with a poor condition, whatever the chick category. Our results do not support the idea that initial differences in egg characteristics could drive the difference in corticosterone levels between siblings. On the contrary, they show that the A-egg of rockhopper penguins has, when reared alone, the same intrinsic potential to develop into a fledged chick as the B-egg. Later differences in body condition appear to lead to variation in the acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone. PMID:20850443

Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

2010-12-01

331

Changes in the number of chick ciliary ganglion neuron processes with time in cell culture  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of chick ciliary ganglion neurons dissociated from embryonic day 8 or 9 ganglia and maintained in vitro. Most of the neurons were multipolar during the first three days after plating, with an average of 6.0 processes extending directly from the cell body. The neurons became unipolar with time. The remaining primary process accounted for greater than 90% of the total neuritic arbor. This striking change in morphology was not due to the selective loss of multipolar cells, or to an obvious decline in the health of apparently intact cells. The retraction of processes was neither prevented nor promoted by the presence of embryonic muscle cells. Process pruning occurred to the same extent and over the same time course whether the cells were plated on a monolayer of embryonic myotubes or on a layer of lysed fibroblasts. Process retraction is not an inevitable consequence of our culture conditions. Motoneurons dissociated from embryonic spinal cords remained multipolar over the same period of time. We conclude that ciliary ganglion neurons breed true in dissociated cell culture in that the multipolar-unipolar transition reflects their normal, in vivo, developmental program. PMID:3805124

1987-01-01

332

Methionine and choline relationship in the nutrition of the commercial laying hen  

E-print Network

University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. R. Creger A study was conducted to determine the effects on hen-day production, feed conversion, egg weights and body weights in SCWL hens fed a milo-soybean meal basal diet (. 23/ methionine and 1492 mg.../kg choline) and supplemented with either . 07/ or . 14/ methionine and 4?0 or 840 mg/kg choline for 1Z ZB-day periods. The supplementation of . 07/ or . 14K methionine and 420 or 840 mg/kg choline to the basal diet, regardless of the level, resulted in a...

Brooks, Leon George

2012-06-07

333

The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes  

E-print Network

, 1973). Pongsuwana (1956) reported on experiments in Thailand with farm ponds stocked with T. mossambica and a piscivorous predator. These ponds received manure and wastes from pig sties and hen houses built on the banks. In addition, fish were fed... birds/ha. At this density, it may be feasible to incor- porate fish culture into a lagoon system of waste removal on many poultry farms. Ten to 15% of the diet of commercial laying hens is protein in the form of fish or plant meal. This protein...

Burns, Robert Paul

2012-06-07

334

Effect of supplementing selenium yeast in diets of laying hens on egg selenium content.  

PubMed

An 8-wk experiment was conducted using 90 Hy-Line W-98 hens (26 wk of age) to evaluate the use of organic Se from Se yeast as an Se source for laying hens. At 22 wk of age, the hens were placed on a low Se corn-soybean meal pretest diet for 4 wk. At the end of the pretest period, hens were placed on 1 of 3 experimental treatments; the low Se diet without supplementation (basal diet), basal diet with 0.3 ppm of Se added from sodium selenite, or basal diet with 0.3 ppm of Se added from Se yeast. Diets contained 0.11, 0.38, and 0.34 ppm Se for basal, basal plus sodium selenite, and basal plus Se yeast diets, respectively. The experimental diets were each fed to 10 replicate groups of 3 hens for 8 wk (26 to 34 wk of age). Selenium levels in eggs (mg/kg of whole egg) were analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 wk. Egg Se contents at 0 wk were similar among treatments. Eggs from hens fed the 2 Se-fortified diets had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than did eggs from hens fed the low Se diet at 4 and 8 wk. The Se yeast diet also yielded levels of egg Se that were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those from the sodium selenite diet at 4 and 8 wk. The Se yeast resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in egg Se concentration compared with a 2.8-fold increase for the sodium selenite diet over the unsupplemented diet at 8 wk (0.065, 0.182, and 0.311 ppm for the control, sodium selenite, and Se yeast diets, respectively). There were no differences in egg production, egg weight, feed intake, or mortality among treatments. Results of this study indicate that use of Se yeast in laying hens diets is very effective for increasing the Se content of eggs. PMID:16479947

Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Yoon, I; Butler, J

2005-12-01

335

Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen  

E-print Network

EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject: Poultry Science EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Approved as to style and content by: (C airm n of Comm tee) ead f Departm t) (Memb...

Husseini, Munther Dawod

2012-06-07

336

Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.  

PubMed

Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

2012-07-01

337

Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens  

E-print Network

, inducing molt, and post-molt laying performance. Feeding a grape pomace diet to laying hens was considered to be a preferable molting method to conventional FW in view of animal rights issues (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002). Biggs et al. (2003) found..., inducing molt, and post-molt laying performance. Feeding a grape pomace diet to laying hens was considered to be a preferable molting method to conventional FW in view of animal rights issues (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002). Biggs et al. (2003) found...

Zhang, Cheng

2005-11-01

338

Mercury dynamics in young Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from a polluted environment.  

PubMed

: We studied mercury concentrations and amounts in tissues of 19 starved young Common Tern chicks (median age 4 days) and in eggs from the same colony. Concentrations and burden were similar between eggs and newly hatched chicks. Mercury concentrations were highest in down, which contained at least 38% of the body mercury. The mercury burden of the whole body and of the tissues as well as the concentration in down increased with age and body mass, indicating the importance of down as an elimination pathway. Conversion ratios between mercury concentrations in tissues and the whole chick body varied according to the contamination level. PMID:24203117

Becker, P H; Furness, R W; Henning, D

1993-03-01

339

Oxygen consumption rates of adults and chicks during brooding in king quail ( Coturnix chinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption rates were measured in chicks (0–7 days of age), and in non-brooding and brooding adults. Brooded chicks maintained a constant oxygen consumption rate at a chamber ambient temperature of 10–35°C (0–5 days of age: 2.95ml O2·g-1·h-1 and 6–17 days of age: 5.80 ml O2·g-1·h-1) while unbrooded chicks increased oxygen consumption rate at ambient temperature below 30°C to double

J. T. Pearson

1994-01-01

340

Repolarization currents in embryonic chick atrial heart cell aggregates.  

PubMed Central

Outward membrane currents in aggregates of atrial cells prepared from 7-12-d-old chick embryonic hearts were measured with the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Two outward current components, Ix1 and Ix2, were found in the plateau potential range of the action potential. The Ix1 component is activated between -50 and -20 mV; the Ix2 component is activated between -15 and +20 mV. The Ix1 component inwardly rectifies, whereas Ix2 has an approximately linear current-voltage relation. These preparations lack a time-dependent pacemaker current component, even though they beat spontaneously with an interbeat interval of approximately 1 s. A mathematical model of electrical activity is described based on our measurements of time-dependent outward current, and measurements in the literature of inward current components. PMID:3790689

Shrier, A; Clay, J R

1986-01-01

341

Cadmium effects on early development of chick embryos.  

PubMed

The toxic potential of cadmium (Cd) is well-documented for young and adult vertebrates, but it is still poorly understood in the early stages of development. In this study, cadmium effects were investigated on Gallus gallus embryos after injection of CdCl(2) (5?M and 50?M) within the egg air chamber, and incubation for 48 and 72h. After exposure, morphological and enzymatic analyses for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were performed. Critical morphological abnormalities occurred after exposure to the highest concentration of cadmium, mainly in the cephalic region, indicating the powerful teratogenic effect of Cd to chick embryos. Cd exposure did not alter enzymatic activities when compared to the control group, but the levels of G6PDH activity were highest in older embryos at stage 19, indicating that antioxidant defenses are not so robust in the earliest embryo stages. PMID:22824502

Yamamoto, F Y; Filipak Neto, F; Freitas, P F; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Ortolani-Machado, C F

2012-09-01

342

Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

2007-03-01

343

Monovalent amidiniums block calcium channels in chick sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The effect of amidiniums on high-threshold Ca2+ channel currents (ICa) was studied in chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. Guanidinium reduced ICa in a dose-dependent fashion. The block was relieved by increasing the concentration of the permeant ions, Ba2+ or Ca2+, suggesting a competition for a common binding site within the channel. Formamidinium and methyl-guanidinium suppressed ICa with similar potencies, whereas L-arginine had no effect. A neutral amidine, urea, increased ICa. In Ca(2+)-free solutions guanidinium and Na+ permeated through the Ca2+ channel equally well. Structure-activity relationship obtained for blocking efficacies of different amidiniums are used to discuss possible configurations of the selectivity filter in the Ca2+ channel. PMID:7807522

Mironov, S L

1994-09-01

344

Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

2001-01-01

345

Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks.  

PubMed

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects. PMID:11345464

Elliott, J E; Wilson, L K; Henny, C J; Trudeau, S F; Leighton, F A; Kennedy, S W; Cheng, K M

2001-04-01

346

Nitrogen incorporation in ultrathin gate dielectrics: A comparison of He\\/N2O and He\\/N2 remote plasma processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrathin Si oxynitride films grown by low-temperature remote plasma processing were examined by on-line Auger electron spectroscopy and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the concentration, spatial distribution, and chemical bonding of nitrogen. The films were grown at 300 °C on Si(100) substrates using two radio-frequency remote plasma processes: (i) He\\/N2O remote plasma-assisted oxidation (RPAO) and (ii) two-step remote plasma

Amit Khandelwal; Bradley C. Smith; H. Henry Lamb

2001-01-01

347

The effects of melatonin on the physical properties of bones and egg shells in the laying hen.  

PubMed

Laying hens often experience unbalanced calcium utilization which can cause deficiencies in bone and egg mineralization. Because melatonin has been shown to affect bone mineralization in other animals, we examined whether treating hens with melatonin would affect eggshell thickness and improve skeletal performance, thereby reducing skeletal and egg shell defects. Birds were given a diet containing either low (30 µg/kg), medium (300 µg/kg), or high (3 mg/kg) concentrations of melatonin, or control feed through approximately one laying cycle. We examined the weight, length, and strength of egg, femur, tibia, and keel. Hens treated with a high concentration of melatonin showed significant strengthening in their femur and tibia, as measured by maximum force sustained and breaking force, compared to controls. Egg weights from hens treated with melatonin were significantly greater than those from hens that were not treated with melatonin. Conversely, egg shell mass of hens treated with melatonin was significantly lower than those of hens not treated with melatonin. Our data suggest that melatonin may affect the allocation of calcium to bone at the expense of egg shell mineralization. PMID:23468846

Taylor, Alexander C; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Moore, Ashli; Bartell, Paul A

2013-01-01

348

The Effects of Melatonin on the Physical Properties of Bones and Egg Shells in the Laying Hen  

PubMed Central

Laying hens often experience unbalanced calcium utilization which can cause deficiencies in bone and egg mineralization. Because melatonin has been shown to affect bone mineralization in other animals, we examined whether treating hens with melatonin would affect eggshell thickness and improve skeletal performance, thereby reducing skeletal and egg shell defects. Birds were given a diet containing either low (30 µg/kg), medium (300 µg/kg), or high (3 mg/kg) concentrations of melatonin, or control feed through approximately one laying cycle. We examined the weight, length, and strength of egg, femur, tibia, and keel. Hens treated with a high concentration of melatonin showed significant strengthening in their femur and tibia, as measured by maximum force sustained and breaking force, compared to controls. Egg weights from hens treated with melatonin were significantly greater than those from hens that were not treated with melatonin. Conversely, egg shell mass of hens treated with melatonin was significantly lower than those of hens not treated with melatonin. Our data suggest that melatonin may affect the allocation of calcium to bone at the expense of egg shell mineralization. PMID:23468846

Taylor, Alexander C.; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Moore, Ashli; Bartell, Paul A.

2013-01-01

349

A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo  

PubMed Central

One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation. PMID:24068190

Borges, R.M.; Horne, J.H.; Melo, A.; Vidal, J.T.; Vieceli, F.M.; Melo, M.O.; Kanno, T.Y.N.; Fraser, S.E.; Yan, C.Y.I.

2013-01-01

350

Modified sensory features of social stimulation alter the perceptual responsiveness of bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus).  

PubMed

This study examined the sensory features of postnatal social experience that bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus) require to maintain species-typical responding to maternal auditory-visual cues. Chicks were reared in 1 of 3 conditions after hatching: altered tactile, auditory, or visual experience with siblings. Findings revealed that altered tactile, auditory, or visual experience during the first 36 or the first 72 hr following hatching modified chicks' preferential responding to species-specific maternal cues. During the second 36 hr, altered tactile or auditory experience disrupted chicks' perceptual development, whereas altered visual experience did not affect species-typical responsiveness. Results indicate that (a) timing of early postnatal visual experience can affect early filial responsiveness to maternal cues and (b) normal sensory experience derived from early social interaction affects species-typical perceptual development. PMID:9642785

Columbus, R F; Lickliter, R

1998-06-01

351

Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

1997-01-01

352

Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

1997-01-01

353

Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?  

E-print Network

, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20­ 22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56­62 g), lesser yellowlegs(Tringa flavipes; 88­92 g

Williams, Jos. B.

354

Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

355

Use of Frozen Chick and Duck Embryo Cells for Plaque Assays of Arboviruses and Rickettsiae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions for preparation, freezing, storing and plating of chick and duck embryo cell slurries are described. Comparisons of plaque assay sensitivity for fresh and previously frozen cells with Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Ve...

A. T. McManus, D. R. Parker, R. H. Kenyon, J. P. Kondig, G. A. Eddy

1974-01-01

356

The effect of dietary betaine in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary betaine in broiler chicks with either chronic (CHR; 2.5 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts on Day 1, 4, 7, and 10) or acute (ACT; 1.0 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts on Day 1) Eimeria acervulina infections. Three hundred (Experiment 1) or 600 (Experiment 2), 4-d-old male chicks were used in the 14-d experiments. In both experiments, a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used: two levels of betaine (0 or 0.075%) and three levels of coccidiosis infection (uninfected, CHR, or ACT). Each treatment was replicated five (Experiment 1) or 10 (Experiment 2) times with 10 chicks per replicate. In Experiment 1, the ACT infection decreased (P < 0.01) average daily gain and gain:feed, and the CHR infection decreased (P < 0.02) average daily gain. The ACT and CHR infections decreased (P < 0.06) Day 7 plasma carotenoids and Day 14 plasma total protein, and the ACT infection also decreased (P < 0.06) Day 7 plasma total protein. Average daily gain and Day 7 plasma total protein were increased in CHR chicks fed betaine but were decreased in uninfected chicks fed betaine (CHR x betaine; P < 0.09). Chicks fed betaine had decreased (P < 0.06) Day 7 plasma carotenoids. In Experiment 2 the CHR and ACT infections decreased (P < 0.01) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, grain:feed ratio, Days 7 and 14 plasma carotenoids, and Day 7 plasma total protein. Chicks fed betaine had increased (P < 0.07) average daily gains, gain:feed ratios, and lesion scores. Day 14 plasma carotenoids and plasma total protein were decreased in uninfected chicks fed betaine but were increased in CHR chicks fed betaine (CHR x betaine; P < 0.04); plasma carotenoids also were increased in ACT chicks fed betaine (ACT x betaine; P < 0.05). Betaine did not consistently affect growth performance, plasma constituents, or lesion score in CHR or ACT coccidiosis-infected chicks. PMID:10685890

Matthews, J O; Southern, L L

2000-01-01

357

All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.  

PubMed

Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories. PMID:17681433

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

2008-01-01

358

Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.  

PubMed

Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited. PMID:21591754

Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P

2011-06-15

359

Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.  

PubMed

Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of coniine-induced teratogenesis between these two species. PMID:9001585

Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

1996-12-31

360

Effect of BlackCurrant Extract on Negative Lens-Induced Ocular Growth in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the effects of orally administered black-currant (BC) extract on the enlargement of globe component dimensions induced in chicks by wearing negative lenses. Methods: Negative lenses (–8 D) were worn on the right eyes by 8-day-old chicks, and their fellow eyes acted as controls. BC extract and distilled water (vehicle control) were orally administered once a day for

Hiroyuki Iida; Yuko Nakamura; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yasuo Takeuchi; Shokichi Harano; Mamoru Ishihara; Osamu Katsumi

2010-01-01

361

Are acoustical parameters of begging call elements of thin-billed prions related to chick condition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks of burrowing petrels use begging calls to advertise their hunger levels when parents arrived at the nest. In a previous\\u000a study, adult thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri responded to higher begging call rates of their single chick by regurgitating larger meals. We tested whether acoustic parameters\\u000a of begging call elements may also be involved in signalling. To describe variation in

Petra Quillfeldt; Maud Poisbleau; Roger Mundry; Juan F. Masello

2010-01-01

362

Appearance of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in noninnervated cultured primary chick muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Asymmetric forms of AChE have generally not been detected in cultured chick skeletal muscle cells in the absence of cocultured neurons. To explore further neurotrophic effects of adult peripheral nerve extracts (NE) on musclein vitro, we reexamined the appearance of various molecular forms of AChE in cultured chick muscle cells in the presence of NE.2.The various molecular forms of AChE

Heinz Popiela; Robert L. Beach; Barry W. Festoff

1983-01-01

363

The Effect of Dietary Betaine in Eimeria acervulina-Infected Chicks1,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to eval- uate the effect of dietary betaine in broiler chicks with either chronic (CHR; 2.5 × 105 sporulated oocysts on Day 1, 4, 7, and 10) or acute (ACT; 1.0 × 106 sporulated oocysts on Day 1) Eimeria acervulina infections. Three hundred (Experiment 1) or 600 (Experiment 2), 4-d-old male chicks were used in the

J. O. Matthews

364

Evaluation of the chick embryo for the determination of relative virulence of Neisseria meningitidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chick embryo model was evaluated as a method to compare virulence between selected strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Inoculation of 13-day-chick embryos via the egg yolk distinguished strains having an LD50 of 103 colony forming units (CFU) or greater (low virulence) from those having an LD50 of approximately 101 or less (high virulence). A strain of serogroup B and a

Leo Pine; Frederick D. Quinn; Edwin P. Ewing; Kristin A. Birkness; Elizabeth H. White; David S. Stephens; Efrain Ribot

1995-01-01

365

Biochemical regulation of circadian 2-125 I-iodomelatonin binding in chick optic tectum  

E-print Network

BIOCHEMICAL REGULATION OF CIRCADIAN 2-"'I-IODOMELATONIN BINDING IN CHICK OPTIC TECTUM A Thesis HAYDEE MARGARITA VERCESI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Zoology BIOCHEMICAL REGULATION OF CIRCADIAN 2- 'I-IODOMELATONIN BINDING IN CHICK OPTIC TECTUM A Thesis by HAYDEE MARGARITA VERCESI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Vercesi, Haydee Margarita

2012-06-07

366

Vagal neural crest provides inhibitory neurotransmission to the chick embryo cloaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The intrinsic innervation of the developing chick cloaca originates in the vagal and sacral regions of the neural tube. Its\\u000a major inhibitory neurotransmitters are nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). It has previously been shown\\u000a that the majority of neurons in the chick embryo cloaca are derived from vagal neural crest cells. This study aimed to identify\\u000a the

Anne-Marie O’ Donnell; Prem Puri

2008-01-01

367

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

368

Metabolic response to wind of downy chicks of Arctic-breeding shorebirds (Scolopacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind is a significant factor in the thermoregulation of chicks of shorebirds on the Arctic tundra. We investigated the effect of wind at speeds typical of near-surface conditions (0.1-3 m s-1) on metabolic heat production, evaporative cooling and thermal conductance of 1- to 3- week-old downy scolopacid chicks (least sandpiper Calidris minutilla; short-billed dowitcher Limnodromus griseus; whimbrel Numenius phaeopus). Body

George S. Bakken; Joseph B. Williams; Robert E. Ricklefs

369

Comparative immunogenicities of Chikungunya vaccines propagated in monkey kidney monolayers and chick embryo suspension cultures.  

PubMed

A comparative study was made of Formalin-inactivated Chikungunya vaccines prepared from the virus propagated in African green monkey kidney monolayers and concentrated chick embryo suspension cultures. The vaccine prepared in the chick embryo suspension cultures was significantly more protective to mice against a live homologous virus challenge and stimulated the production of 4 to 5 times more circulating antibodies than the vaccine prepared with virus grown in African green monkey kidney monolayer cultures. PMID:4624213

White, A; Berman, S; Lowenthal, J P

1972-05-01

370

Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

2003-01-01

371

Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

2011-01-01

372

Asymmetric bipedal locomotion – an adaptive response to incomplete spinal injury in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the asymmetric gait induced by unilateral spinal cord injury in chicks with asymmetric\\u000a gaits of other bipeds and quadrupeds. After lateral hemisection of the left thoracic spinal cord, kinetic (ground reaction\\u000a forces) and kinematic (distance and timing) data were recorded as chicks moved overground unrestrained. Ground reaction forces\\u000a were analyzed to obtain

Gillian D. Muir; Stephen L. Katz; John M. Gosline; John D. Steeves

1998-01-01

373

Neuronal Cells from Chick Embryo Cerebral Hemispheres Cultivated on Polylysine-Coated Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociated cells from 5- to 12-day-old chick embryo cerebral hemispheres were cultivated in polylysine-coated plastic Petri dishes. The polylysine substrate was observed to be favorable for the growth of neuronal cells, whereas glioblast proliferation was inhibited. The optimal conditions for the production of a predominantly neuronal culture were to use cerebral hemispheres from 7-day-old chick embryos, to dissociate the brain

M. Sensenbrenner; K. Maderspach; L. Latzkovits; G. G. Jaros

1978-01-01

374

Ontogeny of heterophil function in neonatal chicks by administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines  

E-print Network

ONTOGENY OF HXTEROPHIL FUNCTION IN NEONATAL CHICKS BY AIIMINISTRATION OF SALMONELLA ENTEEITIDIS-IIVIMUNI: LYMPHOKINES A Thesis by LACY LYNNE GENOVESE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ad:M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1998 Major Subject: Veterinary Pathobiology ONTOGENY OF HKTKROPHIL FUNCTION IN NEONATAL CHICKS BY ADMINISTRATION OF SALMOlVELL4 ENTERITIDIS-IMMUNE LYMPHOKINKS A Thesis by LACY LYNNE GENOVESE...

Genovese, Lacy Lynne

2012-06-07

375

EFFECTS OF GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL INSECTICIDES ON SURVIVAL AND BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE OF PHEASANT (PHASIANUS COLCHICUS) CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) chicks were exposed via contact and\\/or ingestion to formulations of three insecticides (Lorsban 4E, chlorpyrifos; Cygon 480E, dimethoate; and Furadan 480F, carbofuran) applied to pasture plots at one and four times the rate recommended for control of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in prairie Canada. Chicks (3 d old) were exposed for 48 h in pens with

Pamela A. Martin; Daniel L. Johnson; Douglas J. Forsyth

1996-01-01

376

Effects of methylmercury exposure on the behavior of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.  

PubMed

Behavioral effects resulting from exposure to dietary methylmercury (MeHg) have been reported in studies of several wildlife species. However, quantifying the impact of contaminant exposure on wild populations is complicated by the confounding effects of other environmental stressors. We controlled confounding stressors in a laboratory study to quantify the level of dietary MeHg exposure associated with negative effects on the fitness of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. We evaluated the effect of MeHg on loon chick behavior by employing several assays, including measures of righting reflexes, responsiveness to taped parental calls, reaction to frightening stimuli, and estimates of time activity budgets. Evidence suggested that as chicks aged, those exposed to nominal dietary dose levels of 0.4 and 1.2 microg Hg/g wet-weight in food (average estimated delivered dietary level of 0.55 and 1.94 microg Hg/g, respectively) were less likely (p < 0.01) to right themselves after being positioned on their backs during outdoor trials (> or =37 days old) compared to chicks on the control diet. We detected differences (p < 0.05) in several response variables with respect to source of eggs. Chicks from nests on low-pH lakes tended to spend more time on resting platforms, spent less time in the shade, were more likely to walk across a platform upon release and do it quicker, were less responsive to a frightening stimulus, and exhibited less intense response to parental wail calls than did chicks from neutral pH-lakes. Rapid MeHg excretion during feather growth likely provides loon chicks protection from MeHg toxicity and may explain the lack of behavioral differences with dietary intake. Lake source effects suggest that in ovo exposure to MeHg or other factors related to lake pH have consequences on chick behavior. PMID:20217222

Kenow, Kevin P; Hines, Randy K; Meyer, Michael W; Suarez, Sarah A; Gray, Brian R

2010-06-01

377

Effects of Dietary Oils on Lipoproteins, Lipid Peroxidation and Thromboxane A2 Production in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of some commonly consumed oils on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) production in chicks were studied. A total of 150 1-day-old chicks were divided into 5 groups and selected as butter, margarine, sunflower oil, olive oil and corn oil groups. The oils were added to their chow as 5% (w\\/w) at the beginning and 7%

Recep G; Üdris AKKUÞ; Mahmut AY; Ahmet G; Said BODUR; Serdar ERGUN

378

The effect of cholecalciferol in vivo on proteins and lipids of skeletal muscle from rachitic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The protein and lipid constituents of skeletal muscle subcellular fractions isolated from chicks fed a vitamin D-deficient\\u000a diet for 3 weeks and chicks repleted with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) were analyzed. Administration of the sterol markedly altered the protein composition of mitochondria. The changes were localized\\u000a in the inner membranes and consisted of a modification of the relative amounts of proteins

Ana R. de Boland; Liliana E. Albornoz; Ricardo Boland

1983-01-01

379

Evidence of Increased Cholecalciferol Requirement in Chicks with Tibial Dyschondroplasia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D utilization may not be as efficient in chicks with tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). The basal diet contained 1.0% Ca and 0.45% available P with no supplemental cholecalciferol (D3). Chicks from low TD (LTD) and high TD (HTD) selected lines were fed diets supplemented with various levels of vitamin

TIANSHUN XU; ROLAND M. LEACH; BRUCE HOLLIS; JOSEPH H. SOARES

380

The Influence of Diet on Mercury Intake by Little Tern Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed mercury levels in the feathers of little tern (Sternula albifrons) chicks from hatching to fledging and in their prey captured by adults in three main foraging habitats: lagoon, salinas,\\u000a and adjacent sea. These data were used to model mercury concentration in chick feathers through food ingestion, in order to\\u000a explore the effects that changes in diet would have

Vitor H. Paiva; Paula C. Tavares; Jaime A. Ramos; Eduarda Pereira; Sandra Antunes; Armando C. Duarte

2008-01-01

381

Effect of different fetal bovine serum concentrations on the replicative life span of cultured chick cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of Eagle's minimal essential medium, containing different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations, on the proliferation\\u000a and replicative life span of cultured chick cells has been studied. Our results showed that the rate of chick cell proliferation\\u000a and the cell density at stationary phase increased as a function of serum concentration between 5 and 30% FBS. The replicative\\u000a life

Jon M. Ryan

1979-01-01

382

Egg Eviction Imposes a Recoverable Cost of Virulence in Chicks of a Brood Parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere

Michael G. Anderson; Csaba Moskát; Miklós Bán; Tomáš Grim; Phillip Cassey; Mark E. Hauber

2009-01-01

383

Arsenic residues in eggs from laying hens fed with a diet containing arsenic (III) oxide.  

PubMed

Three groups of six hens each were fed for twelve days with diets containing 7.5, 15.0, and 30.0 mg arsenic per kg in the form of As2O3. A control group was included in the trial. The hens from each group were formed into three subgroups. The eggs of two hens, laid in three days, formed a composite sample. The As concentration in the egg whites and yolks was determined in duplicate by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. With increasing As concentration in the poultry feedstuff, its concentration in egg yolk and white also increased, but a plateau appears to be reached quite rapidly. The ratio between the As concentration in yolk and in white is nearly constant (1:3) for all three groups of hens, irrespective of the level of As in the feed. The concentration of arsenic in dry matter of whites was significantly higher than in the dry matter of yolks, while the concentrations of arsenic in fresh samples of yolks were higher in the comparison with fresh samples of whites, but the differences were not significant. PMID:9175507

Holcman, A; Stibilj, V

1997-05-01

384

The influence of Datura ferox alkaloids on egg-laying hens.  

PubMed

Seeds of the weed Datura ferox are frequent contaminants of raw materials used for animal feed. In this study a mixture of scopolamine and hyoscyamine (98:2), the 2 main alkaloids of Datura ferox seeds, was incorporated at 4 total alkaloid levels (1.5, 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg feed) into a control diet fed to 100 egg-laying hens for 3 mo. Alkaloid doses of 150 mg/kg feed reduced egg production for the first 5-6 w of feeding, whereas lower doses had no effect. Egg weight, eggshell thickness and body weight of hens were unaffected at all doses. Doses of 150 mg/kg feed produced significant increases in the cardiac rate of hens after 5 w. Breathing frequency at all doses was unaffected. Determination of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities, as well as autopsy and histological examinations, revealed no obvious alkaloid-related toxic effects. It was concluded that a total alkaloid dose as high as 75 mg/kg feed can be safely administered to egg-laying hens. PMID:8197722

Kovatsis, A; Kotsaki-Kovatsi, V P; Nikolaidis, E; Flaskos, J; Tzika, S; Tzotzas, G

1994-04-01

385

Animal welfare aspects of outdoor runs for laying hens: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses animal welfare effects of providing an outdoor run to laying hens. Compared with barn systems, the provision of an outdoor run leads to higher space allowances, a higher number and diversity of behavioural and physiological stimuli, and freedom to change between different environments with for instance different climatic conditions. Evidence is presented that these factors may have

U. Knierim

2006-01-01

386

Arginine vasotocin gene expression and secretion during osmotic stimulation and hemorrhagic hypotension in hens.  

PubMed

In chickens, hyperosmolality stimulates the secretion of vasotocin (AVT) and up-regulates hypothalamic AVT gene expression. Hemorrhage, on the other hand, has not been considered an effective stimulus for AVT release in this species. The effects of acute osmotic stress and prolonged hemorrhagic hypotension on AVT gene expression and secretion were studied in White Leghorn hens. Conscious hens were osmotically stimulated by administering a single ip injection of 3 M NaCl (5 ml/kg). Urethane-anesthetized hens were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 80-90 mm Hg and the pressure was maintained within this range by additional bleeding. A total of about 30% of the estimated blood volume was removed. Both experiments were terminated after 1 hr of stimulation. Plasma AVT levels in the hyperosmotic and hypovolemic hens were 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, compared to controls. Hypothalamic AVT mRNA levels, detected by Northern blot analysis, were 2.5- and 2-fold higher in the osmotically stimulated and hypotensive groups, respectively, compared to control groups. As determined by in situ hybridization, both osmotic stimulation and hypovolemia resulted in an increase in the number of AVT mRNA-containing neurons in the supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei. Our results indicate that, under the conditions used, hypotension and hyperosmolality are equally effective in stimulating AVT gene expression and secretion of AVT. PMID:9204366

Jaccoby, S; Singh, A B; Cornett, L E; Koike, T I

1997-06-01

387

hen assessing why enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail, most reasons  

E-print Network

W hen assessing why enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail, most reasons fall into a few of lacking commitment. Arguably each of these reasons can be traced back to corporate culture. Although often cited as a reason for failure in studies, corporate culture is less often recognized as a root cause

388

Drug Exposure Side Effects from Mining Pregnancy Data Lars Henning Pedersen2  

E-print Network

Drug Exposure Side Effects from Mining Pregnancy Data Yu Chen1 Lars Henning Pedersen2 Wesley W. Chu association rule mining approach to derive possible side effects due to exposure to multiple drugs-epidemiology. Keywords Association rule mining, epidemiology data analysis, side effect of drug exposure. 1. INTRODUCTION

California at Los Angeles, University of

389

Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and  

E-print Network

is a major welfare and production problem for commercial egg producers, resulting in mortality, loss; hidden Markov model; Gaussian processes 1. INTRODUCTION A major welfare problem in commercial egg production is that of injurious feather pecking, where the hens peck each other's feathers and skin, leading

Roberts, Stephen

390

The Little Red Hen: Bringing a Folktale to Life. Grades K-1. Tapestries for Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit involves kindergarten and 1st grade students in the production of a theatrical performance based on the folktale, "The Little Red Hen." The interdisciplinary unit connects knowledge related to theater arts, art, language arts, music, applied mathematics, social studies, and science. Students visit a local theater and prepare…

Stewart, Kelly; Westley, Joan

391

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter "Sage-Grouse"). During 2008­ 2011, we collected summer survival data from 427

Beck, Jeffrey L.

392

THE ROLE OF THE INTESTINE IN CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE LAYING HEN (1)  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF THE INTESTINE IN CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE LAYING HEN (1) S. HURWITZ Division represent vectorial movements of calcium in and out of the pool. Calcium moves into the pool by intestinal is secreted during 19-20 hours. Since shell secretion occupies only part of the laying cycle, large metabolic

Boyer, Edmond

393

KINETIC STUDY ON THE INHIBITION OF HEN BRAIN NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE BY MIPAFOX  

EPA Science Inventory

A direct method of assaying neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity, using 4-nitrophenyl valerate, has been described. The technique was used to determine the biomolecular rate (ki), phosphorylation (k2), and affinity (kd) constants for the reaction of hen brain microsomal NTE with mi...

394

Selecting broilers for low or high abdominal fat : observations on the hens during the breeding period  

E-print Network

Selecting broilers for low or high abdominal fat : observations on the hens during the breeding feed energy for lipid synthesis of yolk or adipose tissue. Introduction Modern strains of broilers and expensive compo- nent in broiler production. A divergent selection programme was undertaken to reduce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Hunting habitat selection by hen harriers on moorland: Implications for conservation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine habitat use by hunting hen harriers Circus cyaneus at three study sites in Scotland to evaluate whether foraging patterns differ between sexes, sites, and stages of the breeding period. We modelled time spent hunting in focal plots as a function of habitat and nest proximity. Male hunting intensity (time spent hunting per hour of observation and km2) varied

Beatriz Arroyo; Arjun Amar; Fiona Leckie; Graeme M. Buchanan; Jeremy D. Wilson; Stephen Redpath

2009-01-01

396

The Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus Winter Roost Survey in Britain and Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Hen Harrier winter roosts traced 202 sites in Britain to the end of 1985\\/86 winter, and 12 in Ireland. Communal roosting had been recorded at more than 90% of sites, and 43% were known to be used every winter. Of reported sites 39% were in E England, where coverage was undoubtedly more comprehensive. The majority of sites

R. Clarke; D. Watson

1990-01-01

397

Evidence for food limitation in the declining hen harrier population on the Orkney Islands, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) population on the Scottish Orkney Islands has declined dramatically since the end of the 1970s. We postulate that the cause of this decline was due to a reduction in the amount of available prey and predict that if this was the case the population would currently be limited by food. The evidence for this hypothesis

Arjun Amar; Steve Redpath; Simon Thirgood

2003-01-01

398

K-THEORY: FROM MINIMAL GEODESICS TO SUSY FIELD HENNING HOHNHOLD, STEPHAN STOLZ AND PETER TEICHNER  

E-print Network

K-THEORY: FROM MINIMAL GEODESICS TO SUSY FIELD THEORIES HENNING HOHNHOLD, STEPHAN STOLZ AND PETER the invention of K- theory but completely calculates the coefficients of this generalized co- homology theory AND PETER TEICHNER subgroup generated by trivial bundles (denoted by a tilde over the K-groups) one obtains

Stolz, Stephan

399

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET  

E-print Network

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET OF DIFFERENT Ca LEVELS K of this paper to review all the well known publications dealing with retention and egg-shell incorporation animals per group were collected individually and more frequently in order to determine the Ca* retention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Nonstandard Work Schedules, Child Care Subsidies, and Child Care Arrangements Julia R. Henly, University of Chicago*  

E-print Network

Nonstandard Work Schedules, Child Care Subsidies, and Child Care Arrangements Julia R. Henly.493.5044; jhenly@uchicago.edu #12;Nonstandard Work Schedules, Child Care Subsidies, and Child Care Arrangements Nonstandard Work Schedules, Child Care Subsidies, and Child Care Arrangements ABSTRACT This paper examines

Shyy, Wei

401

The effects of demonstrator social status and prior foraging success on social learning in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for social learning within a group of animals are likely to be influenced by the social dynamics of that group. Some individuals may be more influential demonstrators than others even when there are no differences in their skill level or performance. In this study of domestic hens,Gallus gallus domesticus, differences in demonstrator salience were examined. From 24 separate flocks

C. J. NICOL; S. J. POPE

1999-01-01

402

Validation of the aging hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an animal model for uterine leiomyomas.  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

Machado, Sergio A; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, D Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Quade, Bradley J; Nowak, Romana A

2012-10-01

403

Modeling ovarian follicle growth in commercial and heritage Single Comb White Leghorn hens.  

PubMed

Approximately 84% of the energy in chicken eggs resides in the yolk. A robust model of ovarian follicle development is therefore valuable for estimating energy requirements of laying hens. The current experiment was designed to model the growth of ovarian follicles in 32-wk-old modern commercial line (CL) and unselected heritage line (HL) Single Comb White Leghorn hens. The volume of yolk deposited daily during the rapid growth phase (RGP) was estimated using a double dye technique. For 21 d, 8 CL and 8 HL hens were fed capsules (no. 1) containing Sudan IV (red) and Sudan Black dyes on alternate days. An additional 8 control CL hens were fed empty capsules. Eggs were collected, and the daily volume of yolk deposited was estimated. Significant differences are reported where P < 0.05. Dye had no significant effect on BW, ME intake, or egg weight. Maintenance ME requirements were 192 and 177 kcal/kg(0.67) for CL and HL hens, respectively. Duration of the RGP was shorter (7.35 d) in the CL hens compared with the HL hens (7.95 d). A nonlinear Lomolino model described follicular weight, which varied between strains over d 2 to 9 of follicle development; at each day during development, follicle weights were higher where RGP were shorter. The volume of yolk deposited for the 8 d preceding oviposition in CL was 0.17, 0.28, 0.43, 0.99, 1.84, 2.47, 2.82, 2.86, and 2.51 cm(3); and in HL was 0.17, 0.33, 0.72, 1.40, 2.15, 2.46, 2.48, 2.32, and 1.93 cm(3). The HL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 7 to 5 d before oviposition, and CL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 3 to 1 d before oviposition with no significant difference between lines on d 4 before oviposition. Although growth patterns differed, there were no differences among lines in final follicle weights (14.1 g) or retained energy (42.4 kcal). PMID:25214554

McLeod, E S; Jalal, M A; Zuidhof, M J

2014-11-01

404

Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.  

PubMed

The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future. PMID:22582300

Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

2012-06-01

405

The effect of prenatal hypoxia and malnutrition on memory consolidation in the chick.  

PubMed

The contribution of hypoxia and malnutrition to cognitive impairments was investigated in chicks incubated in conditions of reduced gas exchange. Previous research has shown that reducing gas exchange during incubation by wrapping half the eggshell with an impermeable membrane results in impaired cognitive ability in young chicks. The results were interpreted within a three stage sequential model of memory using discriminated bead avoidance learning. Reducing gas exchange for 4 days from day 10 or 14, of the 21-day incubation, inhibits memory formation and consolidation into permanent storage. The nature of the cognitive deficit depended on the timing of the insult. Environmental hypoxia (14% oxygen), induced from days 10 to 14 and from days 14 to 18, replicated the memory deficits found previously when eggs were partially wrapped with a membrane. Oxygen is necessary to break down food and to provide energy to build tissue proteins, and therefore hypoxia (partial wrapping or environmental incubation) may indirectly cause malnutrition. Malnutrition, induced by removing 5%, 7.5% or 10% albumin from the egg prior to incubation, had no significant effect on memory consolidation. Raised corticosterone levels occurred in chicks malnourished by 5% and 7.5%, but brain sparing was only evident in chicks with 7.5% albumin removal. Hatch rates were very low in 10% malnourished chicks. Using the chick as a model of prenatal stress, we have been able to isolate the effects of hypoxia from contributing maternal factors. PMID:14757525

Rodricks, Candice L; Rose, Ilona A; Camm, Emily J; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L; Gibbs, Marie E

2004-01-31

406

Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

2002-01-01

407

Metabolic response to wind of downy chicks of Arctic-breeding shorebirds (Scolopacidae).  

PubMed

Wind is a significant factor in the thermoregulation of chicks of shorebirds on the Arctic tundra. We investigated the effect of wind at speeds typical of near-surface conditions (0.1-3 ms(-1)) on metabolic heat production, evaporative cooling and thermal conductance of 1- to 3- week-old downy scolopacid chicks (least sandpiper Calidris minutilla; short-billed dowitcher Limnodromus griseus; whimbrel Numenius phaeopus). Body mass ranged from 9 to 109 g. To accurately measure the interacting effects of air temperature and wind speed, we used two or more air temperatures between 15 degrees and 30 degrees C that produced cold stress at all wind speeds, but allowed chicks to maintain normal body temperature (approximately 39 degrees C). Thermal conductance increased by 30-50% as wind speed increased from 0.1 to 3 ms(-1). Conductance in these chicks is somewhat lower than that of 1-day-old mallard ducklings of similar mass, but higher than values reported for downy capercaillie and Xantus' murrelet chicks, as well as for adult shorebirds. Evaporative water loss was substantial and increased with mass and air temperature. We developed a standard operative temperature scale for shorebird chicks. The ratio of evaporative cooling to heat production varied with wind speed and air temperature. PMID:12364397

Bakken, George S; Williams, Joseph B; Ricklefs, Robert E

2002-11-01

408

Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. PMID:17464443

Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Eichhorst, Bruce A; Warburton, David

2007-07-01

409

Body condition, hormonal correlates and consequences for survival in common tern chicks.  

PubMed

Although sibling competition in avian species has been extensively studied, the proximate mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recent research proposed that steroid hormones, in particular testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), might play a role either in promoting competitive behavioral displays or in response to chronic nutritional stress accompanied by a sustained competitive situation. Here, we examine body condition, endogenous T levels and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) as non-invasive measures of CORT in sibling broods of wild common tern chicks (Sterna hirundo) during three post-natal developmental stages. In this species, distinct within-brood size asymmetries are imposed by an asynchronous hatching interval, and sexes show slightly different growth patterns. First-hatched (a-)chicks were in better condition than their later-hatched sibling (b-chick). FGM levels inversely covaried with condition and were elevated at the end of pre-fledging development. T levels of a- and b-chicks changed with age, although the direction of the changes differed, with b-chicks eventually having higher levels than their older siblings. Survival to fledging was not associated with FGM but with T levels, which tended to be higher in surviving chicks. Our results are discussed with regard to how plasticity in steroid hormones could be involved in mediating sibling competition in common terns. PMID:21735224

Braasch, Alexander; Palme, Rupert; Hoppen, Hans-Otto; Becker, Peter H

2011-10-01

410

Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments.

Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

1980-12-01

411

Differences in the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells.  

PubMed

Myoblasts undergo a series of changes in the composition and dynamics of their plasma membranes during the initial steps of skeletal muscle differentiation. These changes are crucial requirements for myoblast fusion and allow the formation of striated muscle fibers. Membrane microdomains, or lipid rafts, have been implicated in myoblast fusion. Flotillins are scaffold proteins that are essential for the formation and dynamics of lipid rafts. Flotillins have been widely studied over the last few years, but still little is known about their role during skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of flotillin-2 in chick, mice and human muscle cells grown in vitro. Primary cultures of chick myogenic cells showed a decrease in the expression of flotillin-2 during the first 72 hours of muscle differentiation. Interestingly, flotillin-2 was found to be highly expressed in chick myogenic fibroblasts and weakly expressed in chick myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. Flotillin-2 was distributed in vesicle-like structures within the cytoplasm of chick myogenic fibroblasts, in the mouse C2C12 myogenic cell line, and in neonatal human muscle cells. Cryo-immunogold labeling revealed the presence of flotillin-2 in vesicles and in Golgi stacks in chick myogenic fibroblasts. Further, brefeldin A induced a major reduction in the number of flotillin-2 containing vesicles which correlates to a decrease in myoblast fusion. These results suggest the involvement of flotillin-2 during the initial steps of skeletal myogenesis. PMID:25105415

Possidonio, Ana Claudia Batista; Soares, Carolina Pontes; Portilho, Débora Morueco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Claudia

2014-01-01

412

Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

1986-03-01

413

Monitoring of heavy metal contamination using tissues of two ardeids chicks, Korea.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium in livers and kidneys of Little Egret Egretta garzetta (n = 10) and Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax (n = 10) chicks from Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Essential element concentrations such as iron, zinc and manganese did not differ between both species chicks in livers and kidneys, but lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly greater in both tissues of Little Egret chicks (lead 2.78 +/- 4.06 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 10.3 +/- 12.8 kg/g wet weight) than in those of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks (lead 0.92 +/- 0.73 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 1.00 +/- 1.00 kg/g wet weight). Lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks were highly related to sediment and/or prey concentrations of their foraging sites in Korean studies. It shows that lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of heron chicks can reflect those of surrounding environment of breeding sites. In this study, cadmium concentrations were higher in kidneys than in livers and it's not recent high-level exposure but chronic background exposure to cadmium contamination around breeding site. Therefore, we suggest that cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys can be used as a bioindicator of acute and/or chronic local contamination. PMID:20464368

Kim, Jungsoo; Koo, Tae-Hoe; Oh, Jong-Min

2010-06-01

414

Effects of Microheterogeneity in Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In earlier sodium dodecylsulfate polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies it has been found that commonly utilized commercial hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) preparations contained 0.2-0.4 mol% covalently bound dimers. Here it is shown, using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), that HEWL contains, in addition, two differently charged monomers in comparable amounts. To explore the origin of these microheterogeneous contaminants, purified HEWL (PHEWL) has been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (0.0026-0.88 M) at various pH levels between 4.5 and 12.0. Optical densitometry of oxidized PHEWL (OHEWL) bands in SDS PAGE gels shows that hydrogen peroxide at 0.88 M in acetate buffer pH 4.5 increased the amount of dimers about sixfold over that in commercial HEWL. OHEWL had, in addition to one of the two monomer forms found in HEWL and PHEWL, three other differently charged monomer forms, each of them representing about 25% of the preparation. SDS-PAGE analysis of OHEWL yielded two closely spaced dimer bands with M(sub r) = 28 000 and 27 500. In addition, larger HEWL oligomers with M, = 1.7 million and 320 000 were detected by gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection. Non-dissociating PAGE in large pore size gels at pH 4.5 confirmed the presence of these large oligomers in HEWL and OHEWL. Increased microheterogeneity resulted in substantial effects on crystal growth and nucleation rate. On addition of 10 microgram(exp -1) mg ml(exp -1) OHEWL to 32 mg ml(exp -1) HEWL crystallizing solutions, both the number and size of forming crystals decreased roughly proportionally to the concentration of the added microheterogeneity. The same effect was observed in HEWL solutions on addition of 0.03-9,3 M Hydrogen peroxide. Repartioning of the dimer during crystallzation aat various temperatures between 277 and 293 K was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained <= 25 % weight by volume of the oligomers in the solution, with no apparent temperature dependence of the repartioning.

Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

1998-01-01

415

Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo

2005-04-01

416

Kinetic study of chlordecone orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 ?g CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE), 5.5 ± 0.29, 5.3 ± 0.37 and 5.1 ± 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 ± 274, 460 ± 41, 331 ± 23, and 213 ± 8.5 ?g kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 ± 8.4, 127 ± 11 ?g kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 ± 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 ?g CLD kg(-1). PMID:25113213

Jondreville, Catherine; Fournier, Agnès; Mahieu, Maurice; Feidt, Cyril; Archimède, Harry; Rychen, Guido

2014-11-01

417

Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli re-emerging in non-caged laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background The poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli has reappeared in hens kept for egg production in Sweden after having been almost absent a decade ago. Today this is a frequent intestinal nematode parasite in non-caged laying hens. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity (Fst) in A. galli collected from different poultry production sites in southern Sweden, to identify possible common routes of colonization. Methods Adult parasites (n?=?153) from 10 farms, including both broiler breeder parents and laying hens, were investigated by amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Worms from a Danish laying hen farm were also included for comparison. Most of the farms were represented by worms from a single host, but on two farms multiple samples from different hosts were assessed in order to study flock variation. Results A total of 97 fragments (loci) were amplified among which 81% were variable alleles. The average genetic diversity was 0.13 (range?=?0.09-0.38), which is comparable to other AFLP studies on nematodes of human and veterinary importance. Within-farm variation showed that worms harboured by a single hen in a flock covered most of the A. galli genetic variation within the same flock (Fst?=?0.01 and 0.03 for two farms). Between-farm analysis showed a moderate population genetic structure (Fst?=?0.13), along with a low mutational rate but high gene flow between different farms, and absence of strong genetic selection. Network analysis showed repeated genetic patterns among the farms, with most worms on each farm clustering together as supported by high re-allocation rates. Conclusions The investigated A. galli populations were not strongly differentiated, indicating that they have undergone a genetic bottlenecking and subsequent drift. This supports the view that the investigated farms have been recently colonized, and that new flocks are reinfected upon arrival with a stationary infection. PMID:22607623

2012-01-01

418

Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.  

PubMed

Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

2014-06-01

419

Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven

Dariusz Bukaci?ski; Monika Bukaci?ska; Thomas Lubjuhn

2000-01-01

420

Impact of Galactose, Lactose, and Grobiotic-B70 on Growth Performance and Energy Utilization When Fed to Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chick assays were conducted to de- termine the effect of increasing dietary galactose (GAL), lactose (LAC), and Grobiotic-B70, a LAC fermentation product, on growth performance, toxicity, and energy utilization when fed to commercial broiler chicks. One- day-old male commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to treatments in each assay. In all assays, a 22% CP corn-soybean meal-dextrose basal diet

M. W. Douglas; M. Persia; C. M. Parsons

421

Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Ad??lie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Ad??lie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Ad??lie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krill Euphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick's surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick's probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Ad??lie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate. ?? 2011 Inter-Research.

Chapman, E. W.; Hofmann, E. E.; Patterson, D. L.; Ribic, C. A.; Fraser, W. R.

2011-01-01

422

Interactive effects of sodium bentonite and coccidiosis with monensin or salinomycin in chicks.  

PubMed

Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of sodium bentonite (NaB) with the efficacy of monensin (MON) or salinomycin (SAL) in coccidiosis-infected chicks. Male broiler chicks 5 to 14 d of age were used, and each treatment was replicated with eight (Exp. 1) or four (Exp. 2 and 3) pens of five chicks each. In Exp. 1, MON (80 ppm), NaB (0.50%), or MON+NaB were fed to uninfected and coccidiosis-infected (5 x 10(5) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts on Day 2 of the Exp.) chicks in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experiment 2 was identical to Exp. 1, but SAL (30 ppm) replaced MON as the anticoccidial additive. In Exp. 3, MON (55 ppm) or SAL (22 ppm) were added individually or with NaB (0.50%) to diets for uninfected or coccidiosis-infected chicks. Coccidial infection reduced (P < 0.01) gain, feed intake, gain:feed, plasma carotenoids, and percentage tibia ash in all experiments. The MON and SAL additions increased these response criteria in infected chicks (coccidiosis by anticoccidial, P < 0.07), except MON did not increase (P > 0.10) feed intake or tibia ash in Exp. 3. In Exp. 3, NaB partially reduced the positive effect of MON on daily gain (NaB by MON, P < 0.03), and of SAL on feed intake (NaB by SAL, P < 0.08). The NaB addition also increased gain:feed (P < 0.08), and the increase was greater in infected chicks (coccidiosis by NaB, P < 0.08). Also in Exp. 3, SAL increased feed intake more in chicks not fed NaB than in chicks fed NaB (SAL by NaB, P < 0.08). Dietary NaB (0.5%) may reduce the efficacy of MON and SAL in coccidiosis-infected chicks when these additives are added at less than recommended levels. PMID:9565245

Gray, S J; Ward, T L; Southern, L L; Ingram, D R

1998-04-01

423

Reprogramming of the chick retinal pigmented epithelium after retinal injury  

PubMed Central

Background One of the promises in regenerative medicine is to regenerate or replace damaged tissues. The embryonic chick can regenerate its retina by transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and by activation of stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin. These two ways of regeneration occur concomitantly when an external source of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is present after injury (retinectomy). During the process of transdifferentiation, the RPE loses its pigmentation and is reprogrammed to become neuroepithelium, which differentiates to reconstitute the different cell types of the neural retina. Somatic mammalian cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of pluripotency-inducing factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc and in some cases Nanog and Lin-28. However, there is limited information concerning the expression of these factors during natural regenerative processes. Organisms that are able to regenerate their organs could share similar mechanisms and factors with the reprogramming process of somatic cells. Herein, we investigate the expression of pluripotency-inducing factors in the RPE after retinectomy (injury) and during transdifferentiation in the presence of FGF2. Results We present evidence that upon injury, the quiescent (p27Kip1+/BrdU-) RPE cells transiently dedifferentiate and express sox2, c-myc and klf4 along with eye field transcriptional factors and display a differential up-regulation of alternative splice variants of pax6. However, this transient process of dedifferentiation is not sustained unless FGF2 is present. We have identified lin-28 as a downstream target of FGF2 during the process of retina regeneration. Moreover, we show that overexpression of lin-28 after retinectomy was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of the RPE in the absence of FGF2. Conclusion These findings delineate in detail the molecular changes that take place in the RPE during the process of transdifferentiation in the embryonic chick, and specifically identify Lin-28 as an important factor in this process. We propose a novel model in which injury signals initiate RPE dedifferentiation, while FGF2 up-regulates Lin-28, allowing for RPE transdifferentiation to proceed. PMID:24742279

2014-01-01

424

Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

1996-01-01

425

Gene Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Selenoproteins Correlates with Apoptosis in Various Muscles of Se-Deficient Chicks123  

PubMed Central

Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks. PMID:23514769

Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen

2013-01-01

426

Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by < or =3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. PMID:17701344

Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

2008-02-01

427

The impact of supplemental L-threonine in laying hen diets on egg component yield, composition, and functionality  

E-print Network

weeks at beginning of experiment). Data collection methods were the same for all three experiments. Beginning and ending hen weight, egg production, and feed consumption data were collected. Egg samples were analyzed for egg weight, yolk and albumen...

Niemeyer, Paige Reynolds

2005-11-01

428

The relationship between blood carbon dioxide, acid-base balance and calcium metabolism in the hyperthermic laying hen  

E-print Network

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE, ACID-BASE BALANCE AND CALCIUM METABOLISM IN THE HYPERTHERMIC LAYING HEN A Thesis by YOSHITAKA ONO Subrnittcd to thc Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AA, M University in partial I...'ulfillmcnt of thc requirements for thc dcgrcc of MASTER OF SCIENCE Dcccmbcr 1988 Major Sulajccu Poultry Scicncc THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE, ACID-BASE BALANCE AND CALCIUM METABOLISM IN THE HYPERTHERMIC LAYING HEN A Thesis by YOSHITAKA ONO...

Ono, Yoshitaka

2012-06-07

429

Comparative study on the behaviour, health and productivity of laying hens in a furnished cage and an aviary system.  

PubMed

A total of 540 Lohmann Silver laying hens was used to investigate behaviour, use of the structural elements offered, as well as health and productive parameters in six units (45 hens each) of one furnished cage system (FC; Typ 715/725, Fa. Salmet, Berge, Germany, according to EU guideline 1999/74/EG [2003]) vs. three units (90 hens each) of one aviary housing system (AV; type natura, Big Dutchman, Vechta, Germany). There was no difference between the two systems in terms of animal health, egg quality, laying performance and nest acceptance Acceptance of the nests was high in both systems and resulted in relatively small proportions of mislaid eggs (median 0.28% AV vs. 0.33% FC). Perches in FC were used during the light phase by 15.6% of the hens compared with 73.3% at night. The dust bathing activity of the hens in AV corresponded to natural circadian behaviour patterns (P <0.003) and the complete behaviour chain was exhibited. In contrast, FC hens invariably exhibited incomplete dust bathing patterns on the mat and on the grid floor without any