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Effects of enzyme supplement on nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, egg production, egg quality and intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley based diets.  


The effects of beta-glucanase (550 U g(-1)) and xylanase (800 U g(-1)) supplementation on the nutrient digestibility and metabolizable energy of egg production, egg quality intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley-based diets were examined in three similar experiments. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of beta-glucanase and xylanase in the hull-less barley based diets had no significant improvement on the growth performance of broiler, feed conversion ratio. The results of this experiment showed that beta-glucanase and xylanase had negative effects on egg shell quality as reduced egg shell weight (4.6%) and egg shell thickness (5.32%). The addition of beta-glucanase and xylanase had also no effects on yolk color and Hugh units of eggs either. The results also demonstrated that beta-glucanase and xylanase supplementation did not improve the metabolizable energy, organic matter, protein and starch digestibility of the diet contained hull-less barley. The addition of glucanase and xylanase to the diets significantly reduced villus height, villus width, crypt depth, villus height: crypt depth ratio and goblet cell numbers of the duodenum and jejunum of small intestine compared with the control group. But, the numbers of goblet cells were more in the jejunum than in duodenum of small intestine. On the other hand, these enzymes reduced villus width and crypt depth of the ileum while increased villus length of the ileum receptivity. The goblet cells numbers in the villi of the ileum of birds fed the hull-less based diet; with exogenous enzyme were significantly higher than those in the jejunum and duodenum section of small intestine of layer hens. Goblet cells are responsible for the secretion of mucin that is used for the mucinous lining of the intestinal epithelium. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzyme on the nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, intestinal morphology and microflora activity of intestine of the broiler chickens and layer hen diet. PMID:19070143

Yaghobfar, A; Boldaji, F; Shrifi, S D



Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four?hundred?and?eighty 18?week?old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious

A. H. Azzam; M. A. Gabal



Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens.  


A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on the prophylactic immunization of layer hens against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and fowl cholera. Four-hundred-and-eighty 18-week-old white leghorn chickens were used. Different groups of hens were vaccinated, as per commercial recommendations, with a commercial inactivated triple vaccine against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease. A killed polyvalent bacterin was used for fowl cholera. Aflatoxin was fed for 22 weeks at a daily dose of 200 parts/10(9)/hen. Aflatoxin significantly reduced antibody titres, resulted in a decrease of egg weight, a decrease in egg production and an increase of mortality rate in challenged hens. Aflatoxin was detected in eggs at levels far above the permissible concentration. PMID:18484045

Azzam, A H; Gabal, M A



Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in Bangladesh.  


We determined the flock sizes and rates of loss caused by different factors in broody-hen chicks (BHC) up to 60 days of age on 600 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh. The smallholders were beneficiaries of a village poultry production chain called 'Smallholder Livestock Development Project-2' (SLDP-2) which was undertaken with the financial assistance of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). For estimating survival time of BHC, we observed chicks in 80 smallholdings. SLDP-2 aims at ameliorating poverty among women by poultry rearing at village level; in total, 104,000 key rearers, constituting 96% of all of the beneficiaries of the SLDP-2 area, were enrolled in 26 upazilas (a lower administrative unit of Bangladesh). A key rearer is a smallholder who rears at least five 'Sonali' (RIR x Fayoumi) and some indigenous (desi) chickens in a semi-scavenging system. Sonali chickens are supplied from the development project, and have higher egg production while the broodiness of the desi hens is exploited to get chicks hatched for future stocks; thus, the chicks hatched and reared to 60 days old at key rearers' households are called BHC. In this study 32% of the smallholders had BHC each month. At the beginning of a month, the median number of chicks in a flock was 8, and the mean survival time was 50.5 days. Incidence rates of loss of BHC from disease, predation, selling and slaughtering were 0.102, 0.086, 0.009 and 0.002 per chick-month at risk, respectively. The major predators were crows, mongooses and eagles with incidence rates of loss being 0.018, 0.016 and 0.010 per chick-month at risk, respectively. Colibacillosis (both single and mixed infections) contributed to the death of 21% of dead BHC collected; Newcastle disease and salmonellosis contributed to the next highest (14 and 12%) proportional mortalities. PMID:17850905

Biswas, P K; Uddin, G M N; Barua, H; Roy, K; Biswas, D; Ahad, A; Debnath, N C



Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.  


Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal mechanisms remain to be unraveled. PMID:23472027

Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R



Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat to laying hens and roosters of different genetic background on the reproductive performance and health of the newly hatched chicks.  


A total of 216 23-week-old laying hens from two different genetic backgrounds (half of the birds were Lohmann brown [LB] and [LSL] hens, respectively) and 24 adult roosters were assigned to a feeding trial to study the effect of increasing concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the diet (0, 5, 10 mg/kg) on the reproductive performance of hens and roosters, and the health of the newly hatched chicks. Hatchability was adversely affected by the presence of DON in LB hens' diet, while the hatchability of the LSL chicks was significantly higher than LB chicks. An interaction effect between DON in the hens' diet and the breed was noticed on fertility, as the fertility was decreased in the eggs of LB hens receiving 10 mg/kg DON in their diet and increased in the eggs of LSL hens fed 10 mg/kg DON. Moreover, spleen relative weight was significantly decreased in the chicks hatched from eggs of hens fed contaminated diets, while gizzard relative weight was significantly decreased in LB chicks with 10 mg/kg DON in their diet compared with the control group. On the other hand, the chicks' haematology and organ histopathology were not affected by the dietary treatment. Additionally, the presence of DON in the roosters' diet had no effect on fertility (the percentage of fertile eggs of all laid eggs). Consequently, the current results indicate a negative impact of DON in LB hens' diet on fertility and hatchability, indicating that the breed of the hens seems to be an additional factor influencing the effect of DON on reproductive performance of the laying hens. PMID:24723164

Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Beineke, Andreas; Hermeyer, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven



Diseases in chicks and laying hens during the first 12 years after battery cages were banned in Switzerland.  


Between 1992 and 2003, a period of 12 years after the definitive ban on battery cages in Switzerland, more than 10,000 replacement chicks and laying hens were examined postmortem. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of viral diseases, mostly due to a reduction in Marek's disease, but there was a marked increase in bacterial diseases, particularly since 1999, mainly due to colisepticaemia in young laying hens. There was a steady decrease in parasitic infections, but the incidence of non-infectious diseases varied from year to year, with no clear trends. There were no significant emerging diseases or economic losses in the alternative housing systems. Vaccination and hygiene were the most effective precautions against infections, and control strategies brought about a marked decline in notifiable diseases, especially for Salmonella Enteritidis. Fifteen years after the ban on battery cages in Switzerland, the health and egg production of laying hens is good. PMID:19218590

Kaufmann-Bart, M; Hoop, R K



An outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range layer hens.  


Histomonas meleagridis was held primarily responsible for an outbreak of 6% increased mortality and 11% decreased egg production between weeks 57 and 72 in a flock of free-range layer hens, concurrently infected with Brachyspira-like bacteria. This case can be considered an example of ancient diseases re-emerging in alternative housing systems that are promoted because of animal welfare considerations, but that at the same time allow rapid spread of pathogens in birds for which only few curative drugs are registered. Therefore, new housing methods should be introduced gradually to gain experience with them. PMID:12850921

Esquenet, C; De Herdt, P; De Bosschere, H; Ronsmans, S; Ducatelle, R; Van Erum, J



Soluble and particulate organophosphorus neuropathy target esterase in brain and sciatic nerve of the hen, cat, rat, and chick.  


Considerable evidence exists suggesting that the so-called neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is involved in the mechanisms responsible for organophosphorus-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). Earlier studies in the adult hen, the habitually employed experimental model in OPIDP, have shown that most NTE activity in the brain is centered in particulate fractions, whereas approximately 50% of this activity in the sciatic nerve is encountered in soluble form, with the rest being particulate NTE. In the present work, we have studied the particulate and soluble fractional distribution of paraoxon-resistant phenylvalerate esterase activity (B activity), paraoxon- and mipafox-resistant phenylvalerate esterase activity (C activity), and NTE activity (B-C) according to ultracentrifugation criteria (100,000 g for 1 h). To this effect, two sensitive (adult hen and cat) and two scarcely sensitive (rat and chick) models were used. In all four experimental models, the distribution pattern was qualitatively similar: B activity and total NTE were much greater in brain (900-2,300 nmol/min/g of tissue) than in sciatic nerve (50-100 nmol/min/g of tissue). The proportion of soluble NTE in brain was very low (< 2%), whereas its presence in sciatic nerve was substantial (30-50%). The NTE/B ratio in brain was high for the particulate fraction (> 60%) and low in the soluble fraction (7-30%); in sciatic nerve the ratio was about 50% in both fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8245968

Tormo, N; Gimeno, J R; Sogorb, M A; Díaz-Alejo, N; Vilanova, E



Penetration studies and residue determinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester in fertile hen eggs and chicks hatched from treated eggs.  


Fertilized hen eggs were topically applied with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (3.1 mg/egg) before starting incubation. During the incubation time 20% of the compound applied on eggs was lost by volatilization. At different incubation times (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 days) the wash-off technique was applied to fertile hen eggs and residue analyses of 2,4-D ester were determined and quantified by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. We found that 2,4-D ester began to be detectable at the embryo from the 5th incubation day and the amount of the compound progressively increased during chick embryonic development. Furthermore chicks hatched from treated eggs showed the presence of the compound in all studied tissues and the highest levels were found in organs such as brain and kidney. PMID:2598830

Castro de Cantarini, S M; Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R O



Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype  

PubMed Central

White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration.

Kucuky?lmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; C?nar, Mustafa; Catl?, Abdullah Ugur; Bintas, Erol; Coven, Fethiye



IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Dietary Linoleic Acid Divergently Affects Immune Responsiveness of Growing Layer Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of linoleic (LA)- and linolenic acid (LNA)-enriched diets on humoral and in vivo cellular immune responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)- dinitrophenyl (DNP) and Mycobacterium butyricum were studied in growing layer hens. Pullets were fed one of three diets: a control, LA enriched, or LNA enriched. Pullets were assigned to one of three immunization treat- ments: KLH-DNP, M.

J. W. C. Sijben; H. de Groot; M. G. B. Nieuwland; J. W. Schrama; H. K. Parmentier


In Vitro Fermentation Response of Laying Hen Cecal Bacteria to Combinations of Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics with Alfalfa or a Layer Ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with alfalfa on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal con- tents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3,000 concentra- tion with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes filled with ground alfalfa or a layer ration with or without fructooligosaccharide

L. M. Donalson; W. K. Kim; V. I. Chalova; P. Herrera; J. L. McReynolds; V. G. Gotcheva; D. Vidanovic; C. L. Woodward; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke



Composition and phosphorus bioavailability of a solid by-product from anaerobically digested waste from caged layer hens.  


A poultry waste digester was constructed at the North Carolina State University Poultry Research Farm to produce methane from the waste of caged layer hens. A solid by-product (SBP) from the digester was recovered and dried for chemical and biological analysis as a feed supplement. Dried SBP was chemically analyzed for minerals, trace elements, and certain vitamins. The SBP was evaluated as a phosphorus (P) supplement in broiler diets. Biological availability of P in the SBP was determined by a slope ratio assay with femur bone ash as the criterion of P availability. Dietary treatments consisted of graded levels of standard available P (AP) supplemented as to provide .2, .3, .4, and .6% AP and graded levels of SBP added to provide 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5% SBP to a corn-soy basal diet. Two treatments, containing 1.5% and 2.5% SBP added to an adequate diet (.4% AP) were used to determine if other factors in SBP were contributing to femur bone ash. The P in SBP was determined to be 90% available to the growing broiler chick. Femur bone ash did not respond to SBP in the diets already adequate in AP. Body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion were not significantly different (P less than .05) among treatments with similar AP levels. The study concluded that SBP is a safe, effective feed supplement that supplies P, Ca, and total minerals. PMID:3615324

Steinsberger, S C; Ort, J F; Shih, J C



Day-1 chick development.  


The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

Sheng, Guojun



Utilizing different ratios of alfalfa and layer ration for molt induction and performance in commercial laying hens.  


Molting is a common practice used by the commercial egg industry to rejuvenate flocks for a second or third laying cycle. During this time the hens rest from production, and the reproductive organs are rejuvenated to increase production and quality during the next laying cycle. Although feed withdrawal (FW) is the most popular and effective method of molt induction, it has come under scrutiny due to food safety issues and animal welfare issues. This study involved feeding alfalfa mixed with layer ration at different ratios to hens to determine their ability to induce molt. The treatment ratios were 100% alfalfa (A100), 90% alfalfa and 10% layer ration (A90), and 70% alfalfa and 30% layer ration (A70). In addition, a fully fed (FF) nonmolted control and a FW negative control were used. Alfalfa is an insoluble, high fiber feedstuff with low metabolizable energy. Egg production for A90 and FW treatments ceased completely by d 6, whereas birds fed A100 and A70 ceased egg production by d 8. Ovary and oviduct weight of hens fed all molting diets decreased (P < 0.05) by an average of 1.5 to 2.5% (BW basis) compared with FF control during the 9-d molt induction period. As the percentage of layer ration increased, feed intake also increased and percentage of BW loss decreased during the 9-d molt induction period. Hens molted by FW lost an average of 25.8% BW, whereas A70 hens lost 18.9% BW. Nonmolted hens (FF) and A70 treatment hens had significantly lower (P < 0.05) egg production when compared with all other treatments over the 39-wk postmolt period. FF treatment hens also had lower (P < 0.05) albumen heights when compared with all other treatments. From these results, alfalfa or alfalfa mixed with layer ration appears to be viable alternatives to conventional FW methods for the successful induction of molt and retention of postmolt performance. PMID:15782903

Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Woodward, C L; Herrera, P; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C



Composition and phosphorus bioavailability of a solid by-product from anaerobically digested waste from caged layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poultry waste digester was constructed at the North Carolina State University Poultry Research Farm to produce methane from the waste of caged layer hens. A solid by-product (SBP) from the digester was recovered and dried for chemical and biological analysis as a feed supplement. Dried SBP was chemically analyzed for minerals, trace elements, and certain vitamins. The SBP was

S. C. Steinsberger; J. F. Ort; J. C. Shih



Effects of food intake regulation on the energy metabolism of hens and cockerels of a layer strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Indirect calorimetry was used to study the effects on the energy metabolism of cockerels and hens after peak lay of a hybrid layer strain of regulating food or energy intake to 80% of ad libitum for an extended period of time.2. Regulation of food intake decreased fasting and fed heat productions per bird and per unit metabolic body weight

M. G. MacLeod; S. G. Tullett; T. R. Jewitt



Basophilic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions distributed widely in layer hens affected with avian-leukosis-virus-associated tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer hens (310 days old) affected with subcutaneous tumours were investigated pathologically. Basopholic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions (MIs) were widely distributed in the chickens affected with subcutaneous myxoma rhabdomyosarcoma, perineuroma, glioma, intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma, and nephroblastoma. MIs were observed in the myocardial cells and the impulse-conducting-system cells. They were also present in the smooth muscle cells of the arteries in the

Kikuyasu Nakamura; Tomoko Higashi; Manabu Yamada; Kunitoshi Imai; Yu Yamamoto



Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.  


Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won



Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.  


This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their parent hens to OTA and AFB(1) either alone or in combination. These studies provide emphasis for the need for mycotoxin regulation policy with respect to the ingredients used in poultry feed, since it is clear that feeding multi-mycotoxin-contaminated diets to breeder hens will almost certainly result in the hatching of manifestly unhealthy chicks. PMID:22530919

Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz



Changes in eggshell conductance, water loss and hatchability of layer hens with flock age and moulting.  


1. Changes in water loss, eggshell conductance and hatchability with flock age were monitored in layer hens in a commercial hatchery. 2. Optimal water loss for maximal hatchability of layer eggs was found to be 12 to 13% of initial egg mass at d 18 of incubation. 3. Mass specific water vapour conductance (GH(2)Osp) increased linearly with flock age from 0.31 mg/(d.g.Torr) at the beginning of the first breeding season to 0.40 mg/(d.g.Torr) at its end after 77 weeks (=4.21 and 5.44 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 4. After forced moulting GH(2)Osp increased from 0.35 to 0.41 mg/(d.g.Torr) (=4.76 and 5.58 mg/(d.100 g.kPa), respectively). 5. The coefficients of variation of GH(2)Osp increased with flock age from 14% at the beginning of the breeding season to 31% at the end of the second breeding season. 6. In order to preserve normal incubation water loss for maximising hatchability, the humidity setting of an incubator should increase gradually, with flock age, from 53% RH to 66% RH in the first laying season and from 61% RH to 67% RH after forced moulting. 7. A 3.5-fold increase (from 2 to 7%) in the difference between mean and median GH(2)Osp of egg batches with flock age was found, indicating increasing frequency of microscopic cracks in eggshells with flock age. This has to be taken into account when setting the humidity regime in the incubator. PMID:19093240

Meir, M; Ar, A



The effects of utilization of hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their products on performance and fatty acid composition of yolk in layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has been performed to determine the effects of hazelnut crude oil, sunflower crude oil and its refinery by-products\\u000a over the laying hens performance and the fatty acid composition of the egg’s yolk. Four hundreds 36-week-old Nick Brown layer\\u000a hens were allocated into five groups. Treatment groups were supplemented with 1.5% of sunflower crude oil, hazelnut crude\\u000a oil, acidulated

I. S. Cet?ngul; F. Inal



In vivo and ex vivo phagocytic potential of macrophages from progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated diet.  


This study aimed to investigate the phagocytic potential of macrophages in progeny of breeder hens kept on an OTA-contaminated diet. For this purpose, 84 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into seven groups (A-G). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B-G were kept on a diet amended with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg OTA/kg, respectively, for up to 3 weeks (n?= 12/treatment group; n?= 4/time sub-group/treatment group). Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to get the progeny of each week separately. Hatched chicks (n?= 10 from each group) were injected with India ink at day 14-of-age to study the in vivo phagocytosis of carbon particles. At day 30, abdominal macrophages were collected from 15 chicks/group and were used to assess their ex vivo/in vitro phagocytic potential against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as well as for nitrite production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phagocytic indices of the reticuloendothelial system of all three sets of progeny (chicks obtained from hens fed OTA for 7, 14, and 21 days) were significantly lower than values seen with Group A chicks. The number of macrophages that were actively phagocytic, the number of SRBC internalized per macrophage, and the extent of nitrite production after stimulation with LPS were each significantly lower in the cells obtained from chicks of breeder hens that had been maintained on the OTA-contaminated diets. The findings of this study clearly showed that there are immunosuppressive effects-in terms of depressed in vivo and in vitro macrophage functionality-in progeny of OTA-fed breeder hens. PMID:22145887

Zahoor-ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Noreen, Mnaza



Avian maternal response to chick distress  

PubMed Central

The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy.

Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.



Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  


This study was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum at 22 or 45 wk of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum at 10 wk of age. The treatment groups included unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens receiving 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum only (group 2), and hens receiving 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum followed by F-strain M. gallisepticum at either 22 (group 3) or 45 (group 4) wk of age. There was no significant effect on egg production or egg size distribution between any of the treatment groups, unlike previous studies looking at F-strain vaccination only. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, Haugh unit score, and blood-meat spot were similar between the different treatment groups. There was a difference in the rate of pimpling at postpeak production for the treatment group receiving F-strain M. gallisepticum at 22 wk of age, consistent with previously published results. This work suggests that hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain M. gallisepticum can be safely revaccinated with F-strain M. gallisepticum to increase protection from field strains while ameliorating the adverse effects associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum vaccination in layers post onset of lay. PMID:20181866

Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D; Peebles, E D



Plumage condition in laying hens: genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects in two purebred layer lines  

PubMed Central

Background Feather pecking is a major welfare issue in laying hen industry that leads to mortality. Due to a ban on conventional cages in the EU and on beak trimming in some countries of the EU, feather pecking will become an even bigger problem. Its severity depends both on the victim receiving pecking and on its group mates inflicting pecking (indirect effects), which together determine plumage condition of the victim. Plumage condition may depend, therefore, on both the direct genetic effect of an individual itself and on the indirect genetic effects of its group mates. Here, we present estimated genetic parameters for direct and indirect effects on plumage condition of different body regions in two purebred layer lines, and estimates of genetic correlations between body regions. Methods Feather condition scores (FCS) were recorded at 40 weeks of age for neck, back, rump and belly and these four scores were added-up into a total FCS. A classical animal model and a direct–indirect effects model were used to estimate genetic parameters for FCS. In addition, a bivariate model with mortality (0/1) was used to account for mortality before recording FCS. Due to mortality during the first 23 weeks of laying, 5363 (for W1) and 5089 (for WB) FCS records were available. Results Total heritable variance for FCS ranged from 1.5% to 9.8% and from 9.8% to 53.6% when estimated respectively with the classical animal and the direct–indirect effects model. The direct–indirect effects model had a significantly higher likelihood. In both lines, 70% to 94% of the estimated total heritable variation in FCS was due to indirect effects. Using bivariate analysis of FCS and mortality did not affect estimates of genetic parameters. Genetic correlations were high between adjacent regions for FCS on neck, back, and rump but moderate to low for belly with other regions. Conclusion Our results show that 70% to 94% of the heritable variation in FCS relates to indirect effects, indicating that methods of genetic selection that include indirect genetic effects offer perspectives to improve plumage condition in laying hens. This, in turn could reduce a major welfare problem.



Basophilic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions distributed widely in layer hens affected with avian-leukosis-virus-associated tumours.  


Layer hens (310 days old) affected with subcutaneous tumours were investigated pathologically. Basopholic intracytoplasmic viral matrix inclusions (MIs) were widely distributed in the chickens affected with subcutaneous myxoma rhabdomyosarcoma, perineuroma, glioma, intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma, and nephroblastoma. MIs were observed in the myocardial cells and the impulse-conducting-system cells. They were also present in the smooth muscle cells of the arteries in the spleen and lungs, in the smooth muscle of the digestive tract muscular layer (crop, oesophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and large intestine), and in the smooth muscle of the capsule in the ovary and pancreas. They were also observed in the podocytes of glomeruli and renal epithelium in the kidneys, tumour cells of nephroblastoma, chondrocytes of the trachea, squamous-epithelial cells of the pharynx, and nerve cells of the cerebrum and tumour cells of the glioma in the cerebellum. Histochemically, MIs were stained with RNA, but not with DNA. MIs in the various tissues were strongly positive for the avian leukosis virus (ALV) antigen. Ultrastracturally, MIs were found in the cytoplasm of myocardial cells and podocytes of renal glomeruli. They consisted of electron-dense small granules and ring-shaped particles. Viral particles were observed in the vesicles of the cytoplasm of myocardial cells and glomerular podocytes. The gene product specific for subgroup A of ALV was detected in the livers or tumours by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This result suggests that MIs can be formed in organs rather than muscular systems in the chickens naturally affected with ALV-associated tumours. PMID:17364510

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Higashi, Tomoko; Yamada, Manabu; Imai, Kunitoshi; Yamamoto, Yu



Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.  


This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D



Curlew Chick  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Curlew Chicks hatch in late June and are almost immediately ready to leave the nest. The coloring and pattern of the downy chicks provides camouflage to protect them from avian and mammalian predators. Chicks follow their parents on long hikes to feeding areas. Curlews also migrate long distances ea...



Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable.

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long



Effects of Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Feed Consumption and Egg Production of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of microbial phytase supplementation in diets were investigated on feed intake, egg production and feed efficiency in laying hens. The experiment was carried out between the July 15 to October 15 . 120 Nick Chick White hens at 210 days of age were divided into four groups of 40 each. th th Each cage contained



Breeder Age and Zinc Source in Broiler Breeder Hen Diets on Progeny Characteristics at Hatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Metabolic, immune, and physical status of chicks can impact the incidence of morbidity and mortality of broilers during the first week of production. Assessments of chick quality are made primarily by subjective observations with few quantitative measurements. Given a better understanding of how broiler breeder hen age and nutrient intake may influence progeny physiology, certain actions can be taken

B. P. Hudson; B. D. Fairchild; J. L. Wilson; W. A. Dozier; R. J. Buhr


The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.  


The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Züleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay



The effects of utilization of hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their products on performance and fatty acid composition of yolk in layer hens.  


This research has been performed to determine the effects of hazelnut crude oil, sunflower crude oil and its refinery by-products over the laying hens performance and the fatty acid composition of the egg's yolk. Four hundreds 36-week-old Nick Brown layer hens were allocated into five groups. Treatment groups were supplemented with 1.5% of sunflower crude oil, hazelnut crude oil, acidulated sunflower soapstock, acidulated hazelnut soapstock and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. The daily feed consumption for groups that were fed with crude oils were numerically improved as compared for those nourished with acidulated soapstocks. Although the percentages of cracked and broken eggs in acidulated hazelnut soapstock group was significantly higher than the other groups, daily feed consumption and egg production values were not different. The usage of acidulated hazelnut soapstock reduced the percentage of intact egg ratio. Egg's specific gravity and yolk color index were the highest level throughout the experiment from start to end in hazelnut crude oil group (p < 0.05). In group that was nourished by hazelnut oil, Omega 3/Omega-6 fatty acid ratios in egg yolk were higher than the groups that were fed with sunflower oil. The oleic acid content of the egg yolk was increased in the groups which were supplemented with hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil. Consequently, hazelnut crude oil and acidulated hazelnut crude oil improved the egg shell quality, yolk color index and yolk oleic acid value which would increase egg's shelf life. On the other hand acidulated hazelnut soapstock supplementation adversely affects the quality of egg shell. PMID:19142742

Cet?ngul, I S; Inal, F



Peripheral "chicken" obestatin administration does not affect feed intake and gut muscle contractility of meat-type and layer-type chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).  


Obestatin has recently been discovered in the rat stomach. As for ghrelin, the 23-amino acid obestatin is also derived from post-translational processing of the prepro-ghrelin gene but seems to have opposite effects on feed intake. In avian species, ghrelin is mainly present in the proventriculus and decreases feed intake, as opposed to its orexigenic properties in mammals. An obestatin-like sequence was also found in the avian ghrelin precursor protein but the potential involvement of this peptide in appetite regulation of chickens is unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of a single peripheral administration of this predicted "chicken" obestatin peptide on voluntary feed intake of 7- to 9-day-old meat-type and layer-type chicks. "Chicken" obestatin was injected intraperitoneally or intravenously at a dose of 1 nmol or 10 nmol/100 g body weight and feed intake was measured up to 4 h post injection. None of these treatments did reveal any effect of the putative "chicken" obestatin on appetite of either meat-type of layer-type chicks. Furthermore, "chicken" obestatin also failed to affect the in vitro contractility of muscle strips from crop and proventriculus. In conclusion, in the given experimental settings, the putative "chicken" obestatin has indistinctive physiological effects on feed intake and in vitro muscle contractility of gut segments, and hence its functional properties in ingestive behavior of avian species remain obscure. PMID:22561690

Song, Zhigang; Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Ansari, Zarbakht; Thijs, Theo; Depoortere, Inge; Everaert, Nadia; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan



Potential for amelioration of aflatoxin B1-induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of White Leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to vitamin E.  


This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) on the immunotoxic effects induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the progeny of breeder hens. For this purpose, 192 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens were divided into 12 groups (A-L) and then fed test diets for either 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Group A was kept on basal feed (2900 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) and served as control, while group B was offered a feed supplemented with Vit E at 100?mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0?mg/Kg AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered the same dietary levels of AFB1 along with 100?mg/Kg Vit E supplementation. Hatching eggs were shifted to an incubator on a weekly basis to get progeny chicks. Hatched chicks in each group were maintained on basal ration and then subjected to different immunological assays. Lymphoproliferative responses (against PHA-P), antibody titers (against SRBC), oxidative damage to RBC, as well as phagocytic and nitrite production potential of the peritoneal macrophages from the chicks, were all adversely impacted by hen exposure to the higher doses of AFB1 or by increased intake (time) by the hens at a given dose of the toxin. No consistent ameliorative effects from Vit E were noted in these studies, i.e. effects seen against lower AFB1 doses were no longer apparent with the highest doses of AFB1. As such, for now it can be concluded that, with this particular single dose level of Vit E, AFB1-associated immunotoxic effects in progeny chicks can potentially be mitigated by dietary intake of Vit E by their hen dams. However, this is clearly an outcome that is driven by the level of the mycotoxin present in the feed. Future studies need to examine what impact higher Vit E doses than those employed herein might have in these ameliorative outcomes. PMID:23782308

Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Ul Hassan, Zahoor; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif



Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.  


Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs. PMID:24931965

Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L



Ovarian follicle development in the laying hen is accompanied by divergent changes in inhibin A, inhibin B, activin A and follistatin production in granulosa and theca layers.  


To study the potential involvement of inhibin A (inhA), inhibin B (inhB), activin A (actA) and follistatin (FS) in the recruitment of follicles into the preovulatory hierarchy, growing follicles (ranging from 1 mm to the largest designated F1) and the three most recent postovulatory follicles (POFs) were recovered from laying hens (n=11). With the exception of <4 mm follicles and POFs, follicle walls were dissected into separate granulosa (G) and theca (T) layers before extraction. Contents of inhA, inhB, actA and FS in tissue extracts were assayed using specific two-site ELISAs and results are expressed per mg DNA. InhB content of both G and T followed a similar developmental pattern, although the content was >4-fold higher in G than in T at all stages. InhB content was very low in follicles <4 mm but increased ~50-fold (P<0.0001) to peak in 7-9 mm follicles, before falling steadily as follicles entered and moved up the follicular hierarchy (40-fold; 8 mm vs F2). In stark contrast, inhA remained very low in prehierarchical follicles (< or =9 mm) but then increased progressively as follicles moved up the preovulatory hierarchy to peak in F1 (approximately 100-fold increase; P<0.0001); In F1 >97% of inhA was confined to the G layer whereas in 5-9 mm follicles inhA was only detected in the T layer. Both inhA and inhB contents of POFs were significantly reduced compared with F1. Follicular actA was mainly confined to the T layer although detectable levels were present in G from 9 mm; actA was low between 1 and 9 mm but increased sharply as follicles entered the preovulatory hierarchy (approximately 6-fold higher in F4; P<0.0001); levels then fell approximately 2-fold as the follicle progressed to F1. Like actA, FS predominated in the T although significant amounts were also present in the G of prehierarchical follicles (4-9 mm), in contrast to actA, which was absent from the G. The FS content of T rose approximately 3-fold from 6 mm to a plateau which was sustained until F1. In contrast, the FS content of G was greatest in prehierarchical follicles and fell approximately 4-fold in F4-F1 follicles. ActA and FS contents of POFs were reduced compared with F1. In vitro studies on follicle wall explants confirmed the striking divergence in the secretion of inhA and inhB during follicle development. These findings of marked stage-dependent differences in the expression of inhA, inhB, actA and FS proteins imply a significant functional role for these peptides in the recruitment and ordered progression of follicles within the avian ovary. PMID:12697036

Lovell, T M; Gladwell, R T; Groome, N P; Knight, P G



Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.  


The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE. PMID:20070993

Stoev, Stoycho D



Organ weight and serum triglyceride responses of older (80 week) commercial laying hens fed an alfalfa meal molt diet.  


Since one of the costs in the commercial egg industry is that of replacement pullets, commercial egg layer managers have opted to induce molt older hens in order to extend their productive life for additional egg laying cycles. Conventional molt induction involves the complete removal of feed for several days. However, this management practice can lead to deleterious physiological responses by the hen and subsequent susceptibility to infection by pathogens. Consequently less stressful molting regimens involving the feeding of low energy diets such as alfalfa have been developed. In this study, 80 week old laying hens that were deprived of feed or fed alfalfa meal during a nine day induced molt. Full fed hens were used as the control. On day 8 serum triglycerides were quantified and on day 9 hens were euthanized and the liver, spleen, heart, intestine, pancreas, ovary, and kidney were collected and weighed. Intestinal weight were highest in the non-molted hens, lower in the hens fed alfalfa, and lower still in the hens deprived of feed. Molted hens exhibited reduced weights of liver, heart, ovary, and pancreas compared to the non-molted hens. Serum triglycerides were highest in the non-molted hens, less in feed deprived hens, and the lowest in alfalfa fed hens. These results suggest that a comparable molt could be achieved with feeding alfalfa meal to 80 week hens compared to feed deprivation. PMID:18164195

Landers, K L; Moore, R W; Herrera, P; Landers, D A; Howard, Z R; McReynolds, J L; Bryd, J A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C



Effects of excess vitamin A on the cranial neural crest in the chick embryo.  

PubMed Central

Experiments on fertile hens' eggs have shown that an excess of vitamin A has a highly specific effect on the migration of cranial neural crest cells in the early stages of chick embryogenesis. Migration is disrupted and retarded. This is consistent with the causal mechanism proposed by Poswillo for the Treacher Collins syndrome. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Keith, J.



Protection of chicks against Salmonella infantis infection induced by strict anaerobically cultured intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments newly hatched broilers were orally inoculated either with intestinal microfloras cultured under different conditions or with a suspension of intestinal homogenate and challenged with high doses (3 x 10 c.f.u. per chick) of Salmonella infantis organisms.Inocula were prepared from intestinal material of mature SPF WL hens under aerobic or strictly anaerobic conditions (< 5 ppm oxygen), and

E. Goren; W. A. de Jong; P. Doornenbal; J. P. Koopman; H. M. Kennis



Colonization and organ invasion in chicks experimentally infected with Dermanyssus gallinae contaminated by Salmonella Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important and common ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe. This haematophagous mite has been experimentally demonstrated to be a vector of Salmonella Enteritidis by acquiring bacteria through the blood meal or cuticular contact. We have evaluated another route of infection by orally inoculating chicks with mites previously infected by S. Enteritidis.

Claire Valiente Moro; Philippe Fravalo; Michel Amelot; Claude Chauve; Lionel Zenner; Gilles Salvat



Effects of dietary borate and aluminate on riboflavin metabolism in the breeding hen.  


Breeding hens were used to investigate the effects of aluminate and borate ingestion on riboflavin metabolism. Groups of six hens were fed on either a control diet, or the control diet plus 15 g kg-1 of either sodium metaborate or sodium meta-aluminate. All diets contained 6 mg kg-1 riboflavin. Daily egg production per hen in the borate group had mean values of 0.71, 0.21 and 0.02 for the three weeks of the study. The values were 0.91, 0.91, 0.86 and 0.86, 0.74, 0.89 for the control and aluminate groups, respectively. Fertility (fertile eggs per 100 set) and hatchability (live chicks per 100 fertile eggs) were both nil in the borate-treated hens, compared with 57 and 95 and 59 and 100 for the control and aluminate-treated hens, respectively. Fluorimetric analysis of blood plasma, egg yolk and albumen showed that the riboflavin contents of all tissues were greatly reduced in the borate-treated hens. Borate ingestion can therefore induce a severe riboflavin deficiency in the hen, but aluminium, a more universal contaminant of food or water, did not impair riboflavin metabolism when fed as aluminate. PMID:2236928

Rennie, J S; Whitehead, C C; Montanari, A



Effect of graded levels of niacin in corn-soy and wheat-soy diets on laying hens.  


An experiment was conducted using commercial egg-type hens to investigate their response to various levels of niacin supplementation of diets. Layer performance, hen nervousness, fertility, and hatchability were observed. No significant differences were found among dietary treatments for hen-day egg production, feed conversion, hen nervousness, mortality, fertility, or hatchability. Birds receiving wheat-soy diets consumed significantly (P less than .05) more feed and laid smaller eggs with higher specific gravity than hens fed corn-soy diets. PMID:3601856

Ouart, M D; Harms, R H; Wilson, H R



Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival  

PubMed Central

Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.



Effect of Probiotics, Yeast, Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplements on Performance and Immune Response of Laying Hen During High Environmental Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics, yeast, vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on performance, serum and yolk cholesterol and immune response of heat stressed laying hens, a trial was conducted with sixty white layer hens of Hy-Line variety. Experiment was conducted by using completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 3 replicates and 4 hens in each

Maziar Mohiti Asli; Farid Shariatmadari; Seyed Abdollah Hosseini; Houshang Lotfollahian



Hummingbird with her chicks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Female hummingbirds lay two eggs in a clutch. She does all the work in raising the chicks; the male hummingbird has no involvement. Adult hummingbirds eat nectar and various insects. Hummingbird chicks eat insects because they need protein, so that is what the mother hummingbird catches for them.

Wolfgang Wander (None;)



Effects of dietary protein on egg production of laying hens housed in furnished or conventional cages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present experiment the effects of dietary protein content on egg production of hens kept either in conventional cages (CCs) or furnished cages (FCs) were studied. A total of 1088 LSL (Lohmann LSL-Classic Layer) hens were housed in either FCs or CCs and offered high or low protein diets with a protein\\/energy ratio of 17 or 13, respectively, during

Eija Valkonen; Eija Venäläinen; Laila Rossow; Jarmo Valaja



The effects of humic acid on egg production and egg traits of laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of humic acid on feed consumption, egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight and external and internal egg quality of laying hens were studied during feeding periods. A total of 180 (Hysex Brown) layers (36 weeks of age) were used in this experiment. There was one control and two experimental groups, each containing 60 hens and 4 subgroups. The




Egg?shell deposition and blood plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration in individual laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The relationship between plasma inorganic phosphorus measured at the end of the dark period and the weight of the next egg shell produced was investigated in 30 Hisex Brown hens.2. Hens received an adequate conventional layers’ diet and the lighting pattern was conventional (17 L:7 D). Observations were made early (31 to 40 weeks) and late (62 to 68

S. P. Gunaratne; K. N. Boorman



Is genetics the unrecognized confounding factor in bioelectromagnetics? Flock-dependence of field-induced anoxia protection in chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in bioelectromagnetics has long been plagued by problems with replication. This includes experiments done on electromagnetic (EM) field-induced effects in chick embryos. Our laboratory investigated responses of embryos from two flocks of White Leghorn hens. Both flocks were studied simultaneously, and it was found that they responded differently to EM field exposures. Embryos were exposed to 60 Hz, 8

A. L Di Carlo; T. A Litovitz



1?-Hydroxycholecalciferol Has Little Effect on Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Laying Hen Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research in our laboratory dem- onstrated marked increases in phytate P utilization when P-deficient corn-soybean meal diets were supplemented with 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol (1?-(OH) D3) and fed to chicks. Our objective was to determine if 1?-(OH) D3 would improve phytateP utilization when supplemented to vitamin D-adequate laying hen diets. The five experi- mental treatments were 1) P-deficient corn-soybean basal diet (17%

J. L. Snow; M. E. Persia; P. E. Biggs; D. H. Baker; C. M. Parsons


Triphenylphosphite neuropathy in hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single doses of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), a triester of trivalent phosphorus, cause ataxia and paralysis in hens. Characteristics\\u000a of neurotoxicity were described as somewhat different from organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), which is\\u000a caused by triesters of pentavalent phosphorus. The onset of TPP neuropathy was reported to occur earlier than that of OPIDP\\u000a (5–10 versus 7–14 days after dosing, respectively),

F. Fioroni; A. Moretto; M. Lotti



Effects of pullet-stocking density on performance of laying hens.  


Effects of cage-stocking density during the rearing period on three commercial strains housed in open and closed rearing and laying houses were examined in two experiments. Stocking densities in Experiment 1 were 311, 259, and 239 cm2 per bird and in Experiment 2 were 311, 259, and 222 cm2 per bird. In the rearing period, greater stocking densities significantly reduced feed intake and 18-wk body weight and increased age at 50% production. In the second experiment, mortality to 20 wk was higher among birds reared at 222 cm2 per bird compared to the less dense treatments. In the laying phase of the experiments, there were no differences among the treatments in number of eggs per bird housed, layer mortality or kilograms of feed consumed per kilograms of egg produced. Final (499 days) body weight of hens reared at 222 cm2 per bird was significantly less than that of those in the other treatment groups. Egg weight of birds reared at 22 cm2 per bird was significantly greater than that of birds reared at 311 cm2 per bird in Experiment 2. Calculated incomes over feed and chick costs were not different among the treatments in either experiment. A less rapid decline in egg production was noted among birds reared at the highest stocking density over the time of the experiment. PMID:3684850

Carey, J B



Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-? phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive

Stoycho D. Stoev



Effects of Broiler Rearing Environment on Transmission of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Layer Hens to Broiler Chickens: Role of AcidBase Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin in F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculated layers and FMG contact- infected broilers. At the termination of the study, FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O and the lowest partial pressure of CO as compared with the other treatment groups. Blood pH values

H. A. Olanrewaju; J. L. Purswell; S. D. Collier; S. L. Branton



Ovarian tumors of the hen.  

PubMed Central

Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25.

Fredrickson, T N



Phage and MLVA Typing of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Layers and Humans in Belgium from 2000-2010, A Period in which Vaccination of Laying Hens was Introduced.  


The aim of the study was to characterize isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from humans and layer farms in Belgium collected during 2000-2010. Three periods were compared, namely (i) before implementation of vaccination (2000-2004), (ii) during voluntary vaccination (2005-2006) and (iii) during implementation of the national control program (NCP) for Salmonella including mandatory vaccination against S. Enteritidis (2007-2010). The characteristics compared across time periods were distributions of phage type and multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA). While PT4 and PT21 were predominantly isolated in Belgium in layers and humans before 2007, a significant reduction of those PTs was observed in both populations in the period 2007-2010. The relative proportion of PT4b, PT21c and PT6c was found to have increased considerably in the layer population since 2007. In the human population, PT8, PT1 and the group of 'other' PTs were more frequently isolated compared to the previous periods. When comparing the proportion of the predominant MLVA types Q2 and U2, no significant difference was found between the layer and human population in the three periods and between periods within each category (layer and human). A significant difference in isolate distribution among MLVA clusters I and II was found between human and layer isolates recovered during Period 3 and in the human population between Period 1 and 3. Results suggest that the association between S. Enteritidis in layers and the occurrence of the pathogen in humans changed since implementation of the NCP in 2007. PMID:24268005

Dewaele, I; Heyndrickx, M; Rasschaert, G; Bertrand, S; Wildemauwe, C; Wattiau, P; Imberechts, H; Herman, L; Ducatelle, R; Van Weyenberg, S; De Reu, K



Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen’s egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen’s egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients’ IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun



Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.  


Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on immune responses in poultry have been reported. However, effects on the underlying mechanisms, such as the role of cytokines, have not been documented because the necessary tools were lacking. Recently, primer sets for chicken interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 have become available. Therefore, in the present study we first examined the in vivo effects of an inflammatory challenge with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cytokine profiles in growing laying-type chicks. Second, we examined whether dietary fat sources affected the observed cytokine profiles. Two hundred forty chicks were assigned in a 2 x 4 factorial design of treatments, with injection with LPS or saline and dietary fat source as factors. Factors were i.v. injection with S. typhimurium LPS or saline (control) and four dietary fat sources: corn oil, linseed oil, menhaden oil, and tallow. Two hours after injection, birds were killed, and their spleens were removed for RNA extraction. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions with primer sets for chicken IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, MGF, TGF-beta2, and beta-actin were performed with RNA samples pooled by pen. The expression of cytokine mRNA was expressed relative to the level of beta-actin mRNA. Interleukin-1 (P < 0.001), MGF (P < 0.0001), IL-2 (P < 0.001), and IFN-gamma (P < 0.001) mRNA expressions were enhanced by challenge with LPS. Immunization treatment had no effect on TGF-beta2 or beta-actin expression. Dietary treatment did not affect mRNA expression of IL-1, MGF, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta2, or beta-actin. Interleukin-2 expression in LPS-injected birds that were fed the fish-oil-enriched diet was enhanced (P = 0.05). The present study indicates that in vivo effects of immune challenge on cytokine mRNA expression can be measured in poultry. The observation that mRNA level of IL-2, but not the mRNA levels of IFN-gamma or MGF, is enhanced by dietary fish oil at 2 h suggests that dietary PUFA at this moment initially affected naďve T lymphocytes. PMID:11495469

Sijben, J W; Schrama, J W; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J; Klasing, K C



Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.  

PubMed Central

Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissues of 580 hens (433 seropositive) from the seven flocks detected 26 (4.5%) S. enteritidis-infected hens from two flocks. In one flock, 2/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis phage type (PT) 8, which was confined to the ceca, and no Salmonella spp. were isolated from 2520 eggs (one day's lay). In the second flock, where 24/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis PT13, extraintestinal infection was found in nine hens and involved the ovaries and/or oviduct in two hens. Salmonella enteritidis PT13 was isolated from one sample of egg contents and from one sample of cracked shells from among 14,040 eggs (one day's lay) from this flock. The overall prevalence of S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs from the two flocks with infected hens was less than 0.06%. Other Salmonella spp. isolated were S. heidelberg from 58 hens (10%), and S. hadar, S. mbandaka and S. typhimurium from one hen (0.2%) each. The MAT with antigens of S. pullorum had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 24% for detecting S. enteritidis-infected hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Poppe, C; Johnson, R P; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J



Induction of eggshell apex abnormalities in broiler breeder hens.  


Recently, the causal relationship between eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) and Mycoplasma synoviae was described. This eggshell pathology has only been documented in table egg layers both spontaneously and experimentally infected with M. synoviae, suggesting that meat-type layers are less prone to this condition. In this study the susceptibility of specified pathogen free (SPF) broiler breeder hens to produce eggs with EAA after M. synoviae infection was assessed. Five groups of 12 hens each were made: a negative control group, a group inoculated intratracheally (i.t.) with a M. synoviae EAA strain at 19 weeks of age, a group inoculated i.t. with this strain at 19 and 26 weeks of age, a group inoculated with M. synoviae i.t. at 19 weeks of age and infected 5 days earlier with infectious bronchitis virus D1466 (IBV), and a fifth group similar to the former but inoculated i.t. twice with an M. synoviae EAA strain at 19 and 26 weeks of age. Eggs with EAA were only produced after a single i.t. inoculation with the M. synoviae EAA strain if preceded by an infection with IBV. The production of eggs with EAA started 6 weeks after M. synoviae EAA inoculation and the proportion of eggs with EAA during the experiment was 9/449 (2%), which was much lower than that in SPF layer hens (14-22%). The present results suggest that broiler breeder hens are less susceptible to producing eggs with EAA after an infection with a M. synoviae EAA strain preceded by an IBV infection, compared with table egg layers. Similar to SPF egg layers, the mean daily egg production per hen was significantly reduced by the M. synoviae EAA strain and there was a general negative effect on eggshell strength by this strain, suggesting it could also have a detrimental effect on hatching egg quality. PMID:20390548

Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M



Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal in Layer Diets: 3. Effect of Higher Inclusion Level and Prolonged Feeding of Raw or Processed Pigeon Pea Seed Meal Diets from Pullet Chick Stage on the Laying Performance of Pullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Black Bovan Nera pullets at point of lay (19 weeks old) that were fed pigeon Pea Seed Meal (PSM) diets during the pullet chick and grower stages of life were used to determine the effect of higher inclusion level and prolonged feeding of raw or processed PSM diets from the pullet chick stage on the laying performance of

K. U. Amaefule; M. A. Oguike; M. O. Ironkwe; F. C. Obioha



Teen Chick Lit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

Meloni, Christine



The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on performance and tibial dyschondroplasia of broiler chicks.  


A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal dietary vitamin D3 supplementation at 4 different times during the laying cycle, on the performance and bone quality of broiler chicks fed a diet that induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) or an adequate diet. Ross x Ross broiler breeder hens were fed a corn-soy diet with various levels of vitamin D3 from 24 to 66 wk of age. Eggs were collected at 39, 44, 53, and 64 wk of age and hatched. Chicks from hens fed 250 IU of D3/kg (low maternal D3 or LMD3) and 2,000 IU of D3/ kg (high maternal D3 or HMD3) levels were placed in battery brooders and fed the diets from 0 to 16 d. At 16 d, the chicks were weighed and killed; the left tibias were used for bone ash determinations, and the right tibias were used to score the incidence and severity of TD (0, 1, 2, or 3, where 3 is the most severe). Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly lower for the LMD3 chicks at wk 44 and 64, although there was no difference in weight at hatch. For the first 2 hatches (wk 39 and 44), the LMD3 and HMD3 chicks demonstrated high average TD scores (2.03 and 1.57 vs. 2.05 and 1.75 for the LMD3 vs. HMD3 chicks, respectively) and high average incidences of severe TD (50 and 35% vs. 45 and 34% for LMD3 vs. HMD3 levels, respectively). However, results from the last 2 hatches (wk 53 and 64) showed that HMD3 chicks, compared with LMD3 chicks, had reduced average TD scores (1.39 and 1.47 vs. 1.01 and 0.44 for LMD3 vs. HMD3 levels, respectively) and severe TD incidence (36 and 40% vs. 17 and 8% for the LMD3 vs. HMD3 levels, respectively). In this experiment, as egg production declined toward the end of the laying cycle, hens fed the HMD3 might have been able to deposit sufficient quantities of vitamin D3 in the egg to maintain excellent body weight gain at 16 d of age and reduce the incidence and severity of TD. Hens fed the LMD3 diet were unable to produce similar improvements. PMID:16493944

Driver, J P; Atencio, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M; Bakalli, R I



Estimation of genetic parameters for monthly egg production in laying hens based on random regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heritability and genetic correlations of monthly egg production under random regression models were estimated. Three layer\\u000a lines (A22, A88, K66) in six consecutive generations were analysed. A22 (13, 770 recorded hens) and A88 (13, 950 recorded\\u000a hens) are maternal lines of Rhode Island White birds selected on egg production and shell colour; K66 (9, 351 recorded birds)\\u000a is a paternal

A. Wolc; T. Szwaczkowski



Layer and broiler chicks exhibit similar hypothalamic expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but distinct expression of genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer and broiler chickens demonstrate striking differences in body weight and body composition. However, the mechanism underlying such difference is elusive. Hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis regulates energy homeostasis and body size in mammals, but information in birds is scarce. Here we test the hypothesis that such breed difference is more associated with hypothalamic expression of genes related to HPA axis, rather

Lixia Yuan; Yingdong Ni; Stephan Barth; Yufeng Wang; Roland Grossmann; Ruqian Zhao



Blindness due to retinal dysplasia in broiler chicks.  


Thirty-three live 9-day-old broiler chicks were submitted for laboratory evaluation because of blindness. Blindness was observed in up to 1% of 25,000 birds from four different houses. All the chicks were from the same breeder source. Blindness was apparent when the chicks were 2-3 days old. Clinically, the blind chicks were smaller than their counterparts, were unable to find feed and water, and wandered aimlessly. Necropsy did not reveal any lesions. Two chicks examined clinically at 14 days of age lacked pupillary reflexes after light stimulation, and the anterior and posterior segments of the eye were normal. Microscopically, degeneration of photoreceptor cells characterized by vacuoles was evident at 9 days of age, and rosette formation of the retina, disorganization of retinal layers, synechia of the retina with mild inflammation in the choroid, and proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelial cells were evident by 15 days of age. Because the chicks came from the same breeder source and the incidence of blindness was low, a probable genetic etiology is suspected as the cause of blindness in this flock. PMID:14562911

Shivaprasad, H L; Korbel, Ruediger



Calcium Requirements of Bovanes Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium requirements of laying hens have been widely studied yet keep challenging nutritionists as a result of new genetic make-ups of commercial strains, farm management techniques, environmental concerns, and economics considerations. The present research was conducted to determine the calcium requirement of \\



Morphologic alterations in leg muscles of chicks treated with triorthocresyl phosphate in ovo.  


Chick embryos were injected on incubation Day 14 with 62 microliter of triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP)/kg egg. Muscles of the leg were examined from 5 to 25 days after hatching. The sartorius from the thigh and the external gastrocnemius and peroneus longus from the tibial leg region were compared for muscle fiber size and end-plate length over this period. Treated chicks showed no acute toxic effects or overt ataxia and were equal in body weight to controls. At 5, 15, and 25 days after hatching, morphologic alterations consistent with denervation were detected. Muscle fibers were smaller than controls on Day 5 and were hypertrophic on Days 15 and 25. On Day 5 growth of fibers was retarded, an effect consistent with denervation, and the subsequent hypertrophy is predicted as compensation for denervated fibers. Small end plates were seen on Day 15, characteristic of end plates that were delayed in development by denervation. Each of these differences was greater in the tibial muscles than in the more proximally located sartorius. This is consistent with a distal neuropathy, such as that caused by TOCP in adult hens. Some recovery was apparent at the low dose 25 days after hatching. It is suggested that this resulted from reinnervation by repaired axons. This study of the myoneural apparatus and muscle fiber response to TOCP adds evidence to the possibility that the developing chick embryo may develop delayed neuropathy from organophosphorus compounds which produce this effect in adult hens. PMID:2413588

Sheets, L; Norton, S



Effects of Addition of the Red Pepper from 4th Harvest to Corn or Wheat Based Diets on Egg-yolk Colour and Egg Production in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effects of locally grown red pepper on egg-yolk colour and egg production in laying hens, twelve diets based on white corn and wheat grain were supplemented by various amounts of red pepper and artificial colouring pigments, and offered to 96 layer hens for 13 weeks from the beginning of the laying circle. The characteristics of



Chronic Stress in Battery Hens: Measuring Corticosterone in Laying Hen Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing social and scientific interest in recent years in laying hen welfare. Stress is an animal welfare parameter that has been found to alter laying hens' physiology and social behaviour. Our study aims to test the effects of the different housing systems (laying cage, barn and free range) on the laying hens' welfare. In this study we

Elena Bulmer; Diego Gil



Chicks like consonant music.  


The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments. PMID:21934134

Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Defective Down syndrome in chicks is not caused by riboflavin deficiency in breeders.  


1. Riboflavin-deficient practical and semi-purified diets were fed to broiler breeder hens. 2. Yolk and albumen riboflavin concentrations were depressed by the deficient diets and cases of curled toes were seen in the chicks. 3. The few instances of defective down did not resemble cases seen in field outbreaks of a condition involving depressed hatchability and a defective down syndrome. 4. It is concluded from observations in this experiment and in the field outbreaks that there is a condition in breeding chickens causing depressed hatchability and defective down that is not attributable to riboflavin deficiency. PMID:8358643

Whitehead, C C; Rennie, J S; McCormack, H A; Hocking, P M



[The vitamin A supply of laying hens including during rearing. 2. Effect of varied vitamin A supplementation of mixed feed in rearing on production in the laying period].  


In six experiments with laying hybrids the influence of a varied nutritive beta-carotene and vitamin A supply during rearing on the performance in the laying period was tested. Basal rations poor in carotene without vitamin A supplementation in the rearing period diminished feed intake and laying performance in the laying period, retarded the beginning of intensive laying and increased feed expenditure per 100 g egg if the feed for laying hens contained less than 5000 IU vitamin A per kg. Relations between varied vitamin A supply and the performance parameters of the laying performance could not be proved if chick and young hen feed with maize even without vitamin A supplement or if rearing feed with approximately 2500 IU vitamin A or laying hen feed greater than 5000 IU vitamin A supply were used. PMID:2383177

Richter, G; Sitte, E; Petzold, M



Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.  


1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters. PMID:19373721

Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh



Evaluation of the effects of cage height and stocking density on the behaviour of laying hens in furnished cages.  


1. Limited information is available on how changes in horizontal and vertical space within enriched or furnished layer cages (as defined by Directive 1999/74/EC) influence hen behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of varying minimum cage heights and space allowances on the behaviour of laying hens housed in furnished cages. It was conducted on two flocks of medium brown hybrid hens housed in furnished cages with access to perches and nest boxes on a semi-commercial scale at ADAS Gleadthorpe. 2. Flock 1 consisted of two layer strains (ISA Brown and Babcock 380), housed at two minimum cage heights (38 and 45 cm) and 5 stocking densities between 609 and 870 cm2/bird, with 12 replicates of each of the 20 strain/cage height/stocking density treatment combinations. Stocking density was varied by varying the number of birds per cage from 10 to 7 in standard full-width cages or housing 7 hens in a narrower cage. As a consequence stocking density, group size and trough width per bird co-varied for 4 out of 5 stocking density treatments. 3. Behaviour of flock 1 was sampled at 33 to 36, 46 and 68 weeks of age. At each age one top-tier, one middle-tier and one bottom-tier cage was sampled for each treatment. 4. Few behavioural differences due to cage treatments were detected. Hens at 870 cm2 had shorter feeding bouts than hens at 609 and 762 cm2. Yawning was more common in the cages with greater cage height. 5. Video recordings of flock 1 examined cage height effects on hens' use of vertical space and provided additional data on stretching and self-maintenance activities. No differences in behaviour between 38 and 45 cm cages were found except that scratching head was more common in cages with greater cage height. 6. Flock 2 consisted of two layer strains (Shaver Brown and Hy-Line Brown), housed at 38 and 45 cm and 609, 762 and 1016 cm2/bird, with 18 replicates of each of the 12 strain/cage height/stocking density treatment combinations. Stocking density was varied by housing 10, 8 or 6 hens in standard full-width cages. Behaviour of flock 2 was sampled at 30, 48, 60 and 67 weeks from video recordings. Three cages per treatment from middle-tiers only were sampled at each age. 7. Hens housed at 609 cm2/hen had the longest mean feeding bout, greater than for hens at 762 cm2/hen but not hens at 1016 cm2/hen. More unsuccessful attempts to reach the feeder and sideways and backwards displacements from the feeder occurred at 762 and 609 cm2/hen than at 1016 cm2/hen. A maximum of 8 hens were observed feeding synchronously. 8. These results suggest that changes in horizontal and vertical space over the ranges we studied had little effect on behaviour other than feeding behaviour. Specifying a minimum useable trough space per hen, rather than calculating feeder space from total length of feeder per cage, irrespective of accessibility, might help avoid crowding at the feeder and associated disturbance of feeding bouts. PMID:17364534

Albentosa, M J; Cooper, J J; Luddem, T; Redgate, S E; Elson, H A; Walker, A W



Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-C. jejuni metabolites.  

PubMed Central

Cecum-colonizing bacteria were isolated from Campylobacter jejuni-free White Leghorn (Gallus domesticus) laying hens and screened for the ability to produce anti-C. jejuni metabolites. Nine isolates were obtained that possessed this characteristic. The peroral administration of the nine isolates as a mixture (ca. 10(9) per chick) to 1-day-old chicks was followed 1 week later by peroral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni (ca. 10(9) per chick) to determine if the cecal isolates could protect chicks from colonization by campylobacters. The nine-strain mixture of cecal bacteria provided from 41 to 85% protection from C. jejuni colonization. The protective bacteria were reduced to a mixture of three strains on the basis of their ability to utilize mucin as a sole substrate for growth. These strains included Klebsiella pneumoniae 23, Citrobacter diversus 22, and Escherichia coli (O13:H-) 25. Four feeding trials with this three-strain mixture provided from 43 to 100% (average, 78%) protection from C. jejuni colonization. The dominant cecal bacterium of chicks treated with the three-strain mixture was consistently E. coli O13:H-. Similarly, three trials with only E. coli 25 used as the protective bacterium resulted in 49 to 72% (average, 59%) protection from C. jejuni colonization, with E. coli O13:H- being the dominant cecal bacterium in all cases. Although not completely effective, E. coli 25 substantially reduced the incidence of C. jejuni colonization of chicks. For all trials, fewer C. jejuni were present in the ceca of colonized chicks receiving the protective bacteria before exposure to C. jejuni than in chicks receiving only C. jejuni.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images

Schoeni, J L; Doyle, M P



Eimeria infections in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Coccidiosis, caused by different Eimeria species, is believed to be a more prominent problem in loose-housed layers kept on litter than in battery cages. In this study, the impact and development of Eimeria infections were investigated in layers kept in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loosehoused hens. 2. Layers from 57 flocks on 26 farms were followed by

A. Lunden; P. Thebo; S. Gunnarsson; P. Hooshmand-Rad; R. Tauson; A. Uggla



CYP1B1 expression in ovarian cancer in the laying hen Gallus domesticus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. The genetic and molecular mechanisms that cause it still remain largely unknown. CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of estrogens to genotoxic catechol estrogens which may cause DNA mutations and initiate ovarian epithelial cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate CYP1B1 expression, distribution and localization in the hen ovary and to determine if there is an increased CYP1B1 expression associated with, and possibly involved in the initiation of ovarian cancer. Methods Two groups of hens were used: 1. young (50 weeks of age; devoid of cancer) and 2. old (165 weeks of age; divided into two groups: age-matched normal and ovarian cancer). CYP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in cancerous ovaries, ovaries of age-matched normal and/or young hens by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RNA was extracted from tissue preserved in RNAlater for qRT-PCR. Tissue frozen in liquid nitrogen was used for ISH. Tissue fixed in neutral buffered formalin was subjected to IHC. Results Higher expression of CYP1B1 mRNA was observed in cancerous ovaries as compared to ovaries of young and age-matched normal hens by qRT-PCR. ISH and IHC confirmed that the expression of CYP1B1 was much higher in ovarian tumors compared to ovaries of age-matched normal hens. CYP1B1 mRNA and protein were distributed extensively throughout the carcinoma, while primarily localized to the granulosa layer surrounding the follicle in age-matched normal hens. IHC also showed nuclear localization of CYP1B1. Highly expressed CYP1B1 was found in POF-3 from young and age-matched normal hens as compared to POF-1 and POF-2 by qRT-PCR. No significant difference was found in the expression of CYP1B1 between the distal (site of rupture) and the proximal (site of attachment to the ovary) of POF-1 from young and age-matched normal hens. Conclusions High expression of CYP1B1 in the hen ovary is associated with ovarian cancer and our data suggest that CYP1B1 may play an important role in the initiation of ovarian cancer and may prove to be a target for intervention. Moreover, the results of this study further confirm that the laying hen is a good model to study human ovarian cancer.

Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J.; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, Dale B.




Microsoft Academic Search

I studied chick growth, sibling rivalry, and chick production in a population of American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) on Cleland Island, British Columbia from 1975 to 1978. For these birds, survival from hatching until time of first flight is the critical life-history stage. Chick growth varied with brood size, and heavier chicks had higher survival to the time of first



The Effect of Different Concentrations of Safflower Seed on Laying Hen`s Performance, Yolk and Blood Cholesterol and Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six 26-wk-old white leghorn layers (w-36 variety) were fed commercial diets containing 0, 4, 7 and 10% safflower seed (SS) and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Hens randomly assigned to 4 treatment diets, with 3 replicates and 8 layers in each replicate. The experiment was conducted over a period of 12 wk in order to study the effects of

S. J. Hosseini Vashan; N. Afzali; M. Mallekaneh; M. A. Nasseri; A. Allahresani



Influence of the type of management system on corticosterone transfer into eggs in laying hens.  


The effect of free-range versus cage management system on corticosterone transfer into the eggs was studied in laying hens. Hungarian Yellow laying hens (age: 21 weeks, body weight: 2.0 +/- 0.5 kg) were divided into two groups in the spring: Group I, free-range keeping (n=15 layers, density: > 0.5 bird/m2) in outdoor runs, with continuous access to a commercial layer feed; Group II, hens kept in battery cages (n=17 layers, density: 2 birds/m2, natural light, continuous access to feed and water). Eggs were collected after a one-week adaptation period on days 2, 7 and 16. Corticosterone (CST) was extracted from homogenised egg samples using an ASE-200 Accelerated Solvent Extractor and then assayed by liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) [Thermo Quest Surveyor high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced via Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) ion source to Finnigan/Thermo Quest LCQ Deca MS/MS] using dexamethasone as internal standard with positive APCI ionisation. CST concentrations of whole eggs laid by free-range hens on days 2, 7 and 16 were 0.370 +/- 0.218, 0.259 +/- 0.066 and 0.915 +/- 0.745 ng x g(-1), respectively, while those of eggs laid by caged hens were 0.206 +/- 0.157, 0.223 +/- 0.165 and 0.184 +/- 0.110 ng x g(-1) at the above sampling times. It is concluded that in free-range laying hens the sharp changes of environmental weather conditions significantly increased the corticosterone content of eggs, while the environmentally controlled and closed battery cage management technology resulted in relatively uniform corticosterone concentrations in the whole eggs. PMID:17020138

Sas, B; Domány, G; Gyimóthy, Ilse; Gaál Kovácsné, Katalin; Süth, M



Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.  


Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance. PMID:17312759

Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J



Cu influence on hens egg productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high Cu content was detected in water, soil and plants of some areas in East Siberia region [1]. That is why it is necessary to study the influence of Cu on animals'productivity and morbidity. 5 group of cross Rodonit hens were taken for an experiment. For 30 days the hens from experimental groups (2 5) were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). In group 1 (control) the egg laying was 0.63 and in group 2 (5 UL)-0.70. Hens of group 3 (10 UL) decreased the egg productivity for 6 days followed by their 3-day cease to lay egg. From the 10th to 22nd day of the experiment the egg productivity restoring was marked (to 0.55). Besides 20% of the hens died for the last 10 days. In group 4 (20 UL) the dramatic decrease in the egg laying was revealed at the very onset and the productivity breaking off from the 9th ... 12th day of the study. 70% of the hens died during the first 13 ... 17 days. In group 5 (30 UL) the egg productivity was 5 times less than in the control for the first decade and all the hens died for 2 ... 14 days. Thus, Cu is toxic in concentrations more than 10 UL and may cause the decrease of the egg productivity and even death of hens.

Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Korotkoval, G. N.



1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol has little effect on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hen diets.  


Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated marked increases in phytate P utilization when P-deficient corn-soybean meal diets were supplemented with 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha-(OH) D3] and fed to chicks. Our objective was to determine if 1alpha-(OH) D3 would improve phytate P utilization when supplemented to vitamin D-adequate laying hen diets. The five experimental treatments were 1) P-deficient corn-soybean basal diet [17% CP, 3.8% Ca, and 0.10% nonphytate NPP)], 2) basal with 2.5 microg/kg 1alpha-(OH) D3, 3) basal with 5 microg/kg 1alpha-(OH) D3, 4) basal with 10 microg/kg 1alpha-(OH) D3, and 5) basal with 0.35% supplemental inorganic P (0.45% NPP, positive control). Diets were fed to six replicate groups of 12 HyLine W-98 White Leghorn laying hens from 44 to 52 wk of age. Hen-day egg production was significantly depressed by 47 wk of age for the basal diet treatment and by 47, 49, and 48 wk of age, respectively, for the 2.5, 5, and 10 microg/kg of 1alpha-(OH) D3 treatments compared to the positive control diet. Supplementation with 5 or 10 microg/kg 1alpha-(OH) D3 did improve (P < 0.05) egg production, but egg production for those treatments was much lower than that for the 0.45% NPP treatment. Our results indicate that 1alpha-(OH) D3 did not substantially improve P utilization in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal diets. PMID:14653475

Snow, J L; Persia, M E; Biggs, P E; Baker, D H; Parsons, C M



Effect of biotin and niacin on lipid content of livers in the laying hen.  


Single Comb White Leghorn layers maintained in cages were fed a corn-soy diet with a simplified vitamin premix for a 12-week experimental period to determine the effect on liver lipid accumulation. Lipid content was only 29.6% of the liver dry matter and, therefore, was in the normal range and less than that seen in hens with fatty liver syndrome. Adding niacin (44 mg./kg.) or biotin (110 mug./kg.) either alone or in combination failed to significantly alter liver weight or liver lipid content. Liver lipid content of hens fed another diet with a more complex vitamin premix also was not significantly different from that of hens fed the diet with the simplified vitamin premix. None of the diets significantly affected egg production, egg weight, feed consumption or body weight changes observed over the 12-week period. PMID:1033540

Jensen, L S; Chang, C H; Maurice, D V



Glucose Utilization by Chick Embryo Heart Homogenates  

PubMed Central

Homogenates of early chick embryos and homogenates of early chick embryonic hearts utilized the phosphogluconate pathway of glucose catabolism to a greater extent, relative to the glycolytic-Krebs cycle pathway, than did homogenates of hearts from older chick embryos or adult chicks. An abrupt drop in the relative participation by the phosphogluconate pathway in embryo heart homogenates occurs at about 5 to 7 days of incubation. Heart homogenates from adult chicks catabolize glucose almost entirely by the glycolytic-Krebs cycle pathway, with negligible participation by the phosphogluconate pathway.

Coffey, R. G.; Cheldelin, Vernon H.; Newburgh, R. W.



[Amniotic and serum alphafetoprotein in the chick embryo with neural tube defect].  


Although alpha-feto-protein (AFP) is a widely used marker for human neural tube defects (NTD) little is known about the mechanisms for its increase in the amniotic fluid in this condition. For investigating this issue we developed a chick embryo AFP assay and tested it in a NTD experimental model. AFP obtained by electroelution on PAGE/SDS gels from the plasma of 12-day-old embryos was used to produce rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies. A specific sandwich-type enzyme-immune-assay was developed using both reagents. Sterile aspiration of 5 ml. of albumen from 602 fertile hen eggs on the 27th hour of incubation (Hamburger stages 8 to 11) led to the appearance of NTD in 36 out of the 270 survivors (13%). Amniotic and seric AFP levels were measured on the 15th day of incubation in NTD chicks (n = 11) and in control ones (n = 9) and the results were compared by non-parametric tests. Serum AFP was five times higher in NTD chicks than in controls (119.2 +/- 32.6 vs 523.3 +/- 173.62 micrograms/ml., p < 0.001) and amniotic AFP was absent in control and very increased in NTD animals (0.15 +/- 0.02 vs 87.14 +/- 84 micrograms/ml., p < 0.001). It is concluded that: 1) serum AFP is intriguingly increased in the chick with NTD; 2) since urine is not diversed into the amniotic sac in the avian embryo, the only source of AFP in its fluid is exudation through an open defect. This conclusion is further supported by the absence of amniotic AFP in a chick with a large closed NTD. PMID:7692911

Uriarte, S; Barrena, M J; López de Torre, B; Aldazábal, P; Cuadrado, E; Tovar, J A



Interference in the Chick Chorion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Experiments were carried out in an attempt to demonstrate in the chorionic cells of the chick chorio-allantoic membrane some of the interference phenomena with influenza viruses which are readily demonstrable in the allantoic cells. When a mixture of PR8 and Lee viruses was inoculated on the chorion, no interference occurred ; on the contrary, the soluble antigen titres for

A. Isaacs; F. Fulton



Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.  


The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang



Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  


An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl



End-of-cycle bone quality in white- and brown-egg laying hens.  


Broken and weak bones of laying hens are major welfare concerns in the table egg industry. Bone quality at the end of lay of brown- (Shaver 579) and white-(Shaver 2000) egg strains were compared. Prior to the start of the experiment, the hens had been housed in laying hen cages (2/cage). At 423 d of age (60 wk + 3 d), 24 hens of each strain were selected and individually caged, and egg production records were kept until 462 d of age (the end of 65 wk) for a total of 39 d. Egg quality analysis was undertaken during wk 65 of age. Hens were killed at 66 wk of age (463 d), and carcass and reproductive morphology traits were measured. Femur and humerus mineral density were measured using quantitative computed tomography, and breaking strength was measured by an Instron Materials Tester. The white-egg strain produced 3.7% more marketable eggs during the experiment due to a 0.3 d shorter mean pause length in egg production. Eggs from the brown strain were 3.4% heavier, had 4.0% more eggshell, and had a higher specific gravity than the white strain eggs (1.077 and 1.072, respectively). Final BW was 330 g greater in the brown-egg strain. Total bone density of the femur was not different between the 2 strains but was greater in the humerus of the brown-egg layers. Total femur and humerus bone areas were greater in the brown strain than the white-egg strain. Bone breaking strengths of the brown-egg strain were greater by 22% (femur) and 18% (humerus) than in the white-egg strain hens. These results indicate that this brown-egg strain may be more resistant to weak and broken bones at the end of production than the white-egg strain. PMID:15049489

Riczu, C M; Saunders-Blades, J L; Yngvesson, A K; Robinson, F E; Korver, D R



Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.



Effects of Vitamin E and C Supplementation on Performance, In Vitro Lymphocyte Proliferation, and Antioxidant Status of Laying Hens during Heat Stress1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E (dl-?-tocopheryl acetate) was evaluated for its effects on performance, lymphocyte pro- liferation, and antioxidation in layers during heat stress. In Trial 1, 25, 45, or 65 IU of vitamin E\\/kg were fed to four replicated pens (five hens\\/cage) of DeKalb Delta or Hy-Line W-36 per treatment starting at 20 wk of age. At 34 wk of age, hens

U. Puthpongsiriporn; S. E. Scheideler; J. L. Sell; M. M. Beck


The effect of a hypocrellin A enriched diet on egg yolk quality and hypocrellin A distributions in the meat of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocrellins, including hypocrellin A and hypocrellin B, are natural red pigments isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine.\\u000a The present work was designed to investigate the influence of dietary HA supplementations on the colour and emulsifying properties\\u000a of egg yolk and HA distributions in tissues of laying hens. A Chinese hen breed (black-bone silky fowl) was used. Ninety-six\\u000a layers were assigned

Yujie Su; Shaohong Si; Liwen Qiao; Yujie Cai; Zhimin Xu; Yanjun Yang



Influence of Vaccination of Hens with Attenuated Oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima on the Protection of Offspring against Eimeria Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitandu A., R. Juranová, I. BedáŔová:Influence of Vaccination of Hens with Attenuated Oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima on the Protection of Offspring against Eimeria Infection. Acta Vet. Brno 2005,74: 585-593. The feasibility of protection of offspring against Eimeria infection via maternal or passive derived immunity from hens (layers) vaccinated with attenuated oocysts of Eimeria



Maternal corticosterone further reduces the reproductive function of male offspring hatched from eggs laid by quail hens selected for exaggerated adrenocortical stress responsiveness.  


Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can depress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male quail cloacal gland (CG) size and foam production shows androgen dependency, and males selected for exaggerated [high stress (HS)] rather than reduced [low stress (LS)] plasma corticosterone (B) stress response exhibit reduced CG and testes development. High stress hens also deposit more B into egg yolks than LS ones, and quail hens given B produce chicks that have a reduced growth rate and adults with heightened HPA responsiveness. Herein, we gave LS and HS hens no B [empty implants, control (CON)] or B-filled implants and assessed the reproductive performances of these hens and their male offspring. Mortality was similarly elevated in LS and HS B-treated hens, but only HS B-implanted hens showed reduced egg production. In male offspring, CG volume (CVOL), intensity of CG foam production (CFP), and the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam were measured from 4 to 11 wk of age. At 6 wk, BW, and at 15 wk, BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW were also determined. Hen treatments did not affect male chick CVOL at 4 wk, but CVOL differed thereafter as follows: LS CON > LS B = HS CON = HS B at 5 and 6 wk and LS CON > LS B > HS CON = HS B from 7 to 11 wk. By 8 wk, and thereafter, CFP differed as follows: LS CON > LS B > HS CON > HS B. Group differences in the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam generally supported CFP findings from 4 to 8 wk of age. Body weight did not differ by treatment at 6 wk of age. By 15 wk, TWT were similarly depressed in both HS groups. However, similarly higher 15-wk BW in the LS-CON and HS-B groups contributed to TWT relative to BW differences as follows: LS-B > LS-CON > HS-B; LS-CON = HS-CON; LS-B > HS-CON; and, HS-CON = HS-B. Both selection for exaggerated HPA responsiveness and maternal B treatment negatively affected the reproductive function of HS male offspring. PMID:17297171

Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A



Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR.



Central visfatin causes orexigenic effects in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracerebroventricular injection of visfatin caused increased feed intake and pecking efficiency, but did not affect water intake in chicks. Visfatin-treated chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamus, decreased reactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamus and the dorsomedial hypothalamus, infundibular nucleus, periventricular nucleus, paraventricular nucleus were not affected. A low dose of visfatin increased locomotion. We conclude that intracerebroventricular injection

Mark A. Cline; Wint Nandar; Brian C. Prall; Christie N. Bowden; D. Michael Denbow



Evaluation of Cellulolytic Enzyme Supplementation on Production Indices and Nutrient Utilization of Laying Hens Fed Soybean Hull Based Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate cellulolytic enzyme supplementation on production indices and nutrient utilization of laying hens fed soybean hull based diets. Seven experimental layers diets were formulated incorporating soybean hull meal at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% (without enzyme supplementation) and 10, 20 and 30% (with 2.0% enzyme supplementation) dietary levels respectively. One hundred and forty seven



The ontogeny of the Humoral immune response to E. coli vaccine and to sheep red blood cells in young chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), a non?infective antigen, and to killed Escherichia coli (E. coli), a disease?related antigen, was compared in young chicks of three poultry populations: a White Leghorn layer strain and two strains of White Rock broiler breeders.SRBC were injected intravenously into randomly selected groups of chicks every 3 days

B. A. Peleg; E. D. Heller; J. Pitkovsky



Electroretinographic features of the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) chick phenotype  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to characterize the electroretinographic features of the autosomal recessive retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) phenotype, in chickens (Gallus gallus). Methods Dark-adapted, light-adapted intensity series and light-adapted 30 Hz flicker responses were recorded from rge and age matched normal control chicks from one to 270 days of age. Retinal sections from rge and control retinas were examined in 7 and 270-day-old chicks. Results Electroretinogram (ERG) thresholds of rge birds were raised, the intensity response plots were shifted toward brighter intensities, and retinal sensitivity was reduced. The leading slope of the dark- and light-adapted a-waves was more shallow than normal, suggesting altered photoreceptor responses. The inner retinal components to the ERG were also abnormal; there was a marked lack of oscillatory potentials and an abnormally smooth and broad shape to the b-wave. Additionally, the b-wave was supernormal in response to brighter stimuli in the earlier stages of the disease. There was a progressive deterioration in ERG amplitudes with age that mirrored a slowly progressive thinning of the photoreceptor layer. Conclusions The rge chicken has unusual ERG changes from an early age with altered waveforms and initially they develop a supernormal b-wave. This is followed by a progressive reduction of ERG amplitudes with age. The changes suggest that both photoreceptor and inner retinal responses are abnormal. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the origin of the abnormal ERG components in the rge chick.

Shaw, Gillian C.; Geller, Andrew M.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.



Productive Performance and Immunocompetence of Commercial Laying Hens Given Diets Supplemented with Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder\\/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight

A. M. Abd El-Motaal; A. M. H. Ahmed; A. S. A. Bahakaim; M. M. Fathi



Copper Deficiency in the Laying Hen1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper deficiency in the laying hen resulted in anemia and the production of eggs which were abnormal in size and shape. Many of the eggs had shells which were wrinkled and rough in texture. There was also an increase in the number of shell-less eggs. Examination of mal formed egg shells using the scanning electron microscope revealed ultra- structural changes



Production of quail?chick chimaeras by blastoderm cell transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Quail?chick chimaeras were produced by injecting dissociated quail blastoderm cells into chick embryos.2. Quail blastoderms were removed from the yolk and the cells were dispersed by trypsin treatment or pipetting. The cell suspension (1 to 5 ?l) was injected into the subgerminal cavity of unincubated chick embryos. The chick embryos were then cultured in recipient eggshells.3. Quail blastoderm cells

M. Naito; M. Watanabe; M. Kinutani; K. Nirasawa; T. Oishi



Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.  


The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H



Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.  


Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation provides a viable means to reduce NH3 emissions from modern laying-hen houses. PMID:22442932

Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan



Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

Reed, J. M.; Gray, E. M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L. W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.



Effect of vaccination of hens with an avirulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium on immunity of progeny challenged with wild-Type Salmonella strains.  

PubMed Central

The avirulent Salmonella typhimurium chi3985 was used to vaccinate white leghorn chickens at 16 and 18 weeks of age, and the effect of maternal antibody on Salmonella colonization of progeny of vaccinated hens was assessed with S. typhimurium F98 or chi3985. Progeny of hens that had been vaccinated at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age with chi3985 were used to determine the effect of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy. Vaccination of hens induced long-lasting Salmonella-specific antibodies which were transferred into eggs and were detected as immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the egg yolk. Maternal antibody was detected in the progeny of vaccinated birds as IgG and IgA in serum and intestinal fluid, respectively. The titer of maternally transmitted IgG or IgA was highest in the first week of life of the progeny and declined with age. Maternal antibodies prevented colonization of the chicks by S. typhimurium chi3985 and reduced colonization by S. typhimurium F98. Overall, chicks from vaccinated hens had significantly higher antibody responses than did the progeny of nonvaccinated hens after oral infection with Salmonella strains. Maternal antibody reduced the efficacy of vaccination of progeny with chi3985 at 1 and 3 weeks of age. But vaccination at 2 and 4 weeks of age induced excellent protection against challenge with S. typhimurium F98 or S. enteritidis 27A PT 8 in birds from vaccinated hens and in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Vaccination of chickens at 2 and 4 weeks of age has been shown to protect the birds against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. A combination of vaccination of adult animals and use of the progeny of vaccinated birds will enhance effective control of Salmonella infections in the poultry industry. This will complement the present control of Salmonella-associated food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis in eggs because the avirulent S. typhimurium vaccine strain chi3985 induced excellent protection against S. enteritidis in chickens.

Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R



The hen as a model of ovarian cancer.  


The domestic laying hen is the only non-human animal that spontaneously develops ovarian cancer with a high prevalence. Hens ovulate prolifically, and this has made the hen intuitively appealing as a model of this disease in light of epidemiological evidence that ovulation rate is highly correlated with the risk of human ovarian cancer. As in women, ovarian cancer in the hen is age-related and it is also grossly and histologically similar to that in humans. In both women and hens, the cancer metastasizes to similar tissues with an accumulation of ascites fluid. Some aggressive ovarian cancers in women arise from cells in the oviduct; this is intriguing because ovarian cancers in the hen express an oviductal protein that is normally absent in the ovary. PMID:23676850

Johnson, Patricia A; Giles, James R



Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.  


Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A



[Effect of Black Sea algae on chicken egg production and on chick embryo development].  


An experiment was carried out with laying hens of the Leghorn breed. The fodder mixture tested was enriched with the addition of 1, 2, and 4 per cent meal of seaweeds. It was found that egg laying rose by 22.7 per cent as against that of the control group, which was best expressed with the addition of 2 per cent seaweeds. The eggs had a considerably higher weight of the shells. The content of calcium and magnesium in the shell as well as that of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the yolk were higher. The intake of feedstuffs of algae produced a favourable effect on hatchability. Highest percent of hatchability--87.95%, i.e., by 6.85 higher than that of the controls was obtained with the addition of 2 per cent of seaweed meal. The weight of the newly hatched chicks was higher, and the content of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the liver of the chicks was greater. PMID:7168148

Bratova, K; Ganovski, Kh



Ultrastructural Aspects of Myogenesis in the Chick.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Myogenesis has been studied in the brachial somites of developing chick embryos from the separation of similar mesodermal cells to the formation of essentially mature muscle at hatching. Initial myogenic events (stage 15-16) included the appearance of 50 ...

R. J. Przybylski J. M. Blumberg



Development of calcium phosphate based apatite from hen’s eggshell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite with Ca\\/P molar ratio, 1.67, was synthesized using hen’s eggshell as calcium source and phosphoric\\u000a acid by precipitation method. Conventional EDTA titration and gravimetric methods were adopted to estimate the amount of calcium\\u000a and phosphorous, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to\\u000a investigate the formation of the HAP phase. Thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was

K. Prabakaran; A. Balamurugan; S. Rajeswari



Density and breaking strength of bones of mortalities among caged layers.  


The incidence of deaths attributable to cage layer osteoporosis (CLO) and the associated parameters of bone strength were studied in a flock of 5000 commercial laying hens over one laying cycle. Of the 9.7 per cent mortality rate, 35 per cent were attributed to CLO, and the mean age of death of the CLO hens (45.5 weeks) was significantly earlier than that of the non-CLO hens (51.6 weeks). There was a significant linear relationship between the density and breaking strength of whole bones with no difference between the CLO and non-CLO hens. However, the density and breaking strength of the bones of the non-CLO hens were consistently greater than those of the CLO hens. The density and breaking strength of the bones of both groups of birds increased with age. PMID:8685544

McCoy, M A; Reilly, G A; Kilpatrick, D J



The melanocortin circuit in obese and lean strains of chicks  

PubMed Central

Agonists of membranal melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3/4Rs) are known to take part in the complex control mechanism of energy balance. In this study, we compared the physiological response to an exogenous MC3/4R agonist and the hypothalamic expression of proopic melanocortin (POMC) gene, encoding few MC3/4R ligands, between broiler and layer chicken strains. These strains, representing the two most prominent commercial strains of chickens grown for meat (broilers) and egg production (layers), differ in their food intake, fat accumulation, and reproductive performance and, therefore, form a good model of obese and lean phenotypes, respectively. A single i.v. injection of the synthetic peptide melanotan-II (MT-II; 1 mg/kg body weight) into the wing vein of feed-restricted birds led to attenuation of food intake upon exposure to feeding ad libitum in both broiler and layer chickens. A study of the POMC mRNA encoding the two prominent natural MC3/4R agonists, ?-MSH and ACTH, also revealed a general similarity between the strains. Under feeding conditions ad libitum, POMC mRNA levels were highly similar in chicks of both strains and this level was significantly reduced upon feed restriction. However, POMC mRNA down-regulation upon feed restriction was more pronounced in layers than in broilers. These results suggest: (i) a role for MC3/4R agonists in the control of appetite; (ii) that the physiological differences between broilers and layers are not related to unresponsiveness of broiler chickens to the satiety signal of MC3/4R ligands. Therefore, these findings suggest that artificial activation of this circuit in broiler chicks could help to accommodate with their agricultural shortcomings of overeating, fattening, and impaired reproduction.

Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sara; Simchaev, Victoria; Shinder, Dmitry; Hruby, Victor J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam



Effects of battery gage shape and dietary energy regulation on the performance of laying hens offered diets containing dried poultry manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. About 3000 medium?weight hybrid chicks were used in a factorial experiment involving two “chick” treatments: diets containing 0 and 50 g dried poultry manure (DPM)\\/kg; three “grower” treatments, diets with and without 50 g DPM\\/kg given ad libitum and regulated amounts of the diet with DPM; five “layer” treatments: diets with 0, 100 or 200 g DPM\\/kg given ad

D. J. W. Lee; W. Bolton; W. A. Dewar



Effects of housing, perches, genetics, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on keel bone deformities in laying hens.  


Several studies have shown a high prevalence of keel bone deformities in commercial laying hens. The aim of this project was to assess the effects of perch material, a vitamin D feed additive (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3); HyD, DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), and genetics on keel bone pathology. The study consisted of 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 4,000 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were raised in aviary systems until 18 wk of age. Two factors were investigated: perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal) and feed (with and without HyD). Afterward, the hens were moved to a layer house with 8 pens with 2 aviary systems. Daily feed consumption, egg production, mortality, and feather condition were evaluated. Every 6 wk, the keel bones of 10 randomly selected birds per pen were palpated and scored. In the second experiment, 2,000 Lohmann Brown (LB) hens and 2,000 Lohmann Brown parent stock (LBPS) hens were raised in a manner identical to the first experiment. During the laying period, the hens were kept in 24 identical floor pens but equipped with different perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal). The same variables were investigated as in the first experiment. No keel bone deformities were found during the rearing period in either experiment. During the laying period, deformities gradually appeared and reached a prevalence of 35% in the first experiment and 43.8% in the second experiment at the age of 65 and 62 wk, respectively. In the first experiment, neither HyD nor the aviary system had any significant effect on the prevalence of keel bone deformities. In the second experiment, LBPS had significantly fewer moderate and severe deformities than LB, and rubber-coated metal perches were associated with a higher prevalence of keel bone deformities compared with plastic perches. The LBPS laid more but smaller eggs than the LB. Again, HyD did not affect the prevalence of keel bone deformities. However, the significant effect of breed affiliation strongly indicates a sizeable genetic component that may provide a basis for targeted selection. PMID:21753197

Käppeli, S; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E; Pfulg, A; Schäublin, H; Stoffel, M H



The relative density of bone types in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone breakages caused by osteoporosis in laying hens remain commonplace. Studies of this disease are complicated by the presence of medullary bone (MB), a bone type deposited during lay to provide calcium for eggshell formation. In vivo technologies such as Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT), Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative Ultrasound (QS) could be used to assess laying hen



Estimation of genetic parameters for monthly egg production in laying hens based on random regression models.  


Heritability and genetic correlations of monthly egg production under random regression models were estimated. Three layer lines (A22, A88, K66) in six consecutive generations were analysed. A22 (13,770 recorded hens) and A88 (13,950 recorded hens) are maternal lines of Rhode Island White birds selected on egg production and shell colour; K66 (9,351 recorded birds) is a paternal line of Rhode Island Red birds selected on egg weight. Eight models with different orders of Legendre polynomials were applied. Adequacy of the models was checked by the Akaike Information Criterion. According to the most adequate model including second order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects and third order for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, relatively high heritabilities were estimated in the first (h2=0.3) and final (h2 above 0.3) periods of production with a substantial decrease in heritability during the egg production peak. Methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of laying hens. PMID:19193981

Wolc, A; Szwaczkowski, T



Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D



Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.  


The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D



The effects of long-term caging and molt of Single Comb White Leghorn hens on heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, corticosterone and thyroid hormones.  


Two commercial strains of 18-wk-old Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens, HyLine W-36 and DeKalb XL, were housed six hens per cage in layer cages at two densities (361 and 482 cm2 per bird) with two replications each per strain and density combination. The high density treatment contained 24 hens per replication, and the low density treatment contained 18 hens per replication. Egg production was measured during the first egg production cycle, a molt (fast) period, and the first 4 wk of the second lay cycle (20 to 68 wk of age). Blood samples were obtained from six hens from each replicate in each strain and density combination (total of 48) at 20, 26, 34, 43, 51, 62, 64, and 68 wk of age. In addition, blood samples were obtained in a random order from hens in each cage, and the sequence of sampling was recorded (1 to 6). Blood smears were made, from which heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H:L) were determined. Radioimmunoassays were conducted to determine levels of plasma corticosterone (CS), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). The results indicated that strain did not affect percentage hen-day egg production (%HDP). Strain and cage density did not affect H:L, T3, T4, or CS. However, these parameters were affected by bird age, which was related to the egg production cycle. Plasma CS significantly (P < or = 0.001) increased during peak %HDP at 26 wk and 64 wk during the molt (fast), and H:L significantly (P < or = 0.001) increased during the molt (fast) at 64 wk. The sequence in which blood samples were obtained, from hens within a cage in sampling order, also increased plasma CS. The CS was significantly (P < or = 0.001) elevated in the third, fifth, and sixth hens from which blood samples were drawn. Plasma T3 and T4 changed during the production cycle. The T3 was significantly (P < or = 0.0001) depressed during peak egg production at 26 wk and during the molt (fast) at 64 wk when compared with the other time periods. Plasma T4 was depressed (P < or = 0.0001) at 51 wk and was elevated (P < or = 0.0001) at 64 wk during the molt (fast). The physiological and metabolic parameters of the different hen strains and cage densities were similar during egg production. However, CS, T3, T4, and H:L changed with age in relation to the egg production cycle. In addition, the physiological demands of peak egg production and molt (fast) appeared to be similar. PMID:10780646

Davis, G S; Anderson, K E; Carroll, A S



The effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and phytase on the natural phytate phosphorus utilization by laying hens.  


Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing a corn-soybean layer diet with either phytase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3], or their combination. The basal diet was formulated to contain 3.00% Ca and 0.33% total P. In Experiment 1, 160, 56-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to treatment groups fed either the basal diet alone or diets supplemented with either 600 phytase units (FTU) per kilogram feed, 5 microg 1,25-(OH)2D3/kg feed, or their combination for an experimental period of 9 wk. Experiment 2 had the same design and treatment groups except that laying hens 24 wk of age were used for 8 wk. In both experiments, phytase had a positive effect on BW and increased plasma dialyzable P, tibia bone ash, and phytate P retention. In the first experiment, the addition of phytase, 1,25-(OH)2D3, or their combination prevented a rapid decrease in egg production due to a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection observed in hens fed the basal diet. However, no benefit in egg production was obtained in the second experiment. No effects on egg weight and egg specific gravity were observed in both experiments. These results clearly indicate that phytase, and to a lesser extent 1,25-(OH)2D3, can be used to increase the utilization of phytate P by laying hens. PMID:9628533

Carlos, A B; Edwards, H M



Effects of social isolation and social separation in domestic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 experiments with 60 white Leghorn chicks, with subsamples of 24 and 36 animals tested in 2 independent replications, to assess the impact of early social isolation and social separation on the behavior of domestic chicks. In Exp I, a 3-wk longitudinal study, the day-to-day behavior of isolated chicks was compared to the behavior of birds housed in pairs.

D. W. Rajecki; Stephen J. Suomi; Echo A. Scott; Barbara Campbell



Claw Abrasives in Layer Cages - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was undertaken to obtain information on the range of claw abrasives which could be used in layer cages to keep claws of hens blunt. In Europe a council directive has been issued which requires that all layer cages be fitted with suitable claw shortening devices. Research in Europe on claw abrasives suggest that abrasives reduce claw length of

P. C. Glatz



Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.  


1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

Ayerza, R; Coates, W



A study on the interaction of xylanase and phytase enzymes in wheat-based diets fed to commercial white and brown egg laying hens.  


A trial was conducted to investigate potential interactions between phytase and xylanase enzymes in wheat-based laying diets. Hens (480 ISA-White and 480 ISA-Brown) were distributed into 160 experimental units and fed one of 10 diets containing 75 to 77% wheat from 33 to 64 wk of age with a diet change at 49 wk. Two diets were adequate in P content (0.3 and 0.25% available P in the 2 phases) with or without xylanase (0 or 2,000 U/kg; Avizyme 2300, Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom), and 8 diets had reduced P (0.2 and 0.15% available P) with or without xylanase and phytase (0, 300, 500, and 700 ppu/kg; Phyzyme 5000G, Danisco Animal Nutrition). Egg production was higher for ISA-Brown than for ISA-White hens, and ISA-Brown hens were larger. Eggs from ISA-Brown hens had lower albumen height; higher egg, shell, and albumen weights; and lower yolk weight than those from ISA-White hens. Egg production was not affected by the diet. In P-reduced diets without xylanase, phytase significantly increased BW gain in the first period with no change in feed intake or feed efficiency. In P-adequate diets, xylanase increased egg and albumen weight and albumen height. In P-reduced diets with xylanase, increasing levels of phytase increased egg and albumen weight. This trial demonstrated no negative interactions between these enzymes for production traits and no interactions between the diet and strain of hen. These data suggest that poultry producers can use these enzymes individually or together in feed for the Brown and White egg layers used in this study without concern for the strain of hen. PMID:16523630

Silversides, F G; Scott, T A; Korver, D R; Afsharmanesh, M; Hruby, M



Effects of cage versus floor rearing environments and cage floor mesh size on bone strength, fearfulness, and production of single comb White Leghorn hens.  


Fourteen hundred pullets were reared at densities of 304 and 735 cm2 in cages and floor pens with litter, respectively. Feeder spaces of 2.7, 4.0, and 5.4 cm per bird were held constant during the brooding growing period. At 18 wk of age, the birds were housed four birds per cage (348 cm2 per bird) in a force-ventilated, light-controlled house with two rows of stair-step cages. In two rows, the standard 2.5 x 5.0 cm welded wire flooring was replaced randomly with 2.5 x 2.5 cm welded wire in eight-cage sections. Egg production, egg quality, feed conversion, and mortality were measured over a 48-wk production cycle. At 68 wk of age, a sample of hens was selected and euthanatized, and the right leg was excised for further evaluation. Rearing environment, rearing feeder space, or type of layer floor mesh had no significant effects on hen-day production or feed conversion. Hens reared in cages produced heavier (P < .001) eggs with a higher percentage of Grade A eggs and had fewer body checks than floor-reared birds. Femur, tibia, and shank lengths were not affected by the rearing treatments or the type of flooring in the layer cage. Tibia breaking strength was not different for the rearing systems or hens maintained on 2.5 x 2.5 vs 2.5 x 5.0 cm welded wire mesh flooring. Hens reared in floor pens on litter displayed a higher level of fearfulness at the end of the production cycle. The reduced (P < .05) body weights associated with cage rearing and reduced feeder space did not negatively affect the production variables. Alteration of the mesh size of layer cage floor had no effect on the production levels of the hens. PMID:7971665

Anderson, K E; Adams, A W




Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and ten (210) laying hens of Black Harco breed at 37 weeks in lay were fed experimental layer diets, in which fermented palm kernel meal (PKM) and copra meal (CM) were used independently to substitute for soybean meal (SBM) on protein content basis at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%, to give seven treatments in a completely randomized design



Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation at Twelve Weeks of Age on Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Egg Laying Hens1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) between 8 and 18 wk of age is known to affect reproductive performance in commercial layers. Therefore, two trials were conducted to determine if changes in digestive and reproductive organ characteristics also occur in commercial laying hens infected with FMG at 12 wk of age. In Trial 1, liver weight, liver

M. R. Burnham; E. D. Peebles; S. L. Branton; M. S. Jones; P. D. Gerard; W. R. Maslin


Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength, and mortality in three strains of commercial layers vaccinated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum.  


Three strains of commercial leghorns vaccinated at 17 to 22 weeks of age with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) were maintained through 117 weeks of age. The three strains differed in both mortality and percent egg production per hen housed; however, the strains did not differ in egg weight (EW), eggshell strength (ESS), or percent daily egg production. Results of this study indicate EW and ESS for F strain MG-vaccinated hens follow patterns previously reported for uninfected layers. Further, mortality may account, in part, for differences in percent egg production per hen housed between strains of F strain MG-vaccinated hens. PMID:4074249

Branton, S L; Deaton, J W



Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on performance, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, and antioxidant status of laying hens during heat stress.  


Vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) was evaluated for its effects on performance, lymphocyte proliferation, and antioxidation in layers during heat stress. In Trial 1, 25, 45, or 65 IU of vitamin E/kg were fed to four replicated pens (five hens/cage) of DeKalb Delta or Hy-Line W-36 per treatment starting at 20 wk of age. At 34 wk of age, hens were heat-stressed at diurnal temperature ranging from 21 C to 35 C for 3 wk. The performances of hens not exposed to heat stress were not influenced by supplemental vitamin E. Supplemental vitamin E did not affect egg production; however, egg mass was greater (P < 0.05) with supplementation of 65 IU of vitamin E/ kg during heat stress. Egg yolk was significantly increased (P < 0.04) when hens were fed 45 and 65 lU/kg compared with the control vitamin E level (25 lU/kg). Haugh units were higher (P < 0.01) for hens fed 65 IU of vitamin E/kg compared to 25 and 45 lU/kg. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to concanavalin A (Con A) and Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were greater (P < 0.0001) in hens fed 45 and 65 IU of vitamin E/kg during heat stress. Strain had no effect on any of the parameters measured. In Trial 2, a 2 x 2 factorial was designed to test effects of vitamin C in drinking water (0 and 1,000 ppm) and dietary vitamin E (25 and 65 IU/kg). Eight replications per treatment with four hens per replication cage were heat-stressed at constant temperature of 35 C for 3 wk. Egg production and egg mass were higher when hens were fed 65 IU of vitamin E/kg than when hens were fed 25 lU/kg (81.5 vs. 75.9%, P < 0.03 and 48.2 vs. 44.6 g, P < 0.03, respectively). Yolk solids weight for the 65 IU vitamin E/kg group was higher (P < 0.01) compared to the 25 IU/kg group. ConA and LPS mitogenic responses were greater in hens fed 65 IU of vitamin E (P < 0.001 or P < 0.003, respectively) or 1,000 ppm of vitamin C (P < 0.001 or P < 0.002, respectively). The combination of 65 IU vitamin E/kg and 1,000 ppm vitamin C showed the highest ConA and LPS mitogenic responses among the treatments. No interaction effects of the two vitamins on production measurements or lymphocyte proliferative responses were observed. TBA values in egg yolk and plasma of hens fed 65 IU of vitamin E/kg were lower (P < 0.0001) than those of hens that received 25 IU of vitamin E/kg. These results suggest that vitamin E supplementation at 65 IU/kg diet may enhance production, induction of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation by ConA and LPS, and antioxidant properties of egg yolks and plasma of White Leghorn hens during heat stress and that supplementation of 1,000 ppm vitamin C may further enhance in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses of hens during heat stress. PMID:11495472

Puthpongsiriporn, U; Scheideler, S E; Sell, J L; Beck, M M



Effects of ethanol on chicks in vivo and on chick embryo tibiae in organ culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocalcemia previously reported in rats and dogs following oral administration of ethanol may have been caused by a movement\\u000a of calcium from blood to bone. This present study was undertaken to determine whether ethanol also causes hypocalcemia in\\u000a chicks and to investigate the direct effects of ethanol on mineral accretion, glucose metabolism and growth of embryonic chick\\u000a tibiae in an

W. K. Ramp; W. C. Murdock; W. A. Gonnerman; T.-C. Peng



Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of Leucaena leucocephala Seeds on Layers Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The layers experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of leucaena seed (0, 8, 16 and 24%) on 27 weeks of old laying hens. Parameters studied were egg production, external and internal quality characteristics of eggs, haematological indices and plasma constituents. Feed intake, hen- day egg production, FCR (kg feed\\/kg egg) and FCR (kg feed\\/dozens of egg)

Mohamed Elamin Ahmed; Khadiga Abbas Abdelati



Metformin regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through activating AMP-activated protein kinase and inducing ATGL in laying hens.  


Although many clinical trials have showed that metformin improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is a common liver disease associated with hepatic enzyme abnormalities, an animal model is required to investigate the effects of altered gene expression and post-translational processing (proteins) in mediating the observed responses. Laying hens appear to develop fatty livers, as in the case in human beings, when ingesting energy in excess of maintenance, and they can be used as an animal model for observing hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin could improve the non-alcoholic fatty liver of laying hens and to examine the possible mechanisms of lipid-lowering effects. Forty-eight Leghorn laying hens of Hy-Line variety W-36 - 44 weeks with 64.8% hen-day egg production - were randomly assigned into 4 treatments, each receiving 0, 10, 30, or 100mg of metformin with saline per kg body weight by daily wing vein injection. Results showed that, compared with the control, significant decreases existed in the laying rates; plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and insulin levels; body weights; abdominal fat weights; hepatic lipid contents; and hepatic fatty acid synthase expression of layers receiving 30 or 100mg per kg body weight, whereas significant increases in their hepatic 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, adipose triglyceride lipase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 expression were observed. These data suggest that metformin could reduce lipid deposits in the liver and that the laying hen is a valuable animal model for studying hepatic steatosis. PMID:21958877

Chen, Wei-Lu; Wei, Hen-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Zan; Kang, Ching-Hui; Lin, Ting-Han; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Ming-Chun; Shieh, Ming-Song; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Horng-Mo



The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.  


In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi



Effect of environmental stress on the ascorbic acid requirement of laying hens.  


An experiment with a factorial arrangement of treatment (3 by 2 by 2 by 2) was conducted to determine the effect of ascorbic-acid supplementation (0, 100, and 200 ppm) on the performance of two commercial layer strains housed at a density of either 3 or 4 birds per cage and relative humidities (RH) of 40% or 60%. The hens were subjected to a continuous heat stress of 31.1 degrees C for the 3-mo experimental period. As a comparison with an unstressed control group, an additional group of hens was housed at 23.9 degrees C and 40% RH and was fed the diet without ascorbic-acid supplementation. Mortality was reduced by ascorbic-acid supplementation. Shell weight per unit surface area showed a small increase with the added ascorbic acid. Values (in Haugh units) were increased by ascorbic-acid supplementation at the 200 ppm level and by the lower relative humidity. The higher RH reduced egg production by 4.16% and changed feed efficiency from 2.29 to 2.45 g of feed intake per gram of egg mass. There were differences in blood pH, blood CO2, blood HCO3-, and blood and adrenal ascorbic-acid levels due to the housing temperature. The higher RH produced blood-chemistry changes that were typical of respiratory alkalosis, which has been shown to occur in layers at high temperatures. Higher cage density, on the other hand, showed no change in the HCO3 level; but blood pCO2 was increased while blood pH was decreased. These results demonstrate that ascorbic-acid supplementation can be effective in reducing laying-hen mortality due to environmental stress and has small influences on egg quality. PMID:2367269

Cheng, T K; Coon, C N; Hamre, M L



Dietary phosphorus and food allowance of dwarf breeders affect reproductive performance of hens and bone development of their progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An experiment was conducted with 144 caged hens to study the effects of different dietary concentrations of phosphorus and of food restriction on the reproductive performance of dwarf breeder hens and on the growth and the bone development of their progeny.2. Severe food restrictions at 105 g\\/hen day compared to 115 g\\/hen day, decreased hen body weight and hen

Leterrier C. Triyuwanta; Y. Nys



Multifactorial investigation of various housing systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The advantages and disadvantages of various housing systems for laying hens were compared as a pilot study for work in commercial conditions.2.?At 16 weeks of age, 284 hens were introduced into one of 6 housing systems: two types of conventional cages (small: SC; large: LC), furnished cages (small: SF; large: LF), and non-cage systems (single-tiered aviary: SA; free-range: FR).3.?We evaluated

T. Shimmura; S. Hirahara; T. Azuma; T. Suzuki; Y. Eguchi; K. Uetake; T. Tanaka



Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

Whittier, J. B.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.



Changes in brown eggshell color as the hen ages.  


The color of eggshells from eggs laid by commercial-type Hy-Line brown hens 25 wk of age was studied over a period of 10 mo. Color measurements were made by a color machine vision system and were analyzed using a mixed model to calculate between and within hen variances and to investigate the effect of time on shell color. Hens laid eggs with lighter colored shells as the flock aged, as evidenced by the lightness (L*) values increasing in time. A decrease in pigmentation was associated with a decrease in the amount of redness (a*) in the eggshell. When L* and a* values were corrected for egg weight, the rate of change in the L* and a* values decreased, indicating that size of the egg was a major factor affecting the color of the eggshell. These findings quantified the observations that older hens lay lighter colored eggs due to an increase in egg size associated with no proportionate change in the quantity of pigment deposited over the shell surface. Using a 2-stage sampling analysis and the variances between and within hens, sample sizes required to estimate the color of eggshells within 5% of the true mean were calculated. Accordingly, 11 eggs would need to be collected from each of the 51 hens housed for a study of brown eggshell color using the L*, a*, and b* (yellowness) coordinates. PMID:17234851

Odaba?i, A Z; Miles, R D; Balaban, M O; Portier, K M



Effects of relative humidity during incubation on hatchability and body weight of broiler chicks from young breeder flocks.  


We conducted an experiment to determine the effect of relative humidity (RH) during incubation on characteristics of hatched chicks from eggs produced by young broiler breeders. Eggs were collected for 6 consecutive d, every other week, in each of two trials from broiler breeder flocks at 26, 28, and 30 wk of age. The eggs were randomly distributed in machines according to RH treatments that were 43, 53, and 63% RH from set to pulling time at 21.75 and 22 d of incubation for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. The same dry bulb temperature (37.5 C) was used throughout incubation for both trials. Body weight at hatch, but not BW at pull (removal from machine), increased significantly with increasing RH treatment. The BW at hatch and BW at pull increased with increasing hen age. Percentages of late dead and fertile hatchability were the highest for the 63% and 53% RH treatments, respectively. These data demonstrated that, although a high RH during incubation produced chicks with increased BW at hatch, this extra weight was greatly reduced by time of pull, which suggests a significant rate of evaporation even in the presence of high RH. Further, the high RH appears to have a detrimental effect on embryonic development, as evidenced by the increased percentage of late dead. PMID:10875763

Bruzual, J J; Peak, S D; Brake, J; Peebles, E D



Biochemical alterations in skeletal muscle induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester during chick embryonic development.  


2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester (2,4-D b.e.) (3.1 mg/egg) was applied on fertile hen eggs before starting the incubation. Chicks hatched from treated eggs showed motor dysfunctions, postural troubles and edematous muscles. The electromyography revealed muscular weakness, prolonged motor distal latency, and myotonia. The biochemical composition of leg and complexus muscles from 1-day-old chicks was determined. A significant diminution (24%) in the glycogen level of leg muscles was produced by the treatment. There was a small increase (15%) in sarcoplasmic proteins from leg muscles and an increase of a 20 kD protein in the myofibrillar proteins from complexus muscles. Even though total lipid content was not changed, 2,4-D b.e. treatment produced a diminution of sterol esters (20%) and phosphatidylcholine (11%) and an increase of phosphatidylserine (61%), triglycerides (37%) and free fatty acids (FFA) (448%) in leg muscles. Increases of phosphatidylethanolamine (16%), sterols (58%) and FFA (267%) were detected in complexus muscles. A remarkable increase (700-1500%) of unsaturated FFA, e.g. oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids, was observed. Considering the avian embryo lipid metabolism, it is proposed that FFA and triglycerides were accumulated because they could not be metabolized in the mitochondria. Since FFA are potent cytotoxic compounds, their increase may be a key factor in the 2,4-D b.e. toxic action in muscle and other tissues during embryonic development. PMID:2268365

Duffard, R O; Argüello, J M; Evangelista de Duffard, A M



Effect of Diets Supplemented with Different Levels of Manganese, Zinc, and Copper from their Organic or Inorganic Sources on Egg Production and Quality Characteristics in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc, manganese, and copper sources (inorganic vs. organic) in the\\u000a diet on laying performance and eggshell quality characteristics. One hundred and eighty Hy-Line W-36 layers at 38 weeks of\\u000a age were allocated to 36-layer cages of five hens each. Each six cages were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental\\u000a diets

Abbas Ali Gheisari; Abbas Sanei; Abdolhossein Samie; Mohamad Mehdi Gheisari; Majid Toghyani


The effects of feeding the direct-fed microbial, primalac, on growth parameters and egg production in single comb white leghorn hens.  


Two commercial strains of Single Comb White Leghorn hens, HyLine W-36 and DeKalb XL, were reared separately as pullet flocks in an enclosed, environmentally controlled brood-grow house with three banks of quad-deck cages (310 cm2 per bird). There were 1,800 hens of each strain, which were divided into two groups, control feed and a direct-fed microbial (DFM) feed treatment. During the pullet-rearing phase to 18 wk of age, the DeKalb birds had greater parameters of growth and overall feed cost than the HyLine birds. The overall feed cost of the DFM treatment was $0.02 per bird greater than controls. However, the DFM-treated feed improved the livability of the DeKalb birds by 2.68%. At 18 wk of age, 3,528 hens were transferred to an enclosed, mechanically ventilated layer house. The two strains were placed in two differently sized quad-deck layer cages with seven birds per cage; the cage sizes were 35.56 cm x 60.96 cm (2,267.73 cm2 or 310 cm2 per bird) and 14 cm x 32 cm (2,890.32 cm2 or 413 cm2 per bird). There were a total of 144 replications with each strain and DFM treatment combination made up of 36 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages. At 70 wk of age, hens receiving the DFM treatment exhibited greater mean egg weights (61.72 g) and percentages of extra large eggs (XLE, 52.06%) compared to that of controls (61.12 g and 48.98%, respectively). The treatment of 310 cm2/hen DFM produced the least (P < or = 0.05) large eggs; however, this treatment group produced the most (P < or = 0.05) XLE. The use of DFM resulted in a shift from smaller to larger eggs. Regardless of density, the DFM hens had lower (P < or = 0.05) feed cost (FC) compared to FC of the controls (a savings of $0.46/bird between the DFM and control in the 310 cm2 /hen treatment and a $0.83 savings/bird between the DFM and control in the 413 cm2/hen treatment). It was concluded that PrimaLac can improve egg size and lower feed costs, regardless of the bird density used in the present study. PMID:12079039

Davis, G S; Anderson, K E



Morpholinos: Studying gene function in the chick.  


The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea



Cyclooxygenases expression and distribution in the normal ovary and their role in ovarian cancer in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).  


Cyclooxygenase (COX) (PTGS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1 and COX-2, which show distinct cell-specific expression and regulation. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and the disease is poorly understood due to the lack of suitable animal models. The laying hen spontaneously develops epithelial ovarian cancer with few or no symptoms until the cancer has progresses to a late stage, similar to the human disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative expression and distribution of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovaries of normal hens and in hens with ovarian cancer. The results demonstrate that COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer and cortical interstitium, ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and postovulatory follicle (POF) of the normal ovary. In ovarian cancer, COX-1 mRNA was significantly increased and COX-1 protein was broadly distributed throughout the tumor stroma. COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle and the ovarian stroma. COX-2 mRNA expression did not change as a function of age or in ovarian cancer. There was significantly higher expression of COX-1 mRNA in the first POF (POF-1) compared to POF-2 and POF-3. COX-2 mRNA expression was not significantly different among POFs. There was no difference in COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA in the OSE isolated from individual follicles in the follicular hierarchy. The results confirm previous findings of the high expression of COX-1 in ovarian tumors further supporting the laying hen as a model for ovarian cancer, and demonstrate for the first time the high expression of COX-1 in POF-1 which is the source of prostaglandins needed for oviposition. PMID:18498063

Hales, Dale Buchanan; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann Jaen; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Luborsky, Judith L; Bahr, Janice M



Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45

A. Caddemi; C. C. Tamburello; L. Zanforlin; M. V. Torregrossa



Direct photosensitivity of chick pinealocytes as demonstrated by visinin immunoreactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visinin, a calcium-binding protein isolated from the soluble fraction of homogenized chick retinae, has been recognized immunocytochemically in the pinealocytes of various submammals. In the chick pineal organ, continuous environmental light induced an increase in population density of visinin-immunoreactive pinealocytes. In semi-quantitative, dot-immunoblotting analysis, the amount of visinin in the pineal organs of chicks kept under continuous light for 3

Kaoru Goto; Kanato Yamagata; Naomasa Miki; Hisatake Kondo



Vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum to reduce production losses in layer chickens.  


The effect of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection or vaccination of Conn. F-strain MG on 45 weeks of egg production was analyzed using production records from 132 flocks of commercial layer hens. The flocks were located in Pennsylvania, and the data were collected for two years. On the average, layers maintained free from infection with MG laid 15.7 more eggs/hen housed than the MG-infected layers; figures were adjusted for layer-strain effect. This adjusted advantage decreased to 8.7 eggs/hen housed when uninfected flocks were compared with vaccinated flocks. Adjusted average production of vaccinated flocks was 7.0 eggs/hens housed more than production of MG-infected flocks. Egg production of four layer strains was observed with respect to vaccination or natural infection with MG. The four strains responded similarly whether vaccinated or infected. Route of vaccination and age of layer at time of vaccination influenced egg production of vaccinated birds. The adjusted average production/hen housed was 4.9 eggs greater for birds vaccinated via drinking water than for birds vaccinated via spray. The adjusted average was 10.3 eggs/hen housed greater for birds vaccinated between 8 and 18 weeks of age than for birds vaccinated after 18 weeks. PMID:7259680

Carpenter, T E; Mallinson, E T; Miller, K F; Gentry, R F; Schwartz, L D



Frizzled-4 expression during chick kidney development.  


Wnts have been implicated in metanephric kidney development. To determine whether Frizzleds, the genes that encode Wnt receptors, are present at early stages of nephrogenesis, we examined the expression of several recently identified Frizzled genes in the chick by in situ hybridization. Here we report the cloning and characterization of chick Frizzled-4 (cFz-4), which we found to be expressed in the developing chick kidney. cFz-4 was first expressed in the pronephros caudal to the third somite at Hamburger and Hamilton stage 10. Its expression increased with maturation, becoming restricted to the newly induced glomeruli and tubules in the mesonephros and metanephros. Within the metanephros, cFz-4 and Wnt-4 expression patterns were similar, whereas Wnt-11 was expressed solely in the tips of the branching ureteric bud. cFz-4 expression was compared with that of known kidney markers. It preceded that of Lmx-1, but was similarly restricted to developing glomeruli and tubules. In contrast, Pax-2 expression and Lim 1/2 antibody labeling occurred in intermediate mesoderm caudal to the fifth somite in the early pronephros, and each persisted in both the tubules and nephric ducts throughout further development. PMID:11044615

Stark, M R; Rao, M S; Schoenwolf, G C; Yang, G; Smith, D; Mauch, T J



Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown). Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07) for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55%) were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30%) while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05) higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24%) and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt areas than the control areas, with slightly more using the shelterbelts in the afternoon than in the morning. Approximately 17 times more birds used the forage areas compared to the control area in the corresponding range. There were 8 times more birds using a hay bale enriched area compared to the area with no hay bales. The use of forage sources (including hay bales) were the most successful method on-farm to attract birds into the range followed by shelterbelts and artificial shade. Free range egg farmers are encouraged to provide pasture, shaded areas and shelterbelts to attract birds into the free range.

Nagle, T. A. D.; Glatz, P. C.



Antecedents to Social Separation Effects in Domestic Chicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports two concurrent experiments which measured chicks' degree of imprinting to mechanical cohabitants and the relationship between preseparation behavior and reactions to the removal of the cohabitant. (JMB)

Rajecki, D. W.; And Others



Egg shell quality, medullary bone ash, intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption, and calcium-binding protein in phosphorus-deficient hens.  


The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the performance and on various parameters of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism was studied in laying hens. Phosphorus deficiency resulted in a decline in rate of production and egg weight, probably through appetite depression. The latter, or any secondary calcium deficiency, does not appear to cause the observed reduction in shell quality due to the deficiency. Similar to the response in the chick, phosphorus deficiency resulted in an increase in calcium-binding protein in intestine and kidney, there was no change in the activity of kidney 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3-1-hydroxylase. Percentages of calcium and phosphorus absorption were also higher during phosphorus deficiency. Medullary bone ash, decreased during phosphorus deficiency, was probably due to a reduction in the rate of bone formation. PMID:6541788

Bar, A; Hurwitz, S



A role for aquaporin-4 during induction of form deprivation myopia in chick  

PubMed Central

Purpose Aquaporins (AQP) form a family of specialized water channels known to transport water across cell membranes and reduce osmotic gradients. The isoform AQP4 is highly expressed in the astroglia of the brain and Müller cells in the retina. In the brain, AQP4 play a role in the control of cerebral edema by shunting excess fluid into blood vessels and by upregulating during conditions of hyperosmolarity. Thus, on the basis of the hyperosmolarity seen across the retina and choroid of hatchling chickens made myopic by form deprivation (FD), we predicted an upregulation of retinal AQP4 expression during induction of myopia. Methods Two-day-old hatchling chicks were monocularly form-deprived for 48, 72, or 96 h, and then after biometric assessment, the eyes of these animals and the normal controls of the same age were enucleated. Retinal tissue was prepared either for western blot analysis to show the presence of the AQP4 protein in the chick retina or for immunolocalization using polyclonal AQP4 antibodies to determine regional distribution and intensity of labeling during the induction of form deprivation myopia (FDM). Results As expected, ultrasonography demonstrated that all post hatchling eyes showed rapid elongation with occluded eyes elongating faster than fellow eyes or normal controls and becoming progressively more myopic with the duration of visual deprivation. Western blot analyses revealed an approximately 30 kDa band immunoreactive for AQP4 protein and confirmed the presence of AQP4 in chicks. Immunohistochemical staining showed the greatest positive immunoreactivity for antibodies to AQP4 in the inner retina along the vitreoretinal interface, nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer in all animals. The control eyes showed relatively constant levels of AQP4 expression until day 5 after which the level appeared to decrease. By comparison, positive AQP4 immunoreactivity in the nerve fiber layer increased significantly over the first 48 h in form-deprived eyes and in fellow eyes and then decreased over the next 48 h but not to the level of expression in the normal untreated eyes. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of AQP4 protein in the chick retina and to associate AQP4 expression in the inner retina with the initiation of form deprivation and the period of fastest axial elongation. This increased expression of AQP4 channels near the vitread border during the time of rapid growth suggests a role for AQP4 as a conduit for movement of retinal fluid into the vitreous in form-deprived chicks.

Goodyear, Melinda J; Junghans, Barbara M; Giummarra, Loretta; Murphy, Melanie J



Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on intestinal health and productivity of coccidian-challenged laying hens.  


A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 × 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens. PMID:22700503

Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Yoon, I; Moore, D T



Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.  


Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data supported a role for lipid metabolism in skeletal heath of laying hens. PMID:23687138

Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F



Twenty-five hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute in broiler breeder hen diets and its effect on the performance and general health of the progeny.  


An experiment was conducted with broiler breeder hens to determine the relative biological value of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) compared with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for hen-day egg production, hatchability, embryo mortality (early, 1 to 10 d of incubation, late, 11 to 21 d), and body ash of the progeny. The study was conducted with 73-to-90-wk-old molted Ross broiler breeder hens in an environment excluding ultraviolet light. A basal vitamin D3 deficient diet supplemented with 4 levels of vitamin D3 (0, 3,125, 12,500, and 50,000 ng/kg of diet) and 2 levels of 25-OHD3 (3,125 and 12,500 ng/kg of diet) was fed. The relative biological values of 25-OHD3 in comparison to vitamin D3, using slope ratio techniques, were 138, 133, 128, and 111% for hen-day egg production, hatchability, late embryo mortality, and body ash of the progeny,, respectively (average = 128%). When comparing 25-OHD3 against D3 at the 3,125 ng/kg level, the relative biological values were 209, 167, 400, and 108% for the same criteria, respectively (average = 221%). However, at the 12,500 ng/kg level no statistical differences between 25-OHD3 and D3 were observed (average = 108%). Four trials were conducted to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the hens' progeny. In experiment 1, no vitamin D was added to the corn-soybean meal basal diet fed to the chicks, and in experiments 2, 3, and 4 the basal diet was supplemented with 27.5 microg of D3/kg of diet. In the progeny study, the average relative biological value of 25-OHD3 at the 3,125 and 12,500 ng/kg levels were 115 and 101%, respectively. The potency of 25-OHD3 in relation to vitamin D3 depended on the level tested. When comparing vitamin D sources, 25-OHD3 had greater potency than D3 only at very low levels of supplementation. PMID:16156212

Atencio, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M



Use of Guar By-Products in High-Production Laying Hen Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A5 × 5 Latin square experiment was con- ductedtoevaluatetheeffectoffeedinglowconcentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was di- vided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per

O. Gutierrez; C. Zhang; A. L. Cartwright; J. B. Care; C. A. Bailey


Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14ż32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were

J. van der Meulen; C. Kwakernaak; C. A. Kan



Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. METHODS: Based on results from routine

Oddvar Fossum; Désirée S Jansson; Pernille Engelsen Etterlin; Ivar Vĺgsholm



The influence of handling on egg production, egg shell quality and avoidance behaviour of hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Egg production was similar in non?handled and in regularly handled hens, but was reduced by handling hens unaccustomed to the procedure.2. Handling reduced avoidance behaviour (”flightiness“) in growers and pullets but its effect declined with age and it had no influence in these hens when mature.3. Handling affected egg shell quality; it resulted in an increased incidence of cracks

B. O. Hughes; A. J. Black



Differential regulation of calbindin-D28K mRNA in the intestine and eggshell gland of the laying hen.  


The effect of shell calcification and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on calbindin-D28K (previously known as vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein) and calbindin mRNA was investigated in the intestine and eggshell gland (ESG) of juvenile female chicks, laying hens and non-laying female birds with active gonads. Increasing amounts of 1,25-(OH)2D3 were fed to laying hens and juvenile birds treated with oestradiol to develop the ESG. The intestinal concentration of calbindin was increased 30-fold by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in chicks treated with oestradiol and fed a vitamin D-deficient diet. In these same animals, 1,25-(OH)2D3 had no effect on the formation of calbindin mRNA or calbindin in the ESG even though fully viable 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors are present in this tissue. In laying birds fed adequate amounts of vitamin D3, intestinal, but not ESG, calbindin was increased by the addition of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to the diet. At the onset of egg production the concentrations of calbindin and calbindin mRNA were increased in the intestine and ESG. This increase occurred within the period of calcification of the first egg, through a process unaffected by vitamin D. Calcification of the first egg increased the concentration of calbindin in the ESG by eight- to tenfold, although the concentration of calbindin mRNA was increased by only two- to threefold. These results suggest that the induction of calbindin synthesis by 1,25-(OH)2D3 or by the egg calcification process is associated with an increase in the concentration of calbindin mRNA in the ESG and intestine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2344392

Bar, A; Striem, S; Mayel-Afshar, S; Lawson, D E



Disorders of cholecalciferol metabolism in old egg-laying hens.  


It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol metabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320 days old), whereas the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs increased markedly with age. When kidney homogenates from the different age groups were incubated with [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity was found to decrease markedly with age. When birds were given intravenously either [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 or [3H]-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3, the accumulation of [3H]-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in plasma and target tissue also decreased with age. Forced molting performed in old hens restored eggshell quality. The treatment also restored, though partially, the in vivo accumulation of [3H]-l alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in the target tissues. These results suggest that the increased rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs seen in older birds is associated with disorders of vitamin D-3 metabolism. PMID:6278112

Abe, E; Horikawa, H; Masumura, T; Sugahara, M; Kubota, M; Suda, T



Binding of HenV clusters to ?-Fe grain boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to explore the formation/binding energetics and length scales associated with the interaction between HenV clusters and grain boundaries in bcc ?-Fe. In this work, we calculated formation/binding energies for 1-8 He atoms in a monovacancy at all potential grain boundary (GB) sites within 15 Ĺ of the ten grain boundaries selected (122106 simulations total). The present results provide detailed information about the interaction energies and length scales of 1-8 He atoms with grain boundaries for the structures examined. A number of interesting new findings emerge from the present study. First, the ?3(112) "twin" GB has significantly lower binding energies for all HenV clusters than all other boundaries in this study. For all grain boundary sites, the effect of the local environment surrounding each site on the HenV formation and binding energies decreases with an increasing number of He atoms in the HenV cluster. Based on the calculated dataset, we formulated a model to capture the evolution of the formation and binding energy of HenV clusters as a function of distance from the GB center, utilizing only constants related to the maximum binding energy and the length scale.

Tschopp, M. A.; Gao, F.; Solanki, K. N.



Orienting and freezing responses in incubating ptarmigan hens.  


Behavior studies and telemetric recordings of heart and respiration rates were performed on five wild and two captive, incubating, willow ptarmigan hens (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) and on four wild, incubating, Svalbard ptarmigan hens (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Sounds and sight of approaching humans, egg predators, or dogs near the nests elicited behavior in the hens which we have interpreted as an orienting response (OR) followed by freezing behavior. During both types of behavioral responses, heart rate was reduced from 204 +/- 39 (mean +/- SE) to 119 +/- 26 beats per minute and respiration from 25 +/- 2 to 12 +/- 3 breaths per minute. In wild incubating willow ptarmigan, further approach led to tachycardia and increased respiration. Some birds maintained freezing behavior, while others became restless before flying off. Two of the four incubating Svalbard ptarmigan hens showed the OR followed by freezing behavior accompanied by decreased heart and respiration rates. The other two birds showed flight response, restless behavior accompanied by increased heart and respiration rates. Flight behavior was also typical for willow ptarmigan incubating in captivity. Repeated auditory provocation of incubating hens caused progressive decrement in behavioral and cardiac responses that is interpreted as habituation of the OR. PMID:4059382

Gabrielsen, G W; Blix, A S; Ursin, H



Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun



Thyroxin induced moult in domestic hen.  


Two identical experiments were carried out in domestic hens treated with a lower (0.2 mg/animal) or a higher (0.4 mg/animal) dose of thyroxin (T4), for 21 consecutive days. The low dose diminished egg production, but did not result in moulting while the higher dose stopped egg laying on the 16th day and caused the loss of contour feathers from the 14th day on. The new plumage was completely developed in this group on about the 42th day. The plasma progesterone concentration showed an increase in both thyroxin treated groups, but is was only continuous and significant in the fowls treated with 0.4 mg T4. In this group the peak value of progesterone was synchronous with the most intensive feather loss. In the other group the tendency for increased levels of progesterone was of shorter duration and not significant. Plasma oestrone levels were depressed by the treatment in both groups and increased significantly only in the moulted fowls after administration of T4 was stopped. This increase may be associated with feather growth and regeneration of the oviduct. Plasma 17-beta oestradiol and testosterone concentrations did not change in the T4 treated groups. Plasma corticosterone concentration increased continuously only in the moulting animals. The results suggest that on one hand thyroxin has a role in the endocrine regulation of moulting and, on the other, that a thyroxin-progesterone synergism is of significance in the process. PMID:3227854

Szelényi, Z; Péczely, P



The effect of using different levels of shrimp meal in laying hen diets.  


The shrimp industry in Central America has grown significantly. Much waste is generated by this industry because of the high percentage of shrimp heads, exoskeletons, and soluble components lost during processing. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of substituting different levels of shrimp meal (SM) for soybean meal (SBM) in layer diets. A control corn-soybean layer diet and four different levels of SM substituted for SBM were fed to Single Comb White Leghorn hens from 18 to 38 wk of age. The SM replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80% of SBM. The hens were housed three per cage, 30.5 cm wide x 45.7 cm deep. The five treatments were assigned randomly to three contiguous cages in each of eight rows in a randomized complete block design. Egg production was recorded daily, and feed consumption was recorded for an entire week every 21 d. Egg weight, specific gravity, and yolk pigmentation were recorded for three consecutive days every 21 d. Mortality was recorded daily. Our results showed that the different levels of SM in the diet did not significantly affect egg production. Feed consumption increased significantly (P < 0.01) only when 40 or 80% SM was used in the diet. Feed conversion was poorer for the same treatments. No significant differences were observed for mortality. Egg weights and specific gravities did not differ significantly among the treatments. Yolk pigmentation increased significantly (P < 0.001) as the levels of SM increased in the diets. In conclusion, properly processed SM can be used in relatively high levels to replace SBM in layer diets without causing detrimental effects on layer performance. PMID:11372714

Gernat, A G



Postnatal changes in the distribution and density of neuronal nuclei and doublecortin antigens in domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).  


To understand better the rate of neurogenesis and the distribution of new neurons in posthatch domestic chicks, we describe and compare the expression of the neuronal nuclei protein (NeuN, a.k.a. Fox-3) and doublecortin antigens in the whole brain of chicks 2 days, 8 days, and 14 weeks posthatch. In the forebrain ventricular and paraventricular zones, the density of bromodeoxyuridine-, NeuN-, and doublecortin-labeled cells was compared between chicks 24 hours and 7 days after an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (2 and 8 days posthatch, respectively). The distribution of NeuN-labeled neurons was similar to Nissl-stained tissue, with the exception of some areas where neurons did not express NeuN: cerebellar Purkinje cells and olfactory bulb mitral cells. The ventral tegmental area of 2-day-old chicks was also faintly labeled. The distribution of doublecortin was similar at all timepoints, with doublecortin-labeled profiles located throughout all forebrain areas as well as in the cerebellar granule cell layer. However, doublecortin labeling was not detectable in any midbrain or brainstem areas. Our data indicate that a significant number of new neurons is still formed in the telencephalon of posthatch domestic chicks, whereas subtelencephalic areas (except for the cerebellum) finish their neuronal expansion before hatching. Most newly formed cells in chicks leave the paraventricular zone after hatching, but a pool of neurons stays in the vicinity of the ventricular zone and matures in situ within 7 days. Proliferating cells often migrate laterally along forebrain laminae into still-developing brain areas. PMID:21674497

Mezey, Szilvia; Krivokuca, Dragan; Bálint, Eszter; Adorján, András; Zachar, Gergely; Csillag, András



Feeding diets supplemented with zinc and vitamin A in laying hens: effects on histopathological findings and tissue mineral contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different dietary levels of zinc and vitamin A on tissue mineral accumulation and histopathological alterations were examined in laying hens. For this purpose, 130 Hisex brown laying hens aged 56 weeks were divided into two main groups. Each group of hens were fed on diets supplemented with two different levels of vitamin A (0–10000IUkg?1). Then, laying hens

Sule Kaya; M Ortatatli; S Haliloglu



Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Cassava Yeast as Probiotic Source on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of cassava yeast as a probiotic source on laying hens performance and egg quality. Two hundred and sixteen Roman breed laying hens (26 week of age), were used. The laying hens were randomly allocated to 24 pens containing 9 laying hens each with 6 replicates and assigned to receive

Songsak Chumpawadee; Anut Chantiratikul; Suwannee Sataweesuk



Intestinal Calcium Uptake, Shell Quality and Reproductive Hormones Levels of Three Laying Hen Varieties after Prolonged Egg Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Hy-Line W98, W36, and Brown hens are among the most popular strains for commercial egg production. It is of interest to evaluate the differences in performance of old hens of each variety. As part of a larger study, hens of the three varieties were maintained under production longer than 100 weeks of age and hens of each strain



A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.  


Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A



The effect of soybean soapstock on the quality parameters and fatty acid composition of the hen egg yolk.  


The effects of increasing proportions of soybean soapstock (SSS) in laying hen diets on egg quality parameters and on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the yolk were studied. One hundred sixty Babcock B-300 x laying hens, 20 wk of age, were allotted to 5 dietary treatments comprising a control diet (D5) with soybean oil at 100% or SSS in proportions of 25% (D1), 50% (D2), 75% (D3), and 100% (D4) replacing the oil source in commercial-type diets throughout the 15-wk laying period. Egg quality parameters were recorded weekly. Four pooled yolks for each treatment were collected at 0, 9, and 15 wk, and their FA profiles were determined. Egg weight, shell thickness, shape index, and Haugh unit were not influenced by dietary treatment. The concentrations of saturated FA (SFA) in yolks were generally kept at a constant level, regardless of the percentage of SSS in the hen diets. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content did not vary over the course of the experiment, except for C14:1. After 15 wk of feeding, the total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) n-3 increased in yolks of all diets. Among the long-chain PUFA, the percentage of C20:4 (arachidonic acid) was less affected. Inclusion of 100% SSS allowed production of eggs with similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios when compared with eggs from hens fed D5. As SSS represents one-third of the oil cost, its inclusion in layer diets could represent an important economic benefit. PMID:15685955

Pardío, V T; Landín, L A; Waliszewski, K N; Pérez-Gil, F; Díaz, L; Hernández, B



Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.  


1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X



Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.



Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. Dâ). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. Dâ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old

C. D. Hunt; F. H. Nielsen



Volumes of chick and rat osteoclasts cultured on glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationship between the number of nuclei of an osteoclast and its volume. Chick and rat cells were released from long bones by chopping the shafts and flushing the fragments in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium with added 10% fetal calf serum. The bone cell suspension was seeded onto glass coverslips. In Experiment 1, rat and chick cells

K. Piper; A. Boyde; S. J. Jones



Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.  


Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won



Evaluating the impact of excess dietary tryptophan on laying performance and immune function of laying hens reared under hot and humid summer conditions.  


1. Tryptophan (Trp), besides its role as an essential amino acid in protein synthesis, may also have other important effects on laying hens under summer conditions. 2. Babcock Brown layers (n?=?768), 40 weeks of age, were allocated to 4 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet, formulated with maize and soybean meal, for 8 weeks. Hens were fed on the basal diet with 0·0, 0·2, 0·4, and 0·8?g/kg L-Trp to achieve dietary concentrations of 1·7, 1·9?g/kg, 2·1?g/kg or 2·5?g/kg of Trp, respectively. 3. Supplementing L-Trp had no affect on laying performance. Adding 0·2 or 0·4?g/kg L-Trp improved egg shell strength compared with those fed on the control diet. Serum albumin concentration increased at 0·4?g/kg compared with those receiving 0·0 or 0·8?g/kg Trp. The addition of Trp at 0·4?g/kg increased serum IgM concentration quadratically. Serum superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) increased linearly and quadratically at 0·4?g/kg. 4. In conclusion, we suggest that 0·2 to 0·4?g/kg Trp may have beneficial effects on laying hens under conditions of high temperature and humidity. PMID:23130584

Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Rao, W; Yu, D Y; Zou, X T



Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.  


In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova. PMID:24554734

Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri



Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.  


Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D



ANA YAI, DEPOLAMA SÜRESVE STREÇ FLMLE PAKETLEMENN SOFRALIK YUMURTALARIN ?Ç VE DIKALTE ÖZELLKLERNE ETKS? (Effects of hen age, storage time and strech film packaging on internal and external quality traits of table eggs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effects of hen age, storage time and packaging with sretch film applications to the internal and external egg quality of table eggs were investigated. A total of 1680 table eggs were used and collected with two commercial layer stocks (Lohmann White) 28 and 80 weeks old age. A half of the table eggs packaged with strech film and

Ahmet Alper YILMAZ; Zehra BOZKURT


Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio



Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg.

Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin



Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.  


Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. PMID:23294362

Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko



Noggin4 expression during chick embryonic development.  


We describe here the expression pattern of Noggin4 during the early development of the chick embryo (Gallus gallus). The expression of this gene starts with the onset of gastrulation (stage HH4), in two bilateral bands along the primitive streak, with a local maximum around Hensen's node. By the end of gastrulation, Noggin4 transcripts are distributed diffusely throughout the epiblast, with the highest concentration in the head ectoderm. Interestingly, the expression of Noggin4 during the first half of gastrulation demonstrates a clear left-right asymmetry in Hensen's node, being much more intensive in its right anterior portion. During neurulation, Noggin4 is expressed mainly in the neuroectoderm, with the most intensive expression in the head and lateral neural folds. In mesoderm derivatives, expression is seen in somites but not in the notochord. In general, primarily ectodermal and diffusive expression of Noggin4 in chick embryo, with a maximum in the anterior neurectoderm, resembles that of its ortholog in Xenopus, which indicates a conservative function of this gene in evolution. PMID:22811274

Borodulin, Alexander V; Eroshkin, Fedor M; Bayramov, Andrey V; Zaraisky, Andrey G



CXCL14 expression during chick embryonic development.  


Chemokines are small secreted signalling molecules best known for their roles as chemoattractants for cells of the immune system. CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 comprise one chemokine signalling pathway with essential functions in non-immune cell types during embryonic development. CXCL14, a chemokine-encoding gene related to CXCL12, is developmentally regulated in zebrafish and Xenopus embryos, but its role during embryogenesis remains unknown. Here we describe the embryonic expression pattern of CXCL14 in an amniote, the chick. Although expression in some regions is conserved with that of fish and frog, chick CXCL14 displays a complex pattern of expression in several novel sites. We analyse the expression pattern in the branchial arches, trigeminal placode and ganglion, inner ear, dorsal midline of the brain, somites, trunk neural tube and limb bud. Expression in several domains raises the possibility that CXCL14 may be involved in some of the same developmental events during which CXCL12-CXCR4 signalling is known to play a role. PMID:21710440

Gordon, Christopher T; Wade, Christine; Brinas, Inigo; Farlie, Peter G



Lithium Affects Histogenesis of Embryonic Chick Retina  

PubMed Central

Background: Lithium, a drug used extensively for treatment of bipolar disorders, has also been shown to be neuroprotective in vivo and in vitro. While gross teratogenic effects of lithium at higher doses have been reported, in view of its potential wider use, it is necessary to investigate its effects on tissue formation at relatively low doses of lithium where no apparent teratogenic effects on morphology are observed. Materials and Methods: We have used retina of chick embryo to investigate its effects during neural histogenesis. Three major cellular events involved in retinal histogenesis have been monitored: Proliferation as measured by expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); initiation of differentiation as observed by expression of p27/Kip1 expression; apoptosis as monitored by TdT-mediated dUTPX-nick end labeling. Result: We demonstrate that lithium at a dose of 60 mM has no effect on gross eye morphology; it disrupts histogenesis of chick retina by blocking proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and generating post mitotic cells prematurely.

Ramchandran, H.; Rajadhyaksha, Medha S.



Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than

Ju.-Woon Lee; Ji.-Hyun Seo; Jae.-Hun Kim; Soo.-Young Lee; Kwan.-Soo Kim; Myung.-Woo Byun



Influence of substituting dietary soybean meal for dehulled-micronized lupin ( Lupinus albus cv. Multitalia) on early phase laying hens production and egg quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from substitution of soybean meal with dehulled-micronized lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Multitalia) in diet of early phase laying hens. Isa Brown layers, 18weeks of age were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10weeks. Two different durum wheat middlings-based diets were prepared; one

V. Laudadio; V. Tufarelli



Effects of a Perch in Conventional Cages for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 720 Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (SCWL's Shaver 288) were studied from 22 to 82 weeks of age for the effect of a perch on production, egg weight, exterior egg quality and egg rolling-out efficiency, plumage condition, foot health, claw length, throat skin health, mortality, live weight, behaviour and usage of the perch at different times

Ragnar Tauson



Replacing maize with pearl millet in laying hens' diets.  


Pearl millet grain could be considered as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry. In a 12 wks experiment, the performance of laying hens fed diets containing pearl millet were compared with those fed diets containing corn. Maize grain was replaced by pearl millet on an equal-weight at either 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Results showed that use of 25, 50 and 75% of pearl millet in place of maize in the diet resulted in similar (P > 0.05) hen-day egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio to those of control group. Totally replacement of maize grain with pearl millet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced all production parameters. Egg quality parameters did not affect by using pearl millet in the diet. These results showed that maize grain can be replaced by pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of laying hens without any adverse effect on hen performance or egg quality. PMID:19705292

Mehri, Mehran; Pourreza, Javad; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali



Dehydrated Kitchen Waste as a Feedstuff for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dehydrated kitchen waste (DKW) product as a feedstuff for laying hens. Fresh food wastes of a retirement house were prepared for the experiment. This was mostly leftover food, plate scrapings and cooking residue. The kitchen waste was blended and dried by the temperature in the heater set at 80 to 85



A spatial factor influencing food consumption in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A reduction in the number of cages occupied by laying hens in a row of battery cages lead to a mean increase in food intake per bird of about 4% compared with birds housed in similar rows in which all the cages were occupied.

R. H. Davis; A. H. Sykes



Using Different Methods to Tenderize Spent Hens Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is tenderizing spent hens meat by using cheap local materials such as bitter orange juice, vinegar, salt and sugar for 1,2, 3 and 4h, distill water is used (T ) in curing to make it a s 1 standard. Bitter orange juice (acidity of 1.5) (T ), vinegar (acidity of 7) (T ), table salt

N. A. Nadia Al-Hajo



The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger



Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.  


Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

Mujahid, A; Furuse, M



Physiology and behavior of the hen during induced molt.  


Feed deprivation has been adopted by the commercial egg industry to induce molt because it is the easiest method to apply and produces the best results. Feed deprivation, however, raises concerns about animal welfare. Birds respond to long-term feed deprivation in three phases. The first phase lasts at most a few days, during which physiological and behavioral adjustments ultimately reduce protein catabolism and energy expenditure. A temporary increase in plasma corticosterone may be observed at this time. Corticosterone promotes gluconeogenesis, helping to maintain plasma glucose levels in the initial stage of the fast. The corticosterone increase may also be linked to increased activity in feed-deprived birds. Hens have been observed to manifest temporarily increased levels of alertness and activity during the first 48 h of feed deprivation. Aggressive behavior of hens also has been observed to increase briefly during the first day of feed deprivation. The second phase is the longest, during which proteins are spared and lipids are catabolized to provide energy. This phase may last several months in some species; in the chicken it can continue more than 20 d. Hens show increasing amounts of resting behavior during this phase. The third phase begins when protein catabolism accelerates. A pathological stage eventually is reached when the bird will cease activity and no longer eat. The phased response to feed deprivation optimizes a tradeoff between the need to maintain constant levels of plasma glucose to sustain activity and the need to preserve critical body structures such as muscles and organs. Hens are capable of vigorous activity throughout feed deprivation periods typical of induced molts, which do not appear to take birds beyond the second phase of fasting. Hens having undergone extended fasts may also have improved livability. Alternative induced molting methods are being sought to reduce animal welfare concerns. The methods of current interest involve alteration of feeding regimen and cause at least some body weight loss. These alternative methods should be evaluated to ensure that they do not actually make aspects of hen welfare worse compared to feed withdrawal, which might happen if hens perceive feed restriction without being allowed to progress fully into the second phase of adaptation to feed deprivation. PMID:12817455

Webster, A B



Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  


A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J



Restriction of feed consumption and body weight in two strains of large white turkey breeder hens.  


Large White female-line turkey breeder hen poults (576) of two strains (N, female line and B, male line) were brooded by strain in floor pens from day of hatch until 3 wk of age (WOA). At 3 WOA, all poults were randomly distributed by strain to 48 floor pens in a curtain-sided house. Poults were feed (calorie) restricted beginning at 3 (N3, B3) or 6 (N6, B6) WOA to obtain a 45% reduction in BW at 16 WOA compared to ad libitum controls (NC, BC). At 16 WOA, all hens were gradually returned to ad libitum feeding. At 18 to 30 WOA, all hens were subjected to 8 h light/d. At 30 WOA, all hens were photostimulated with 15.5 h/d. Hens were inseminated weekly with semen from same strain, male-line breeder males. Eggs were collected daily, and all settable eggs from weeks of lay (WOL) 5 to 6, 10 to 11, 15 to 16, 20 to 21, and 24 to 25 were incubated by pen in a common incubator for each set date. Measurements included BW, feed consumption, egg production, mortality, egg fertility, egg hatchability, and poult weight. Statistical analysis of means was performed by strain. Target BW were obtained for feed-restricted hens. Restricted hens increased their feed consumption upon re-alimentation but did not achieve the cumulative feed consumption or BW of control fed hens by 56 WOA. Egg production of N3 hens was greater than NC hens for WOL 2 and 3. Total and settable eggs per hen were greater for N3 hens than for NC for WOL 1 to 5. There were no differences observed for egg weight, egg fertility, hatch of all eggs set, hatch of fertile eggs, or offspring weight among N hen treatments. The B0 hens produced more eggs than B3 or B6 hens. The B6 hens produced lighter weight eggs than B0 hens. It was concluded that early severe feed restriction of female line breeder hens might improve subsequent reproductive performance. PMID:10472835

Crouch, A N; Grimes, J L; Christensen, V L; Garlich, J D



Clinicomorphological Studies in Chicks Fed Ochratoxin A While Simultaneously Developing Coccidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progression of coccidiosis and the resultant mortality were followed in chicks fed a OTA-contaminated diet. More complex and rapid progress of coccidiosis occurred in OTA-treated chicks than in chicks fed a OTA-free diet. The concentration of total protein in the serum was significantly decreased in the chicks in the OTA-treated group, whereas this was significantly increased in chicks infected

S. D. Stoev; V. Koynarsky; P. G. Mantle



Epithelial cell tumors of the hen reproductive tract.  


There is a paucity of preclinical models that simulate the development of ovarian tumors in humans. At present, the egg-laying hen appears to be the most promising model to study the spontaneous occurrence of ovarian tumors in the clinical setting. Although gross classification and histologic grade of tumors have been used prognostically in women with ovarian tumors, there is currently no single system that is universally used to classify reproductive tumors in the hen. Four hundred and one 192-wk-old egg-laying hens were necropsied to determine the incidence of reproductive tumors using both gross pathology and histologic classification. Gross pathologic classifications were designated as follows: birds presenting with ovarian tumors only (class 1), those presenting with oviductal and ovarian tumors (class 2), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract (class 3), those with ovarian and oviductal tumors that metastasized to the gastrointestinal tract and other distant organs (class 4), those with oviductal tumors only (class 5), those with oviductal tumors that metastasized to other organs with no ovarian involvement (class 6), and those with ovarian tumors that metastasized to other organs with no oviductal involvement (class 7), including birds with gastrointestinal tumors and no reproductive involvement (GI only) and those with no tumors (normal). Histopathologic classifications range from grades 1 to 3 and are based on mitotic developments and cellular differentiation. An updated gross pathology and histologic classification systems for the hen reproductive malignancies provides a method to report the range of reproductive tumors revealed in a flock of aged laying hens. PMID:24758120

Harris, Elizabeth A; Fletcher, Oscar J; Anderson, Kenneth E; Petitte, James N; Kopelovich, Levy; Mozdziak, Paul E



The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.



Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds.

Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.



Comparative evaluation of the effect of two maternal diets on fatty acids, vitamin E and carotenoids in the chick embryo.  


1. The fatty acid profile of egg yolk and vitamin E and carotenoid accumulation in the egg yolk and embryonic tissues were investigated in relation to the maternal diet. 2. Two hundred fertile eggs (Ross 308 Broiler Breeder), obtained from hens fed on a maize-based (M-diet) or a wheat-based diet (W-diet), were incubated using standard conditions. 3. The egg yolk and embryo tissues (residual yolk, yolk sac membrane, liver, kidney, lung, muscles, adipose tissue and plasma) were collected on d 18 of incubation and on d 21 (newly-hatched chicks) and analysed for fatty acids, vitamin E and carotenoids. 4. The diets did not differ in terms of fatty acid or alpha-tocopherol concentrations. The concentration of carotenoids in the M-diet was 11.8 mg/kg and in the W-diet was 5.6 mg/kg with lutein and zeaxanthin being major carotenoids. 5. Eggs from the M-group contained higher (P<0.01) concentrations of beta+gamma-tocopherols, total carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin. Chickens hatched from those eggs were characterised by the increased concentrations of total carotenoids and zeaxanthin in all the tissues studied. The concentration of beta+gamma-tocopherol was enhanced only in the liver and yolk sac membrane. 6. It is concluded that the maternal diet plays an important role in antioxidant systems formation during chick embryonic development; the M-diet can increase the antioxidant potential of the egg yolk and embryonic tissues compared to the antioxidant potential provided by parent birds fed the W-diet. PMID:11421335

Surai, P F; Sparks, N H



Computer Assisted Electroencephalographic Analysis of Chick Pyridoxine Deficiency States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis that computer-assisted, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring of control and Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficient chicks could provide an analytical basis for the detection of pyridoxine insufficiency in advance of the symptomatic stages of...

L. R. Pomeroy A. J. Welch



Studies on Weak Electromagnetic Fields Effects in Chick Embryos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was directed to test some experimental conditions of the Henhouse project and to enforce a previous study on VLF electromagnetic fields effects on chick embryos. Henhouse Project: We studied the response of White Leghorn Hisex embryos to fie...

J. Leal



Analysis of Lrrn1 expression and its relationship to neuromeric boundaries during chick neural development  

PubMed Central

Background The Drosophila leucine-rich repeat proteins Tartan (TRN) and Capricious (CAPS) mediate cell affinity differences during compartition of the wing imaginal disc. This study aims to identify and characterize the expression of a chick orthologue of TRN/CAPS and examine its potential function in relation to compartment boundaries in the vertebrate central nervous system. Results We identified a complementary DNA clone encoding Leucine-rich repeat neuronal 1 (Lrrn1), a single-pass transmembrane protein with 12 extracellular leucine-rich repeats most closely related to TRN/CAPS. Lrrn1 is dynamically expressed during chick development, being initially localized to the neural plate and tube, where it is restricted to the ventricular layer. It becomes downregulated in boundaries following their formation. In the mid-diencephalon, Lrrn1 expression prefigures the position of the anterior boundary of the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI). It becomes progressively downregulated from the presumptive ZLI just before the onset of expression of the signalling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh) within the ZLI. In the hindbrain, downregulation at rhombomere boundaries correlates with the emergence of specialized boundary cell populations, in which it is subsequently reactivated. Immunocolocalization studies confirm that Lrrn1 protein is endocytosed from the plasma membrane and is a component of the endosomal system, being concentrated within the early endosomal compartment. Conclusion Chick Lrrn1 is expressed in ventricular layer neuroepithelial cells and is downregulated at boundary regions, where neurogenesis is known to be delayed, or inhibited. The timing of Lrrn1 downregulation correlates closely with the activation of signaling molecule expression at these boundaries. This expression is consistent with the emergence of secondary organizer properties at boundaries and its endosomal localisation suggests that Lrrn1 may regulate the subcellular localisation of specific components of signalling or cell-cell recognition pathways in neuroepithelial cells.

Andreae, Laura C; Peukert, Daniela; Lumsden, Andrew; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D



Effect of melamine-contaminated diet on tissue distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid, blood variables, and egg quality in laying hens.  


Abstract 1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melamine-contaminated feed (100 mg/kg) on the distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid in the tissues of laying hens. The effect of a 5-week melamine administration in feed on the egg quality and blood variables of layers was also investigated. 2. A total of twenty 36-week-old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The layers were equally divided into an experimental melamine group (n = 10) and a control group without melamine (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, samples of liver, kidney, breast and thigh muscles were collected from all hens and analysed for the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. 3. Layers receiving the melamine-contaminated diet laid eggs with decreased eggshell strength. The decrease in shell strength was found in weeks 3 and 4 compared to the initial state (week 0) and week 1. 4. Hens receiving the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited a higher total red blood cell count and lower mean corpuscular haemoglobin compared to the control group. However, melamine at 100 mg/kg feed had no effects on the blood variables of layers. 5. Melamine was detected in all analysed tissues of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet, with its mean concentrations decreasing in the following order: kidney (7.43 mg/kg) > breast muscle (3.88 mg/kg) > liver (3.11 mg/kg) > thigh muscle (1.91 mg/kg). The kidney and liver of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited the presence of cyanuric acid. 6. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that the biotransformation of melamine into cyanuric acid proceeded mainly in the liver, and cyanuric acid was eliminated in urine. PMID:24730385

Suchý, P; Novák, P; Zapletal, D; Straková, E



Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.  


Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A



Corticosterone response in the chick separation–stress paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosterone response to separation stress and its sensitivity to the anxiolytic, chlordiazepoxide (CDP), were examined in 7-day-old domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Saline or CDP (8.0 mg\\/kg) was injected intramuscularly 30 min before tests. Chicks were placed in isolation either with or without mirrors for a 15-min observation period, in which distress vocalizations were recorded. After testing, chicks were euthanized and

Matthew W Feltenstein; L. Corinne Lambdin; Heather E Webb; Jason E Warnick; Shabana I Khan; Ikhlas A Khan; Edmund O Acevedo; Kenneth J Sufka



Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely\\u000a with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick\\u000a and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also

Xiao Gou; Ning Li; Linsheng Lian; Dawei Yan; Hao Zhang; Changxin Wu



The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing\\/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could

Alexander S. Kitaysky; Marc D. Romano; John F. Piatt; John C. Wingfield; Motoshi Kikuchi



Relationships between age, shell quality and individual rate and duration of shell formation in domestic hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The duration and rate of shell formation was measured individually in each of 44 hens. Comparisons were made between hens of different ages, and also between hens which laid eggs of differing shell qualities.2. Shell formation began 9–5 to 11 h after the oviposition of the previous egg, increased linearly for 13 h and then plateaued at 1–5 h

Y. Nys



The Effect of Storage and Strain of Hen on Egg Quality1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs from 31-wk-old ISA-White and ISA- Brown hens were sampled immediately after lay and after periods of storage of 1, 3, 5, and 10 d at room temperature. Longer periods of storage resulted in lower albumen weight and albumen height and higher albumen pH. Eggs from ISA-Brown hens had more albumen and shell than those from ISA-White hens, likely due

T. A. Scott; F. G. Silversides


West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.



West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.



Development of body temperature regulation in ostrich chicks.  


Information in the literature indicates that young ostrich chicks, despite being precocial, are poor thermoregulators and may take between 8 and 12 weeks to develop efficient homeothermy. We measured the body temperatures (Tb) of young ostrich chicks (1 to 10 d) at ambient temperatures between 13 degrees and 28 degrees C under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under typical farm-rearing conditions to assess their ability to thermoregulate. Even 1-d-old ostriches could maintain a Tb above 36 degrees C at temperatures of 20 degrees C and older chicks maintained typical adult Tb at ambient temperatures of 13 degrees C in a constant temperature room. Chicks from 2-d-old could maintain adult T(b)s outdoors under a wide range of ambient temperatures and weather conditions. We conclude that ostrich chicks have well developed homeothermy soon after hatching and that some of the higher rearing temperatures recommended in the literature are unnecessary. In appropriate climates, chicks can be allowed outdoors soon after hatching provided they are not exposed to unfavourable weather conditions. Thermoregulation is, however, energetically expensive and thermoregulatory behaviour such as huddling may compete with other important activities like feeding. PMID:10579413

Brown, C R; Prior, S A



Metabolism of [14C]propionic acid in broiler chicks.  


Broiler chicks were given 4 or 120 mumol propionic[1-14C] acid by gavage to determine its chemical fate and distribution of radiolabel among organs and tissues [foregut (crop, gizzard, and proventriculus), intestine (small and large), ceca, liver, and serum]. At 15 and 60 min postgavage, most of the extractable radiolabel remaining in the chicks was found in the foregut. Significantly higher percentages of the administered radiolabel were detected at 15 min in the serum and liver extracts of chicks given 120 mumol of propionic acid than in chicks given only 4 mumol. After 15 min, 41 and 30%, respectively, of the total radiolabel administered was accounted for in extracts of the digestive tract and tissues of chicks given 4 or 120 mumol of [14C]propionic acid. Only about 12% of the administered radiolabel was extracted from body compartments at 60 min postgavage from chicks given 4 mumol of propionic acid. Collection of respired [14C]CO2 during a 3-h postgavage period indicated that orally administered propionic acid is largely (about 75%) used as an energy source or is metabolized and assimilated into body components. The present studies indicate that little if any dietary propionic acid reaches the lower digestive tract and the ceca. PMID:8502603

Hume, M E; Corrier, D E; Ivie, G W; Deloach, J R



Effects of supplemental L-carnitine in drinking water on performance and egg quality of laying hens exposed to a high ambient temperature.  


The present study was conducted to investigate effects of L-carnitine supplied with drinking water on performance and egg quality of laying hens under high environmental temperature. In the study, 47-week-old laying hens (Brown hisex) were divided into two groups (control and treatment) and fed with a standard layer diet. Treatment group was received 50 p.p.m L-carnitine with drinking water for an 8-week period. Throughout the study, 8 h hot (35-37 degrees C) and 16 h thermoneutral (20-22 degrees C) environmental temperature regime was employed daily. The results showed that L-carnitine supplementation affected some egg quality characteristics of layers under high environmental temperature. Relative albumen weight and height were increased (p < 0.05) by supplemental L-carnitine. Live weight gain, feed intake, egg mass, egg weight, yolk weight, shell weight, yolk index, egg-shape index, yolk colour score and shell thickness were not affected (p < 0.05) by L-carnitine. It is concluded that L-carnitine supplementation in laying hens could have potential to improve albumen quality under high environmental temperature. PMID:15189428

Celik, L B; Tekeli, A; Oztürkcan, O



Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation on serum very low density lipoprotein diameter and fractionation of cholesterol among lipoproteins in commercial egg-laying hens.  


Experimental inoculation with the F-strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) at 12 wk of age has been shown to affect the performance, liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics of commercial layers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the serum lipoprotein characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens at 16 wk of age and throughout lay after inoculation with FMG at 12 wk of age. Mean diameters of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were determined for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of serum total VLDL of each hen. Percentages of total serum cholesterol recovered in VLDL and low and high density lipoprotein particle classes were also determined. Inoculation of birds with FMG at 12 wk did not change the physical properties or relative concentrations of their circulating lipoproteins. However, the age of the bird had significant differential effects on all the parameters examined. These data demonstrate that FMG-inoculation at 12 wk of age does not affect the lipoproteins of laying hens, but because these birds were housed in biological isolation units, these results do not preclude the possibility that these yolk precursors may be affected in FMG-infected birds that are housed in facilities in which there are increased levels of environmental stress. These data further suggest that alterations in liver, reproductive organs, and yolk lipid characteristics in response to FMG, as noted in previous reports on commercial layers, are not mediated through changes in circulating VLDL diameters. PMID:14601743

Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Walzem, R L; Gerard, P D



Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  


A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A



Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.  


Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P < 0.001] than their respective controls. Among H-DXL hens, egg weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions. PMID:23300291

Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W



Dust and Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy Planetary Nebula Hen2-436  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have estimated elemental abundances of the planetary nebula (PN) Hen2-436 in the Sagittarius (Sgr) spheroidal dwarf galaxy using ESO/VLT FORS2, Magellan/MMIRS, and Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have detected candidates of fluorine [F II] ?4790, krypton [Kr III] ?6826, and phosphorus [P II] ?7875 lines and successfully estimated the abundances of these elements ([F/H] = +1.23, [Kr/H] = +0.26, [P/H] = +0.26) for the first time. These elements are known to be synthesized by the neutron capture process in the He-rich intershell during the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We present a relation between C, F, P, and Kr abundances among PNe and C-rich stars. The detections of these elements in Hen2-436 support the idea that F, P, Kr together with C are synthesized in the same layer and brought to the surface by the third dredge-up. We have detected N II and O II optical recombination lines (ORLs) and derived the N2+ and O2+ abundances. The discrepancy between the abundance derived from the oxygen ORL and that derived from the collisionally excited line is >1 dex. To investigate the status of the central star of the PN, nebula condition, and dust properties, we construct a theoretical spectral energy distribution (SED) model to match the observed SED with CLOUDY. By comparing the derived luminosity and temperature of the central star with theoretical evolutionary tracks, we conclude that the initial mass of the progenitor is likely to be ~1.5-2.0 M sun and the age is ~3000 yr after the AGB phase. The observed elemental abundances of Hen2-436 can be explained by a theoretical nucleosynthesis model with a star of initial mass 2.25 M sun, Z = 0.008, and LMC compositions. We have estimated the dust mass to be 2.9×10-4 M sun (amorphous carbon only) or 4.0×10-4 M sun (amorphous carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon). Based on the assumption that most of the observed dust is formed during the last two thermal pulses and the dust-to-gas mass ratio is 5.58 × 10-3, the dust mass-loss rate and the total mass-loss rate are <3.1×10-8 M sun yr-1and <5.5×10-6 M sun yr-1, respectively. Our estimated dust mass-loss rate is comparable to a Sgr dwarf galaxy AGB star with similar metallicity and luminosity.

Otsuka, Masaaki; Meixner, Margaret; Riebel, David; Hyung, Siek; Tajitsu, Akito; Izumiura, Hideyuki



Study of some enzyme activities in cultured chick embryo brain nerve cells treated by chick embryo brain extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain extracts from 8-day-old chick embryos have been shown to influence morphological development of dissociated brain cells from 7-day-old chick embryos in culture. Stimulatory, effects on size of the neuronal somas and on growth of long processes were observed by adding the cytosol of the brain extract or the dialysate of the cytosol. These morphological changes parallel modifications of various

Y. Cam; M. Ledig; A. Ebel; M. Sensenbrenner; P. Mandel



Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs.  


The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5-32.4 microg g(-1) fw) and eggs (0.04-2.79 microg g(-1) fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n=94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n=28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (< or =10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (< or =3 days old; n=88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks < or =10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg's effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality. PMID:19368230

Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A



The metabolism of polyphosphoinositides in hen brain and sciatic nerve  

PubMed Central

1. The distribution of individual phospholipids was determined in hen brain and compared with that in sciatic nerve obtained in a previous investigation. Sciatic nerve is more enriched in the myelinic phospholipids ethanolamine plasmalogen, phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, but it contains relatively less triphosphoinositide, and much less diphosphoinositide, than the brain. 2. The course of incorporation of intraperitoneally injected 32P into the acid-soluble phosphorus, phosphoinositides and total phospholipids of hen brain and sciatic nerve was followed. Although the maximum specific radioactivity in sciatic nerve of acid-soluble phosphorus is 4·5 times, and that of triphosphoinositide six times, that in the brain, the relative rate of triphosphoinositide phosphorus synthesis per gram of brain is three times that in sciatic nerve. 3. Administration of the demyelinating agent tri-o-cresyl phosphate to hens has no significant effect on the amounts or the rate of 32P incorporation into the total phospholipids of the sciatic nerve. However, the rate of incorporation of 32P into triphosphoinositide, although not its concentration, is raised from the first day after administration of the drug and remains thus 13 and 23 days later. 4. The incorporation of 32P into polyphosphoinositides of hen brain slices in vitro was studied. The recovery of triphosphoinositide from the slices is markedly increased in the presence of EDTA, although the rate of incorporation of 32P is unaffected. The incorporation of 32P is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in the medium, and is decreased when Na+ is replaced with K+ or cholinium ions.

Sheltawy, A.; Dawson, R. M. C.



Production and characterization of antibodies against aflatoxin in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal antibodies against aflatoxins were obtained from egg yolks of laying hens immunized with either aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA). An indirect enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving the use of AFB1?BSA or AFM1?BSA conjugate and anti?chicken IgG?horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate, was developed for monitoring antibody titers and aflatoxin analysis. Production of the

Fun S. Chu



An HSUS Report: A Comparison of the Welfare of Hens in Battery Cages and Alternative Systems | Prepared by Drs. Shields and Duncan 1 An HSUS Report: A Comparison of the Welfare of Hens in Battery Cages and Alternative Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing systems for egg-laying hens range from small, pasture-based flocks to large, commercial-scale operations that intensively confine tens of thousands of hens indoors. The overwhelming majority of laying hens used for commercial egg production in the United States are confined in battery cages and provided 432.3 cm 2 (67 in 2 ) of space per bird. Cages prevent hens from

Sara Shields; Ian J. H. Duncan


Photo hen's egg test: a model for phototoxicity.  


The aim of this investigation was to establish a new model for phototoxicity which is more advanced than the widely used cultures of yeasts, bacteria or cells of various origin, and at the same time to avoid animal testing. We studied the extraembryonal vasculature of the incubated hen's egg. This model was originally introduced by toxicologists as an alternative to the rabbit's eye irritation test (Draize test). In the photo hen's egg test, substances are applied to the embryo's yolk-sac blood vessel system at a non-toxic concentration and are irradiated with 5 J/cm2 ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm). Promethazine, haematoporphyrin, ciprofloxacin and 8-methoxypsoralen were tested in this system. Death of the embryo, membrane discoloration and haemorrhage are parameters for phototoxic damage, which were recorded during an observation period of 24 h. These well-known phototoxic substances induced pronounced damage of the yolk-sac membrane and blood vessels which was not found in the controls (test substance alone, UVA alone or untreated) using a 2 x 2 factorial test design. The photo hen's egg test serves as a valid screening model for substances supposed to be photosensitizers owing to a phototoxic mechanism. PMID:9115909

Neumann, N J; Hölzle, E; Lehmann, P; Rosenbruch, M; Klaucic, A; Plewig, G



Presence of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor in the hen hypothalamus.  


Radioligand assays of the membrane fraction of hen hypothalamic tissues involving the preoptic (HPOA) or median eminence (HMEA) areas revealed the presence of a specific binding component to chicken vasoactive intestinal peptide (cVIP) having properties of a receptor. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.70 +/- 0.07 nM (Mean +/- SEM; N = 5) in HPOA and 1.02 +/- 0.15 nM (N = 5) in HMEA as estimated by Scatchard analysis of saturation studies, and was 0.91 +/- 0.11 nM (N = 3) (HPOA) and 1.25 +/- 0.09 nM (N = 3) (HMEA) as determined by a kinetic analysis. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) obtained by Scatchard analysis was 167 +/- 19 fmol/mg protein (N = 5) (HPOA) and 133 +/- 17 fmol/mg protein (N = 5) (HMEA). The Kd and Bmax values obtained by Scatchard analysis were similar in the two areas of the hypothalamus and in both laying and nonlaying hens. Administration of cVIP in vivo caused a decrease in specific cVIP binding. These results suggest the presence of a VIP receptor in the hen hypothalamus. PMID:7627262

Gonzales, S M; Kawashima, M; Kamiyoshi, M; Tanaka, K; Ichinoe, K



Chick alpha-tectorin: molecular cloning and expression during embryogenesis.  


The avian and mammalian tectorial membranes both contain two non-collagenous glycoproteins, alpha and beta-tectorin. To determine whether variations in the primary sequences of the chick and mouse alpha-tectorins account for differences in subunit composition and matrix structure of the tectorial membranes in these two species, cDNAs spanning the entire open reading frame of chick alpha-tectorin were cloned and the derived amino acid sequence was compared with that of mouse alpha-tectorin. Chick alpha-tectorin shares 73% amino acid sequence identity with mouse alpha-tectorin and, like mouse alpha-tectorin, is composed of three distinct modules: an N-terminal region similar to the G1 domain of entactin, a central region that shares identity with zonadhesin and contains three full and two partial von Willebrand factor type D repeats, and a C-terminal region containing a zona pellucida domain. The central region of chick alpha-tectorin contains fewer potential N-glycosylation sites than that of mouse alpha-tectorin and is cleaved at two additional sites. Differences in the glycosylation and proteolytic processing of chick and mouse alpha-tectorin may therefore account for the variation observed in the composition and structure of the collagenase-insensitive matrices of the avian and mammalian tectorial membranes. In situ hybridisation and Northern blot analysis of chick inner ear tissue indicate that the spatial and temporal patterns of alpha and beta-tectorin mRNA expression in the developing chick inner ear are different, suggesting the two tectorins may each form homomeric filaments. PMID:10320099

Coutinho, P; Goodyear, R; Legan, P K; Richardson, G P



Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.  


This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells. PMID:24570429

Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C



Chick frac has higher concentrations, rates  

SciTech Connect

The results are not all in yet, but for Permian Basin producers using the Chick frac there seems to be ample reason to believe that the high-sand concentration treatment is going to flatten production curves for some wells. The patented frac system involves the pumping of sand concentrations up to 20 lb/gal of gel at rates up to 75 bbl/min. At these concentrations and rates, the sand is no longer just a proppant in the system, but creates the volume to cause the fracture. The efficiency of the frac fluid with the high sand concentrations is such that there is little or no leakoff. Also, this type of treatment eliminates the problem of fines. It creates a much wider fracture which is deeper and more conductive. In a recent report, it was noted that one recompleted well in the San Andres formation in Ector County showed a 66% increase in production after the high-sand frac treatment.

Mickey, V.




PubMed Central

Primitive erythroblasts in the circulating blood of the chick embryo continue to divide while synthesizing hemoglobin (Hb). Hb measurements on successive generations of erythroblasts show that there is a progressive increase in the Hb content of both interphase and metaphase cells. Furthermore, for any given embryo the Hb content of metaphase cells is always significantly greater than that of interphase cells. The distribution of Hb values for metaphase cells suggests that there are six Hb classes corresponding to the number of cell cycles in the proliferative phase. The location of erythroblasts in the cell cycle was determined by combining Feulgen cytophotometry with thymidine radioautography on the same cells. Measurements of the Hb content for erythroblasts in different compartments of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M) show a progressive increase through the cycle. Thus, the amount of Hb per cell is a function of the number of cell divisions since the initiation of Hb synthesis and, to a lesser degree, the stage of the cell cycle. Earlier generations of erythroblasts synthesize Hb at a faster rate than the terminal generation. Several models have been proposed to explain these findings.

Campbell, G. Le M.; Weintraub, H.; Mayall, B. H.; Holtzer, H.



Single Cell Transfection in Chick Embryos  

PubMed Central

A central theme in developmental biology is the diversification of lineages and the elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms. This entails a thorough analysis of the fates of single cells under normal and experimental conditions. To this end, transfection methods that target single progenitors are a prerequisite. We describe here a technically straightforward method for transfecting single cells in chicken tissues in-ovo, allowing reliable lineage tracing as well as genetic manipulation. Specific tissue domains are targeted within the somite or neural tube, and DNA is injected directly into the epithelium of interest, resulting in sporadic transfection of single cells. Using reporters, clonal populations may consequently be traced for up to three days, and behavior of genetically manipulated clonal populations can be compared with that of controls. This method takes advantage of the accessibility of the chick embryo along with emerging tools for genetic manipulation. We compare and discuss its advantages over the widely-used electroporation method, and possible applications and use in additional in-vivo models are also suggested. We advocate the use of this method as a significant addition and complement for existing lineage tracing and genetic interference tools.

Ben-Yair, Raz; Kalcheim, Chaya



Single cell transfection in chick embryos.  


A central theme in developmental biology is the diversification of lineages and the elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms. This entails a thorough analysis of the fates of single cells under normal and experimental conditions. To this end, transfection methods that target single progenitors are a prerequisite. We describe here a technically straightforward method for transfecting single cells in chicken tissues in-ovo, allowing reliable lineage tracing as well as genetic manipulation. Specific tissue domains are targeted within the somite or neural tube, and DNA is injected directly into the epithelium of interest, resulting in sporadic transfection of single cells. Using reporters, clonal populations may consequently be traced for up to three days, and behavior of genetically manipulated clonal populations can be compared with that of controls. This method takes advantage of the accessibility of the chick embryo along with emerging tools for genetic manipulation. We compare and discuss its advantages over the widely-used electroporation method, and possible applications and use in additional in-vivo models are also suggested. We advocate the use of this method as a significant addition and complement for existing lineage tracing and genetic interference tools. PMID:20972396

Ben-Yair, Raz; Kalcheim, Chaya



Effects of Green Tea Powder Feed Supplement on Performance of Hens in the Late Stage of Laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of green tea powder on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in egg yolk, egg production and egg quality of laying hens were examined. Twenty 84-week-old laying hens were divided into 4 dietary groups of 5 hens each in the late stages of laying. Four levels of green tea powder (0% = control diet, 1%, 5% and 10%) were fed

Sadao Kojima; Yuko Yoshida



Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))



Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.  


The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation. PMID:2801995

Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y



Staging of intestinal development in the chick embryo.  


Comparisons between developmental studies rely on embryonic staging systems. It is important for comparison of molecular, immunohistochemical, and physiological studies of the developing chick intestine that the developmental stage of embryos is reliably determined. Good staging systems exist for the external features of the chick embryo but not for development of internal organs. To facilitate precise comparisons of chick embryo intestine development, we prepared an intestinal staging system. Embryos were fixed, other tissues dissected away, and the intestine and associated organs were then drawn to scale using a camera lucida. This produced black-and-white drawings with features of the gut clearly visible. The detailed drawings of intestine from chick embryos aged 2.5 to 10 days were correlated with age of embryos and developmental stages described in three common staging systems, Hamilton and Hamburger, Thompson and Fitzharris, and Allan and Newgreen. Descriptions of key changes in gut morphology and position are given for each stage. This staging of chick gut development will allow future studies to quote and compare development of the gut rather than external features or incubation time. This will allow much more precise reporting and comparisons in developmental studies of cell migration and gene expression. PMID:16835928

Southwell, Bridget R



Effects of mould and toxin contaminated barley on laying hens performance and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moulded and mycotoxin containing barley was incorporated into the diets for laying hens to study the effects on performance and health. Health indicators were different blood plasma parameters and liver vitamin A and E levels. A total of 30 hens were fed 3 diets, one supplemented with 30% of toxin?free and two with differently moulded barley from 1997 and 1998

Dalia Garaleviciene; H. Pettersson; Giedre Augonyte; K. Elwinger; J. E. Lindberg



Phosphorus, Eggshell Calcium and Phosphorus Levels of Laying Hens in Late Laying Production Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect dietary calcium level and vitamin-D on 3 calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma and eggshell of laying hens in late production period. Two hundred forty 70 weeks white lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to ten groups equally (n=24) each treatment was replicates six times. Experimental diets were

S. Canan Bölükbasi; Saban Çelebi; Necati Utlu


Use of Exogenous Enzymes on Laying Hens Feeding During the Second Production Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes on performance and egg quality of second production cycle laying hens. One hundred and sixty laying hens, 72 week-old, were used during five periods of 28 days each. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and five replicates, using eight birds per experimental

Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; C. F. S. Oliveira; C. C. Goulart; D. F. Figueiredo; R. C. L. Neto



A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare], uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen,

R. M. De Mol; W. G. P. Schouten; E. Evers; H. Drost; H. W. J. Houwers; A. C. Smits



Relationships between fear of humans, productivity and cage position of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The productivity and behavioural responses of laying hens to humans were examined in relation to the effects of tier, row and position of the cage along the row over three consecutive 4?week periods.2. Birds from the top tier had lower hen?day production, lower egg mass output and poorer efficiency of food utilisation than birds from the bottom tier in

P. H. Hemsworth; J. L. Barnett



Effects of broccoli stems and leaves meal on production performance and egg quality of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 384 Roman brown shell laying hens were used to study the effects of increasing dietary inclusion of 0, 30, 60 and 90g\\/kg of dried broccoli stems and leaves meal (BSLM) on production performance and egg quality. Hens were randomly allocated to four groups with six replicates of 16 chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM

C. H. Hu; A. Y. Zuo; D. G. Wang; H. Y. Pan; W. B. Zheng; Z. C. Qian; X. T. Zou



Some effects of high environmental temperatures on the productivity of laying hens (A review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laying hens fed on high energy diets and kept at moderate temperatures will often consume more dietary energy than is required for the maintenance of body weight and maximum possible egg production. Although the mechanisms involved are not well understood laying hens decrease their energy intake at temperatures above 21°C and provided egg production is not adversely affected the efficiency

A. J. Smith



The Use of Dried Tomato Pulp in Diets of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment with 288 laying hens from a commercial strain (Hy-line W36), the effect of partial and total replacement of soybean meal, corn grain, wheat grain and wheat bran with dried tomato pulp (DTP) on performance and egg quality was determined. In the 12 week experiment, hens (27 to 38 weeks of age) were allocated to four dietary treatments



Battery gage shape: The laying performance of medium? and light?body weight strains of hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One thousand two hundred and ninety?six medium? and 1296 lightweight hens were housed, four to a cage, in deep (conventional) cages, 405 mm wide by 460 mm deep, or shallow cages, 610 mm wide by 305 mm deep, between 18 and 70 weeks of age. The performance of the hens during different periods of the laying stage and over

D. J. W. Lee; W. Bolton



The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler


Estrogen receptor binding in the hen hypothalamus and pituitary during the ovulatory cycle.  


The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of estrogen receptor in soluble (cytosolic) and insoluble (nuclear) fractions in a hypotonic buffer solution of hypothalamus containing preoptic (HPOA) and median eminence (HMEA) areas and of anterior pituitary (AP) of laying and nonlaying hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific [3H]estradiol-17 beta ([3H]-E2) binding. The Kd of receptor in all of the tissues was different neither between soluble and insoluble fractions, nor between laying and nonlaying hens. The Bmax in laying hens was greater in the insoluble fraction and lower in the soluble fraction than that in nonlaying hens, but the total binding capacity (sum of Bmax in the soluble and insoluble fractions) was not different between laying and nonlaying hens. In laying hens, the specific [3H]-E2 binding in the insoluble fraction of HPOA was found to increase at 21 h before ovulation and again at 8 to 6 h before ovulation, and of HMEA and AP at 18 to 11 h before ovulation. No change in the specific [3H]-E2 binding in the insoluble and soluble fractions was found in any of the tissues of nonlaying hens during a 24-h period. The results suggest that in laying hens, estrogen may act on the hypothalamus and pituitary at restricted hours during the ovulatory cycle. PMID:8502606

Kawashima, M; Kamiyoshi, M; Tanaka, K



A generalized method for HEN synthesis using stochastic optimization – I. General framework and MER optimal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of heat-exchanger networks (HENs) based on genetic algorithms (GAs). The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on the solution of relatively simple HEN synthesis problems in which maximum energy recovery (MER) is desired and which can be resolved without resorting to stream splitting. As a result, the parametric optimization problem is

Daniel R Lewin; Hao Wang; Ofir Shalev



Hen egg and fish egg phosvitins: composition and iron binding properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosvitin, a hen egg yolk phosphorylated protein, also exists in fish eggs. While their iron binding capacities were studied for the hen, few studies were undertook with fish phosvitin, except for common species like salmon and trout. Consequently, to evaluate better the potential of iron binding of fish phosvitins, it was necessary to have more detailed informations on the composition

Catherine Guérin-Dubiard; Marc Anton; Alexandre Dhene-Garcia; Virginie Martinet; Gérard Brulé



Complete genome sequence of Gallibacterium anatis strain UMN179, isolated from a laying hen with peritonitis.  


Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K; Trampel, Darrell W; Seemann, Torsten



Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten



Success rates of intrauterine inoculations of layers via the vagina.  


Intrauterine inoculation of layer hens has been documented previously in the literature; however, its efficiency has only been assessed on a very small scale. Attempts were therefore made to inoculate 14 experimental groups each consisting of 10 commercial table egg-producing hens intrauterinely with methylene blue. The effect of four variables-oviposition (natural, hormonally induced or not), position of the hen at inoculation (vertical/horizontal), technique to access the uterus (three methods) and inoculation device (four types)-on the success rate of intrauterine inoculation of layers of different breed and age was studied. Immediately after inoculation, hens were euthanized and the presence of methylene blue and perforations in the oviduct were examined. Successful inoculation rates ranged from 0/10 to 10/10. The 100% success rate was obtained in birds without an egg in the uterus, which were restrained in a horizontal position and inoculated with a hard catheter after exposure of the uterovaginal junction. The second best score was obtained in hens inoculated shortly after natural oviposition, maintained in a vertical position and using a corkscrew-shaped saliva ejector after exposure of the vaginal orifice (7/10). In all other groups the success rate was 5/10 or less. Vaginal perforation occurred in none to eight birds per group. It is concluded that intrauterine inoculation of laying hens is only reliable in birds without an egg in the uterus after exposure of the uterovaginal junction. All other methods proved unreliable and often caused vaginal perforations. However, intravaginal inoculation can be performed with 100% accuracy providing the vaginal orifice is exposed. PMID:23391182

Landman, W J M; Matthijs, M G R; van Eck, J H H



Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.  


The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added advantage compared with loose-mix and thus could be employed in situations where it is practicable. PMID:20308412

Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Męme, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P



Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens.  


This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P?layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression. PMID:24028402

Nie, Wei; Yang, Ying; Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming



Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P?layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression.



Risk factors associated with colibacillosis outbreaks in caged layer flocks.  


Colibacillosis appears to be of increasing significance in layer flocks, but there have been no studies of the risk factors associated with outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the possible associations between risk factors of non-infectious nature and outbreaks of mortality due to colibacillosis in flocks of caged layer hens. Information on management, biosecurity measures and housing conditions was collected in 20 flocks suffering from the disease and in 20 clinically healthy control flocks. The data were processed using multiple logistic regression. The statistical analysis demonstrated that an increase in the distance to the nearest poultry farm by 1 km was associated with a six-fold decreased risk of an outbreak of colibacillosis (odds ratio=0.16). Furthermore, a 1 l increase in cage volume per hen was associated with a 33% decrease in the risk of an outbreak (odds ratio=0.75). It was concluded that the distance between poultry farms and the hen density in the cages are important risk factors for outbreaks of colibacillosis in flocks of layer hens. PMID:15223564

Vandekerchove, D; De Herdt, P; Laevens, H; Pasmans, F



The effect of forskolin on the teratogenicity of methylxanthines in the chick embryo heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between forskolin and methylxanthines, including caffeine and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), in the developing chick embryo heart were investigated. Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, was administered to young chick embryos (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 24) together with caffeine or IBMX at doses where each agent alone caused minimal embryotoxicity. The incidence of malformation in the embryonic chick heart or aorta induced

Toshio Nishikawa; Shigeru Ishiyama; Takeshi Kasajima



Preferential allocation of food by magpies Pica pica to great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult magpies Pica pica provide parasitic great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius nestlings with a diet very similar to that fed to their own chicks. In both naturally and experimentally parasitized nests, great spotted cuckoo chicks were fed at a higher rate than magpie chicks in the same nest. This preferential allocation of food by magpie parents to great spotted cuckoo

Manuel Soler; Juan Gabriel Martinez; Juan Jose Soler; Anders Pape Mřller



Chick survival in relation to nest site: is the Antarctic petrel hiding from its predator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds, the characteristics of the nest site may affect reproductive success. We found that shelter is an important characteristic of the Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) nests because shelter prevents chick predation. However, the benefit of shelter was countervailed by melt water which mainly entered well-sheltered nests. Chick survival was monitored until the chick was left unattended for the first

Řystein Varpe; Torkild Tveraa




Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of tannery wastes or chrome shaving on hematological parameters of quail chicks. The chrome shaving was replaced by animal protein with 2.5 % and 5 % level and administrated to chicks in feed. The study was carried out up to 9th week of quail chicks. The blood

Samreen Riaz; Saadia Shahzad Alam; Ghazanfar Ali


Intra-Arterial Blood Pressure Recording in the Unrestrained Chick During Wakefulness and Sleep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a method of recording mean arterial blood pressure from the ischiatic artery of the unrestrained young chick. The mean arterial blood pressure of awake but quiet 6-14 day old chicks averaged 112 mm Hq. The chick blood pressure flucuat...

C. E. Spooner W. D. Winters



Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.  


Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi



Demonstration of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in diarrheic broiler chicks.  


An investigation was made to survey the possible presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in the stools of diarrheal chicks. We analyzed two outbreaks of diarrhea in broiler chicks at two independent farms in the Philippines, from which no pathogens other than Escherichia coli were found. In one outbreak at Farm #1, all 42 isolates produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), with 3 of these isolates also producing heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). The O serotypes of 15 strains tested randomly could not be identified as any known serotype (0-antigen; 1-170). In another outbreak at Farm #2, 7 out of 52 isolates produced only LT, their subtypes being identified as O-149 or O-8, common serotypes in pig ETEC. Strains from Farm #1 did not produce any pili usually found in human ETEC. We believe this to be the first isolation of ETEC from diarrheal chicks. PMID:2188851

Joya, J E; Tsuji, T; Jacalne, A V; Arita, M; Tsukamoto, T; Honda, T; Miwatani, T



Chick stem cells: current progress and future prospects.  


Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D



Nimodipine alters acquisition of a visual discrimination task in chicks.  


Chicks 5 days old received intraperitoneal injections of nimodipine 30 min before training on either a visual discrimination task (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg) or a test of separation-induced distress vocalizations (0, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg). Chicks receiving 1.0 mg/kg nimodipine made significantly fewer visual discrimination errors than vehicle controls by trials 41-60, but did not differ from controls 24 h later. Chicks in the 5 mg/kg group made significantly more errors when compared to controls both during acquisition of the task and during retention. Nimodipine did not alter separation-induced distress vocalizations at any of the doses tested, suggesting that nimodipine's effects on learning cannot be attributed to a reduction in separation distress. These data indicate that nimodipine's facilitation of learning in young subjects is dose dependent, but nimodipine failed to enhance retention. PMID:2331229

Deyo, R; Panksepp, J; Conner, R L



The effect of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic maize and different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus on the performance of laying hens.  


1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic corn (maize) (PTC) which has a phytase activity of 21 000 units (U) phytase per kg of maize on productive performance, egg quality, tibia bone quality and phosphorus (P) excretion in laying hens. 2. In the experiment, 1800 44-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 60 hens per replicate. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The layers in the control group (control) were given a basal diet with 0.36% non-phytate P (NPP), while the treatment groups received diets containing 360 U of exogenous phytase/kg with 0.26% NPP (EP) or 360 phytase U of PTC/kg diet with 0.26% (PTC1), 0.21% (PTC2) or 0.16% (PTC3) NPP. 3. The results showed that there was no significant difference in egg production, average daily feed intake, feed efficiency, rate of broken or soft-shell egg production or egg mass among the treatments. There was no significant difference in eggshell thickness or eggshell strength. On the other hand, no differences in any of the bone variables were found between treatments. The faecal P percentage content in EP, PTC1, PTC2 and PTC3 groups was significantly lower than the control group. 4. In summary, the PTC could be used in the feed of laying hens instead of EP to reduce P excretion without effecting production and bone mineralisation. PMID:23815753

Wang, S; Tang, C H; Zhang, J M; Wang, X Q



Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens.

Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.



Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.  


1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

Herzallah, Saqer



Occurrence of Salmonella enteritidis in the U.S. commercial egg industry: report on a national spent hen survey.  


In order to estimate the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella enteritidis in U.S. commercial egg-production flocks, a survey of spent laying hens was conducted over a 3-month period. Seven of the 10 largest spent-hen processing plants in the United States participated. Ceca were sampled twice weekly from birds presented for slaughter at these plants. Samples were cultured for Salmonella and S. enteritidis, and S. enteritidis isolates were phage-typed. Overall, 23,431 pooled cecal samples were collected from a total of 406 layer houses. Salmonella (any serotype) and S. enteritidis were recovered from 24% and 3% of the pooled samples, respectively. The distribution of S. enteritidis phage types was consistent with data reported by others. Regionally, the estimated prevalence of S. enteritidis-positive houses (i.e., at least one positive sample found in a house) for the Northern, Southeastern, and Central/Western regions was 45%, 3%, and 17%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive houses was 86%. PMID:1417594

Ebel, E D; David, M J; Mason, J



The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

Zheng, L.; Oh, S. T.; Jeon, J. Y.; Moon, B. H.; Kwon, H. S.; Lim, S. U.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.



Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey.  


Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii) commercial layer ration (non-molted control group). Eggs obtained from groups in pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle periods were examined for several quality performance traits such as egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, eggshell weight, haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index and yolk color. Results indicated that non-feed removal molting programme based particularly on grain barley had positive effect on egg quality traits in laying hens. Notably, yolk color and haugh unit, which are considered as the most important quality parameters from the consumer point of view, were relatively improved in barley molted group. PMID:18575968

Petek, Metin; Gezen, S Sule; Alpay, Fazli; Cibik, Recep



Use of chick embryo in screening for teratogenicity.  


A teratology screening system would detect agents hazardous to the conceptus before they can perturb embryonic development in humans. The back log of untested chemicals and the rate at which new substances enter the market exceed the developmental effects testing by standard in vivo method. Thus, cheaper, quicker in vitro systems afford a unique opportunity for investigating the direct interaction of substances with developing morphogenetic system (MGSs), since maternal influences are excluded. As a carrier of a complete set of MGSs, the chick embryo in ovo manifests an advantage over those in vitro systems that employ isolated embryos or embryonic tissues that have only limited survival. Under controlled experimental conditions including standardization of subjects, administration technique and mode of evaluation, according to the basic principles of teratology, the chick embryo test is demonstrated to be reliable and to afford quantifiable end points for evaluation. Individual compounds, mixtures of compounds and against and antagonist can easily be administered and tested. The chick embryo possesses its own basic enzyme-catalyzed drug-transformation capacity and moreover, it can be used for screening specific human metabolites. Different newer techniques e.g. chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST), Chick embryo blastoderm model etc are described in detail. Chick embryo fulfills all the criteria which a test should have at a lower level of tier system in teratological studies i.e. modest laboratory equipment, moderate skill, minimal expenditure of time and money, ease of accessibility of embryo, known embryological development, possibility of experimenting on a large scale for statistically valid results and whole animals are also not required. PMID:10225046

Kotwani, A



Isopimpinellin is not phototoxic in a chick skin assay.  


Synthetic isopimpinellin (5,8-dimethoxypsoralen), confirmed to contain as impurities only trace quantities at most of psoralen, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) and xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen), is not phototoxic when tested in a chick skin bioassay system. These findings are at variance with earlier studies showing isopimpinellin to be phototoxic against chick skin and support the conclusion that isopimpinellin is photobiologically inactive. As recently proposed by others, the several reports of isopimpinellin photoactivity are most likely attributable to contamination by small amounts of highly active psoralens such as bergapten or xanthotoxin. PMID:8881335

Ivie, G W; Beier, R C



Effects of diet composition on vanadium toxicity in laying hens.  


Vanadium added to laying rations as NH4 VO3, VOCl2 or VOSO4 at levels of 20 to 80 ppm resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in albumen quality as measured by Haugh units. Dietary vanadium also resulted in reduced egg production, egg weight, body weight, feed consumption, and poorer shell quality as measured by specific gravity. Ascorbic acid at .4 to .5% effectively protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium, but not the reduction of egg weight. Replacement of soybean meal by 20% dietary cottonseed meal also protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium. Added at levels of 4 to 8 times the molecular concentration of vanadium, EDTA had no consistent effect on vanadium toxicity. Dehydrated grass, at levels of 6 to 12%, maintained egg production but had no effects on the reduction in albumen quality caused by 40 ppm vanadium. Replacement of soybean meal with herring fish meal and part of the grain with sucrose intensified the depression of albumen quality, egg production, and loss of body weight caused by added vanadium. Neither varying dietary protein levels from 12 to 25% using soybean meal nor the addition of 20 ppm chromium had any effect on the toxicity of added vanadium. It appears that vanadium expresses its toxicity in laying hens by several routes since the protective effects of different dietary changes and additives differentially affected the loss of albumen quality, egg production, body weight, and egg weight. PMID:6791152

Ousterhout, L E; Berg, L R



Luminescence color as a characteristic for selection in poultry eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with

Natalya B. Rybalova; Ludmilia T. Vasiljeva; Tatjana Zamorskaja; Al. Bychajev



Phase transition in tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lattice dynamics of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals was studied by Brillouin light scattering and differential ac-nanocalorimetry with controlled relative humidity from 298 to 330 K. Temperature dependences of fast quasitransverse phonon velocity and integral intensity were found to exhibit anomalies in the vicinity of 306 K. An anomaly in the temperature behavior of heat capacity was also observed near this temperature. It is concluded that the anomalies point to a structural phase transition. Possible mechanisms of phase transition in lysozyme crystals are discussed.

Svanidze, A. V.; Huth, H.; Lushnikov, S. G.; Kojima, Seiji; Schick, C.



The isolation and composition of two phosphoproteins from hen's egg  

PubMed Central

1. Phosvitin extracted from domestic hen's-egg yolk was resolved on Sephadex G-100 into two phosphoprotein components. 2. The major component has a molecular weight of about 3.4×104 and alanine as an N-terminal residue. Glucosamine is present, but tyrosine is virtually absent. 3. The minor component has a molecular weight of about 2.8×104 and lysine as an N-terminal residue. Missing residues are glucosamine, methionine and leucine. Lysine, histidine, threonine, glycine, phenylalanine and tyrosine contents differ significantly from those of the major component. 4. Sephadex G-100 also removes small amounts of an impurity with a much higher molecular weight.

Clark, R. C.



General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches  

PubMed Central

Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study.

Chen, D. H.; Bao, J.



Is sequential feeding of whole wheat more efficient than ground wheat in laying hens?  


The impact of sequential feeding of whole or ground wheat on the performance of layer hen was investigated using ISABROWN hens from 19 to 42 weeks of age. In addition, the effect of reduced dietary energy content of a complete diet was also investigated. Four treatments were tested. Whole wheat was alternated with a protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) in a treatment (sequential whole wheat: SWW), while another treatment alternated ground wheat (sequential ground wheat: SGW) with the same balancer diet. The control (C) was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Another treatment (low energy: LE) was fed a complete diet conventionally. The diet contained lower energy (10.7 v. 11.6 MJ/kg) compared to the C. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained five birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per day) and distributed twice (2 × 60.5 g) at 4 and 11 h after lights on. In the sequential treatment, only wheat (whole or ground) was fed during the first distribution and the balancer diet during the second distribution. Left over feed was always removed before the next distribution. The total feed intake was not different between SWW and SGW, but the two were lower than C (P < 0.05). Wheat intake was however, lowered with SGW compared to SWW (P < 0.05). Egg production and egg mass (EM) were not different between treatments. Egg weight was lower with SGW than with SWW (P < 0.05), but the two were similar to C. Body weight (BW) was lowered (P < 0.01) with SGW relative to SWW and C, SWW BW being also lower than the C one. The efficiency of egg production was increased (P < 0.01) with the SWW and SGW relative to the control. Birds fed LE had higher feed intake (P < 0.05) but they had similar egg production and EM compared to the two sequential treatments. The efficiency of feed utilization was also reduced (P < 0.01) with LE compared to SWW and SGW. It was concluded that sequential feeding is more efficient than conventional feeding. In addition, whole wheat appeared more efficient than ground wheat in terms of egg and BW. PMID:22440768

Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Mallet, S; Ali, M N; Tukur, H M; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P



Metabolism of lipid labeled very low density lipoprotein from laying turkey hens in laying turkey hens and immature turkeys  

SciTech Connect

Labeled very low density lipoprotein of laying turkey hens (VLDL-L) was prepared by injecting 1-/sup 14/C-palmitate abd subsequently isolating the VLDL-L by ultracentrifugation at d.1.006. The isolated VLDL-L then was injected into recipient laying hens, immature males, or immature females. Size exclusion chromatography of recipient laying hen plasma showed no remnant particles of smaller size or greater density than the injected VLDL-L up to 400 min postinjection. In the immature birds of either sex, remnant particles of greater density and smaller size than the injected VLDL-L were present when blood samples were withdrawn at 5 (males) or 1 (females) min postinjection. In laying females, both VLDL-L-triglyceride (VLDL-L-TG) and phospholipids (VLDL-L-PL) had identical fractional clearance rates of .00253 min-1 and had parallel rates of disappearance. The irreversible loss of VLDL-L-TG was 12.8 g/day while it was 4.8 g/day for VLDL-L-PL. Thirty-one percent of the injected radioactivity was isolated in ovarian follicles undergoing rapid development. VLDL-L-TG decayed with a single exponential decay component in both immature males and females, but decayed more rapidly in the males; it also decayed more rapidly in the immature birds of both sexes than in laying females. There was also an increase in triglyceride (TG) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. The VLDL-L-PL decayed in a more complex pattern in the immature birds, showing more than a single exponential decay component. There was also an increase in phospholipid (PL) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. THe VLDL-TG and PL radioactivities did not decay in a parallel pattern in immature birds where remnant particles of d greater than 1.006 were present soon after lipid labeled VLDL-L injection.

Bacon, W.L.



Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.  


We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (?OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ?OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ?OCs. Plasma ?OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ?OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ?OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ?OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer. PMID:23672486

Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borgĺ, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove



Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.  


Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin. PMID:17127475

Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto



Predicting chick survival and productivity of Roseate Terns from data on early growth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks is a strong predictor of chick survival and hence of productivity. We developed discriminant functions to predict chick survival from body-masses measured during the first 3 days of life. Productivity is estimated by assuming that almost all A-chicks (first-hatched in each brood) survive to fledging, and using the discriminant functions to predict survival of B-chicks (second-hatched in each brood). A relation between survival rates and classification rates is derived, allowing discriminant function results to be used in predicting survival rates. In the absence of predation, the resulting estimates of chick survival and productivity are almost as good as those obtained by more intensive methods, but require much less effort and much less disturbance. This approach might be useful for other seabird species in which chick survival is determined primarily by parental performance.

Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hatfield, J.S.; Link, W.A.; Spendelow, J.A.



California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.



Effect of dietary supplemental levels of vitamin A on the egg production and immune responses of heat-stressed laying hens.  


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation of a commercial layer diet on the laying performance and immune function of heat-stressed hens. In Experiment 1, two different levels of vitamin A supplementation (3,000 and 9,000 IU/kg) were used to investigate the laying performance and antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of heat-stressed hens. Results showed that the high level of vitamin A supplementation (9,000 IU/kg) had a beneficial effect on the feed intake and laying rate of heat-stressed hens (P < 0.05), compared with the control group (3,000 IU/kg). The antibody titers were not influenced by the level of vitamin A (P > 0.05). In Experiment 2, the effect of four levels of vitamin A (3,000, 6,000, 9,000, and 12,000 IU/kg) on the antibody titer to NDV and T lymphocyte proportion was studied. The experimental birds were exposed to a high temperature (31.5 C) 15 d after NDV vaccination (Treatment 1) or immediately (Treatment 2). The results showed that the egg weight was increased (P < 0.01) by the high levels of vitamin A supplementation (6,000 and 9,000 IU/kg), but feed intake, laying rate, and body weight loss were not (P > 0.05). In Treatment 1, vitamin A had no significant effect on antibody titers against NDV in normal or hot environments but increased (P < 0.01) the proportion of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE)-positive cells. Vitamin A supplementation had a significant effect on NDV antibody titer and ANAE-positive cell proportion in Treatment 2 (P < 0.01). The results of the present study suggested that vitamin A supplementation in commercial layer diets to layer chickens under heat stress was beneficial to laying performance and immune function. PMID:11989744

Lin, H; Wang, L F; Song, J L; Xie, Y M; Yang, Q M



Amniotic Contraction and Embryonic Motility in the Chick Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

During part of the incubation period of chick embryos the amnion shows spontaneous contractions. Removal of the amnion on days 9, 10, and 11 has no effect on the amount of, or the cyclic aspects of, motility exhibited by the embryo. These observations question the importance of the amnion and yolk-sac as stimulative factors in the initiation and maintenance of

Ronald W. Oppenheim



Absorption and turnover rates of manganese in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted with young chicks to assess the absorption and turnover rates of manganese (Mn), using tissue Mn accumulation as the response criterion. To estimate Mn absorption efficiency, chicks were injected intraperitoneally (IP) or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn (provided as MnSo/sub 4/ H/sub 2/O). All chicks were fed a Mn-deficient (1.4 mg/kg) casein-dextrose diet during this 14-day period. Tibia Mn concentration was regressed on Mn intake (r/sup 2/ = 0.99) and the two routes (IP injection and crop intubation) of Mn administration were compared using the slope-ratio technique. The absorption efficiency of crop-intubated Mn was 2.40%. To estimate turnover rates of Mn in avian tissues, chicks were serially killed following a period of Mn loading (fed 2000 mg/kg Mn for 14 days). The log of tissue Mn concentration was regressed on depletion time, and biological half-life was determined. The half-life of Mn in tibia, pancreas, and bile was 6.0, 7.3, and 1.1 days, respectively. These data suggest that the avian's relatively high dietary requirement for Mn cannot be explained by inefficient gut absorption, but instead by a more rapid turnover of body Mn relative to that which occurs in mammalian species.

Halpin, K.M.; Baker, D.H.



Space use by foraging Galápagos penguins during chick rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between May 2004 and May 2005, we studied the horizontal and vertical movements of foraging Galápagos penguins Spheniscus mendiculus during their breeding season to examine space use at sea and to compare the volume of water exploited by this penguin to those of other penguin species. A total of 23 adult penguins (11 males and 12 females) brooding chicks were

Antje Steinfurth; F. Hernan Vargas; Rory P. Wilson; Michael Spindler; David W. Macdonald



Coexpression of intermediate filament proteins in the chick embryo heart.  


We studied the distribution of intermediate filament proteins during several stages of chick embryo heart development by indirect immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell surface analysis. Vimentin is the predominant intermediate filament during the early stages of cardiac genesis, while desmin appears essentially with maturation. Desmin is the main subunit protein of intermediate filaments in the mature myocyte. PMID:2077803

Vélez, C; Muros, M A; Aránega, A E; Fernández, J E; González, F J; Alvarez, L; Aránega, A



Postnatal development of northern fulmar chicks, Fulmarus glacialis.  


The slow growth and large fat stores characteristic of many pelagic seabird chicks were generally assumed to reflect infrequent and unpredictable food provisioning by parents. Much less attention has been focused on the importance of intrinsic physiological processes in shaping patterns of development. In this study, we examined postnatal growth and changes in water content of different organs in fulmar chicks, Fulmarus glacialis, from Fair Isle, United Kingdom. After correcting for body size, mass growth rate was as high as in inshore-feeding species, which did not support the notion of an external constraint on growth imposed by the unpredictability of pelagic prey. Pectoral muscles and plumage grew more rapidly than other tissues. Pectorals also had a high water index, probably indicating slower maturation compared with leg muscles, which need to generate heat earlier on to free adults from brooding requirements. Lean dry mass of liver, kidney, and gut decreased markedly toward fledging, presumably because of high energetic costs of maintaining large metabolic machinery in older chicks and analogous to the situation in adult waders before migration. These results suggest that the general pattern of development of fulmars may be linked to changes in resource allocation as chicks grow and possibly a compromise at the tissue level between cell division and the attainment of mature function. PMID:11073795

Phillips, R A; Hamer, K C



Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In

P. G. Massé; C. M. Rimnac; M. Yamauchi; S. P. Coburn; R. B. Rucker; D. S. Howell; A. L. Boskey



Research report Melatonin modulates intercellular communication among cultured chick astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin, a pineal neurohormone, mediates circadian and seasonal processes in birds and mammals. Diencephalic astrocytes are sites of action, at least in birds, since they express melatonin receptors and melatonin affects their metabolism. We tested whether astrocytic calcium waves are also modulated by melatonin. Calcium waves, which we found to be regulated in cultured chick glial cells by an IP3-dependent

Jennifer L. Peters; Vincent M. Cassone; Mark J. Zoran


Strong Electrical Currents Leave the Primitive Streak of Chick Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical fields above chick embryos were explored with a vibrating probe. These fields indicate that steady currents with exit densities of the order of 100 microamperes per square centimeter leave the whole streak and return elsewhere through the epiblast. The epicenter of these strong exit currents lies near Hensen's node. They are probably pumped into the intraembryonic space by

Lionel F. Jaffe; Claudio D. Stern



Memory Stages and Brain Asymmetry in Chick Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stages of formation of memory and the roles of different forebrain structures in memory formation were investigated by injecting various agents into the brains of chicks close to the time of peck-avoidance training. With L-glutamate injected bilaterally into the hyperstriatum 5 min pretraining, retention was good 1 min posttraining but significantly impaired at 5 min and each subsequent time point

Teresa A. Patterson; Maria C. Alvarado; Irene T. Warner; Edward L. Bennett; Mark R. Rosenzweig



Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.  


The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples. PMID:23715363

Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M



Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.



Introduction of DNA into Chick Embryos by in Ovo Electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer by in ovo electroporation has been applied to the study of developmental biology, especially to central nervous system (CNS) development. Plasmids are injected into the neural tube of stage 10 chick embryos, and a 25-V 25-msec square pulse is applied five times. Since DNA moves toward the anode, the cathode side of the neural tube is transfected, and

Harukazu Nakamura; Jun-ichi Funahashi



Changes in Membrane Properties of Chick Embryonic Hearts during Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophysiological properties of embryonic chick hearts (ventricles) change during development; the largest changes occur between days 2 and 8. Resting potential (E,) and peak overshoot potential (+Emx) increase, respectively, from -35 mv and +11 my at day 2 to -70 mv and +28 mv at days 12-21. Action potential duration does not change signifi- cantly. Maximum rate of rise




Changes in Connexin Expression and Distribution During Chick Lens Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gap junctions are composed of the connexins, a family of proteins which have been shown to be the structural and functional building blocks of gap junctional intercellular channels. In the chick lens, three members of the connexin (Cx) family have been characterized: Cx 43 has been shown to be a component of interepithelial cell gap junctions, and Cx 45.6 and

Jean X. Jiang; Thomas W. White; Daniel A. Goodenough



Chick embryonic development following exposure to ethanol and pyrazole.  


The mechanism of alcohol-induced dysmorphogenesis is not clear. Pyrazole is a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. Treatment of chick embryos at 96 h incubation with pyrazole (0.1 mg) and ethanol (0.1 ml, 40-60% v/v) enhanced the embryopathic response, compared with individual treatments. The results suggest that ethanol itself is embryotoxic. PMID:3789414

Gilani, S H; Sachdev, R; Persaud, T V



The Erythroid Cells and Haemoglobins of the Chick Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the types of erythroid cells produced during embryogenesis of the chick have been correlated with the changes in the types of haemoglobins found in the embryo. Primitive erythroid cells constitute the only red blood cells of 2- to 5-day embryos. The first recognizable immature definitive erythroid cells appear in the embryonic circulation at 5 to 6 days

Gail A. P. Bruns; V. M. Ingram



Virulence of Escherichia Coli Strains for Chick Embryos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty-three strains of Escherichia coli, freshly isolated from patients at Children's Hospital, Washington, D. C., were tested for virulence for 13-day chick embryos by allantoic inoculation of serial dilutions of viable cell suspensions. No clear-cut rel...

C. J. Powell R. A. Finkelstein



Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

Downie, J. R.



The influence of different single dietary sources on moult induction in laying hens.  


An investigation was carried out to assess the possibility of using single dietary sources as alternatives to feed deprivation for the induction of moult in commercial laying hens. The study involved six dietary groups of 29 laying hens: unmoulted, dried tomato pomace, alfalfa meal, rice bran, cumin seed meal and feed withdrawal. The birds received the above diets during the moulting period (11 days), and body weight loss and ovary weight regression were measured. Post-moult production parameters (number of eggs produced per hen per day, egg weight, shell weight, yolk colour and Haugh unit) were measured for 12 weeks. Results showed that all dietary sources were as effective as feed withdrawal in causing ovary weight regression in birds. Birds provided with tomato pomace or alfalfa showed lower weight losses than feed-deprived birds at the end of the moulting period. Hens moulted by tomato pomace or alfalfa exhibited post-moult levels of egg production over a 12 week period that were superior to those of hens moulted by feed withdrawal. Post-moult eggs laid by hens moulted by all dietary sources were of comparable quality to eggs from feed-deprived hens and superior to those from unmoulted hens. As fibrous feeds with low metabolisable energy and an appreciable amount of protein, dried tomato pomace and alfalfa meal may be fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for effective moult induction while reducing the stress of severe starvation and retaining comparable egg quality and production. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:20836161

Mansoori, Behzad; Modirsanei, Mehrdad; Farkhoy, Mohsen; Kiaei, Mohammad-Mehdi; Honarzad, Jila



Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis  

PubMed Central

The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records.

Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel



Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.  


Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed. PMID:7724456

Despins, J L; Axtell, R C



The effect of influenza C virus on the Purkinje cells of chick embryo cerebellum.  


Intra-amniotic inoculation of influenza C virus resulted in observable and quantitatively measurable changes in the Purkinje cells of chick embryo cerebellum. Purkinje cells were visualized by the Golgi-Cox procedure and prepared for statistical and computer evaluation from camera lucida drawings. Four computer-generated measurements (the area of the dendritic arbor, the perimeter of the dendritic tree, and the height and width of the cell's arborization) and two manually counted measurements (total number of branches and the number of first order branches) were made. Analysis of Purkinje cells from influenza C virus-infected embryos showed disturbances in dendritic arborization patterns and misalignment in the arrangement of the cells in the Purkinje cell layer compared to control cells. Statistical evaluation of Purkinje cell arborization showed significant decreases in all measured parameters for the influenza C virus-infected members when compared with the members of the uninfected control group. PMID:7817788

Parker, M S; O'Callaghan, R J; Smith, D E; Spence, H A



Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.  

PubMed Central

The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15

Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L



Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.  


The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. PMID:500497

Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L



Effect of Cryoprotectants on Chemical, Mechanical and Sensorial Characteristics of Spent Laying Hen Surimi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surimi samples were divided into four groups (C, surimi made from Alaska pollack by water washing with NaCl-free cryoprotectant;\\u000a T1, made from spent laying hen breast by water washing with NaCl-free cryoprotectant; T2, made from spent laying hen breast\\u000a by water washing with NaCl and sugar-free cryoprotectant; T3, made from spent laying hen breast by water washing with NaCl-contained

Sang Keun Jin; Il Suk Kim; Hyun Jung Jung; Dong Hun Kim; Yeung Joon Choi; Sun Jin Hur


Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of electric and low-frequency microwave fields on hen egg white lysozyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of various mutants of hen egg white lysozyme have been performed at 300 K and 1 bar in the presence of both external static electric and low-frequency microwave (2.45 GHz) fields of varying intensity. Significant nonthermal field effects were noted, such as marked changes in the protein's secondary structure relative to the zero-field state, depending on the field conditions, mutation, and orientation with respect to the applied field. This occurred primarily as a consequence of alignment of the protein's total dipole moment with the external field, although the dipolar alignment of water molecules in both the solvation layer and the bulk was also found to be influential. Substantial differences in behavior were found for proteins with and without overall net charges, particularly with respect to translational motion. Localized motion and perturbation of hydrogen bonds were also found to be evident for charged residues.

English, Niall J.; Solomentsev, Gleb Y.; O'Brien, Paul



Expression and regulation of Kit ligand in the ovary of the hen.  


The Kit system, composed of Kit ligand (KL) and its tyrosine kinase receptor, cKit, has been well characterized in mammals. Studies have shown that it is involved in signaling between the oocyte and somatic cells during the process of follicle maturation. We characterized KL mRNA expression during follicle maturation in the domestic hen, examined regulation of KL and a possible function of the Kit system. KL mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative PCR (n=4 replicates) in follicles of various sizes (1, 3, 5, 6-12 mm, F1). Expression of KL mRNA decreased significantly (p<0.01) with follicle development and was highest in <1 mm follicles, which contained the theca as well as granulosa layers, with high levels also found in the granulosa layer of 3 mm follicles and ovarian stroma. To study regulation of KL mRNA, granulosa cells from 6-8 mm follicles (n=4 replicates) were plated in M199 plus 0.1% BSA in the presence of various treatments including: oocyte conditioned medium (OCM), Vitamin D(3), FSH, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone. OCM caused a dose-related increase (p<0.05) in expression of KL mRNA; Vitamin D(3) increased and FSH decreased expression of KL mRNA. cKit was detected (at the expected size) in the theca layer of 3-5 mm follicles and in a lysate of whole <1mm follicles. Culture of granulosa cells in the presence of OCM resulted in a decrease of P4 secretion, an effect blocked by pre-incubation of OCM with cKit antibody. Although OCM caused a dose-related increase in E2 secretion from theca, this was not blocked by cKit antibody. PMID:22885556

Kundu, Mila C; Wojtusik, Jessye; Johnson, Patricia A



Effects of commercial enzyme preparations on egg and eggshell quality in laying hens.  


1. Four different commercial enzyme products were added to standard commercial layer diets, based on barley, wheat or triticale. 2. Diets were fed to 4 different strains of commercial laying hen: ISA Brown, Hy-Line CB, Tegel SB2 and Tegel HiSex. 3. Diets were given for 5 weeks prior to measurements of egg and eggshell quality. 4. The inclusion of commercial enzyme products in the diets had no effect on egg weight. 5. Positive effects of the enzymes were: improved eggshell breaking strength, shell weight, percentage shell and shell thickness for the barley-based diet and increased eggshell breaking strength for two of the enzymes with the wheat-based diets. 6. Negative effects of the enzyme products were slightly lighter coloured eggshells and reduced albumen quality for the barley-based diet and for two enzymes with the wheat-based diet. 7. The addition of commercial enzyme preparations had no main effect on egg and eggshell quality for the triticale-based diet, except for effects on yolk colour. 8. Yolk colour was lower than control for enzyme 3 in all diets and for enzyme 4 with the barley- and wheat-based diets. 9. Further investigation is required to elucidate the specific enzyme components that influence egg quality. PMID:16905477

Roberts, J R; Choct, M



Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens  

PubMed Central

The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells.

Tran, Thi Q.L.; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine



The feeding of leaf meal of Calliandra calothyrsus to laying hens.  


A 67-day feeding experiment was conducted to study the effects of inclusion of 5%, 7.5% or 10% leaf meal of Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra) in the diets of laying hens on feed intake, egg production, egg weights, yolk colour and the birds' weights. While no significant effects were seen on either egg numbers or egg size, feed intake increased and the efficiency of feed utilization decreased with increasing inclusion of the foliage. Absolute initial and final body weights did not show significant treatment differences but live weight changes over the course of the experiments were statistically significant, weight gains decreasing with increasing calliandra levels. The strength of colour of the yolks increased within 3 days of offering the calliandra, irrespective of the level of inclusion. The persistence of the colour change after withdrawal of the leaf meal ranged from 3 days at the 5% inclusion to over 10 days at the 10% level. While it may be possible to include calliandra leaf meal in poultry rations along with other, local, low-cost components, there would appear to be little advantage in using it in conjunction with commercial layers meal at levels higher than those necessary to provide the desired pigmentation level in the yolks (5% or less). PMID:10717943

Paterson, R T; Roothaert, R L; Kiruiro, E



Search for the genes involved in oocyte maturation and early embryo development in the hen  

PubMed Central

Background The initial stages of development depend on mRNA and proteins accumulated in the oocyte, and during these stages, certain genes are essential for fertilization, first cleavage and embryonic genome activation. The aim of this study was first to search for avian oocyte-specific genes using an in silico and a microarray approaches, then to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the expression of some of these genes during follicular maturation and early embryogenesis. Results The in silico approach allowed us to identify 18 chicken homologs of mouse potential oocyte genes found by digital differential display. Using the chicken Affymetrix microarray, we identified 461 genes overexpressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and 250 genes overexpressed in the germinal disc (GD) of the hen oocyte. Six genes were identified using both in silico and microarray approaches. Based on GO annotations, GC and GD genes were differentially involved in biological processes, reflecting different physiological destinations of these two cell layers. Finally we studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the expression of 21 chicken genes. According to their expression patterns all these genes are involved in different stages of final follicular maturation and/or early embryogenesis in the chicken. Among them, 8 genes (btg4, chkmos, wee, zpA, dazL, cvh, zar1 and ktfn) were preferentially expressed in the maturing occyte and cvh, zar1 and ktfn were also highly expressed in the early embryo. Conclusion We showed that in silico and Affymetrix microarray approaches were relevant and complementary in order to find new avian genes potentially involved in oocyte maturation and/or early embryo development, and allowed the discovery of new potential chicken mature oocyte and chicken granulosa cell markers for future studies. Moreover, detailed study of the expression of some of these genes revealed promising candidates for maternal effect genes in the chicken. Finally, the finding concerning the different state of rRNA compared to that of mRNA during the postovulatory period shed light on some mechanisms through which oocyte to embryo transition occurs in the hen.

Elis, Sebastien; Batellier, Florence; Couty, Isabelle; Balzergue, Sandrine; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Monget, Philippe; Blesbois, Elisabeth; Govoroun, Marina S



Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W., Jr.



Vitamin K deficiency does not functionally impair skeletal metabolism of laying hens and their progeny.  


The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of vitamin K deficiency on indices of skeletal metabolism in laying hens, developing embryos and young growing chickens. Laying hens were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet for 28 wk, which resulted in impaired blood clotting and reduced bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) concentration compared with vitamin K-sufficient hens. However, this treatment did not influence egg production, eggshell deposition or other reproductive performance criteria. Vitamin K-deficient embryos were able to mobilize sufficient quantities of calcium for normal skeletal development, although they exhibited severe reduction in blood clotting and bone Gla concentration. Similar results were obtained from progeny of both vitamin K-sufficient and -deficient hens fed deficient diets for 4 wk after hatching. These results indicate that a severe reduction in skeletal protein Gla concentration does not interfere with normal development of this tissue. PMID:8120656

Lavelle, P A; LLoyd, Q P; Gay, C V; Leach, R M



Demonstrating Cell Traction--Using Hens' Egg Vitelline Membrane as Substratum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways in which hens' egg vitelline membranes can be used to demonstrate cell traction effects. Reviews procedures for using and culturing the membranes and identifies topic areas for student projects. (ML)

Downie, Roger



Relationship of Neuropathy Target Esterase Inhibition to Neuropathology and Ataxia in Hens Given Organophosphorus Esters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adult White Leghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus compounds: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), phenyl saligenin phosphate, and diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP). Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) activ...

M. Ehrich B. S. Jortner S. Padilla



Kinetic Study on the Inhibition of Hen Brain Neurotoxic Esterase by Mipafox.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A direct method of assaying neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity, using 4-nitrophenyl valerate, has been described. The technique was used to determine the biomolecular rate (ki), phosphorylation (k2), and affinity (kd) constants for the reaction of hen bra...

S. A. Soliman A. Curley



A comparative study of delayed neurotoxicity in hens following repeated administration of organophosphorus compounds.  


Hens treated with Mipafox (10 mg/kg, sc), sarin (50 micrograms/kg, sc) or parathion (1 mg/kg, sc) daily for 10 days exhibited severe, moderate and no ataxia respectively on 14th day after the start of exposure. The neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was significantly inhibited in the brain, spinal cord and platelets of hens treated with mipafox or sarin whereas no change was noticed with parathion treatment. All three compounds significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the platelets. Spinal cord of hens treated with mipafox, sarin or parathion showed axonal degeneration heavy, moderate and none respectively. It is concluded that repeated administration of equitoxic doses of mipafox, sarin and parathion to hens are marked, moderate and non-delayed neurotoxic respectively. PMID:7705869

Husain, K; Pant, S C; Raza, S K; Singh, R; Das Gupta, S



Active substance from the serum of laying hens and its effect on uterine smooth muscles.  


Blood serum from laying hens has an excitatory effect on isolated uterine smooth muscles of laying hens. This excitatory effect is not observed for the blood serum of pullets and cocks. After ultrafiltration and gel filtration on Sephadex G25, it was found that the excitatory effect of the blood serum was due to a low-molecular substance (m.w. below 5000 Da). The effect of this active substance was found to be inhibited by indomethacin, brufen and SC 19220. The presence of this substance in the serum of laying hens and its contractile effects, which are probably associated with prostaglandin mechanisms of regulation in the uterine smooth muscles, suggests that it is associated in the processes of oviposition in hens. PMID:2576819

Nikolov, A



Effects of feather cover and insulative jackets on metabolic rate of laying hens.  


Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of feather cover and newly-devised insulative jackets on the heat production in Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens at 20 C. An open-circuit calorimeter was used to measure the gaseous exchange of the birds. With ad libitum feeding, birds with clipped back and breast feathers produced 6% more heat than did normally feathered hens. This difference was removed by placing jackets on the defeathered birds. The jackets also decreased the surface temperature of the feather-clipped areas, indicating an effective insulation. When the jackets were applied to naturally poor-feathered hens, fasting heat production decreased significantly, but not to the base level of that of normally feathered hens. PMID:6622359

Lee, B D; Morrison, W D; Leeson, S; Bayley, H S




EPA Science Inventory

Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...


Analysis of the Skeletal Configuration of Crystalline Hen Egg-White Lysozyme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observed residue conformations in crystalline hen egg-white lysozyme are compared with predictions based upon estimates of backbone conformational energy. Each residue is plotted on an energy contour diagram appropriate for the given residue and according...

D. A. Brant P. R. Schimmel



Residual activity of selected pesticides on laying hens treated for northern fowl mite control by dipping.  


Aqueous suspensions of malathion, stirofos, Ravap, and carbaryl formulations (.25 to 1.0%) were tested as dips for control of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on caged White Leghorn hens. Hens treated with Ravap showed symptoms of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning soon after treatment and some died as a result of the dip; however, dipping with the other insecticides did not result in any apparent toxic effects. Malathion gave residual control of mites for about 4 weeks posttreatment, but both stirofos and carbaryl dips gave complete control for at least 6 weeks against repeated challenges with the NFM. There were no significant differences in the percent hen-day egg production, feed consumption, or body weight of the hens that could be attributed to any of the chemical treatments. PMID:6813836

DeVaney, J A; Beerwinkle, K R; Ivie, G W



Studies on the role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in chick embryonic development.  


Vitamin D-deficient laying hens were repleted with 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3. Egg production returned to normal for both groups of hens by the third week. Eggs from hens fed either 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 contained 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3. Eggs from hens fed 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 contained substantial amounts of 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3, while those from hens fed 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 contained none. Plasma from 18-day embryos from hens fed 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 contained little or no 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3, while that from 18-day embryos from hens given 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 had normal levels of 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3. No eggs from hens fed 1,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 hatched, while eggs from hens fed 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H]vitamin D3 achieved a hatchability of 90%. It appears that embryos from hens maintained on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as their sole source of vitamin D are essentially vitamin D deficient. PMID:3777941

Hart, L E; Schnoes, H K; DeLuca, H F



Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.  


Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium, and high illuminance groups did not differ from the concentrations measured at 8 AM. On day 90, low DOPAC concentrations were associated with emmetropia (+0.63 ± 3.61), steep cornea, and shallow vitreous chamber. We concluded that ambient light over a log illuminance range of 1.69-4 is linearly related to vitreal DOPAC concentration. Under both light-dark cycles and continuous light, the intensity of ambient light regulates the release of retinal dopamine. Refractive development is associated with illuminance dependent dopamine release. PMID:22960317

Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S



Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall  

PubMed Central

Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC), old hens with long clutch (OLC), old hens with short clutch (OSC), and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC). Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation. Experiment 2: YLC and OILC hens were sacrificed 3.5 h after treatments with LH and/or aminoglutethimide (AG), an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. Volumes of pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F5) and plasma concentrations of ovarian steroids were determined. Experiment 3: Granulosa and theca cells from F3 follicles of OSC and/or YLC hens were exposed in vitro to estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T) and LH and the proliferative activity of the cells was examined using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. Results In YLC and OLC groups, the total volume of F1-F5 follicles rose between 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation (P < 0.01), negatively correlating with the plasma level of E2 (P < 0.01). There was no growth of pre-ovulatory follicles in the middle of the ovulatory cycle in the OSC group, with a positive correlation being present between E2 and the follicular volume (P < 0.05). In young hens, AG caused a rise in the total follicular volume. This rise was associated with a fall in E2 (r = -0.54, P < 0.05). E2 enhanced proliferation of granulosa cells from YLC and OSC groups. The proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells of YLC hens depended on the interaction between T and LH (P < 0.01). Conclusions These data indicate for the first time that the growth pattern of pre-ovulatory follicles during the ovulatory cycle changes in the course of reproductive aging. E2 seems to play a dual role in this adjustment; it stimulates the growth of the follicular wall in reproductive aged hens, whereas it may inhibit this process in young birds. T and LH are apparently involved in the growth regulation during the pre-ovulatory surge in young hens.



The influence of sequential feeding on behaviour, feed intake and feather condition in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding of whole-wheat grains and a protein–mineral concentrate in sequence had been shown to modify behaviour in broilers and performance in laying hens. The objective of this study was to test whether sequential feeding with wheat would induce changes in laying hen's behaviour, feed intake, feather condition, and egg production. These parameters were measured on 320 non-beak-trimmed ISA Brown laying

Dušanka Jordan; Murtala Umar Faruk; Philippe Lescoat; Mohamed Nabil Ali; Ivan Štuhec; Werner Bessei; Christine Leterrier



Studies on effects of nutritional factors on bone structure and osteoporosis in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A modern hybrid strain of laying hen (Hisex) was fed from point of lay to 68 weeks on a control diet and diets containing oystershell, fluoride, 1,25?dihydroxycholecalciferol, ascorbic acid, a lower concentration of phosphorus and a combination of a lower concentration of crude protein and higher concentration of vitamin K. Hens from a much older strain (Brown Leghorn J?line)

J. S. Rennie; R. H. Fleming; H. A. McCormack; C. C. McCorquodale; C. C. Whitehead



Effect of cimetidine on eggshell quality and plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in laying hens.  


Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cimetidine (CIMET), ranging from 0 to 750 mg/kg, on vitamin D3 metabolism and eggshell calcification in laying hens fed two levels of vitamin D3 (500 and 2,000 ICU/kg). Final BW and feed intake were not significantly affected by either CIMET or vitamin D3 level. Feeding 500 and 750 mg of CIMET significantly decreased total egg production in hens fed either level of vitamin D3, but no differences were observed at lower CIMET levels. Tibia ash decreased significantly in hens fed 150 to 750 mg of CIMET, regardless of the vitamin D3 level. Plasma Ca and inorganic P concentrations were decreased in hens fed high CIMET levels (500 and 750 mg/kg) at Week 2, but no differences were observed at Week 4. Feeding CIMET (500 and 750 mg/kg) significantly decreased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) levels at Week 2 in hens fed both vitamin D3 diets but not at Week 4. Eggshell breaking force, shell thickness, and percentage shell weight were decreased significantly by CIMET in all experiments; however, in one experiment, shell quality recovered by Week 8. These results suggest that the CIMET-induced reduction in bone mineralization, eggshell quality, and plasma 25-OHD3 levels could be due to interference of CIMET with vitamin D3 metabolism in vitamin D3-replete laying hens. Shell quality decreased in CIMET-treated hens fed the higher vitamin D diet even though 250-HD3 plasma levels were three times higher than in hens fed the lower vitamin D diet, suggesting that CIMET affected shell quality through some mechanism other than inhibition of 250-HD3 synthesis. PMID:1965038

Wyatt, C L; Jensen, L S; Rowland, G N



Effects of breeder hen age and dietary L-carnitine on progeny embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ross 308 broiler breeder hens were given diets containing 0 or 25?mg L-carnitine\\/kg (8 replications per treatment) from 21 weeks of age.2. Hens were inseminated with semen from Ross broiler breeder males. In a common facility, subsequent progeny hatchability and embryonic mortality at 25, 30, 32, and 38 weeks of breeder age were evaluated.3. Subsequent egg component weights, incubational

E. D. Peebles; M. T. Kidd; C. D. McDaniel; J. P. Tanksley; H. M. Parker; A. Corzo; J. C. Woodworth



The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.  


Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery. PMID:21753218

Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J



The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.  


The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage. PMID:18029816

Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J



The Little Red Hen: A Story of Productive Resources and Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Little Red Hen" is a classic story. Many children have not had the opportunity to see where a commercial loaf of bread comes from, or to feel the bounce of rising dough in a kitchen. "The Little Red Hen" not only helps to introduce the process, but gives the students an opportunity to reflect how they might feel if they did the work on a…

Kehler, Abbejean



A low-salt diet facilitates Cl secretion in hen lower intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The regulation of sodium and chloride transport in hen coprodeum by mineralocorticoids was investigated with isolated epithelia under short-circuit conditions. Unidirectional fluxes of Na and Cl were measured by isotopes and modulated by amiloride, theophylline and bumetanide. Hens were maintained either on low-NaCl diet (LS) or on high-NaCl diet (HS). Plasma aldosterone (PA) levels of these groups were measured

Wolfgang Clauss; Vibeke Dantzer; Erik Skadhaugew



The effect of feeding hemp seed meal to laying hens.  


Seed of the hemp cultivar Unika-b was cold-pressed to obtain hemp seed meal (HSM) containing 307 g/kg crude protein and 164 g/kg ether extract (60 g/kg linoleic acid, 120 g/kg alpha-linolenic acid, 160 g/kg oleic acid, lesser amounts of palmitic, stearic, and gamma-linolenic acids). For 4 weeks, 102 43-week-old DeKalb Sigma hens were fed on isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 0, 50, 100 or 200 g/kg HSM. Eggs were collected for fatty acid analysis during the fourth week of feeding these diets. No significant differences were found between feed treatments for egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, body weight change or egg quality. Increasing dietary inclusion of HSM produced eggs with lower concentrations of palmitic acid and higher concentrations of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. PMID:15957445

Silversides, F G; Lefrançois, M R



Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

Hill, E. F.; Shaffner, C. S.



Does the subepicardial mesenchyme contribute myocardioblasts to the myocardium of the chick embryo heart? A quail-chick chimera study tracing the fate of the epicardial primordium.  


Morris (J. Anat., 1976;121:47-64) proposed that the subepicardial mesenchyme might represent a continuing source of myocardioblasts during embryonic and fetal development. Recent studies have shown that the epicardium and subepicardial mesenchyme, and the coronary vasculature are all derived from a region of the pericardial wall, called the proepicardial serosa. In avian embryos, the cells from the proepicardial serosa colonize the heart via a secondary tissue bridge formed by attachment of proepicardial villi to the heart. In the present study, Morris's hypothesis was tested by tracing the fate of the proepicardial serosa. This was achieved by constructing quail-chick chimeras. The proepicardial serosa was transplanted from HH16/17 quail embryos to HH16/17 chick embryos (ED3). A new transplantation technique facilitated an orthotopic attachment of the quail proepicardial villi to the chicken heart, and prevented the attachment of the chicken proepicardial villi to the heart. The fate of the grafted quail cells was traced in chimeras from ED4 to ED18 with immunohistochemistry, using quail-specific antibodies (QCPN, QH-1). From ED4 onward, the transplant was connected to the dorsal heart wall via its proepicardial villi. Starting from the point of attachment of the quail proepicardial villi to the heart, the originally naked myocardium became almost completely covered by quail-derived epicardium, and quail mesenchymal cells populated the subepicardial, myocardial, and subendocardial layers including the av-endocardial cushions. Quail cells formed the endothelial and smooth muscles cells of the coronary vessels, and the perivascular and intramyocardial fibroblasts. Quail myocardial cells were never found in the subepicardial, myocardial, and subendocardial layers. This suggests that the subepicardial mesenchyme normally does not contribute a substantial number of myocardioblasts to the developing avian heart. The new transplantation technique presented facilitates the production of chimeric hearts in which the derivatives of the proepicardial serosa are almost completely of donor origin. This technique might be useful for future studies analyzing the role of certain genes in cardiac development by the creation of somatic transgenics. PMID:10359522

Männer, J



Economic feasibility of electricity generation on cage layer operations  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion has been proposed as a method that enhances the economic value of manure as well as environmental quality. The Technical feasibility of anaerobic digestion has been demonstrated in several small and large scale digesters operating with different animal manures. The economic feasibility of this technology, however, has been investigated in only a few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of anaerobically digesting cage layer manure, assuming that the biogas produced was used to generate electricity which was sold to a public utility. The first step was to estimate a biogas production function from cage layer manure based on published data gathered from laboratory and large scale digesters. This production function was used to calculate electricity output and to specify a unique biogas to electricity systems (BES) for eight egg farms ranging in size from 40,000 to 576,000 hens. In the second step, a computer simulation model was designed to determine the initial investment requirements for the BES in each farm size. In the third step, the simulation model was used to evaluate the economic feasibility of the BES investment under different economic and technical assumptions. The study shows initial capital requirements for setting up a BES ranging from $115,470 for a 40,000 hen farm to $649,120 for a 576,000 hen farm. Average investment per hen declined from $2.89 to $1.13 for the 40,000 and 576,000 hen farms, respectively. These figures indicate considerable economies of size associated with the BES investment. The simulation analysis revealed that the economic feasibility of the BES investment was significantly affected by farm size, electricity price projections, and technical performance levels. Tax credits and interest rates, ceteris paribus, had only a slight impact on net present value signs. 38 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

Bravo-Ureta, B.E.; McMahon, G.V.



Effects of bird age, density, and molt on behavioral profiles of two commercial layer strains in cages.  


Two commercial strains, Hy-Line W-36 and DeKalb XL, were moved to a laying house at 18 wk of age. They were housed 6 hens/layer cage at 2 densities (361 and 482 cm2/bird) with 2 replications each per strain/density combination. The high-density treatment contained 24 hens/replication and the low-density treatment contained 18 hens/replication for a total of 168 hens. Production parameters were measured during the first egg production cycle, the molt period, and the first 4 wk of the second lay cycle (20 to 68 wk of age). Behavioral observations were taken during 2 consecutive d at 26, 34, 43, 51, 62, 64, and 68 wk of age to examine behavioral patterns. Modified Hansen's tests were conducted concurrently to provide indication of the fearfulness levels of hens at the various stages of production. The production characteristics were similar for both strains. The hens kept at the higher density had lower (P < 0.01) hen-day production and (P < 0.05) daily egg mass. Appetitive behaviors were not affected by strain or density but were affected by the age of the hen and by molting. During the molt, feeding and drinking behavioral acts were fewer (P < 0.05) at 0.018 and 0.013 acts per bird/min, respectively, and standing behavior was highest. The results indicated that the frequencies of pecking inedible objects during the molt period were similar to the frequencies at 26 and 34 wk. Hens performed more acts of standing, and crouching and had lower frequency of movement during the molt. Those kept at a low density performed more movement acts. Feather pecking decreased as hens aged and increased when they molted but was not affected by strain or density. The frequency of aggression and submissive acts was significantly lower during the molt period. Behaviors were affected by strain, density, bird age, and molting; however, the patterns and number of aggressive acts did not increase to compromise the welfare status of the hens. Behaviors during the molt appeared consistent with mechanisms for conservation of body reserves. PMID:14761079

Anderson, K E; Davis, G S; Jenkins, P K; Carroll, A S



Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens.  


Experiment 1 was conducted to study the effects of feeding 60% untreated ervil seeds (UE) or ervil soaked in water at room temperature (RTWE) or at 40 degrees C (40WE) for 72 h with water change every 12 h on the performance and internal organ size of broilers. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet (control) and diets containing 60% UE, RTWE, or 40WE were fed to battery caged broilers in 4 replicates with 8 birds per replicate, from 8 to 49 d. Broilers consuming UE from 8 to 28 d gained less weight, used feed less efficiently, and had heavier liver, pancreas, and gall bladder weights (%BW) than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Compared with control birds, broilers on 40WE had similar relative organ weights, except for kidney, but lower BW gain at 49 d (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ervil seeds were soaked in 1% acetic acid at room temperature (RTAAE) or at 40 degrees C (40AAE) for 24 h. A conventional diet and diets containing 60% UE, 40WE, RTAAE, or 40AAE were fed to individually caged laying hens in 4 replicates per treatment with 5 hens per replicate for 42 d. Hens on UE had the poorest performance followed by RTAAE, 40WE, and then 40AAE (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, all treated ervil diets resulted in lower shell thickness values but higher Haugh unit scores (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, 30% dietary UE and 40AAE at 10, 20, and 30% were fed to layers for 56 d. The general performance of hens on 30% 40AAE was comparable with that of the control except for BW and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Compared with UE, the performance of broilers and layers was improved by 40WE and that of hens was further enhanced by 40AAE. In addition, diets containing up to 20% 40AAE had no adverse effects on feed conversion, egg production, or quality of hens. PMID:16463969

Farran, M T; Halaby, W S; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M



Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Productivity of Laying Hens and Egg Quality During Refrigerated Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Five hundred,and,four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 ± 0.08 kg BW) were,fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure,the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity,and egg quality during,refrigerated storage. Four hens,were,placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting

X. G. Shang; F. L. Wang; D. F. Li; J. D. Yin; J. Y. Li


A Combination of Zinc and Pyridoxine Supplementation to the Diet of Laying Hens Improves Performance and Egg Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate whether zinc, along with pyridoxine, is effective in improving performance\\u000a and egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and twenty, 28-week-old Hy-Line laying hens were assigned to four treatment groups,\\u000a 30 hens each. The birds were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 30 mg of zinc\\/kg of diet,

O. Kucuk; A. Kahraman; I. Kurt; N. Yildiz; A. C. Onmaz



Nutrient Metabolism Vitamin K Deficiency Does Not Functionally Impair Skeletal Metabolism of Laying Hens and Their Progeny1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to de termine the effect of vitamin K deficiency on indices of skeletal metabolism in laying hens, developing embryos and young growing chickens. Laying hens were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet for 28 wk, which resulted in impaired blood clotting and reduced bone -y-carboxyglu- tamic acid (Gla) concentration compared with vitamin K-sufficient hens. However,



Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng



Effect of dietary phytase transgenic corn on physiological characteristics and the fate of recombinant plant DNA in laying hens.  


The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng



General principles of nutrition for the newly hatched chick.  


Nutrition of the newly hatched chick is complex and requires an understanding of the wild-type feeding strategy of the species, the known nutrient requirements of birds, and appropriate application to the species in question. Next, composition of available food items, appropriate physical form, volume and frequency of food items, and desired end results (eg, appropriate fledging weight, ability to successfully find prey items or be socialized for human interactions, etc) need to be considered to provide the highest chance of successful fledging. There are several excellent resources to help guide the practical aspects of rearing chicks (eg, Gage and Duerr), in addition to nutritional resources to guide a better understanding of the fundamentals of avian nutrition (eg, Klasing). PMID:22640536

Koutsos, Elizabeth A



Effects of diazepam on the isolated chick embryo heart.  


Diazepam decreased the rate and amplitude of contraction in isolated embryonic chick hearts in a dose-dependent manner in both the noninnervated hearts obtained from 4-day-old embryos and the innervated hearts from 7-day-old embryos. The concentration of diazepam necessary to reduce the heart rate and contractile amplitude to 50% of the control values was about 1 X 10(-4) M. Concentrations less than 1.0 X 10(-5) M had no detectable depressant effects. Prior administration of atropine did not alter the depression induced by diazepam. Norepinephrine was able to stimulate the amplitude of contraction in the diazepam-depressed heart while atropine was without effect. The vehicle used in the clinical injectable preparation of diazepam had no depressant effects. The mechanism of action of the diazepam-induced depression on the isolated embryonic chick heart may be a direct depression of the myocardium. PMID:1187701

Berry, D G



Comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of early chick neural crest network genes  

PubMed Central

Specification of neural crest progenitors begins during gastrulation at the neural plate border, long before migration or differentiation. Neural crest cell fate is acquired by progressive activation of discrete groups of transcription factors that appear to be highly conserved in vertebrates; however, comprehensive analysis of their expression has been lacking in chick, an important model system for neural crest development. To address this, we analyzed expression of ten transcription factors that are known specifiers of neural plate border and neural crest fate and compared them across developmental stages from gastrulation to neural crest migration. Surprisingly, we find that most neural crest specifiers are expressed during gastrulation in chick, concomitant with and in similar domains as neural plate border specifiers. This suggests that interactions between these molecules may occur much earlier than previously thought, an important consideration for interpretation of functional studies.

Khudyakov, Jane; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne



Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge at onset of lay on digestive and reproductive tract characteristics in commercial layers.  


Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a reproductive/respiratory pathogen in poultry, has been implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 20 wk of age. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, digestive tract weight and length, or histopathologic lesion scores, although significant differences were noted in the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. This study shows that S6MG inoculation does not detrimentally affect layer hen performance when in the absence of environmental stressors customary to a caged layer facility. PMID:12713163

Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R



Pigmented epithelium induces complete retinal reconstitution from dispersed embryonic chick retinae in reaggregation culture.  

PubMed Central

Reaggregation of dispersed retinal cells of the chick embryo leads to histotypic retinospheroids in which the laminar organization remains incomplete: photoreceptors form rosettes which are surrounded by constituents of the other retinal layers. Here, for the first time, a complete arrangement of layers is achieved in cellular spheres (stratoids), provided that fully dispersed retinal cells are younger than embryonic day E6, and are reaggregated in the presence of a monolayer of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). A remarkable mechanism of stratoid formation from 1 to 15 days in vitro is revealed by the establishment of a radial Müller glia scaffold and of photoreceptors. During the first two days of reaggregation on RPE, rosettes are still observed. At this stage immunostaining with vimentin and F11 antibodies for radial Müller glia reveal a disorganized pattern. Subsequently, radial glia processes organize into long parallel fibre bundles which are arranged like spokes to stabilize the surface and centre of the stratoid. The opsin-specific antibody CERN 901 detects photoreceptors as they gradually build up an outer nuclear layer at the surface. These findings assign to the RPE a decisive role for the genesis and regeneration of a vertebrate retina.

Rothermel, A; Willbold, E; Degrip, W J; Layer, P G



Energy requirements of Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy requirements of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks were analysed with respect to body mass (W, 0.145–3.35 kg, n=36) and various forms of activity (lying, standing, minor activity, locomotion, walking on a treadmill). Direct respirometry was used to measure O2 consumption (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{_{O_{{\\\\text{ 2}}} } } ,l \\\\cdot h^{ - 1} $$\\u000a) and CO2 production. Heart rate

B. Culik; A. J. Woakes; D. Adelung; R. P. Wilson; N. R. Coria; H. J. Spairani



Chick embryo retina development in vitro: The effect of insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the development of chick embryo retina culturedin vitro and the effects exerted by insulin. Retinas were removed from 7-day embryos and cultured in serum-and hormone-free medium for 7 additional days. Under these conditions retinal cells survived and underwent cholinergic differentiation, as previously ascertained by Hausman et al. (Dev. Brain Res., 1991, 59: 31–37). However, a

Giovanni Tesoriere; Renza Vento; Vincenza Morello; Rosa Maria Tomasino; Maria Carabilló; Marianna Lauricella



Specific Factors Influencing Histotypic Aggregation of Chick Embryo Hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions are described for the reproducible assay of substances affecting the in vitro rate of aggregation of isolated chick embryo hepatocytes. Two low molecular weight (<1000) fractions-one that promotes hepatocyte aggregation (HAP) and the other that inhibits this stimulation (HAI)-have been isolated and partially purified from adult chicken liver. One major active component of HAP was identified as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate).

L. Sankaran; Richard T. Proffitt; John R. Petersen; Burton M. Pogell



Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.



Sodium channels in cultured chick dorsal root ganglion neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated Na currents were studied in cultured chick sensory neurons using the patch clamp technique. On membrane depolarization, whole cell currents showed the typical transient and voltage-dependent time course as in nerve fibres. Na currents appeared at about-40 mV and reached maximum amplitude at around-10 mV. At low voltages (-30 to 0 mV), their turning-on was sigmoidal and inactivation developed

E. Carbone; H. D. Lux



The development of chick spinal cord in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  By using whole-chick-embryo cultures followed by fragment cultures of spinal-cord primordia, it was possible to reproduce\\u000a in vitro the whole process of neuronal development beginning with its initiation and continuing up to and including the maturation\\u000a of neurons. Normal whole embryos were developed to Hamilton-Hamburger stages 17 and 18 by growing embryos from the primitive\\u000a streak stage on large (28-mm)

Kenneth R. S. Fisher; Sergey Fedoroff



In vivo internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by embryonic chick osteoblasts.  


Staphlylococcus aureus is the primary pathogen associated with osteomyelitis, an acute and recurrent bone disease. Internalization of S. aureus by cultured embryonic chick calvarial osteoblasts has been observed. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that internalization of bacteria by embryonic chick calvarial and tibial osteoblasts occurs in vivo. In initial experiments, 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of S. aureus, strain UAMS-1 or Cowan 1, were injected subcutaneously under the scalp skin of 17 day chick embryos. After 45 min, calvariae were harvested and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In subsequent experiments, 10(9) cfu of UAMS-1 were injected into the allantoic sac of 17 day chick embryos via a small opening in the egg shell. After 48 h, calvariae and tibiae were harvested for TEM. S. aureus cells were found in approximately 14% of the calvarial osteoblasts after subcutaneous injection and in 11% of calvarial and tibial osteoblasts following intraallantoic injection. Endosomes were observed in some cells, but most bacteria internalized appeared to be free in the cytoplasm. Osteoblasts with as few as five bacteria had a greater loss of cytoplasmic integrity and a more heterochromatic nucleus than osteoblasts with fewer bacteria or than uninfected osteoblasts. S. aureus cells in calvariae and tibiae were also observed in the cytoplasm of approximately 4% of the osteocytes in mineralized bone matrix. Thus, internalization of S. aureus by osteoblasts in vivo augments the previous observation in vitro. This study has also shown that osteoblasts with few bacteria continue differentiating into osteocytes. Results of these experiments support the hypothesis that internalization of S. aureus by osteoblasts may play a role in the etiology of osteomyelitis. PMID:10617158

Reilly, S S; Hudson, M C; Kellam, J F; Ramp, W K



Neurotoxic effects of aluminium on embryonic chick brain cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic damage of brain cells by aluminium (A1) is discussed as a possible factor in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in humans. To investigate neurotoxic effects of A1, serum-free cultures of mechanically dissociated embryonic chick (stage 28–29) forebrain, brain stem and optic tectum, and for comparison meningeal cells, were treated with A1 (0–1000 M) for 7 days. Effects of A1

Judith Pia Miiller; Arend Bruinink



Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).  


The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints. PMID:24005252

Fongy, Anaďs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude



Responses of chicks to dietary supplements of copper sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen groups of 20 1?d?old male chicks of a hybrid laying strain were reared for 25 d and given free access to diets supplemented with o, 100, 200 or 350 p.p.m. copper (as CuSO4.5H2O), with or without antibiotic. The unsupplemented diet, based on cereals, fish and soyabean meals, contained 9.6 p.p.m. copper. Live?weight gains, food intakes and hepatic copper concentrations

M. S. Smith



Pineal Opsin: A Nonvisual Opsin Expressed in Chick Pineal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineal opsin (P-opsin), an opsin from chick that is highly expressed in pineal but is not detectable in retina, was cloned by the polymerase chain reaction. It is likely that the P-opsin lineage diverged from the retinal opsins early in opsin evolution. The amino acid sequence of P-opsin is 42 to 46 percent identical to that of the retinal opsins.

Marianna Max; Peter J. McKinnon; Kenneth J. Seidenman; R. Keith Barrett; Meredithe L. Applebury; Joseph S. Takahashi; Robert F. Margolskee



Regulation of extraembryonic calcium mobilization by the developing chick embryo.  


During development, the chick embryo mobilizes the calcium it needs from two extraembryonic sources, first the yolk and then the eggshell. Since previous studies have strongly suggested that vitamins D and K may regulate chick embryonic calcium metabolism, we have examined here how these vitamins might be involved in regulating the calcium mobilization processes. We used as our experimental system chick embryos which were maintained in long-term in vitro culture in the absence of the eggshell. Our results showed that exogenous vitamin D3, in the form of the active 1,25-dihydroxylated metabolite, was hypercalcaemic in both control embryos and the calcium-deficient, shell-less embryos. Since the eggshell was absent in the latter, the vitamin D-induced hypercalcaemia must involve mobilization of calcium from the yolk and, or, the embryonic skeleton. The latter was unlikely since concomitant hyperphosphataemia was not observed. By radiolabelling the yolk with 45Ca2+ and subsequently monitoring its distribution, we showed that vitamin D3 stimulated yolk calcium mobilization. However, exogenous vitamin D3 did not appear to influence the calcium uptake activity of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the tissue responsible for translocating eggshell calcium. On the other hand, when embryos were rendered vitamin K deficient by the administration of its antagonist, Warfarin, CAM calcium activity was significantly depressed, an effect which was remedied by vitamin K supplementation. We conclude that, during normal chick embryonic development, vitamin D is primarily involved in regulating yolk calcium mobilization whereas vitamin K is required for eggshell calcium translocation by the CAM. PMID:3794604

Tuan, R S; Ono, T



Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the antioxidant status in the absence or presence of endotoxin exposure was studied with male broiler chicks.2. In experiment 1, a total of 240 1-d-old broilers were allotted into 4 dietary groups (0, 2·5, 5·0 or 10·0 g pure CLA\\/kg) to study the influence of CLA on growth performance and

H. J. Zhang; Y. M. Guo; Y. D. Tian; J. M. Yuan



Adjustment of parental effort in the puffin; the roles of adult body condition and chick size  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the adjustment of parental effort of puffins by switching 20-day-old chicks randomly between parents of known\\u000a body condition. Among unmanipulated birds mass gain (5–20 days) and mass of 20-day-old chicks was positively correlated with\\u000a the body condition of parents at day 6. During the first 5 days after chick switching 28% (n?=?55) of the parents deserted their foster

Kjell Einar Erikstad; Magne Asheim; Per Fauchald; Laila Dahlhaug; Torkild Tveraa; P. Dahlhaug



Chick embryonic development following exposure to ethanol, gamma-linolenic and linolenic acids.  


Whether the embryopathic effects of ethanol are due to a deficiency of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) or its metabolites was investigated by treating chick embryo with ethanol together with efamol, a rich and natural source of GLA. In contrast to findings in the rat, efamol did not protect the chick embryo from the deleterious action of ethanol. This might be due to species differences and the inability of the early chick embryo to metabolize the precursor fatty acids. PMID:1666823

Gilani, S; Mansfield, R; Persaud, T V



Topography of glycoproteins in the chick synaptosomal plasma membrane.  


Chick brain synaptosomes or synaptic subfractions were treated with neuraminidase (EC and/or galactose oxidase (EC preparations in which proteolytic activity was inhibited with phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride followed, after washing, by reductive incorporation of sodium boro[3H]hydride to identify galactose residues exposed on the synaptosomal external surface. Control experiments to demonstrate restriction of labeling to the external surface involved comparing the radioactivity in synaptoplasmic, soluble polypeptides isolated after labeled, isolated synaptoplasm and examining incorporation into fractions incubated without enzymes. Intactness of the synaptic plasma membrane after labeling was shown by trypsin digestion studies. Polypeptides were separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels and were detected by a liquid scintillation counting procedure. Eleven major radioactive peaks were found after galactose oxidase treatment and reduction of isolated synaptic membranes. When intact synaptosomes were labeled, the same components were detected. When isolated synaptic membranes or intact synaptosomes were treated with neuraminidase before galactose oxidase treatment, three additional components were labeled. These results suggest that (a) chick synaptic membranes have a complex mixture of glycoproteins, (b) all major chick synaptic membrane glycoproteins labeled by galactose oxidase have most or all carbohydrate groups exposed at the exterior surface of the synaptosome, (c) all major, externally-disposed polypeptides of these synaptic membranes are glycoproteins. PMID:667029

Chiu, T C; Babitch, J A



Characterization and developmental expression of chick aortic lysyl oxidase.  


The complete primary structure of chick lysyl oxidase was determined by recombinant DNA techniques. The nucleotide sequence of contiguous chick lysyl oxidase cDNA clones contained an open reading frame of 1260 bases which encodes a predicted protein of 420 amino acid residues (48,150 Da). In comparison to the deduced primary structure of rat lysyl oxidase, the chick enzyme is larger in size and exhibits a strong conservation of sequence within the latter two thirds of the molecule (92% identity) and a high degree of divergence in the first 150 amino acid residues (60% identity allowing for several insertions in both sequences). The developmental steady-state levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA together with the mRNAs encoding two of the enzyme's substrates (tropoelastin and type I collagen) increased between 8 and 16 days of embryonic development. Although levels of lysyl oxidase mRNA increased during aortic embryogenesis, the specific activity of the enzyme remained fairly constant suggesting that lysyl oxidase activity increases in direct proportion to total protein synthesis and cell number. In situ hybridization showed that the spatial expressions of lysyl oxidase and tropoelastin transcripts differ suggesting that the enzyme and substrate genes are differentially regulated within the cells of the arterial wall. PMID:1360009

Wu, Y; Rich, C B; Lincecum, J; Trackman, P C; Kagan, H M; Foster, J A



Developmental changes in plasma membrane fluidity in chick embryo heart.  


1. Decreases in the rate of transport of sugars (facilitated transport), amino acids (active transport), and urea (simple diffusion) occur in chick embryo heart during development. This work considers the possibility that changes in the plasma membrane fluidity during development contribute to the observed changes in transport activities. 2. Technics were developed for subcellar fractionation of chick embryos and adult chickens. 3. The depolarization of the fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexatriene was used to estimate the fluidity of the lipid portion of plasma membrane enriched fractions of hearts from chick embryos at various stages of development and from adult hearts. 4. There is a pattern of decreasing membrane viscosity as development proceeds. Between 5-6 days and 10 days of embryonic life a 20% decrease in viscosity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction occurs. Between 10 and 20 days of embryonic life there is no significant change in viscosity. Between 20 days of development (1 day before hatching) and adulthood there is a further 55% decrease in plasma membrane viscosity. 5. It is proposed that the changes in membrane fluidity observed may contribute to developmental changes in membrane transport activities, but other factors must also be involved. PMID:945073

Kutchai, H; Barenholz, Y; Ross, T F; Wermer, D E



Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with /sup 65/Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection.

Hill, C.H.



Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick  

SciTech Connect

Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

Lee, S.R.



Central administration of mesotocin inhibits feeding behavior in chicks.  


Mesotocin (MT) is a neurohypophysis hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates including chickens, and homologous of oxytocin (OT) in mammals. Oxytocin (OT) is a well known reproductive hormone in mammals, but the physiological roles of MT in chickens have not been clarified well. OT is thought to regulate feeding behavior because central and peripheral injections of OT inhibit feeding behavior in mammals. In avian, on the other hand, the effect of MT on feeding regulation has not yet been clarified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine whether MT is related to the regulation of feeding in chicks (Gallus gallus). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MT significantly decreased food intake in chicks while intraperitoneal injection had no effect. Behavioral observations revealed that ICV injection of MT significantly increased wing-flapping and preening, and tended to increase voluntary movement, implying that the anorexigenic effect of MT might be related to the stress response. However, neither plasma corticosterone concentration nor the mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the diencephalon was affected by ICV injection of MT. Moreover; ICV injection of CRH did not affect MT mRNA expression in the diencephalon. In sum, central injection of MT is associated with an anorexigenic response that does not appear CRH dependent in chicks. PMID:24183984

Masunari, Kazuya; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Cline, Mark A; Tachibana, Tetsuya



Routes of yolk utilisation in the newly-hatched chick.  


1. This study was conducted to study the routes by which yolk is utilised in the chick during the initial posthatch phase. 2. Transfer from yolk to blood was examined by injecting, in the form of labelled compounds, oleic acid, triolein, inulin and dextran into the yolk; movement from yolk to blood was observed up to 72 h posthatch. 3. Transport of these molecules from blood to yolk was also observed by injecting them into the circulation and determining label in yolk. The yolk sac membrane was permcable in both directions for all labelled materials tested. 4. In the newly-hatched chick, blue dextran injected into the yolk sac could be seen moving in pulses into the intestine at irregular intervals. Transport of labelled materials from the yolk sac into the intestine was observed up to 72 h after hatching, and marker was found in the proximal small intestine and gizzard. The yolk stalk provided a pathway for transport to the intestine until lymphoid cells began to accumulate, with passage becoming partially occluded at 72 h posthatch. 5. Yolk utilisation was more rapid in fed than in fasted birds suggesting that the transport of yolk through the intestine could be increased by the greater intestinal activity found in fed chicks. PMID:9034588

Noy, Y; Uni, Z; Sklan, D



Transient muscarinic calcium mobilisation in transdifferentiating as in reaggregating embryonic chick retinae.  


Two independent in vitro regeneration systems of the embryonic chick retina (E4-5) were used to study the mobilisation of intracellular calcium by the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate, as measured by Fura-2 fluorescence changes. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) explants under the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor transdifferentiate into a retina-like tissue with normal laminar organisation, while rosetted spheres reaggregated from fully dispersed cells of the embryonic retina will achieve only an inferior tissue organisation, characterised by regions of an inverted retina [Layer et al., Neuroreport 12 (2001) A39-46]. ACh induced a pronounced Ca(2+) response in young explants, and a similar but less pronounced response in reaggregates; this response decreased almost entirely after 1 week in culture. In contrast, a Ca(2+) response to glutamate became detectable later, continuously increasing during this period. The response to ACh was strictly mediated by muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs), since it was inhibited by preincubation with atropine, but not tubocurarine; correspondingly, it was mimicked by muscarine, but not nicotine. Studies with mAChR blockers, preferentially acting on the m1-, m2-, or m3-receptor subtypes, suggested that the muscarine-induced Ca(2+) response is mediated by m1- and/or m3-type mAChRs, but not by the m2-type. These results show that (i) similar to the in vivo retina, in both a transdifferentiating and a reaggregating system an early muscarinic Ca(2+) response is active, which (ii) roughly parallels periods of cell proliferation, and (iii)-as evidenced by the reaggregates-does not depend on any tissue pre-organisation. In contrast, a response to glutamate becomes prominent only when tissue differentiation commences. This is the first demonstration of a physiological response in regenerating chick retinas, supporting their validity as models both of retinal development and regeneration. PMID:12855195

Naruoka, Hidenori; Kojima, Ryosuke; Ohmasa, Motoko; Layer, Paul G; Saito, Takehiko



Skeletal Muscle Calcium Metabolism and Contractile Force in Vitamin D-deficient Chicks  

PubMed Central

The myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency has not been well characterized, and it is not known if weakness is a result of a specific effect of vitamin D deficiency on skeletal muscle. Chicks were raised from hatching on a vitamin D-deficient diet, and by 3 wk of age were hypocalcemic and appeared weak. Tension generated by triceps surae during repetitive stimulation of posterior tibial nerve was significantly less than that developed by chicks given vitamin D3 supplements (309 g tension/g wet weight of triceps surae, SD 60, for vitamin D-deficient chicks; 470, SD 77, for vitamin D3-treated chicks, P < 0.01). Histochemical and electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscles of these chicks showed no abnormalities, and there were no electrophysiologic evidences of motor nerve or neuromuscular junction dysfunction. The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle of the vitamin D-deficient chicks (5.75 ?mol/g wet weight, SD 0.17) was not significantly different from that in vitamin D-treated chicks (5.60, SD 0.50). There was no correlation between strength and serum calcium, serum inorganic phosphate, or skeletal muscle inorganic phosphate. Relaxation of tension after tetanic stimulation was slowed in the vitamin D-deficient chicks (20.6 ms, SD 1.7, vs. 15.4, SD 1.3, in vitamin D-treated chicks and 15.3, SD 1.0, in normal control chicks), and in vitro 45Ca++ transport by sarcoplasmic reticulum from the vitamin D-deficient chicks was reduced. Calcium content of mitochondria prepared from leg muscles of vitamin D-deficient chicks (24 nmol/mg mitochondrial protein, SD 6) was considerably lower than that of mitochondria from normal control chicks (45, SD 8) or from chicks treated with vitamin D for 2 wk or more (66-100, depending upon level and duration of therapy). Treatment of the vitamin D-deficient chicks from hatching with sufficient dietary calcium to produce hypercalcemia did not significantly raise skeletal muscle mitochondrial calcium content (31 nmol/mg mitochondrial protein, SD 7) and did not prevent weakness. These studies demonstrate objective weakness as a result of myopathy in vitamin D-deficient chicks, and provide evidence that vitamin D deficiency has effects on skeletal muscle calcium metabolism not secondary to altered plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate.

Pleasure, D.; Wyszynski, B.; Sumner, A.; Schotland, D.; Feldmann, B.; Nugent, N.; Hitz, K.; Goodman, D. B. P.



Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

Benson, J.; Suryan, R. M.; Piatt, J. F.



Indirect cannibalism by crčche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crčche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.



Chick laminin: isolation by monoclonal antibodies and differential distribution of variants in the embryo.  


In order to study the expression and function of laminin variants during chick embryonic development, we have generated monoclonal antibodies against chick heart laminin. One monoclonal antibody (mAb), called 9/F-10, could be used to purify chick laminin to homogeneity. By rotary shadowing, cross-shaped and T-shaped laminin particles as well as aggregates of two laminin molecules crosslinked via their short arms could be observed in this preparation. Purified chick laminin was very potent in mediating neurite growth by chick embryonic neurons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of reduced chick heart laminin revealed a complex pattern of polypeptides which are immunologically related to several mammalian laminin chains. The two mAbs, 9/F-10 and 3/E-8, recognize two different types of chick laminin subunits. By immunofluorescence, antibody 3/E-8 labels basement membranes, aortic smooth muscle, and mesenchyme of 6-day-old chick embryos. In contrast, staining by mAb 9/F-10 is confined to basement membranes. Therefore, the two antibodies seem to distinguish between two different chick laminin isoforms. PMID:1959563

Brubacher, D; Wehrle-Haller, B; Chiquet, M



Influence of F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection on response of commercial layers to heat exposure.  


Commercial layers were inoculated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and housed in either conventional chicken houses or the lower-stress environment of biological isolation units. At the end of 2 weeks, all treatment groups were placed in environmental chambers and subjected to 4 hr of heat stress (40 C with a dew point of 21 C). Rectal temperature, an indicator of response to high heat, was monitored. Rectal temperatures of F strain MG-inoculated hens housed in the conventional chicken house environment were significantly higher than those of uninoculated controls, whereas rectal temperatures of hens held in isolation units were comparable to those of their uninoculated controls. PMID:3401170

Simmons, J D; Branton, S L



Layers and Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students create their own rock layers by slowly adding and observing how different types of sediment interact when layered upon each other. This lesson is meant to illustrate how we can use these layers to discover the relative age of an object found in that layer by utilizing the Law of Superposition.

Tremarco, Cheri



Eimeria infections in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden.  


1. Coccidiosis, caused by different Eimeria species, is believed to be a more prominent problem in loose-housed layers kept on litter than in battery cages. In this study, the impact and development of Eimeria infections were investigated in layers kept in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed hens. 2. Layers from 57 flocks on 26 farms were followed by necropsy of a representative sample of birds that died or had to be culled. Coccidiosis was diagnosed in 11 flocks (19.3%) from 9 (31%) of the farms. The outbreaks occurred when the birds were 19 to 32 weeks old. E. maxima was identified in 6 and E. tenella in 3 of the outbreaks. 3. Sixteen of the flocks were also monitored with faecal and litter samples collected at regular intervals. Oocysts were detected in samples from all these flocks. The pattern of oocyst excretion was similar in most of the flocks, with maximum counts at 4 to 8 weeks after introduction to the laying house. There was no significant correlation between the levels of oocysts in faeces and clinical coccidiosis. 4. Raising pullets without any coccidiostat, to increase their chance to develop immunity against coccidia, was not found to decrease the risk of coccidiosis during the production period when compared to the practice of giving amprolium and ethopabate during the rearing period. PMID:11128384

Lundén, A; Thebo, P; Gunnarsson, S; Hooshmian-Rad, P; Tauson, R; Uggla, A



The biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation of adult hens: effects of phenyl saligenin phosphate administration.  


A biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation was used to assess in vitro neuromuscular function in adult white leghorn hens with clinical signs of delayed neuropathy induced by phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP). Denervation of fast-twitch muscle fibers 13-15 days after PSP was indicated by higher excitability thresholds and by discontinuities of the strength-duration curves. Nerve degeneration was also indicated by significantly elevated rheobase values for all three experimental groups (2, 6 and 10 mg/kg PSP, im) and by shorter chronaxie for preparations from hens receiving 6 and 10 mg/kg. Chronaxie values for preparations from hens given 2 mg/kg PSP were longer than controls, indicating only partial denervation. Biventer cervicis muscle from all PSP-treated hens was 100-1000x more sensitive to acetylcholine (ACh) than muscle from untreated hens, a response typical of denervated slow-tonic muscle. Tension development in response to ACh was 20-45x greater than control in muscle of PSP-treated hens. The greatest sensitivity and tension development in response to ACh was encountered in muscles from hens given 10 mg/kg PSP. Denervation was also indicated histologically by the extensive degeneration and loss of larger myelinated nerve fibers. This study indicates that alteration in neuromuscular function and morphology occurs in the neck region of chickens during OPIDN and that deficits in nerves innervating both fast-twitch and slow-tonic muscles can be differentiated by nerve stimulation and by denervation hypersensitivity to ACh. PMID:3244445

el-Fawal, H A; Jortner, B S; Eyre, P; Ehrich, M



Effect of physical feed restriction during rearing on Large White turkey breeder hens: 3. Body and carcass composition.  


Large White turkey breeder hens were used to evaluate the effect of three different levels of physical feed restriction on subsequent body and carcass composition. The four feed treatments were 1) ad libitum fed throughout the study (CC), 2) feed restricted from 16 to 24 wk (CR), 3) feed restricted from 3 to 16 wk (RC), and 4) feed restricted from 3 to 24 wk (RR). Feed restriction was implemented so that RC and RR hens achieved a 45% reduction in BW compared to CC hens at 16 wk. From 16 to 24 wk, feed was allotted to RR and CR hens to maintain a slight increase in BW. At the completion of each restriction period, hens were gradually returned to ad libitum feeding. At 30 wk, hens were photostimulated for a 20-wk summer season egg production cycle. Restricted fed hens had increased moisture levels at 16 and 30 wk and decreased fat levels at 16, 30, 39, and 54 wk (P < or = 0.05). Absolute and relative weights of the pectoralis major muscle were greater in hens fed ad libitum through 43 wk (P < or = 0.05). There were no differences in the number of maturing yellow follicles due to treatment. However, restricted fed hens had higher peak egg production during early lay but decreased subsequent and cumulative egg production. Changes in egg production were associated with changes in breast muscle weight. Prolactin levels were greater in hens in-production compared to hens out-of-production; however, there were no differences due to feed treatment. In conclusion, further research on quantitative feed-restriction programs, which result in body weight reductions as described in this study, should address specific physiological and nutritional requirements and not be implemented as general programs. PMID:12512568

Crouch, A N; Grimes, J L; Christensen, V L; Krueger, K K



The combined influence of dietary flaxseed variety, level, form, and storage conditions on egg production and composition among vitamin E-supplemented hens.  


Trial 1 tested the effects of ground vs whole flaxseed at dietary levels of 5, 10, or 15% compared to a corn-soybean or fish oil control on egg production of Leghorn hens over a period of 8 wk. Dietary flaxseed decreased feed consumption, weight gain, and egg weights compared to the control diets; however, flaxseed and fish oil significantly improved egg production (88.9 and 93.0%, respectively) compared to the control (83.1%). Incorporation of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) into the egg increased linearly as the level of dietary flaxseed increased (2.31, 4.18, or 6.83% of the yolk fatty acids for 5, 10, and 15% flaxseed diets, respectively). In Trial 1, flaxseed and fish oil significantly increased percentage white and decreased percentage yolk compared to the control treatment but had no effects on egg cholesterol. Trial 2 was a factorial design of varieties of flaxseed (brown vs golden), types (ground vs whole), levels of dietary vitamin E (27 vs 50 IU/kg), and feed storage temperatures (4 vs 21 C) fed to hens for 6 wk. Brown flaxseed significantly increased egg weight and egg production compared to the golden variety. There was no difference in whole vs ground flaxseed for measured production variables. Vitamin E (50 IU) significantly improved egg production (96.1 vs 94.3%) compared to 27 IU. Storage temperature of flaxseed did not significantly affect any production variables. In conclusion, dietary flaxseed can be safely added whole to layer diets up to 15% without any detrimental effects on hen-day egg production. Levels of 10 to 15% flaxseed yield eggs with 4 to 7% yolk n-3 fatty acids, respectively, making these eggs rich sources of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:8893298

Scheideler, S E; Froning, G W



Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.  


Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

Stienen; Brenninkmeijer



Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.



Follicle Stimulating Hormone Increases Serum Oestradial?17ß concentrations, number of growing follicles and yolk deposition in aging hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) with decreased egg production  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aims of this study were to determine if the number of small yellow follicles (SYF) and large white follicles (LWF) in ovaries of young and old hens differed; and if injection of old hens with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) changed growth of and yolk deposition into follicles of old hens.2. Ovaries were removed and follicles were divided according

S. S. Palmer; J. M. Bahr



Use of dietary thyroxine as an alternate molting procedure in spent turkey breeder hens.  


In the turkey industry, molting is traditionally achieved by reducing photoperiod and withdrawing feed and water for several days. Although it is the most effective method, this practice is discouraged in Canada and alternative strategies need to be established. Thyroid hormone levels naturally change during molt, and dietary thyroxine (T4) supplementation was previously shown to induce molt in chickens. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of supplemental dietary T4 in inducing molt in spent turkey breeder hens. One hundred twenty 75-wk-old hens were randomly divided into 4 groups (5 floor pens/replicates, 5 hens each) with the control group kept under a 14-h photoperiod and fed a breeder's diet throughout, whereas hens from the 3 other groups were supplemented with 40 ppm (45.76 mg/kg) T4 for 10 d. One treatment group was maintained under 14 h of light and fed a breeder's diet, whereas the 2 others were subjected to a drop in photoperiod to 6 h during or after supplementation and then were fed a maintenance diet. Egg production, feed intake, BW, molt, and plasma levels of T4, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone were measured. All treated hens ceased laying by d 20; however, several individuals spontaneously returned to lay when left on 14 h of light, suggesting incomplete involution of the reproductive tract. Supplementation significantly reduced feed consumption and induced rapid BW loss. All hens returned to their initial weight by the end of the experiment. Most treated hens initiated molt by d 8 of supplementation and all completed molt by d 37. Plasma T4 in treated hens increased significantly by d 3 (P < 0.05) and remained significantly higher than in controls until d 9 (P < 0.01). Levels returned to initial values by d 35. Prolactin levels did not appear to be influenced by T4 but were mainly dependent on photoperiod and reproductive stage, whereas luteinizing hormone levels remained low throughout. In summary, dietary supplementation with 40 ppm (45.76 mg/kg) T4 was successful in inducing molt in turkey breeder hens. However, dropping the photoperiod was necessary to completely reset the reproductive system. PMID:20008807

Gulde, V A L; Renema, R; Bédécarrats, G Y



Immunofluorescent localization of tenascin during the morphogenesis of the outflow tract of the chick embryo heart.  


The cono-truncus constitutes a complex segment of the developing heart that gives rise to the outflow tract of the ventricles and root of the pulmonary and aortic arteries. Numerous studies have revealed that the extracellular matrix plays a relevant role in most morphogenetic processes modulating cell behaviour. By means of immunofluorescence, we studied the distribution and possible involvement of tenascin during morphogenesis of the conus and truncus in chick embryo hearts between days 4.5-10 of incubation. Tenascin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with a significant role in morphogenesis and cell and tissue differentiation. Our results reveal a specific distribution of tenascin in the areas of the cono-truncus undergoing significant structural changes during morphogenesis of this cardiac segment, appearing mainly in the mesenchymal layer subjacent to the myocardial layer, the cono-truncal ridges and the aorto-pulmonary septum. The distribution of tenascin was compared and contrasted with that of collagen type I, which constitutes a further component of the extracellular matrix common to most developing connective tissues. PMID:1691601

Hurle, J M; Garcia-Martinez, V; Ros, M A



Effects of fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids on carnitine homeostasis in laying hens.  


1. The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on genes involved in carnitine homeostasis were compared in laying hens. Three groups of laying hens were fed on a control diet or a diet with either 3% of fish oil or CLA for 4 weeks. 2. Feed intake and egg production rate did not differ between the three groups. Diets with fish oil or CLA had only a weak effect on mRNA levels of PPAR? target genes (ACO, CPT-I) in the liver and did not influence mRNA concentrations of the most important carnitine transporter OCTN2, enzymes of involved in carnitine synthesis (TMLD, TMABA-DH, BBD) or concentrations of carnitine in plasma, liver and total egg contents. 3. Hens fed the CLA diet had lower concentrations of free and total carnitine in egg yolk but higher concentrations of carnitine in albumen than control hens (P?hens that probably explained the lack of effect on carnitine homeostasis. The results contrast with those in humans and mice that show a significant effect of synthetic PPAR? agonists on carnitine homeostasis in humans and mice. PMID:23130577

Shibani, M; Keller, J; König, B; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I; Ringseis, R; Eder, K



The effect of keel fractures on egg production, feed and water consumption in individual laying hens.  


The impact of keel bone fractures on egg production, egg weight and feed and water consumption in individual laying hens. A total of 165 Lohmann brown laying hens were obtained from a commercial farm that consisted of 105 with keel fractures and 60 without keel fractures. 2. After a 4-d period of acclimatisation, hens were individually housed and provided with ad libitum food and water for a 24-h period. The number of eggs laid, egg weight, feed and water consumption during this period were recorded. Keel bone strength was also assessed. 3. Hens free from keel fractures laid more eggs (91.7% vs. 84.9%) of significantly heavier weight (61.9 g vs. 60.2 g), ate less feed (139 g vs. 151 g) and drank less water (212 ml vs. 237 ml) than hens with fractures. 4. There was a significant positive association between keel fracture severity and water consumption, and a significant negative association between keel fracture severity and egg weight and keel bone strength. 5. This small-scale study on individual birds shows that keel bone fractures may have an impact on the economics of egg production. PMID:23647178

Nasr, M A F; Murrell, J; Nicol, C J



Effects of glycerol on performance, egg traits, some blood parameters and antibody production to SRBC of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effects of the usage of glycerol from biodiesel production from soybean oil in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg traits, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H\\/L), some blood parameters and antibody production to SRBC. A total of 180 Lohmann Brown laying hens 39weeks of age were allocated to four dietary treatments with one

Sakine Yalç?n; Handan Erol; Bülent Özsoy; ?lyas Onba??lar; Suzan Yalç?n; Aykut Üner



Aviary Systems and Conventional Cages for Laying Hens: Effects on Production, Egg Quality, Health and Bird Location in Three Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, a total of 4346 laying hens housed in battery cages, with three hens per cage (C), and in two aviary systems, both with tiered wire floors and litter (Lövsta with two tiers (L) and Marielund with three tiers (M)), were used for studies on production, egg quality, health, plumage and foot condition, bone strength and bird location.

Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson



Interrelationships between shell quality and egg production and egg and shell weights in white leghorn and white rock hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships between shell quality, production rate, egg and shell weights in relation to seasonal changes were compared in White Leghorn (WL) and White Rock (WR) hens. An increase in the average egg weight was observed in both breeds during the hot summer months. The weight and quality of the shell decreased gradually in eggs laid by WL hens, but increased

M. Perek; N. Snapir



Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy) and white (light) hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice and questions on optimum dietary amino acid supply raises. Therefore, a broad range of amino acid intake levels (500 through 750 mg apparent fecal digestible (AFD) Lys\\/h\\/d) was tested on light (Lohmann LSL Classic) and heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) laying hens from 24 through 35 weeks of age.



Inactivated Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine Propagated in Rolling-Bottle Cultures of Chick Embryo Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method was developed for the production of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine from virus grown in rolling-bottle cultures of chick embryo cells. The PE-6 strain of virus was propagated in chick embryo cell roller cultures maintained on serum-free ...

F. E. Cole



Precocial bird mothers shape sex differences in the behavior of their chicks.  


Compared to mammals and altricial birds, evaluations of differences related to precocial birds' sex have often been limited to sexual behavior. Nevertheless, the extensive use of precocial bird models for investigating behavioral development issues requires in depth knowledge concerning the emergence of sex differences. Here, we evaluated behavioral differences between Japanese quail chicks in relation to their sex. We know that maternal influences are strong and early social environment shapes behavioral development in this species. Therefore, we investigated the emergence of sex differences in two very different early social situations to evaluate the impact of precocial bird mothers on sex differences. We assessed behavioral differences related to sex of (1) non-brooded chicks and of (2) brooded chicks, using various ethological tests to evaluate emotional reactivity and social motivation differences related to sex. Our results show that both non-brooded and brooded chicks present behavioral differences related to sex. They differed greatly according to chicks' early experience. Sex-related differences between maternally deprived (non-brooded) chicks concerned mainly fearfulness, whereas differences between male and female brooded chicks concerned mainly their reactions to social isolation. We hypothesize that mothers attenuate sex differences related to fearfulness by being a model for responses to fear-eliciting situations and by providing a similar secure basis to both males and females. We finally propose that mothers induce differences in chicks' sociality by providing asymmetrical care toward males and females. J. Exp. Zool. 321A:265-275, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24616263

Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie



Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

McLachlan, John C.