Science.gov

Sample records for layer hen chicks

  1. Changes in substrate access did not affect early feather-pecking behavior in two strains of laying hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura M; Duncan, Ian J H

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking, commonly found in flocks of laying hens (Gallus gallus), is detrimental to bird welfare. Thought to cause this problem is the normal housing of layers without a floor substrate. Some evidence suggests that early substrate access decreases later feather pecking. However, there has been little research on the immediate effects of a change in substrate availability on bird welfare, although environmental modifications like this are often done when brooding and rearing laying hen chicks. To investigate this, the behavior of two strains of laying hen chicks was recorded for 4 weeks. The study kept the birds on either wire or peat moss for 14 days and then switched half the chicks to the other flooring. Early feather pecking was not significantly different for birds started on peat moss and switched to wire than for birds only on wire (p > .05). Because moving chicks from peat moss to wire did not cause additional welfare problems, the study recommends that chicks be kept on a substrate when young as feather-pecking levels are lower and immediate welfare is improved compared with birds kept only on wire. PMID:20017042

  2. Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K; Uddin, G M N; Barua, H; Roy, K; Biswas, D; Ahad, A; Debnath, N C

    2008-03-17

    We determined the flock sizes and rates of loss caused by different factors in broody-hen chicks (BHC) up to 60 days of age on 600 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh. The smallholders were beneficiaries of a village poultry production chain called 'Smallholder Livestock Development Project-2' (SLDP-2) which was undertaken with the financial assistance of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). For estimating survival time of BHC, we observed chicks in 80 smallholdings. SLDP-2 aims at ameliorating poverty among women by poultry rearing at village level; in total, 104,000 key rearers, constituting 96% of all of the beneficiaries of the SLDP-2 area, were enrolled in 26 upazilas (a lower administrative unit of Bangladesh). A key rearer is a smallholder who rears at least five 'Sonali' (RIR x Fayoumi) and some indigenous (desi) chickens in a semi-scavenging system. Sonali chickens are supplied from the development project, and have higher egg production while the broodiness of the desi hens is exploited to get chicks hatched for future stocks; thus, the chicks hatched and reared to 60 days old at key rearers' households are called BHC. In this study 32% of the smallholders had BHC each month. At the beginning of a month, the median number of chicks in a flock was 8, and the mean survival time was 50.5 days. Incidence rates of loss of BHC from disease, predation, selling and slaughtering were 0.102, 0.086, 0.009 and 0.002 per chick-month at risk, respectively. The major predators were crows, mongooses and eagles with incidence rates of loss being 0.018, 0.016 and 0.010 per chick-month at risk, respectively. Colibacillosis (both single and mixed infections) contributed to the death of 21% of dead BHC collected; Newcastle disease and salmonellosis contributed to the next highest (14 and 12%) proportional mortalities. PMID:17850905

  3. Supplementation of xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in hens and chicks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Zhu, Ji-Mei; Shu, Ding-Ming; Sun, Bao-Li; Jin, Ling; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2013-03-28

    The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:22809632

  4. Xanthophyll supplementation regulates carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in hens and chicks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Ji, Jun; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Chang-Kang; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin; Juyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd., GuangZhou, China) on gene expression associated with carotenoid cleavage enzymes (β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, BCMO1; and β-carotene 9', 10'-dioxygenase, BCDO2) and retinoid metabolism (lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and STRA6) of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with zero (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at d 35 of the trial. Results showed that 40 mg/kg xanthophyll supplementation increased BCDO2 mRNA in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum; LRAT mRNA in the jejunum; and STRA6 mRNA in the liver, while it decreased LRAT mRNA in the liver. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from a zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at zero, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophyll modulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly within one wk after hatching. The maternal effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work one to 2 wk after hatching. Dietary xanthophyll regulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly from 2 wk onward. The xanthophyll regulation of carotenoid and retinoid metabolism also revealed strong tissue specificity. In conclusion, xanthophyll supplementation could modulate carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:26574032

  5. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat to laying hens and roosters of different genetic background on the reproductive performance and health of the newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Beineke, Andreas; Hermeyer, Kathrin; Dnicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    A total of 216 23-week-old laying hens from two different genetic backgrounds (half of the birds were Lohmann brown [LB] and [LSL] hens, respectively) and 24 adult roosters were assigned to a feeding trial to study the effect of increasing concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the diet (0, 5, 10mg/kg) on the reproductive performance of hens and roosters, and the health of the newly hatched chicks. Hatchability was adversely affected by the presence of DON in LB hens' diet, while the hatchability of the LSL chicks was significantly higher than LB chicks. An interaction effect between DON in the hens' diet and the breed was noticed on fertility, as the fertility was decreased in the eggs of LB hens receiving 10mg/kg DON in their diet and increased in the eggs of LSL hens fed 10mg/kg DON. Moreover, spleen relative weight was significantly decreased in the chicks hatched from eggs of hens fed contaminated diets, while gizzard relative weight was significantly decreased in LB chicks with 10mg/kg DON in their diet compared with the control group. On the other hand, the chicks' haematology and organ histopathology were not affected by the dietary treatment. Additionally, the presence of DON in the roosters' diet had no effect on fertility (the percentage of fertile eggs of all laid eggs). Consequently, the current results indicate a negative impact of DON in LB hens' diet on fertility and hatchability, indicating that the breed of the hens seems to be an additional factor influencing the effect of DON on reproductive performance of the laying hens. PMID:24723164

  6. [Studies on reducing the crude protein content of feeds fed to chicks and young hens (laying stock)].

    PubMed

    Jeroch, H; Voigt, E; Hennig, A

    1975-06-01

    2 rearing trials were carried out on a total of 8550 hybrid chicks (White Leghorn) to investigate in which way food mixtures containing reduced levels of crude protein (supplemented or unsupplemented with amino acids) might influence the growth of chicks and young hens. Decreases from 21.5% to 16.5% in the crude protein content of chicken feed and from 15% to 13% in feeds feed to young hens (greater than 8 weeks of life) did not reduce the live weight of birds at the end of the rearing period to any appreciable extent. No clearly defined differences were found to exist between the different types of feed tested concerning the amount of food and energy consumed per unit of weight gain and the mortality rate among the birds; it was shown, however, that the demand for crude protein per unit of weight gain was clearly reduced in birds reared at the lower crude protein level. For young hens receiving the diet poorer in protein the date when the birds began laying was slightly delayed. Otherwise, no statistically significant differences were found to exist between the young birds fed varying levels of crude protein, concerning the age at 50% laying performance and other parameters that are characteristic of the entire laying period (laying performance, weight of individual eggs, food consumption, mortality, fertilization of hatching eggs, hatchability of eggs). It appears that the feeding of a reduced protein diet to chicks and young hens (laying stock) did not have any detrimental effect on the growth and later laying performance of the birds. Apart from the fact that the demand for protein feeds is considerably reduced during the rearing period the costs of feeding per bird can also be cut down. PMID:1233946

  7. Effect of citrinin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium citrinum, on laying hens and young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ames, D D; Wyatt, R D; Marks, H L; Washburn, K W

    1976-07-01

    Citrinin fed to mature laying hens at levels of 0, 50, and 250 mug/g. of diet for three weeks had no effect on body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight or egg shell quality. A moderate diarrhea occurring about three days after feeding 250 mug. citrinin/g. of diet was observed. However, the diarrhea subsided once the birds were returned to a normal diet. Young broiler chicks were fed a diet containing either 0, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mug. citrinin/g. of diet from hatching to three weeks of age. Body weight was decreased by the 500 mug/g. level whereas all levels of citrinin resulted in enlarged kidneys and an improvement in feed conversion when compared to control values. There was also a slight dose-related increase in liver size. The 250 and 500 mug./g. levels resulted in a dose-related increase in water consumption accompanied by an acute diarrhea. Dietary citrinin had no effect on serum protein, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, calcium, potassium and sodium concentrations or packed cell volume. PMID:951361

  8. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  9. Isolation and purification of a hen nuclear oestrogen receptor and its effect on transcription of chick chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Schwartz, R J

    1979-01-01

    An oestrogen receptor was isolated, characterized and purified from the nuclear fraction of the hen oviduct. The receptor sediments at 4.6 S on glycerol gradients, has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.1 X 10(-10)M, an association constant (ka) of 1.4 X 10(-6) M-1.S-1, and a dissociation constant (kd) of 5 x 10(-5) s-1. The receptor chromatographed from DEAE-cellulose as a single peak at 0.15 M-KCl and was not retained by phosphocellulose. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the receptor in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate demonstrated two subunits with apparent mol.wts. of 74000 and 80000. The overall purification achieved was 90000-fold by using a combination of cell fractionation, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and affinity chromatography. This represents the first separation, isolation and purification of the highest-affinity binding component (Kd 10(-10)M) of two high-affinity oestrogen-binding proteins present in both chick and hen oviduct cytosol and nuclei. To examine directly the effect of the purified receptor on transcription a reconstituted cell-free system was used, which contained the receptor--oestradiol complex, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, rifampicin and chromatin prepared from hormone-withdrawn chick tissue. The receptor-hormone complex at a concentration of 0.1 nM stimulated transcription of oviduct chromatin by promoting an increase of 14000 sites for RNA-chain initiation, which is similar to the number of additional sites measured in the oviducts of diethylstilboestrol-stimulated immature chicks [Tsai, Schwartz, Tsai & O'Malley (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 5165-5174]. Oestradiol alone had no effect on transcription. Thus the data demonstrate that the purified nuclear oestradiol-receptor complex can regulate gene transcription in vitro in a manner similar to that observed in target cells in vivo. Images Fig. 4. PMID:534532

  10. Bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens fed soybean grains-based diets in hot and humid climate.

    PubMed

    Houndonougbo, M F; Chrysostome, C A A M; Daga Dadjo, F; Adjaho, S L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of toasted soybean grains on bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens in hot and humid environment. A total of 972 three-week-old Harco chicks were divided into 12 groups. At starter, pullet and laying phases, birds were fed four diets containing 0% (R0), 5% (R5), 10% (R10), and 15% (R15) of soybean grains. Results showed similar feed intake, body weight gain, laying rate, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate between dietary treatments at each phase. The egg weight increased significantly in diet R15 (P < 0.05). The use of soybean grains reduced the feed prices. Feeding cost decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during growth and laying phases in soybean grains added diets. Feeds efficiency increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase of dietary soybean grains rate. Properly toasted soybean grains can be therefore included up to 15% in heavy line layer hens' diet in tropical conditions. PMID:23738130

  11. Bioeconomic Performance of Pullets and Layer Hens Fed Soybean Grains-Based Diets in Hot and Humid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Houndonougbo, M. F.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Daga Dadjo, F.; Adjaho, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of toasted soybean grains on bioeconomic performance of pullets and layer hens in hot and humid environment. A total of 972 three-week-old Harco chicks were divided into 12 groups. At starter, pullet and laying phases, birds were fed four diets containing 0% (R0), 5% (R5), 10% (R10), and 15% (R15) of soybean grains. Results showed similar feed intake, body weight gain, laying rate, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate between dietary treatments at each phase. The egg weight increased significantly in diet R15 (P < 0.05). The use of soybean grains reduced the feed prices. Feeding cost decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during growth and laying phases in soybean grains added diets. Feeds efficiency increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase of dietary soybean grains rate. Properly toasted soybean grains can be therefore included up to 15% in heavy line layer hens' diet in tropical conditions. PMID:23738130

  12. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  13. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Escarcha, Jacquelyn F; Callaway, Todd R; Byrd, J Allen; Miller, Dan N; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2012-10-01

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growing birds. Therefore, the present study was designed to quantify differences in artificially inoculated cecal Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks (n = 60 in each of two replications) fed 0%, 25%, and 50% of their diet (w/w) replaced with alfalfa meal from day (d) 7 to d14 after hatch. Alfalfa supplementation reduced cecal populations of Salmonella by 0.95 and 1.25 log10 colony-forming unit per gram in the 25% and 50% alfalfa groups compared to controls. Alfalfa feeding reduced (p < 0.05) the number of cecal- and crop-positive birds compared to controls. Increasing levels of alfalfa increased (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the proportion of acetate in the cecum. Surprisingly, alfalfa inclusion did not negatively impact average daily gain (ADG) in birds over the 7-d feeding period. Alfalfa inclusion at 50% of the diet increased (p < 0.05) the number of bacterial genera detected in the cecum compared to controls, and also altered proportions of the microbial population by reducing Ruminococcus and increasing Clostridia populations. Results support the idea that providing a fermentable substrate can increase gastrointestinal VFA production and bacterial diversity which in turn can reduce colonization by Salmonella via natural competitive barriers. However, further studies are obviously needed to more fully understand the impact of changes made in diet or management procedures on poultry production. PMID:22953742

  14. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Escarcha JF; Callaway TR; Byrd JA; Miller DN; Edrington TS; Anderson RC; Nisbet DJ

    2012-10-01

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growing birds. Therefore, the present study was designed to quantify differences in artificially inoculated cecal Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks (n = 60 in each of two replications) fed 0%, 25%, and 50% of their diet (w/w) replaced with alfalfa meal from day (d) 7 to d14 after hatch. Alfalfa supplementation reduced cecal populations of Salmonella by 0.95 and 1.25 log10 colony-forming unit per gram in the 25% and 50% alfalfa groups compared to controls. Alfalfa feeding reduced (p < 0.05) the number of cecal- and crop-positive birds compared to controls. Increasing levels of alfalfa increased (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the proportion of acetate in the cecum. Surprisingly, alfalfa inclusion did not negatively impact average daily gain (ADG) in birds over the 7-d feeding period. Alfalfa inclusion at 50% of the diet increased (p < 0.05) the number of bacterial genera detected in the cecum compared to controls, and also altered proportions of the microbial population by reducing Ruminococcus and increasing Clostridia populations. Results support the idea that providing a fermentable substrate can increase gastrointestinal VFA production and bacterial diversity which in turn can reduce colonization by Salmonella via natural competitive barriers. However, further studies are obviously needed to more fully understand the impact of changes made in diet or management procedures on poultry production.

  15. Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Küçükyılmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Çınar, Mustafa; Çatlı, Abdullah Uğur; Bintaş, Erol; Çöven, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration. PMID:25049597

  16. Effects of in ovo injection of bovine lactoferrin before incubation in layer breeder eggs on tibia measurements and performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Saki, A A; Mahmoudi, H

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing concern about welfare of laying hens in cages, and one aspect of this topic relates to bone fragility. Therefore, bone anabolic components such as bovine lactoferrin (bLF) may be an effective strategy to maintain the integrity and health of bones. A total of 1080 eggs were divided into four groups with three replicates, each comprising 270 eggs; (1) control group was injected with 100 ?l of normal saline per egg; (2, 3 and 4) groups including 22.5 (low), 45 (medium) and 67.5 g (high) of bLF in 100 l of normal saline per egg. Eggs were incubated and after hatching, chicks were reared to 28 weeks of age. Tibia measurements were obtained at hatch and at 28 weeks of age. Tibia weight at hatch, was not influenced by in ovo injection of bLF in comparison with the control. Eggs injected with the high concentration of bLF (67.5 g of bLF per egg) showed significant strengthening in laying-hen tibias at 28 weeks of age, as measured by ultimate force and bending stress, compared with the control. Egg weights from hens treated with this concentration of bLF were also significantly greater than the control. Our data suggest that tibia cortical thickness is a suitable variable for evaluating bone status reflecting bone integrity and strength. The present study also shows that bLF (67.5 g of bLF per egg) injected into layer breeder eggs before incubation can be used to improve bone strength and egg weight of laying hens at 28 weeks of age, while having no detrimental effect on embryo hatchability. PMID:26178907

  17. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  18. Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

  19. Effects of Echinacea extract on the performance, antibody titres, and intestinal histology of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Coskun, B; Oznurlu, Y; Kan, Y; Kartal, M

    2010-12-01

    1. This research was conducted to determine the effect of diet supplementation with Echinacea extract (cichoric acid) on the growth performance, antibody titres and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. 2. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n = 540) were divided into three treatments, each consisting of 6 groups of 30 chicks (n = 180): (1) control; (2) 25 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed; and (3) 5 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed. The trial lasted 60 d. 3. While the growth performance of the chicks was depressed between d 1 and 45, it was found to improve between d 45 and 60. 4. Feed consumption was lower in both of the cichoric-acid-fed groups than in the control group between d 1-15 and 15-30, but was higher between d 30 and 45. Overall, mean feed consumption did not differ between the control and cichoric-acid-fed groups during the 60 d study period. 5. During the 60 d evaluation period, live weight gain, feed utilisation rate and final live weight were higher in the control group than in both of the cichoric-acid-fed groups. 6. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ between the three groups, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the 25 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed group than in the control group after 45 d. 7. Height and width of the jejunal villus and the thickness of the muscle layer were lower in the 5 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed group than in both the control and the 25 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed groups. The height of the ileal villus was also lower in the 5 mg/kg cichoric-acid-fed group than in the other two groups. 8. Echinacea extract supplementation for layer chicks appears not to benefit growth performance and intestinal histology during the growing period. PMID:21161788

  20. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls that represented potential to increase ventilation energy efficiency, and reduce carbon footprints and operational costs. PMID:22404801

  1. Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-04-12

    Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:23305617

  2. Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis Infection Alters the Indigenous Microbiota Diversity in Young Layer Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Khin K. Z.; Saelao, Perot; Halstead, Michelle M.; Chanthavixay, Ganrea; Chang, Huai-Chen; Garas, Lydia; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Zhou, Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    Avian gastrointestinal (GI) tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors, especially during the early posthatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and postinfection time points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the GI tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the GI microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in the late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected and infected groups, suggested possible antagonistic interaction between members of these two taxa, which could potentially influences the overall microbial population in the gut. Our results also revealed that genetic difference between two lines had minimal effect on the establishment of microbiota population. Overall, this study provided preliminary insights into the contributing role of S. Enteritidis in influencing the overall makeup of chicken’s gut microbiota. PMID:26664988

  3. Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis Infection Alters the Indigenous Microbiota Diversity in Young Layer Chicks.

    PubMed

    Mon, Khin K Z; Saelao, Perot; Halstead, Michelle M; Chanthavixay, Ganrea; Chang, Huai-Chen; Garas, Lydia; Maga, Elizabeth A; Zhou, Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    Avian gastrointestinal (GI) tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors, especially during the early posthatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and postinfection time points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the GI tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the GI microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in the late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected and infected groups, suggested possible antagonistic interaction between members of these two taxa, which could potentially influences the overall microbial population in the gut. Our results also revealed that genetic difference between two lines had minimal effect on the establishment of microbiota population. Overall, this study provided preliminary insights into the contributing role of S. Enteritidis in influencing the overall makeup of chicken's gut microbiota. PMID:26664988

  4. Dietary enzyme and zinc bacitracin reduce colonisation of layer hens by the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira intermedia.

    PubMed

    Hampson, D J; Phillips, N D; Pluske, J R

    2002-05-24

    Brachyspira intermedia strain HB60 was used to experimentally infect 40 individually caged 22-week-old laying hens. Another 10 control birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All chickens received an experimental layer diet based on wheat. The infected birds were randomly divided into four groups of 10, with the diet for each group containing either 50 ppm zinc bacitracin (ZnB), 100 ppm ZnB, 256 ppm of dietary enzyme (Avizyme), 1302), or no additive. Birds were kept for 6 weeks after infection, and faecal excretion of B. intermedia, faecal water content, egg numbers, egg weights and body weights were recorded weekly. Control birds remained uninfected throughout the experiment. B. intermedia was isolated significantly less frequently from the groups of experimentally infected birds receiving ZnB at 50 ppm or enzyme than from those receiving 100 ppm ZnB or no treatment. Infected birds had a transient increase in faecal water content in the week following challenge, but no other significant production differences were detected amongst the five groups of birds in subsequent weeks. It was not established how the ZnB at 50 ppm and the dietary enzyme reduced the ability of the spirochaete to colonise, but it may have been by bringing about changes in the intestinal microflora and/or the intestinal microenvironment. PMID:11955785

  5. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their parent hens to OTA and AFB(1) either alone or in combination. These studies provide emphasis for the need for mycotoxin regulation policy with respect to the ingredients used in poultry feed, since it is clear that feeding multi-mycotoxin-contaminated diets to breeder hens will almost certainly result in the hatching of manifestly unhealthy chicks. PMID:22530919

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN 1 D OLD LAYER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to determine if any relationship exists between body weight and beak characteristics in day old chicks for developing an automated system to standardize infrared beak treatment. At the hatchery, 1-day-old W-36 chicks (n=344) were weighed and digital pictures were taken of th...

  7. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P < 0.05) villus height and villus surface area compared with the control birds. Seaweed supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria [e.g., Bifidobacterium longum (4- to 14-fold), Streptococcus salivarius (4- to 15-fold)] and importantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of the chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CC and SG treatments than in the control. In conclusion, dietary supplementation using red seaweed inclusions can act as a potential prebiotic to improve performance, egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  8. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. PMID:26475072

  9. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF GOSSYPOL ENANTIOMERS IN LAYERS AND BROILER BREEDER HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Gossypol, a natural component of cottonseed meal, exists in either a positive (+) or a negative (-) enantiomeric form. Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative toxicity of the individual gossypol enantiomers in laying and broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, 25...

  10. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growi...

  11. Virulence of Salmonella enteritidis phagetypes 4, 8 and 13 and other Salmonella spp. for day-old chicks, hens and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; Demczuk, W; McFadden, K; Johnson, R P

    1993-01-01

    Virulence of three Canadian poultry strains of Salmonella enteritidis, namely phagetypes (PT) 4, 8 and 13, and one Salmonella heidelberg strain was assessed in orally and intraperitoneally inoculated one-day old chickens and compared to the virulence of a human S. enteritidis PT 4 strain from the United Kingdom (UK). The two PT 4 strains were also compared in orally inoculated adult laying hens. In addition, orally inoculated Balb/c mice were used to evaluate virulence of the above strains and two strains of Salmonella typhimurium containing different plasmids. In orally inoculated one-day old chickens, the UK S. enteritidis PT 4 strain was more virulent than the Canadian PT 4 strain. The UK PT 4 strain was also more virulent and invasive in adult laying hens than the Canadian PT 4 strain. The S. enteritidis PT 8 strain and one S. typhimurium strain isolated from a chicken hatchery were the most virulent for orally inoculated Balb/c mice. This strain of S. typhimurium contained the 60 megadalton plasmid associated with virulence for Balb/c mice which was not present in the S. typhimurium strain isolated from a pig with septicemic disease. PMID:8269367

  12. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 week were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of ARG and GAA on the SP and fertility was significant. Supplementary ARG increased the SP rate in the IPL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GAA and ARG might be potentially used to improve the fertility of broiler breeder hens at the later phase of the egg production period. PMID:26216477

  13. Amelia/ectromelia in association with scoliosis in three commercial layer hens (Gallus gallus forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Ruble, Randall; Silverman, Sam; Pisenti, Jacqueline; Wakenell, Patricia

    2002-10-01

    Three wingless "healthy" pullet hens were serendipitously discovered at a grow-out facility for an egg-production ranch. Two of the birds were amelic and one was ectromelic. The defect in these chickens differs from the previously reported wingless mutations in that all three affected birds also had scoliosis. The birds also differed from previously reported scolitic mutant chickens in that they were wingless. Although the combination of amelia and scoliosis has been reported in humans, this is the first report of the combination in an animal species. PMID:12427336

  14. Modulation of opioid-induced feeding behavior by endogenous nitric oxide in neonatal layer-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Samad; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of central administration of L-arginine (The precursor of nitric oxide), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, selective opioid receptor agonists and involvement of central nitrergic/opioidergic systems on feeding behavior in neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-arginine (400 and 800 nmol) significantly decreased food intake (P < 0.001) but the injection of 200 nmol L-arginine had no effect on cumulative food intake in FD3 chickens (P > 0.05). The ICV injection of L-NAME (200 and 400 nmol) increased food intake (P < 0.001) but 100 nmol of L-NAME had no significant effect (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the co-injection of 100 nmol L-NAME significantly attenuated the anorexigenic effect of 800 nmol L-arginine (P < 0.001). Moreover, the food intake of chicks was significantly decreased by ICV injection of DAMGO (?-opioid receptor agonist, 125 pmol) (P < 0.001) while both DPDPE (?-opioid receptor agonist, 40 pmol) and U-50488H (?-opioid receptor agonist, 30 nmol) significantly stimulated food intake (P < 0.001). In addition, the hypophagic effect of DAMGO was significantly amplified by administration of L-arginine (P < 0.001) while the administration of L-NAME attenuated the hypophagic effect of DAMGO (P < 0.001). In contrast, co-injection of L-arginine or L-NAME with DPDPE had no effect on the hyperphagia induced by DPDPE as well as the hyperphagic effect of U-50488H on food intake was not affected by concurrent injection of L-arginine or L-NAME (P > 0.05). These results suggest that nitrergic and opioidergic systems have an important role on feeding behavior in the CNS of neonatal layer-type chicks and it seems that interaction between them is mediated by ?-opioid receptor. PMID:25677536

  15. Curlew Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Curlew Chicks hatch in late June and are almost immediately ready to leave the nest. The coloring and pattern of the downy chicks provides camouflage to protect them from avian and mammalian predators. Chicks follow their parents on long hikes to feeding areas. Curlews also migrate long distances ea...

  16. Layer and broiler chicks exhibit similar hypothalamic expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but distinct expression of genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lixia; Ni, Yingdong; Barth, Stephan; Wang, Yufeng; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2009-06-01

    Layer and broiler chickens demonstrate striking differences in body weight and body composition. However, the mechanism underlying such difference is elusive. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates energy homeostasis and body size in mammals, but information in birds is scarce. Here we test the hypothesis that such breed difference is more associated with hypothalamic expression of genes related to HPA axis, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides. Broiler chicks exhibit significantly higher body weight and food intake at day (D) 7 posthatching, but the food intake relative to body weight gain was actually lower. No breed differences were observed for hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin (ORX), leptin receptor (LEPR), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) or fatty acid synthase (FAS). However, broiler chicks expressed significantly higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA (P<0.05) and protein (P<0.01) in hypothalamus compared to layer chicks, which is associated with lower corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (P<0.05) yet higher accumulation of CRH peptide in hypothalamus, suggesting an augmented GR-mediated negative feedback regulation of CRH transcription and release in broiler chicks. Furthermore, fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was also more highly expressed in hypothalamus of broiler chicks (P<0.05). These results suggest that the genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity, such as GR, CRH and FTO, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides, are impacted by the genetic selection practices and play a role in breed-specific body weight setpoint regulation in the chicken. PMID:19345199

  17. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  18. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters. PMID:24235227

  19. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with VectormuneFP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of white leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing M. gallisepticum mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect a...

  20. Effect of mothering on the spatial exploratory behavior of quail chicks.

    PubMed

    de Margerie, E; Peris, A; Pittet, F; Houdelier, C; Lumineau, S; Richard-Yris, M-A

    2013-04-01

    Previous maternal deprivation experiments demonstrated that absence of maternal care impacts the behavioral development of young animals. Here we assessed the influence of the presence of a mothering hen on the spatial exploration of Japanese quail chicks, after the mothering period. Brooded and nonbrooded chicks were placed in a novel environment containing feeding troughs. The distribution of chicks and their inter-individual distances were measured during repeated tests. Brooded chicks exhibited a higher ability to disperse, thereby progressively exploiting larger surfaces and gaining access to food more easily. The fact that exploration by nonbrooded chicks was delayed suggests a deficit in their exploratory motivation and/or spatial skills. We hypothesize that brooded chicks experienced the constraint to follow the mothering hen, and to adapt to frequent reconfigurations of their environment. The lack of this variability in the environment of nonbrooded chicks could have reduced adaptability of their spatial behavior. PMID:22362163

  1. Dietary vitamin E in White Leghorn layer breeder hens: a strategy to combat aflatoxin B1-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Rafique, Shahid; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Ahad, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of animal and human feed and food respectively. This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of vitamin E (Vit E) in White Leghorn breeder hens and their progeny against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced damage. The results indicated a significant decrease in egg production and quality in the groups exposed to dietary AFB1. A detectable amount of AFB1 residue appeared in the eggs during the first week of mycotoxin exposure at levels ? 2.5 mg kg(-1), which reached its peak (0.403 0.04 ng/g [mean standard deviation]) during the second week of the experiment (in the group fed 10 mg kg(-1)). Feeding Vit E + AFB1 resulted in higher AFB1 residues (0.467 0.03) when compared with the hens fed AFB1 alone. The resistance of red blood cells to oxidative damage was decreased, while embryonic mortalities and deformities were increased in the AFB1-fed groups. The protective effect of Vit E on these parameters was noted in the groups fed lower doses of AFB1. After the withdrawal of mycotoxin-contaminated feed, most of the parameters returned towards normal within 2 weeks, except AFB1 residues that were still detectable. From the findings of this study one can conclude that the addition of Vit E in the diet of hens provided only partial protection against AFB1-induced damage. PMID:25011613

  2. Effect of number of hens per nipple waterer on the performance of several strains of layers in cages.

    PubMed

    Gernat, A G; Adams, A W

    1992-08-01

    Two experiments were designed to study the effects of housing in cages with several hens per nipple waterer (HPN) ratios on performance of several strains of White Leghorn pullets. In Experiment 1, only body weight gain and water consumption were significantly affected by the HPN; hens at the 2:1 HPN gained more weight and consumed more water per day than those at the 4:1 HPN. The lack of a significant strain by HPN interaction indicated that the four strains responded similarly to the different HPN ratios. In Experiment 2, hens in cages with 3.5:1 and 7:1 HPN consumed significantly more water and feed than those in cages with 10:1 and 14:1 HPN. In both experiments, the HPN had no significant effect on age at sexual maturity, egg production, mortality, and egg weight, but efficiency of feed usage for egg production decreased with the 3.5:1 and 7:1 HPN. PMID:1523178

  3. Effects of vaccination with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum on egg production and quality parameters of commercial layer hens previously vaccinated with 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of overlaying (revaccinating) F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) at 22 or 45 weeks of age on commercial leghorn hens previously vaccinated with 6/85 strain MG at 10 weeks of age. The treatment groups include unvaccinated hens (group 1), hens r...

  4. The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Zleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

  5. Effects of breeder hen age and dietary fat on embryonic and neonatal broiler serum lipids and glucose.

    PubMed

    Latour, M A; Peebles, E D; Boyle, C R; Doyle, S M; Pansky, T; Brake, J D

    1996-06-01

    In two experiments, the effects of dietary fat and breeder hen age on relative yolk sac weight (RYSW) and total serum cholesterol (CHOL), high (HDLC) and low (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TRI), and glucose (GLU) were monitored in broiler embryos and chicks. In Experiment 1, embryos at 18 d of incubation and chicks at hatch were sampled from eggs laid by breeder hens at 26 (young), 36, and 48 wk of age. No dietary effects were noted in either experiment; however, chicks from young hens exhibited elevated serum CHOL, HDLC, LDLC, and lower GLU when compared with chicks from hens at either 36 or 48 wk of age. Additionally, embryos from young breeders displayed a lower RYSW at 18 d of incubation. Conversely, by hatch there was no difference in RYSW among offspring from different aged hens. In Experiment 2, newly hatched chicks were sampled from breeder hens at 36, 51, and 64 wk of age. Dietary effects were also not evident in this experiment; however, chicks from 51-wk-old breeders displayed the highest and lowest serum HDLC and TRI, respectively, compared to the other two age groups, whereas chicks from either 51- or 64-wk-old breeders exhibited higher levels of CHOL than those at 36 wk. Chicks from 64-wk-old breeders displayed an increase in LDLC when compared with the other two ages. These data suggest that serum concentrations of lipids and GLU, and RYSW in 18 d embryos and newly hatched chicks are influenced by hen age and not by added dietary fat. PMID:8737832

  6. Interactions and antigen dependence of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody responsiveness in growing layer hens.

    PubMed

    Sijben, J W; Nieuwland, M G; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K; Schrama, J W

    2001-07-01

    Effects of four levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 fatty acid, and four levels of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), an n-3 fatty acid, and their interactions on immune responses in growing layer hens were studied. Immune responses were induced by injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or Mycobacterium butyricum particles at 35 d of age. Antibody (Ab) responses were measured until 21 d after immunization. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity, lymphocyte proliferation, weekly feed intake, and BW gain were studied. At Day 7 after immunization, anti-M. butyricum titers in the M. butyricum-immunized hens were decreased by the increase of dietary LA (P < 0.05). In the period from 10 to 14 d after immunization, anti-KLH Ab titers in KLH-immunized animals were affected by the interaction of dietary LA with LNA (P < 0.01). High dietary levels of LA or LNA increased the anti-KLH Ab response. However, at high levels of dietary LA and LNA, anti-KLH Ab titers were not increased. In the same period, anti-M. butyricum Ab titers of M. butyricum-immunized hens were affected by the interaction of dietary LA with LNA (P < 0.05). At low levels of LA and LNA, increased LA levels decreased the Ab response, whereas increased LNA levels at low LA levels hardly affected the anti-M. butyricum response. At a high level of LA, increased dietary LNA increased the anti-M. butyricum response. In vitro proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes after stimulation with concanavalin A (ConA) was higher in chickens with a high level of dietary LNA. Feed intake decreased when the dietary levels of LA or LNA increased. However, BW gain was not affected by dietary treatments. Feed conversion was more efficient in birds fed high levels of LA and LNA. The present study indicates that various factors affect the Ab responses. First, the interaction of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is more important than the separate effects of n-3 or n-6. Second, the actions of dietary PUFA were different between antigens of a different nature. Third was the nature of the antigen affects when dietary PUFA exert their actions and the persistence of these effects. The presence of these multiple factors affecting immune responses should be considered when comparing effects of dietary PUFA on immune responses. PMID:11469650

  7. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was not affected by enzyme supplementation. The results indicated that higher inclusion levels of undecorticated sunflower seed meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. PMID:26047672

  8. Potential for amelioration of aflatoxin B1-induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of White Leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Ul Hassan, Zahoor; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) on the immunotoxic effects induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the progeny of breeder hens. For this purpose, 192 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens were divided into 12 groups (A-L) and then fed test diets for either 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Group A was kept on basal feed (2900 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) and served as control, while group B was offered a feed supplemented with Vit E at 100?mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0?mg/Kg AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered the same dietary levels of AFB1 along with 100?mg/Kg Vit E supplementation. Hatching eggs were shifted to an incubator on a weekly basis to get progeny chicks. Hatched chicks in each group were maintained on basal ration and then subjected to different immunological assays. Lymphoproliferative responses (against PHA-P), antibody titers (against SRBC), oxidative damage to RBC, as well as phagocytic and nitrite production potential of the peritoneal macrophages from the chicks, were all adversely impacted by hen exposure to the higher doses of AFB1 or by increased intake (time) by the hens at a given dose of the toxin. No consistent ameliorative effects from Vit E were noted in these studies, i.e. effects seen against lower AFB1 doses were no longer apparent with the highest doses of AFB1. As such, for now it can be concluded that, with this particular single dose level of Vit E, AFB1-associated immunotoxic effects in progeny chicks can potentially be mitigated by dietary intake of Vit E by their hen dams. However, this is clearly an outcome that is driven by the level of the mycotoxin present in the feed. Future studies need to examine what impact higher Vit E doses than those employed herein might have in these ameliorative outcomes. PMID:23782308

  9. Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

    2012-09-01

    Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 μg m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 μg m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

  10. Behavior of white leghorn laying hens after withdrawal of feed.

    PubMed

    Webster, A B

    2000-02-01

    To approximate a commercially induced molt, feed was withdrawn (FW) from Hy-Line W-36 hens (65-wk-old) until they lost 35% of their initial body weight. Behaviors of 36 FW hens and 36 control hens were videorecorded on Days 1 to 3, 8 to 10, and 19 to 21 of FW, when FW hens reached 15, 25, and 35% body weight loss. The FW hens then were fed a pullet grower ration until Day 28 after the start of FW, whereupon they were provided a layer ration. Second cycle production of FW hens to 40 wk postmolt initiation averaged 15.5 dozen eggs/hen housed. The FW hens manifested increased aggression on the first d of FW, perhaps indicative of frustration, and then exhibited increased standing, head movement, and nonnutritive pecking on Day 2, followed by reduction of these actions on Day 3. Resting behavior was observed 24 and 40% of the time for FW hens on Days 8 to 10 and 19 to 21 of the FW period, respectively. Nonnutritive pecking was higher for FW hens than for control hens throughout the FW period. Preening was more frequent for FW hens on Days 8 to 10, probably due to skin sensitivity near the start of feather push out, which began on Day 11. Behavior during the feed withdrawal period was consistent with conservation of bodily reserves, but FW hens never lost their capability for alertness and reactivity. The FW hens had significantly lower mortality during the study than control hens (2 vs 12%, respectively). PMID:10735746

  11. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation andeggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated.Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs. PMID:24931965

  12. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun-Ichi; Yanagita, Kouichi; Fukumori, Rika; Sugino, Toshihisa; Fujita, Masanori; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; McMurtry, John P; Bungo, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate whether insulin acts differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of two types of commercial chicks to control ingestive behavior. Male layer and broiler chicks (4-day-old) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with saline or insulin under satiated and starved conditions. Feed intake was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after treatment. Secondly, blood and hypothalamus were collected from both chick types under ad libitum feeding and fasting for 24 h. Plasma insulin concentration was measured by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The ICV injection of insulin significantly inhibited feed consumption in layer chicks when compared with saline (P<0.05), but not broiler chicks (P>0.1). Plasma insulin concentration of both chick types significantly decreased following 24 h of fasting, while insulin concentrations in the broiler chicks were significantly higher compared to the layers fed under ad libitum conditions. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in broiler chicks than in layer ones under ad libitum feeding. Feed deprivation significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA levels in layer chicks (P<0.01), but not in broiler chicks (P>0.1). Moreover, plasma insulin concentrations correlated negatively with hypothalamic insulin receptor protein expression in the two types of chicks fed ad libitum (P<0.05). These results suggest that insulin resistance exists in the CNS of broiler chicks, possibly due to persistent hyperinsulinemia, which results in a down-regulation of CNS insulin receptor expression compared to that in layer chicks. PMID:21316379

  13. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 ?g 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. PMID:25743414

  14. Anatomical organization of the visual dorsal ventricular ridge in the chick (Gallus gallus): Layers and columns in the avian pallium.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Galleguillos, Patricio; Fernndez, Mximo; Marin, Gonzalo J; Letelier, Juan C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) is one of the main components of the sauropsid pallium. In birds, the DVR is formed by an inner region, the nidopallium, and a more dorsal region, the mesopallium. The nidopallium contains discrete areas that receive auditory, visual, and multisensory collothalamic projections. These nidopallial nuclei are known to sustain reciprocal, short-range projections with their overlying mesopallial areas. Recent findings on the anatomical organization of the auditory DVR have shown that these short-range projections have a columnar organization that closely resembles that of the mammalian neocortex. However, it is unclear whether this columnar organization generalizes to other areas within the DVR. Here we examine in detail the organization of the visual DVR, performing small, circumscribed deposits of neuronal tracers as well as intracellular fillings in brain slices. We show that the visual DVR is organized in three main laminae, the thalamorecipient nucleus entopallium; a dorsally adjacent nidopallial lamina, the intermediate nidopallium; and a contiguous portion of the ventral mesopallium, the mesopallium ventrale. As in the case of the auditory DVR, we found a highly topographically organized system of reciprocal interconnections among these layers, which was formed by dorsoventrally oriented, discrete columnar bundles of axons. We conclude that the columnar organization previously demonstrated in the auditory DVR is not a unique feature but a general characteristic of the avian sensory pallium. We discuss these results in the context of a comparison between sauropsid and mammalian pallial organization. PMID:25982840

  15. Relationship between vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in tissues of the newly hatched chick.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F; Noble, R C; Speake, B K

    1999-07-01

    1. The effect of supplementing the diet of the parent hen with vitamin E on the vitamin E content of the yolk and of embryonic and neonatal tissues was evaluated and the effects of elevated tissue concentrations of vitamin E on peroxidation susceptibility was examined. 2. Laying hens (Ross 1 broiler-breeder strain) were maintained on diets containing either 147 (control diet) or 365 (high vitamin E diet) microg vitamin E/g feed. 3. In the day-16 embryo, the concentrations of of vitamin E in the yolk sac membrane, liver, brain and lung were respectively 5.0, 4.3, 1.7 and 5.6 times greater for those derived from the hens on the high vitamin E diet compared with those from the control group. 4. In the day-old chick, the concentrations of vitamin E in the yolk sac membrane, liver, brain and lung were respectively 14.8, 2.8, 3.0 and 5.1 times greater for those derived from hens on the high vitamin E diet compared with those from the control group. 5. Homogenates of tissues from the day-old chick were incubated in the absence and presence of Fe2+ in order to determine the extent of spontaneous and iron-stimulated peroxidation as measured by the generation of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. For the chicks derived from hens on the control diet, the brain was markedly more susceptible to both spontaneous and iron-stimulated peroxidation than were the other tissues. Tissues from the chicks derived from the hens on the high vitamin E diet exhibited significantly reduced susceptibilities to peroxidation. In particular, the susceptibility of the brain was reduced to the same level as that of the other tissues. 6. It is concluded that the high peroxidative susceptibility of the chick's brain can be normalised by supplementation of the parent hen with vitamin E. PMID:10475640

  16. Organ weight and serum triglyceride responses of older (80 week) commercial laying hens fed an alfalfa meal molt diet.

    PubMed

    Landers, K L; Moore, R W; Herrera, P; Landers, D A; Howard, Z R; McReynolds, J L; Bryd, J A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2008-09-01

    Since one of the costs in the commercial egg industry is that of replacement pullets, commercial egg layer managers have opted to induce molt older hens in order to extend their productive life for additional egg laying cycles. Conventional molt induction involves the complete removal of feed for several days. However, this management practice can lead to deleterious physiological responses by the hen and subsequent susceptibility to infection by pathogens. Consequently less stressful molting regimens involving the feeding of low energy diets such as alfalfa have been developed. In this study, 80 week old laying hens that were deprived of feed or fed alfalfa meal during a nine day induced molt. Full fed hens were used as the control. On day 8 serum triglycerides were quantified and on day 9 hens were euthanized and the liver, spleen, heart, intestine, pancreas, ovary, and kidney were collected and weighed. Intestinal weight were highest in the non-molted hens, lower in the hens fed alfalfa, and lower still in the hens deprived of feed. Molted hens exhibited reduced weights of liver, heart, ovary, and pancreas compared to the non-molted hens. Serum triglycerides were highest in the non-molted hens, less in feed deprived hens, and the lowest in alfalfa fed hens. These results suggest that a comparable molt could be achieved with feeding alfalfa meal to 80 week hens compared to feed deprivation. PMID:18164195

  17. Influence of toe-clipping and stocking density on laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Goodling, A C; Satterlee, D G; Cerniglia, G J; Jacobs-Perry, L A

    1984-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of toe-clipping and bird density on laying hen performance. Toe-clipping was done on day-old chicks by removal of the digital claws from the front toes. Toe-clipped (TC) and intact (IN) pullets were assigned randomly to laying cages (Experiments 1 and 2, 19 weeks of age) or housed in similar body weight groups (Experiment 3, 18 weeks of age) at caging densities of either 4 (465 cm2/hen) or 5 (372 cm2/hen) hens per cage. Experiment 3 body weight groups were: heavy (greater than or equal to 1475 g), medium (greater than or equal to 1375 g, but less than 1475 g), light (greater than or equal to 1275 g, but less than 1375 g), and extra light (less than 1275 g). Body weights were determined at various ages during the grow-out and egg-laying periods. Beginning at 22 weeks of age, average daily egg weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, hen-day egg production, and mortality measures were made for 12 periods of lay of 28 days each. In Experiments 1 and 2, IN pullets were consistently heavier throughout the grow-out period and consumed significantly more feed during the egg laying period than TC birds. Significantly greater average daily egg weights were found in IN than in TC hens in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Increasing the number of hens from 4 to 5 hens per cage resulted in a significant reduction in feed intake and body weight gain in Experiments 1, 2, and 3. In Experiment 1, mean daily egg weight was significantly increased (.11 g) upon crowding. In Experiment 2, crowding elevated mortality. In Experiments 1 and 2, but not 3, a significant toe treatment by bird density interaction was observed for hen-day egg production. The IN birds had lowered hen-day egg production rates when crowded than when they were afforded more space, whereas hen-day egg production was elevated in crowded TC hens when compared to TC hens housed at the less crowded density. In Experiment 3, an initial (4 weeks of age) significant depression in pullet body weight was found in the TC pullets but disappeared by the 8th week. Feed usage was also significantly greater in IN than in TC hens in Experiment 3. Toe treatment did not affect any other hen performance variable measured. Egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion measures varied by body weight groups. In general, the heavier hens consumed more feed and laid heavier eggs, but they were less efficient in converting feed into eggs. PMID:6483737

  18. Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy breed) and white (light breed) laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M

    2010-03-01

    Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869

  19. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  20. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period. Moreover under COLDS condition, SOD production of LOW-Inc hens was higher than those of CONT- and HIGH-Inc hens indicating an induction in antioxidant enzyme activity. Nonetheless, prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos had no advantage on laying performance of hens under temperature stress conditions. PMID:25965022

  1. Evaluation of the effect of mannan-oligosaccharides on the competitive exclusion of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, F; Hinton, M; Van Gils, B

    2000-12-01

    This study evaluated the protection against colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the chick's caecum when dosed with caecal contents from hens fed dietary carbohydrates based on mannose. Protection was investigated by comparing the effects of four suspensions of hen caecal contents (HCC) fed diets supplemented with 2.5% D -mannose (MAN-HCC), 2.5% mannoseoligosaccharide (MOS-HCC), 2.5% palm kernel meal (PKM-HCC) or unsupplemented mash (MashHCC). Four trials to quantify and compare their effectiveness, showed that chicks were better protected when given MOS-HCC or PKM-HCC combined with diets supplemented with the same oligosaccharide given to the hens. Protection remained with the caecal contents diluted up to 106-fold but was reduced or lost at higher dilutions, with better protection produced by the addition of carbohydrates to the diet. In conclusion, this study showed that HCC from hens fed diets supplemented with MOS or PKM were more effective against S. Enteritidis colonization in chicks than the HCC from hens fed unsupplemented mash. PMID:19184854

  2. Histopathological and biochemical changes associated with selenium and vitamin E deficiency in chicks.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S; Hakkarainen, J; Jönsson, L; Työppönen, J

    1990-10-01

    One day old unsexed White Leghorn chicks obtained either from commercial hens fed adequate levels of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) (Comm. chicks), or from hens depleted in both nutrients (Depl. chicks), were fed a low Se-VE semi-synthetic basal diet. The dietary Se content was kept constantly low, while graded levels of VE as dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (dl-alpha Ta), (0, 5, 10 or 15 mg VE/kg diet) were fed for six weeks. An efficient carry-over of Se and VE from hens to their progeny was observed by a significant increase in their muscle Se, liver Se-glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), and VE content at hatching. In the Depl. chicks, signs of Se-VE deficiency, i.e. exudative diathesis (ED) were observed at hatching, indicating that the deficiency lesions had developed during the embryonic period, whereas these signs were not observed in Comm. chicks on the depletion diets until they were 2 weeks old. The VE supplemental level of 15 mg/kg was not adequate to provide a complete protection against ED. Exudative diathesis was associated with low levels of muscle Se, liver Se-GSH-Px and VE and was also accompanied by a simultaneous increase in the liver non-Se-GSH-Px. Autopsy findings and histopathological lesions were observed only in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. The subcutaneous tissue was edematous with hyaline vascular lesions and hemorrhages. The thigh muscles were more susceptible to deficiency lesions than were the breast muscles, and showed in acute stages degenerative processes of the muscle fibers including calcium deposits, vascular lesions and hemorrhages. In subacute and chronic cases, reparative changes and muscle damage may develop independently of the hyaline vasculosis. To prevent ED, adequate Se and VE in chick diet is essential after hatching, irrespective of their tissue reserves of both nutrients at 1 day of age. PMID:2127976

  3. Vitamin profiles of eggs as indicators of nutritional status in the laying hen: vitamin A study.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C

    1993-01-01

    Laying hens were fed deficient diets, unsupplemented or supplemented with one, two, or four times the National Research Council requirement level of vitamin A for 27 wk. Vitamin A levels of egg yolk from hens fed the unsupplemented diet slowly declined but levels of vitamin A stabilized at 12 wk in the supplemented groups and were related to dietary level. Egg production of hens fed the unsupplemented diet declined significantly after 12 wk and egg yolk levels continued to decline to Week 27. Hatchability of eggs laid by the unsupplemented hens was significantly lower at Weeks 25 and 26 than hatchability for those hens receiving dietary vitamin A. Hen weight, egg weight, and shell thickness were not consistently changed by treatment. In a second experiment, hens were fed a diet with and without 9,000 IU vitamin A/kg of diet. With birds receiving the supplemented diet, egg yolk vitamin A levels were stable after 13 wk, whereas egg yolk levels from unsupplemented hens declined slowly. Egg production with the unsupplemented diet was significantly reduced after 16 wk but the magnitude of the reduction was less than that in the first experiment, although egg vitamin A levels were as low as those in the first experiment. Hatchability of eggs during Weeks 25 to 28 was greatly reduced. Egg weight, albumen score, and chick weight were not consistently altered by vitamin A status. Because declines in egg yolk vitamin A do not precede declines in egg production they are not useful to predict future vitamin A deficiency in laying hens. PMID:8426843

  4. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Ccile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  6. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (=?group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n?=?40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated. PMID:26364806

  7. Hypothalamic vasotocin and tyrosine hydroxylase levels following maternal care and selection for low mortality in laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feather pecking and cannibalism are major concerns in poultry farming, both in terms of animal welfare and farm economics. Genetic selection and introduction of (aspects of) maternal care have been suggested as potential interventions to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. Altered brain development has been proposed to reflect welfare states in animals, and can provide more insight into the underlying processes involved in feather pecking. Both vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin) and dopaminergic neural circuitry have roles in control of social behaviors as well as in the stress response, and may be linked to feather pecking. Thus, the hypothalamus of adult laying hens selected for low early mortality (LML), which show low feather pecking, was examined and compared with a control line of adult laying hens selected for production characteristics only (CL). The effect of foster hen rearing on the two genetic lines and their hypothalamic morphology was also investigated. Results We demonstrated an increase in the number of neurons positive for the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus in the LML hens compared to CL hens. Hen-reared chicks showed more vasotocin -positive neurons in the medial pre-optic area compared to the hens raised without a hen. No correlations were found between behavior in an open field at 5–6 weeks of age, and the histology of the same hens at adulthood. Conclusion The hypothalamic dopaminergic and vasotinergic systems are altered in hens following genetic selection or maternal care, indicating a potential role for these systems in feather pecking. PMID:25080935

  8. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sijben, J W; Schrama, J W; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J; Klasing, K C

    2001-08-01

    Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on immune responses in poultry have been reported. However, effects on the underlying mechanisms, such as the role of cytokines, have not been documented because the necessary tools were lacking. Recently, primer sets for chicken interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 have become available. Therefore, in the present study we first examined the in vivo effects of an inflammatory challenge with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cytokine profiles in growing laying-type chicks. Second, we examined whether dietary fat sources affected the observed cytokine profiles. Two hundred forty chicks were assigned in a 2 x 4 factorial design of treatments, with injection with LPS or saline and dietary fat source as factors. Factors were i.v. injection with S. typhimurium LPS or saline (control) and four dietary fat sources: corn oil, linseed oil, menhaden oil, and tallow. Two hours after injection, birds were killed, and their spleens were removed for RNA extraction. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions with primer sets for chicken IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, MGF, TGF-beta2, and beta-actin were performed with RNA samples pooled by pen. The expression of cytokine mRNA was expressed relative to the level of beta-actin mRNA. Interleukin-1 (P < 0.001), MGF (P < 0.0001), IL-2 (P < 0.001), and IFN-gamma (P < 0.001) mRNA expressions were enhanced by challenge with LPS. Immunization treatment had no effect on TGF-beta2 or beta-actin expression. Dietary treatment did not affect mRNA expression of IL-1, MGF, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta2, or beta-actin. Interleukin-2 expression in LPS-injected birds that were fed the fish-oil-enriched diet was enhanced (P = 0.05). The present study indicates that in vivo effects of immune challenge on cytokine mRNA expression can be measured in poultry. The observation that mRNA level of IL-2, but not the mRNA levels of IFN-gamma or MGF, is enhanced by dietary fish oil at 2 h suggests that dietary PUFA at this moment initially affected nave T lymphocytes. PMID:11495469

  9. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  10. Black Noddy with Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Black Noddy (with a chick) is one of eight seabird species whose population density was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project. ...

  11. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  12. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the

  13. Whooping Crane Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  14. Whooping Crane Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  15. Effects of pullet-stocking density on performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Carey, J B

    1987-08-01

    Effects of cage-stocking density during the rearing period on three commercial strains housed in open and closed rearing and laying houses were examined in two experiments. Stocking densities in Experiment 1 were 311, 259, and 239 cm2 per bird and in Experiment 2 were 311, 259, and 222 cm2 per bird. In the rearing period, greater stocking densities significantly reduced feed intake and 18-wk body weight and increased age at 50% production. In the second experiment, mortality to 20 wk was higher among birds reared at 222 cm2 per bird compared to the less dense treatments. In the laying phase of the experiments, there were no differences among the treatments in number of eggs per bird housed, layer mortality or kilograms of feed consumed per kilograms of egg produced. Final (499 days) body weight of hens reared at 222 cm2 per bird was significantly less than that of those in the other treatment groups. Egg weight of birds reared at 22 cm2 per bird was significantly greater than that of birds reared at 311 cm2 per bird in Experiment 2. Calculated incomes over feed and chick costs were not different among the treatments in either experiment. A less rapid decline in egg production was noted among birds reared at the highest stocking density over the time of the experiment. PMID:3684850

  16. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  17. A biosensor based on electroactive dipyrromethene-Cu(II) layer deposited onto gold electrodes for the detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus type H5N1 in hen sera.

    PubMed

    Jarocka, Urszula; Sawicka, R?a; Stachyra, Anna; Gra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagrski-Ostoja, W?odzimierz; S?czy?ska, Violetta; Por?bska, Anna; Dehaen, Wim; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a biosensor for the detection of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the influenza virus hemagglutinin. The steps of biosensor fabrications are as follows: (i) creation of a mixed layer containing the thiol derivative of dipyrromethene and 4-mercapto-1-butanol, (ii) complexation of Cu(II) ions, (iii) oriented immobilization of the recombinant histidine-tagged hemagglutinin, and (iv) filling free spaces with bovine serum albumin. The interactions between recombinants hemagglutinin from the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 and anti-hemagglutinin H5 monoclonal antibodies were explored with Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry. The biosensor displayed a good detection limit of 2.4 pg/mL, quantification limit of 7.2 pg/mL, and dynamic range from 4.0 to 100.0 pg/mL in buffer. In addition, this analytical device was applied for the detection of antibodies in hen sera from individuals vaccinated and non-vaccinated against the avian influenza virus type H5N1. The limit of detection for the assay was the dilution of sera 1: 7??10(6), which is about 200 times better than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:26297459

  18. Effect of supplementing the hen's diet with vitamin A on the accumulation of vitamins A and E, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the egg yolk and in the embryonic liver.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F; Ionov, I A; Kuklenko, T V; Kostjuk, I A; MacPherson, A; Speake, B K; Noble, R C; Sparks, N H

    1998-05-01

    1. The effect of a range of supplementations of vitamin A to the laying hen on the concentration of vitamins A, E, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the maternal liver, the egg yolk and the embryonic liver were investigated. 2. Four groups of 25 Rhode Island Red hens were fed on standard layer-breeder diets with concentrations of supplemented vitamin A ranging from 0 to 120 micrograms/g retinol equivalents from 28 weeks of age. After 3 months, the concentration of vitamin A in the maternal liver was found to be greatly enhanced in proportion to the increasing rates of supplementation with the vitamin. However, the concentration of vitamin E in the maternal liver was markedly reduced by high dietary contents of vitamin A. 3. The concentration of vitamin A in the yolk of the hens' eggs was markedly increased by the dietary supplementation. However, the concentration of both vitamin E and carotenoids in the yolks were significantly reduced by high dietary contents of vitamin A. 4. The concentration of vitamin A in the liver of the embryo and the day old chick was greatly increased by the high concentrations of maternal vitamin A provision. However, the concentration of vitamin E, carotenoids and ascorbic acid in the embryonic/neonatal liver were significantly reduced by high contents of vitamin A in the maternal diet. 5. The susceptibility of the embryonic/neonatal liver to lipid peroxidation was significantly increased as a result of high provisions of maternal vitamin A. 6. It is concluded that excessive provision of vitamin A to the laying hen results in an adverse effect on vitamin E, carotenoids and ascorbic acid in the embryonic/neonatal liver and can compromise the antioxidant status of the progeny. PMID:9649881

  19. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 185-197, 2016. PMID:26419601

  20. Silicate pneumoconiosis in hens.

    PubMed

    Roperto, F; Borzacchiello, G; Ungaro, R; Galati, P

    2000-05-01

    Thirteen cases of silicate pneumoconiosis in 3- to 4-year-old hens are described. Ten of the birds were raised in the suburbs of a city near several chalk quarries and two cement-works; the remaining three hens (aged 3 years) had lived in an environment with high particulate pollution from a nearby brick-works in which large amounts of clay were used daily. Silicotic granulomas composed of dust-laden macrophages were scattered over the lungs. They were located mainly in the infundibula and atria of tertiary bronchi and around vessels; more rarely they occurred in the lamina propria mucosae of primary and secondary bronchi. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis coupled with both transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the dust was composed mainly of silicon, aluminium, calcium, iron and potassium. Titanium, sulphur, magnesium, zinc, copper and chlorine were also found. It is concluded that animals raised in polluted environmental conditions may serve as an important indicator of risks to human health and pathogenetic mechanisms. Thirteen cases of silicate pneumoconiosis in 3- to 4-year-old hens are described. Ten of the birds were raised in the suburbs of a city near several chalk quarries and two cement-works; the remaining three hens (aged 3 years) had lived in an environment with high particulate pollution from a nearby brick-works in which large amounts of clay were used daily. Silicotic granulomas composed of dust-laden macrophages were scattered over the lungs. They were located mainly in the infundibula and atria of tertiary bronchi and around vessels; more rarely they occurred in the lamina propria mucosae of primary and secondary bronchi. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis coupled with both transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the dust was composed mainly of silicon, aluminium, calcium, iron and potassium. Titanium, sulphur, magnesium, zinc, copper and chlorine were also found. It is concluded that animals raised in polluted environmental conditions may serve as an important indicator of risks to human health and pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:10805978

  1. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  2. Fear responses of offspring from divergent quail stress response line hens treated with corticosterone during egg formation.

    PubMed

    Davis, K A; Schmidt, J B; Doescher, R M; Satterlee, D G

    2008-07-01

    Increased fearfulness has been associated with adrenocortical activation. Maternal corticosterone (B) treatment increases egg B, and elevated B in ovo enhances chick avoidance of humans. Quail selected for exaggerated (high stress, HS) rather than reduced (low stress, LS) plasma B response to stress are more fearful, and more B is found in HS hen eggs. Thus, we used tonic immobility (TI) and hole-in-the-wall box (HWB) emergence tests to assess fear in chicks hatched from eggs of LS and HS hens implanted with B or no B (CON). The number of inductions required to attain TI, latency to first alert head movement, and duration of TI were determined in one study and the latency until first vocalization (LATVOC), numbers of vocalizations (VOCS), proportions of chicks vocalizing, and the latencies to head (HE) and full-body (FE) emergence from a HWB were assessed in another. The LS chicks required less inductions (P < 0.0005) and had shorter latency to first alert head movement (P < 0.02) than HS chicks, although the duration of TI was unaffected by any of the treatments. During the acclimation period of the HWB tests, more (proportions of chicks vocalizing; P < 0.0001) HS chicks alarm-called sooner (LATVOC; P < 0.0001) and more often (VOCS; P < 0.0001) than did LS chicks, and, although maternal implant treatment did not affect LATVOC, progeny of B-implanted hens showed a tendency toward less (P < 0.07) VOCS than the CON. Chicks hatched from eggs of B-implant mothers also took longer to achieve HE (P < 0.06) and FE (P < 0.05) from the HWB than did their CON counterparts. Stress line, implantation treatment, and their interaction did not alter HE or FE responses. The data suggest that quail stress line genome may or may not be affecting certain fear and alarm responses in chicks via the same mechanism(s) that underlies how elevating maternal B increases egg levels of B that in turn alters the fear behavior of progeny. PMID:18577609

  3. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...

  4. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  5. [Concentration and distribution of fluorine in hen's eggs as an aspect of selected biological parameters].

    PubMed

    Machali?ski, B

    1996-01-01

    The actual paper presents the method and results of studies concerning the content and decomposition of fluorine compounds in the component structures of eggs and in the bone system of a domestic hen, as well as its progeny under conditions of increased content of these compounds in the drinking water. The objective of the paper has been: 1) determining the effect of environmental contamination (NaF in drinking water) exerted on the presence of fluorine in eggs, 2) defining the distribution of fluorine in component structures of the egg, 3) studying the fluorine effect on selected physical parameters of eggs, 4) determination of fluorine content in tibial bones of laying hens, after receiving NaF in drinking water, and to compare the tibial bone composition in hens and their progeny with control groups, 5) analyzing the share of fluorine compounds in the construction of skeleton and beaks of chicks. The conceptions of the work were elaborated on the basis of results stemming from an accomplished experimental breeding of domestic hens in a semi-intensive system. The experiment proceeded 4 weeks. A part of eggs obtained by breeding was designed for hatching. Due to the requirements associated with analyzing the skeleton, all the experimental birds, including the chicks, were assigned for further analyses. The material, obtained in this way, (bones of hens, chicks, eggs) was subsequently subjected to detailed studies. According to the conceptions of the paper the selected physical parameters of eggs were studied, therein resistance tests, using specialized apparatuses. Fluoride was determined potentiometrically, by applying fluoride ion selective electrode, while the metallic elements by aid of atomic spectrophotometer (Tab. 1-5, Fig. 1). Finally, the following conclusions were presented, namely: 1. The egg shell in hens plays an essential role in binding fluorine compounds and constitutes one of the means of their fast elimination from the organism. 2. Egg shells may provide an easily accessible bioindicator for the exposure of birds to fluorine compound, particularly with regard to a given species. 3. Moderately increased fluorine content in the shells of eggs fails to influence their thickness and does not cause any changes in their resistance to decay. 4. In conditions of increased exposure of hens to fluorine compounds, no elevation in the accumulation of this element was disclosed in the substance, which is evidence that there is a lack of apparent influence of local contamination by emissions of fluorine compounds exerted on nutritional usefulness of eggs. 5. Comparison of fluorine content in the bones of chicks, stemming from hens being given water with NaF to drink, with control hens points to a significant rise in fluoride accumulation in progeny of hens, exposed to sodium fluoride action. That may have a negative influence on their correct development. PMID:9199123

  6. Recovery of fertility from adult ovarian tissue transplanted into week-old Japanese quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    Fertility of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from immature chickens and Japanese quail has been recovered by transplantation. This is of special importance for non-mammalian vertebrates in which cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes are challenging because their oogenesis is characterised by vitellogenesis. This study tested whether fertility of adult quail ovarian tissue could be recovered by transplantation. Ovaries were isolated from mature Japanese quail hens, trimmed, cut into 3- to 4-mm2 pieces and transplanted into ovariectomised, week-old chicks. Recipients were administered an immunosuppressant for two weeks. Ten of 12 recipients survived until sexual maturity and seven laid eggs, but all stopped laying by 17 weeks of age. The age at first egg of recipients laying eggs (75.74.2 days) was greater than that of untreated hens (51.81.7 days) and egg production of recipients during the laying period (21.75.7) was less than that of untreated hens (60.83.5). Recipients were paired with males from the WB line for test mating. Only two hens laid eggs during the test period but both produced 100% donor-derived offspring. This research demonstrated that the reproductive potential of ovarian tissue from adult quail hens can be restored by transplantation. PMID:24157187

  7. Net transfer and incorporation of yolk n-3 fatty acids into developing chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Sim, J S

    1993-01-01

    The effect of egg yolk fatty acid composition on the uptake and utilization of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids by the developing chick embryo was studied. Eggs were enriched with n-9, n-3, or n-6 fatty acids by incorporating sunflower seed high in oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), flax seed rich in linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), or sunflower seed high in linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) into the laying hen diets. Fertile eggs were collected and incubated. The fatty acid composition of eggs and newly hatched chicks were compared. Feeding diets containing flax seed increased (P < .05) total n-3 fatty to 528.4 mg compared with 53.9 and 39.3 mg for eggs from hens fed diets with high oleic acid or regular sunflower seed, respectively. Levels of C18:2 n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in eggs from hens fed diets containing regular or high oleic acid sunflower seeds. Dietary fat did not influence the total lipid content of the egg yolk or total lipids of chick tissues. The fatty acid composition of the hatched progeny was significantly altered by egg yolk lipids. However, the percentage incorporation of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids into the progeny increased when yolk sources of these fatty acids were low. The developing chick embryo appeared to preferentially take up docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid from the yolk lipids. Evidence also suggests that conversion of C18:2 n-6 and C18:2 n-3 to longer chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids occurs during the incubation period. PMID:8426851

  8. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; Johnson, R P; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissues of 580 hens (433 seropositive) from the seven flocks detected 26 (4.5%) S. enteritidis-infected hens from two flocks. In one flock, 2/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis phage type (PT) 8, which was confined to the ceca, and no Salmonella spp. were isolated from 2520 eggs (one day's lay). In the second flock, where 24/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis PT13, extraintestinal infection was found in nine hens and involved the ovaries and/or oviduct in two hens. Salmonella enteritidis PT13 was isolated from one sample of egg contents and from one sample of cracked shells from among 14,040 eggs (one day's lay) from this flock. The overall prevalence of S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs from the two flocks with infected hens was less than 0.06%. Other Salmonella spp. isolated were S. heidelberg from 58 hens (10%), and S. hadar, S. mbandaka and S. typhimurium from one hen (0.2%) each. The MAT with antigens of S. pullorum had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 24% for detecting S. enteritidis-infected hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423059

  9. Clostridium chauvoei in hens.

    PubMed

    Prukner-Radovcic, E; Milakovic-Novak, L; Ivesa-Petricevic, S; Grgic, N

    1995-03-01

    The bacterium Clostridium chauvoei causes disease in certain animals, most frequently in cattle and sheep. It occurs rarely in pigs, while equines and poultry appear to be resistant to infection. Two cases are presented in which C. chauvoei was isolated from disease of complex aetiology in hens. In Case I, 15-week-old light hybrid chickens were affected with chronic respiratory disease, coccidiosis, ascariasis and inflammation of the skin on the head, with necrosis of the comb. Growth was uneven and mortality reached 24%. Clostridium chauvoei was isolated from two of three combs examined. In Case II a flock of broiler breeders aged 11 weeks developed coccidiosis and, owing to disease or death, 60% were excluded from production. Clostridium chauvoei was isolated from all of 10 livers examined. These results demonstrate that C. chauvoei can infect chickens and that its possible role as a pathogen under certain circumstances should be further investigated. PMID:18645777

  10. Comparison of bones of 4 strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Korver, D R

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of bone strength has been an important issue in the debate over cage use for laying hens. Bone strength depends on adequate mechanical load and cages restrict movement. Four laying crosses (Lohmann White, Lohmann Brown, H&N White, and Rhode Island Red Barred Plymouth Rock cross hens) were housed in conventional cages or in floor pens equipped with perches and nest boxes to measure the effect of the housing system on bone strength. Approximately 15 hens of each genotype from each housing system were killed at 50 wk of age and the radius and tibia of each were removed for analysis. There were no differences between the Lohmann White and H&N White (White Leghorn) hens, likely because of their similar genetic background. The Lohmann Brown and the cross hens (brown-egg layers) were larger and they had heavier bones, but the bone density was not different from that of the other lines. The radius was heavier for hens kept in floor pens than for those kept in cages, but the tibia was not. When hens were kept in floor pens, both bones had greater cortical bone density and cross-sectional area, but the difference between housing systems in cortical bone cross-sectional area was much greater for the radius than it was for the tibia. Although the movement of hens in cages is limited, they spend a great deal of time standing, which puts a mechanical load on the tibia. Hens in floor pens are able to stretch their wings or fly, in contrast to hens kept in cages, which likely explains why the difference between housing systems in cortical bone was greater for the radius than for the tibia. PMID:22184423

  11. Olfactory lateralization in the chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

    1994-04-01

    Chicks using their right nostril (and so with direct olfactory input to the right hemisphere), and presented simultaneously with two objects identical in visual appearance with the rearing object, and differing only in odour, chose that which smelled like the rearing object. Chicks using the left nostril chose equally readily but at random. Earlier work, using similar tests, has shown special interest of the right hemisphere in change in visual properties of familiar stimuli, suggesting that analysis of a wide range of properties of a familiar stimulus may be an important function of the right hemisphere in the chick, with consequent detection of novelty. PMID:8047249

  12. Comparative plasma lipid response of pullets and laying hens to estradiol and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Hagan, R C; Leszczynski, D E; Kummerow, F A

    1984-12-01

    The effects of estradiol and progesterone treatment on plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were measured in laying hens and sexually immature pullets. Pullets and hens were divided into three groups and injected with estradiol (1 mg/kg bw), progesterone (4 mg/kg bw), or vehicle (propylene glycol) once each day for 14 days. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 24 hr after the 7th and 14th treatments. Plasma progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (C), and phospholipids (PL) were measured. E2 treatments elevated hen plasma TG 7.2X, PL 5.1X, and C 7.2X; and pullet plasma TG 6.8X, PL 3.7X, and C 2.5X. However, because hen plasma was initially mildly hyperlipidemic, the E2-treated hens developed severe hyperlipidemia, but egg production was unaffected. Progesterone treatments of pullets had little or no effect on plasma lipids, but progesterone treatment of hens significantly reduced initial plasma TG and PL and also reduced egg production. No substantial differences were found in circulating E2 or P in hormone-treated hens and pullets, which indicated no extreme differences in plasma hormone clearance rates. These results indicate that long-term rather than short-term hepatic priming may account for observed differences in layer and pullet response to estradiol treatment. PMID:6506074

  13. Proteomic analysis of hen egg white.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Pasco, Maryvonne; Mollé, Daniel; Désert, Colette; Croguennec, Thomas; Nau, Françoise

    2006-05-31

    Hen egg white is an original biological fluid in which major proteins have been widely studied, unlike the minor components. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry enabled the separation of 69 protein spots and their matching with major proteins, which were already known, and with minor proteins. Sixteen proteins were identified, and among them, two had never been previously detected in hen egg white, i.e., Tenp, a protein with strong homology with a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI), and VMO-1, an outer layer vitelline membrane protein. Thirteen proteins present a very wide polymorphism (ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, clusterin, etc.), some of them up to nine isoforms (ovoinhibitor). Eleven functional protein families were identified (serpin, transferrin, protease inhibitors Kazal, glycosyl hydrolases, lipocalin, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, clusterin, UPAR/CD59/Ly6/ snake neurotoxin, cysteine protease inhibitor, VMO-1, and folate receptor families). These various biological functions could be interesting for further valorizations. In addition, three spots remain unidentified, probably because these proteins are not yet indexed in the international protein databanks. PMID:16719513

  14. Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2006-01-01

    In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

  15. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture. PMID:24092434

  16. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-C. jejuni metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Schoeni, J L; Doyle, M P

    1992-01-01

    Cecum-colonizing bacteria were isolated from Campylobacter jejuni-free White Leghorn (Gallus domesticus) laying hens and screened for the ability to produce anti-C. jejuni metabolites. Nine isolates were obtained that possessed this characteristic. The peroral administration of the nine isolates as a mixture (ca. 10(9) per chick) to 1-day-old chicks was followed 1 week later by peroral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni (ca. 10(9) per chick) to determine if the cecal isolates could protect chicks from colonization by campylobacters. The nine-strain mixture of cecal bacteria provided from 41 to 85% protection from C. jejuni colonization. The protective bacteria were reduced to a mixture of three strains on the basis of their ability to utilize mucin as a sole substrate for growth. These strains included Klebsiella pneumoniae 23, Citrobacter diversus 22, and Escherichia coli (O13:H-) 25. Four feeding trials with this three-strain mixture provided from 43 to 100% (average, 78%) protection from C. jejuni colonization. The dominant cecal bacterium of chicks treated with the three-strain mixture was consistently E. coli O13:H-. Similarly, three trials with only E. coli 25 used as the protective bacterium resulted in 49 to 72% (average, 59%) protection from C. jejuni colonization, with E. coli O13:H- being the dominant cecal bacterium in all cases. Although not completely effective, E. coli 25 substantially reduced the incidence of C. jejuni colonization of chicks. For all trials, fewer C. jejuni were present in the ceca of colonized chicks receiving the protective bacteria before exposure to C. jejuni than in chicks receiving only C. jejuni.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1610187

  17. Threonine requirements of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, T; Ogawa, Y; Itoh, T; Fujimura, S; Koide, K; Watanabe, R

    1998-07-01

    In order to determine the Thr requirement of laying hens, two experiments were conducted using laying performance and plasma Thr concentration as parameters. At 29 and 39 wk of age, 100 and 600 laying hens in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, with average BW and high egg production rate, were randomized, housed in individual cages, and given free access to water and experimental diets with five graded levels of Thr: 0.31, 0.39, 0.46, 0.54, and 0.61% for 21 d in Experiment 1 and diets with 0.31, 0.36, 0.41, 0.46 and 0.51% Thr for 58 d in Experiment 2. On the last day of the experiment, blood samples were taken for determination of plasma amino acid concentration. Feed intake and daily egg mass increased and then decreased linearly as dietary Thr increased. Plasma Thr increased slowly, then sharply with increasing dietary Thr levels. Using the broken-line model, the Thr requirements were estimated to be 0.425, 0.428, and 0.430% or 453, 456, and 458 mg/hen per d in Experiment 1 and 0.395, 0.404, and 0.400%, or 457, 467, and 462 mg/hen per d, in Experiment 2, for egg mass, feed efficiency, and plasma Thr concentration, respectively. These results indicate that the Thr requirements expressed as milligrams per hen per day as determined by plasma Thr concentration agree with those of laying performance. PMID:9657610

  18. Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1–1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of duck, whereas the vaginal thickness and weight were greater in duck than the hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina. PMID:25653742

  19. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen.

    PubMed

    Abou Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  20. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen

    PubMed Central

    ABOU ELAZAB, Mohamed Fahmy; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  1. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and shell eggs. Eggshells testing positive for Salmonella were 59 times higher when fecal samples were positive and nine times higher when floor dust samples were positive. Risk factors associated with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in laying hens were flock size, housing system, and farms with hens of different ages. As a summary, this systematic review demonstrated that Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs in layer production systems is multifactorial. This study provides a knowledge base for the implementation of targeted intervention strategies to control Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs. PMID:26473681

  2. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

  3. Tissue-specific regulation of shell gland calbindin D28K biosynthesis by estradiol in precociously matured, vitamin D-depleted chicks.

    PubMed

    Corradino, R A; Smith, C A; Krook, L P; Fullmer, C S

    1993-01-01

    Provision of Ca2+ for egg shell calcification in the avian uterus [egg shell gland (ESG)] derives mostly from vitamin D-dependent intestinal Ca2+ absorption from the diet. Ca2+ absorption is strongly linked to the intestinal vitamin D-dependent calbindin D28K (D28K) concentration. The laying hen ESG also contains D28K, and again, Ca2+ transport into the shell appeared to be linked to the ESG D28K concentration. However, evidence is now presented that ESG D28K synthesis may be estradiol (E2) dependent and vitamin D independent under certain conditions. One-day-old female chicks fed a vitamin D-free diet for as long as 6 weeks and then repeatedly injected im with E2 for up to 3 more weeks developed frank rickets, but possessed precociously matured reproductive tracts. While the tiny presumptive ESGs of nonestrogenized vitamin D-depleted chicks were devoid of D28K, the highly developed ESG, including the isthmus, of estrogenized chicks contained D28K. The ESGs of nonestrogenized, vitamin D-replete chicks also exhibited no development or detectable D28K. Regardless of whether vitamin D depleted or replete, estrogenized chick ESG contained similar D28K and D28K mRNA concentrations. Immunohistochemical techniques showed that the endometrial cellular localization of both D28K and Ca(2+)-ATPase (Ca2+ pump) in estrogenized chicks was similar to that in mature laying hens. There was no trace of D28K, nor was there any stimulation of Ca2+ absorption, in duodenum of vitamin D-free, immature chicks regardless of E2 treatment. As expected, both D28K and D28K mRNA were present in vitamin D-replete chick duodenum. We conclude that in E2-treated chicks, ESG D28K gene expression may be vitamin D independent and E2 dependent. This is the first clear demonstration of hormone-dependent tissue-specific D28K gene expression in the chick. PMID:8419123

  4. Effects of drinking water treatment on susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced molt.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Byrd, J A; Moore, R W; Ricke, S C; Nisbet, D J

    2005-02-01

    Feed deprivation is used in the layer industry to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens. Unfortunately, the stress involved increases susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis (SE), the risk of SE-positive eggs, and incidence of SE in internal organs. Leghorn hens over 50 wk of age were divided into 4 treatment groups of 12 hens each in experiment 1 and 3 treatment groups of 12 hens in experiments 2 and 3; hens were placed in individual laying hen cages. Treatment groups were 1) nonmolted (NM) and received feed and distilled water for 9 d, 2) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received distilled water, 3) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% lactic acid (LA) in distilled water. An additional group (4) in experiment 1 only was force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% acetic acid in distilled water. Seven days before feed removal hens were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod, which was continued throughout the experiment. Individual hens among all treatments were challenged orally with 10(4) SE on d 4 of feed removal. When compared with the NM treatments, weight losses were significantly higher in the M treatments, regardless of water treatments. When compared with NM treatments, crop pH was significantly higher in the M treatment receiving distilled water. Crop pH was reduced to that of the NM controls by 0.5% acetic acid in the drinking water. No consistent significant changes were observed for volatile fatty acids. The number of hens positive for SE in crop and ceca after culture and the number of SE per crop and per gram of cecal contents were higher in the M treatments, when compared with the NM treatments, but there was no effect of addition of either of the acids to the drinking water. Additional research using different acid treatment regimens may provide a tool for reducing the incidence of SE in eggs and internal organs during and following molting of laying hens. PMID:15742955

  5. Brain, liver and plasma unsaturated aldehydes in nutritional encephalomalacia of chicks.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, H; Sallmann, H P

    2000-04-01

    Vitamin E deficiency and linoleic acid-feeding lead to nutritional encephalomalacia (NE) in chicks, affecting the cerebellum exclusively. The relevance of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products to the pathogenesis of the disease was studied. Laying hens received a diet low in vitamin E. Resulting chicks were assigned to four groups fed either with linoleic (C18: 2n-6) or linolenic (C18: 3n-3) acid together with 1 or 50 p.p.m. vitamin E. Nine days post-hatching NE occurred in the vitamin E-deficient group fed linoleic acid. With each chick showing NE, a healthy one from all four groups was killed. Unsaturated aldehydes were determined in plasma, liver, cerebrum and cerebellum. Results underlined that the type of dietary fat is decisive for the aldehyde pattern. In the liver of linoleic acid-fed animals total aldehydes were increased. Diseased animals had increased aldehydes stemming from n-3 fatty acids. In plasma, vitamin E deficiency led to higher malondialdehyde and OH-nonenal concentrations. In brain, neither vitamin E deficiency nor NE were accompanied by increased aldehyde concentrations. In consequence a direct role of unsaturated aldehydes for the development of NE in the cerebellum is not probable. PMID:10842464

  6. Cu influence on hens egg productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Korotkoval, G. N.

    2003-05-01

    The high Cu content was detected in water, soil and plants of some areas in East Siberia region [1]. That is why it is necessary to study the influence of Cu on animals'productivity and morbidity. 5 group of cross Rodonit hens were taken for an experiment. For 30 days the hens from experimental groups (2 5) were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). In group 1 (control) the egg laying was 0.63 and in group 2 (5 UL)-0.70. Hens of group 3 (10 UL) decreased the egg productivity for 6 days followed by their 3-day cease to lay egg. From the 10th to 22nd day of the experiment the egg productivity restoring was marked (to 0.55). Besides 20% of the hens died for the last 10 days. In group 4 (20 UL) the dramatic decrease in the egg laying was revealed at the very onset and the productivity breaking off from the 9th ... 12th day of the study. 70% of the hens died during the first 13 ... 17 days. In group 5 (30 UL) the egg productivity was 5 times less than in the control for the first decade and all the hens died for 2 ... 14 days. Thus, Cu is toxic in concentrations more than 10 UL and may cause the decrease of the egg productivity and even death of hens.

  7. Effect of substrate provision on performance and behaviour of laying hens in the pecking and scratching area of furnished cages.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salan, A; Guinebretire, M; Michel, V

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was set up to study the effects of substrate provision on performance and behaviour in the pecking and scratching area (PSA) of non-beak-trimmed hens housed in large furnished cages (60 hens/cage). 2. Three layer hybrids (two brown and one white, ISA-Hendrix Genetics, France) and two substrate conditions (with or without wheat bran automatically distributed on the PSA) were compared in a 3 2 experimental design with 12 cages per treatment. 3. Substrate distribution improved laying rate with no impact on the frequency of dirty or cracked eggs. 4. Substrate distribution improved the viability and body integrity of hens, which were not beak-trimmed. 5. Distribution of substrate tended to increase the number of hens in the PSA and enhanced their pecking and scratching behaviours but had a negative impact on the number of dust bath bouts per cage and encouraged dust bathing on the wire floor close to the feeder. 6. The white hens laid more eggs in the nest than the brown birds and used the PSA more for pecking, scratching and dust bathing at the end of the day than the brown hens, underlining the necessity to adapt cage furnishing and rearing management to specific behaviours of each layer genotype. PMID:24875434

  8. Low dietary energy concentration, high nonstarch polysaccharide concentration, and coarse particle sizes of nonstarch polysaccharides affect the behavior of feather-pecking-prone laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was conducted with 504 non-cage-housed ISA Brown laying hens from 18 to 40 wk of age to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) concentration, and particle sizes of added NSP source on the eating behavior, feather-pecking behavior, and hen performance of laying hens. Hens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates per treatment. The factors were control and low energy concentration (2,825 vs. 2,540 kcal/kg), control and high NSP concentration (133 vs. 195 g/kg), and fine vs. coarse particle size of the added NSP source in the high-NSP diets. We hypothesized that eating time would be increased by feeding low-energy diets or coarsely ground, high-NSP diets, or both, resulting in reduced feather-pecking behavior, without negatively affecting hen performance. Energy reduction, NSP addition, and coarse grinding of NSP increased eating time by 14.2% (P = 0.001), 17.2% (P < 0.001), and 7.9% (P = 0.075), respectively, compared with the control level of these factors. Addition of NSP decreased eating rate (g/min) by 21.0% (P = 0.010). Layers already performed gentle feather-pecking behavior during the fifth week of the rearing period. Dietary treatments did not affect the maximal level of feather condition scores, but arise of feather damage was delayed by 10 wk in hens fed low-energy, coarsely ground, NSP-rich diets compared with hens fed control diets. Hens fed the control NSP diets showed reduced culling rates, because of less cannibalistic pecking, when energy concentration was decreased (44.1 vs. 13.1%), whereas in the high-NSP diets, culling rate decreased slightly when hens were fed the low-energy diets (31.6 vs. 28.6%; P = 0.071). Hens that were fed the low-energy diets compensated for the 10% reduction in energy concentration by a 9.3% higher maximal feed intake (143.0 vs. 130.8 g/d). Hen performance and BW gain of the hens were not affected by dietary treatments. We concluded that hens that were fed low-energy or high (coarsely ground)-NSP diets spend more time on feed intake, compared with hens that were fed the control diets. As a result, hens in some treatments showed less feather-pecking behavior. PMID:18281575

  9. Differential involvement of right and left hemisphere in individual recognition in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Andrew, R J

    1994-12-01

    Right hemisphere advantage in individual recognition (as shown by differences between response to strangers and companions) is clear in the domestic chick. Chicks using the left eye (and so, thanks to the complete optic decussation, predominantly the right hemisphere) discriminate between stranger and companion. Chicks using the right eye discriminate less clearly or not at all. The ability of left eyed chicks to respond to differences between strangers and companions stimuli is associated with a more general ability to detect and respond to novelty: this difference between left and right eyed chicks also holds for stimuli which are not social partners. The right hemisphere also shows advantage in tasks with a spatial component (topographical learning; response to change in the spatial context of a stimulus) in the chick, as in humans. Similar specialisations of the two hemispheres are also revealed in tests which involve olfactory cues presented by social partners. The special properties of the left hemisphere are less well established in the chick. Evidence reviewed here suggests that it tends to respond to selected properties of a stimulus and to use them to assign it to a category; such assignment then allows an appropriate response. When exposed to an imprinting stimulus (visual or auditory) a chick begins by using right eye or ear (suggesting left hemisphere control), and then shifts to the left eye or ear (suggesting right hemisphere control), as exposure continues. The left hemisphere here is thus involved whilst behaviour is dominated by vigorous response to releasing stimuli presented by an object. Subsequent learning about the full detailed properties of the stimulus, which is crucial for individual recognition, may explain the shift to right hemisphere control after prolonged exposure to the social stimulus. There is a marked sex difference in choice tests: females tend to choose companions in tests where males choose strangers. It is possible that this difference is specifically caused by stronger motivation to sustain social contact in female chicks, for which there is extensive evidence. However, sex differences in response to change in familiar stimuli are also marked in tests which do not involve social partners. Finally, in both sexes there are two periods during development in which there age-dependent shifts in bias to use one or other hemisphere. These periods (days 3-5 and 8-11) coincide with two major changes in the social behaviour of chicks reared by a hen in a normal brood. It is argued that one function of these periods is to bring fully into play the hemisphere most appropriate to the type of response to, and learning about, social partners which is needed at particular points in development. Parallels are discussed between the involvement of lateralised processes in the recognition of social partners in chicks and humans. PMID:24925239

  10. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  11. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  12. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  13. The effects of different beak trimming techniques on plasma corticosterone and performance criteria in Single Comb White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Davis, G S; Anderson, K E; Jones, D R

    2004-10-01

    DeKalb XL chicks were given a beak trim at 6 d of age (6DP) with a 2.8-mm gauge and a beak trim at 11 wk (11WB) with a block cut approximately 2 mm anterior to the nasal openings. Corticosterone (CS) levels of the 6DP treatment were (P < or = 0.01) elevated above nontrimmed CS levels at 2 h posttrim; and BW and feed consumption (FC) of the 6DP were depressed until 8 wk of age. At 11 wk of age, CS of the 11WB treatment was (P < or = 0.02) elevated above controls at 1, 2, 8, and 5 wk posttrim. The 11WB treatment resulted in a decrease in FC and a reduction in BW at 12, 14, and 16 wk of age, whereas there were no differences among treatments in livability during the pullet phase. At 72 wk of age, FC of the nontrimmed controls was greater than both beak trimmed treatments, and both beak trimmed treatments had greater hen housed eggs, percentage hen day egg production, and percentage livability. Both beak trimmed treatments resulted in better egg income, feed cost per hen, and net income (NI). The 6DP and 11WB beak trim treatments resulted in an improvement of NI per hen of 1.48 dollars and 1.86 dollars, respectively. In addition, both beak trimmed treatments exhibited better feather score and Hansen's test (fearfulness). It was concluded that pullets and hens could adapt to the physiological stress of beak trimming and out perform, during a lay phase, controls whose beaks were not trimmed. PMID:15510544

  14. Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang

    2010-02-10

    The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

  15. Effects of separation of resources on behaviour, physical condition and production of laying hens in furnished cages.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, T; Azuma, T; Eguchi, Y; Uetake, K; Tanaka, T

    2009-01-01

    1. Based on our previous studies, we designed a medium-sized furnished cage with a dust bath and nest box on both sides of the cage (MFS) and evaluated its usefulness. 2. We used 180 White Leghorn layers. At the age of 17 weeks, the birds were distributed at random into one of the 4 cage designs: conventional cages (CC; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage), small (SF; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage) and medium furnished cages (MFL; 6 cages and 10 hens per cage) with a 'localised' dust bath and nest box on one side of the cage, and MFS (6 cages and 10 hens per cage). The total allocation of resources per bird was similar for all furnished cage designs. Behaviour, physical condition and production were measured in each cage. 3. Moving was more frequent in MFS and MFL than in CC and SF. The proportion of hens performing aggressive pecking and severe feather pecking was higher in MFL than CC and SF. These aggressive interactions occurred frequently in the dust bath area in MFL; however, these tendencies were not found in MFS. Egg production and egg mass were lower in MFL than in SF, while the production in MFS was similar to those in CC and SF. MFS hens laid eggs on the cage floor more often than in MFL. 4. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the possible usefulness of MFS. However, some inconsistent results and ways of improving MFS design were also identified. PMID:19234928

  16. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems. PMID:26953938

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chick marginal retina.

    PubMed

    Lima, I P; Saito, K; Hamassaki, D E; Yan, C Y I

    2007-11-01

    The retina is a highly differentiated tissue with a complex layered structure that has been extensively characterized. However, most of the previous studies focused on the histology of the central retina while little is known about the cellular composition, organization and function of the marginal retina. Recent research has identified a subpopulation of multipotential progenitor cells in the marginal regions of the retina, closest to the ciliary body ("ciliary marginal zone"). These cells are capable of differentiation in response to an appropriate stimulus. Thus, it is possible that the structure and composition of the marginal retina are distinct from those of the central retina to accommodate the potential addition of newly formed neurons. To characterize the cellular profile of the chick marginal retina, we labeled it immunohistochemically for markers whose staining pattern is well established in the central retina: calbindin, calretinin, protein kinase C, and choline acetyltransferase. Calbindin was present at very low levels in the marginal retina putative photoreceptor layer. Calretinin-positive horizontal cells were also sparse close to the ciliary marginal zone. The bipolar cells in the marginal outer plexiform layer were positive for anti-protein kinase C antibodies, but the density of labeling was also decreased in relation to the central retina. In contrast, the marginal starburst cholinergic amacrine cell pattern was very similar to the central retina. From these data we conclude that the structure of the marginal retina is significantly different from that of the central retina. In particular, the expression of late retina markers in the marginal retina decreased in comparison to the central retina. PMID:17934642

  18. Food, wood, or plastic as substrates for dustbathing and foraging in laying hens: A preference test.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Urselmans, S; Kjaer, J B; Schrader, L

    2010-08-01

    The provision for dustbathing material will be a legal requirement in cage-housing systems for laying hens within the European Union beginning in 2012. At present, food particles are widely used and typically offered in small amounts on Astroturf mats one or more times per day to facilitate dustbathing, pecking, and scratching. In the present study, we compared layers' preference for food and 3 other (nonnutritive) substrates for foraging and dustbathing. In each of 2 identical trials, 72 hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor and additionally contained 4 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding either wood shavings (WS), lignocellulose (LN, soft wood fiber, pelleted), Astroturf mat without substrate (AT), or food particles (FP). Hens were housed from 18 wk of age and video recordings were done at wk 21, 24, and 27. Time spent and frequency of dustbathing, duration of a single dustbath (DB), frequency of foraging behavior, and relative frequency and duration of behavioral patterns within a single DB were recorded during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. The FP treatment was preferred for foraging over WS, LN, and AT. Time spent dustbathing and number of DB were higher in LN compared with WS, FP, and AT, whereas average duration of a single DB was longer in FP compared with LN and WS. More vertical wing shakes and scratching bouts within a single DB were observed in LN compared with AT. Bill raking occurred more frequently in WS and LN in comparison to FP and AT. No differences in the relative durations of behavioral patterns within a single DB were found. In conclusion, FP were preferred for foraging but not for dustbathing, indicating that FP may not be an optimal dustbathing substrate for laying hens. PMID:20634510

  19. Effects of feeding level during pullet-layer transition and of pretransition lighting on performance of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Cave, N A

    1990-07-01

    Four feeding regimens were compared for the pullet-layer transition period and two light types, white and narrow-band green fluorescent, were compared in the grower period to determine their subsequent effects on reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens. Four limit-feeding treatments imposed from 18 wk (body weight of 1.8 kg) to "mature weight" of 2.8 kg at 27 (Treatment 1), 25 (Treatment 2), 24 (Treatment 3) and 22.5 (Treatment 4) wk of age supported weight gains of, respectively, 15, 19, 23, and 27 g per day. Production of total and hatching eggs was similar among all dietary and lighting treatments. Hens given dietary Treatment 1 had a higher production from 224 to 252 days but had a lower production from 168 to 189 days associated with a 2.6-day later age at 50% egg production. Feeding regimen and lighting treatment had no effect on egg weight, and feeding did not affect mortality. Green lighting reduced mortality from 2.0 to 1.4% at 70 to 126 days and from 5.7 to 4.0% from 126 to 280 days of age, compared with white lighting. Fertility was 5% lower for Treatment 4 versus Treatment 1 and 4% lower for white versus green lighting. The advantage of higher initial hatching egg production obtained with rapid growth, of greater than 15 g per day, during the transition period was outweighed by detrimental effects on production and fertility in later periods. Green light may increase chick production per hen housed by causing decreased pullet mortality and increased fertility. PMID:2235833

  20. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective tools to assess the economic effect of selection and flock management programs because biological, allocative, and economic factors can be independently analyzed. PMID:20634536

  1. BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) has led to public concern regarding the well-being of hens. Behavioral changes in animals have been used to evaluate well-being and behavioral-managerial interactions. A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 line (65 wk of age) were divided evenl...

  2. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  3. Fluoride tolerance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, C B; Casey, N H; Meyer, J A

    1997-12-01

    1. One thousand Silver Grey Hyline hens were given drinking water containing 5 concentrations of added sodium fluoride (0, 6, 10, 14 and 20 mg/l) over a 17-week growth and 57-week laying period. The natural fluoride content of the water was 0.21 mg/l during the growing period and 0.29 mg/l throughout lay. 2. During the rearing phase, efficiency of food utilisation and mortality were not significantly affected by the fluoride concentration of the water. Weight gain and food intake decreased in the 10 and 14 mg/l fluoride treatments. 3. During the laying period, the fluoride content of the water had a significant effect on egg production, but eggshell breaking strength was not significantly influenced. 4. Post mortem analyses, carried out at the end of lay (74 weeks of age), showed that carcase weight and the fluoride content of the os femur increased significantly as the fluoride concentration in the water increased; the increase in bone fluoride followed a linear pattern. 5. Histopathology showed no evidence of changes in the livers or kidneys; liver weights and breaking strength of the os femur were unaffected by the amount of fluoride consumed. 6. The data showed that under commercial conditions, laying birds can tolerate ingesting 4.453 mg fluoride/day for up to 74 weeks. PMID:9511007

  4. Endoderm/mesoderm multiplication rates in stage 5-12 chick embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Multiplication rates for the endoderm/mesoderm layer of the head-process to 17-somite-stage chick embryo were studied by implanting essentially identical transplants labeled with tritiated thymidine into paired recipient embryos. One recipient was fixed as soon as the transplant had healed (after 30 min) and the other was reincubated an additional 3.5 to 22.5 hr; the ratios of labeled cells in the paired embryos provided points on a graph that indicated that doubling of endoderm/mesoderm cells in head-process-stage chick embryos occurs at approximately 4.0 and 17.2 hr of reincubation.

  5. Black-footed Albatross with Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-footed albatross with chick, nesting black-footed albatrosses are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise and sudden flooding on low-lying islands. Location: Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge ...

  6. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  7. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 4.10 ?g/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 1.54 ?g/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  8. Stability of fear and sociality in two strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, K; Niebuhr, K; Awad, W A; Waiblinger, S; Troxler, J

    2008-09-01

    1. This trial studied the effects of strain and age on tonic immobility (TI) duration, emergence time (ET) and social reinstatement time (SRT) in laying hens and investigated the consistency of individual behavioural characteristics over rearing and laying periods and the correlations between these behavioural traits. 2. One hundred chicks from each of ISA Brown (ISA) and Lohmann Tradition (LT) laying hens were reared from one day old in pens. At 3 weeks, birds of each line were divided into 4 groups. Twenty birds in one group of each line were marked individually for repeated testing and the other groups were assigned for single testing to test the habituation effect and possible age effects at a group level. 3. ISA birds had higher overall means for TI duration and latency to leave the start box. ISA also showed longer latency in SRT at week 28 than Lohmanns. TI duration increased from weeks 3 to 10 and then decreased to week 35 in both lines. The latency to explore the test area and to reinstate decreased from weeks 10 to 35. 4. Tonic immobility, exploratory and social reinstatement behaviours were consistent over time in both lines, as revealed by Kendall's W coefficient of concordance. 5. In social test situations, an inter-situational consistency was found, that is, birds emerged quickly from the start box and reinstated quickly with their companion. TI (non-social test) was negatively correlated with ET and SRT. Thus the two lines of laying hens respond differently in social and non-social tests. PMID:18836895

  9. Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-04-01

    Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass. PMID:10780649

  10. Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR. PMID:24650216

  11. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (P<0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes. PMID:25630677

  12. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-12-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n=384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:26569471

  13. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P < 0.05). Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P < 0.05). Moreover, hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P < 0.05), indicating that hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. PMID:26009753

  14. The melanocortin circuit in obese and lean strains of chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sara; Simchaev, Victoria; Shinder, Dmitry; Hruby, Victor J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Agonists of membranal melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3/4Rs) are known to take part in the complex control mechanism of energy balance. In this study, we compared the physiological response to an exogenous MC3/4R agonist and the hypothalamic expression of proopic melanocortin (POMC) gene, encoding few MC3/4R ligands, between broiler and layer chicken strains. These strains, representing the two most prominent commercial strains of chickens grown for meat (broilers) and egg production (layers), differ in their food intake, fat accumulation, and reproductive performance and, therefore, form a good model of obese and lean phenotypes, respectively. A single i.v. injection of the synthetic peptide melanotan-II (MT-II; 1 mg/kg body weight) into the wing vein of feed-restricted birds led to attenuation of food intake upon exposure to feeding ad libitum in both broiler and layer chickens. A study of the POMC mRNA encoding the two prominent natural MC3/4R agonists, α-MSH and ACTH, also revealed a general similarity between the strains. Under feeding conditions ad libitum, POMC mRNA levels were highly similar in chicks of both strains and this level was significantly reduced upon feed restriction. However, POMC mRNA down-regulation upon feed restriction was more pronounced in layers than in broilers. These results suggest: (i) a role for MC3/4R agonists in the control of appetite; (ii) that the physiological differences between broilers and layers are not related to unresponsiveness of broiler chickens to the satiety signal of MC3/4R ligands. Therefore, these findings suggest that artificial activation of this circuit in broiler chicks could help to accommodate with their agricultural shortcomings of overeating, fattening, and impaired reproduction. PMID:16899585

  15. The melanocortin circuit in obese and lean strains of chicks.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sara; Simchaev, Victoria; Shinder, Dmitry; Hruby, Victor J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2006-08-01

    Agonists of membranal melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3/4Rs) are known to take part in the complex control mechanism of energy balance. In this study, we compared the physiological response to an exogenous MC3/4R agonist and the hypothalamic expression of proopic melanocortin (POMC) gene, encoding few MC3/4R ligands, between broiler and layer chicken strains. These strains, representing the two most prominent commercial strains of chickens grown for meat (broilers) and egg production (layers), differ in their food intake, fat accumulation, and reproductive performance and, therefore, form a good model of obese and lean phenotypes, respectively. A single i.v. injection of the synthetic peptide melanotan-II (MT-II; 1 mg/kg body weight) into the wing vein of feed-restricted birds led to attenuation of food intake upon exposure to feeding ad libitum in both broiler and layer chickens. A study of the POMC mRNA encoding the two prominent natural MC3/4R agonists, alpha-MSH and ACTH, also revealed a general similarity between the strains. Under feeding conditions ad libitum, POMC mRNA levels were highly similar in chicks of both strains and this level was significantly reduced upon feed restriction. However, POMC mRNA down-regulation upon feed restriction was more pronounced in layers than in broilers. These results suggest: (i) a role for MC3/4R agonists in the control of appetite; (ii) that the physiological differences between broilers and layers are not related to unresponsiveness of broiler chickens to the satiety signal of MC3/4R ligands. Therefore, these findings suggest that artificial activation of this circuit in broiler chicks could help to accommodate with their agricultural shortcomings of overeating, fattening, and impaired reproduction. PMID:16899585

  16. Organ weight and serum triglyceride responses of older (80 week) commercial laying hens fed an alfalfa meal molt diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since one of the costs in the commercial egg industry is that of replacement pullets, commercial egg layer managers have opted to induce molt older hens in order to extend their productive life for additional egg laying cycles. Conventional molt induction involves the complete removal of feed for s...

  17. Ultrasonic eggshell thickness measurement for selection of layers.

    PubMed

    Kibala, Lucyna; Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona; Kasperek, Kornel; Zieba, Grzegorz; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for using ultrasonic technology (USG) to record eggshell thickness for selection of layers. Genetic correlations between eggshell strength and its thickness have been reported to be around 0.8, making shell thickness a selection index candidate element. Applying ultrasonic devices to measure shell thickness leaves an egg intact for further handling. In this study, eggs from 2 purebred populations of Rhode Island White (RIW) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens were collected on a single day in the 33rd week of the farm laying calendar from 2,414 RIR and 4,525 RIW hens. Beginning from the large end of the egg, measurements were taken at 5 latitudes: 0 (USG0), 45 (USG45), 90 (USG90), 135 (USG135), and 180 (USG180). To estimate the repeatability of readings, measurements were repeated at each parallel on 3 meridians. Electronic micrometer measurement ( EMM: ) were taken with an electronic micrometer predominantly at the wider end of eggs from 2,397 RIR and 4,447 RIW hens. A multiple-trait statistical model fit the fixed effect of year-of-hatch hatch-within-year, and random effects due to repeated measurements (except EMM) and an animal's additive genetic component. The shell was thinnest in the region where chicks break it upon hatching (USG0, USG45). Heritabilities of shell thickness in different regions of the shell ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 (EMM) in RIW and from 0.12 to 0.23 (EMM) in RIR and were highest for USG45 and USG0. Because the measurement repeatabilities were all above 0.90, our recommendation for balancing egg strength against hatching ease is to take a single measurement of USG45. Due to high positive genetic correlations between shell thickness in different regions of the shell its thickness in the pointed end region will be modified accordingly, in response to selection for USG45. PMID:26316340

  18. Crop content in nutrient-restricted versus non-restricted organic laying hens with access to different forage vegetations.

    PubMed

    Horsted, K; Hermansen, J E; Ranvig, H

    2007-04-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how feed intake of organic layers varies according to type of forage vegetation available when hens are fed a normal concentrate for organic layers or a nutrient-restricted diet with whole wheat and oyster shells, assuming that the nutrient-restricted diet would reflect the capacity of the hens to forage. 2. Two 23-d experiments were arranged with chicken runs in a 2 x 2 factorial design with two types of complementary feed (concentrate with 184 g/kg dry matter (DM) crude protein vs whole wheat with 120 g/kg DM crude protein) and two types of forage vegetation (grass/clover vs a mixture of forbs in experiment 1 and grass/clover vs chicory in experiment 2): each experiment was carried out in three replications. 3. Twice during each experiment two hens from each run were slaughtered - two in the evening and two the following morning. Subsequently, the birds' crops were removed. Crop content was separated into 8 fractions. 4. For most feed items crop content was found to be significantly higher in the evening than in the morning. 5. Complementary feed significantly influenced the content of several feed items in the crop. In both experiments wheat-fed hens had a significantly higher amount of soil in the crops and a significantly lower amount of weed seeds compared to the concentrate-fed hens. Plant material and grit stone were significantly more abundant in wheat-fed hens only in experiment 2 and numerically more abundant in experiment 1, whereas the amount of oyster shells was significantly higher in wheat-fed hens in experiment 1 and numerically higher in experiment 2. 6. Type of forage itself only significantly influenced the amount of soil in the crops in experiment 1 and amount of seeds in experiment 2, since more soil was found in hens foraging on the mixed forbs and more seeds were found in the hens foraging on the chicory plots, respectively. PMID:17453809

  19. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  20. Improving productive and reproductive performance of dual-purpose crossbred hens in the tropics by lecithin supplementation.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Hussein, A S; Tag El-Din, A E; Qota, E M; Abed El-Ghany, A I; El-Sudany, A M

    2009-04-01

    In order to study the influence of lecithin and vegetable oils on improving productive and reproductive performance, egg quality, and metabolic profile of dual-purpose crossbred hens in the tropics, a total of 224 hens, 47-wk old, 112 each of Gimmizah and Silver Montazah strains were fed seven isonitrogenous diets. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding seven different diets to layers; four isocaloric diets containing either no added lipid (control), 3% vegetable oil mixture, 3% soy lecithin or 6% soy lecithin; and three high-energy level diets, containing an extra 3% vegetable oil mixture, 3% or 6% soy lecithin added to the control diet. Thus, the experimental design was factorial, consisting of seven lipid treatments by two strains of hens. Results indicate that 3% lecithin as an extra ME source, or feeding 11.72 MJ ME/kg diet containing the same level of lecithin, improved productive and reproductive performance of crossbred hens. Moreover, lecithin at 6% as an extra ME supplement significantly increased yolk percentage and improved Haugh unit score and yolk color, while increasing EE digestibility and plasma total lipids. Hen strain had a significant effect only on digestibility of OM, percentage liver and Haugh unit score, with the Gimmizah strain having higher values. PMID:18661247

  1. Patterned assembly and neurogenesis in the chick dorsal root ganglion

    PubMed Central

    George, Lynn; Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer; Nelson, Branden R.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Lefcort, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The birth of small-diameter TrkA+ neurons that mediate pain and thermo reception begins approximately 24 hours after the cessation of neural crest cell migration from progenitors residing in the nascent dorsal root ganglion. Although multiple geographically distinct progenitor pools have been proposed, this study is the first to comprehensively characterize the derivation of small diameter neurons. In the developing chick embryo, we identify novel patterns in neural crest cell migration and colonization that sculpt the incipient ganglion into a post-mitotic neuronal core encapsulated by a layer of proliferative progenitor cells. Furthermore, we show that this outer progenitor layer is composed of three spatially, temporally, and molecularly distinct progenitor zones, two of which give rise to distinct populations of TrkA+ neurons. PMID:20017208

  2. Quail-chick chimeras and eye development.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sinu Jasrapuria; Lwigale, Peter Y

    2015-01-01

    The quail-chick chimera is a stable and precise labeling technique that allows tracing of definite cells and their progeny without interfering with normal development of two related avian species. This technique utilizes the transplantation of quail tissues into chick embryo or vice versa. The region of interest (graft) is removed from the donor and replaced in the stage-matched host embryo. The quail-chick chimeras can be analyzed by immunolabeling donor-derived cells with species-specific antibodies, or by differential staining of the nucleus. The use of the quail-chick chimera technique is valuable to eye development studies since its formation involves coalition of tissues from different embryonic origins: the ectoderm, neuroectoderm, and neural crest cells derived from the interaction between the ectoderm and neural ectoderm. This chapter describes the protocols for using quail-chick chimeras to identify neural crest- and ectoderm-derived components of the eye. This technique can be used in combination with molecular biology techniques in functional studies to determine the cellular and tissue interactions involved in eye development. PMID:25245699

  3. Ejecting chick cheats: a changing paradigm?

    PubMed

    Grim, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, sophisticated parasite egg mimicry. In a striking contrast to hosts sometimes rejecting even highly mimetic eggs, the same species typically fail to discriminate against highly dissimilar parasite chicks. Understanding of this enigma is still hampered by the rarity of empirical tests - and consequently evidence - for chick discrimination. Recent work on Australian host-parasite systems (Gerygone hosts vs. Chalcites parasites), increased not only the diversity of hosts showing chick discrimination, but also discovered an entirely novel host behavioural adaptation. The hosts do not desert parasite chicks (as in all previously reported empirical work) but physically remove living parasites from their nests. Here, I briefly discuss these exciting findings and put them in the context of recent empirical and theoretical work on parasite chick discrimination. Finally, I review factors responsible for a relatively slow progress in this research area and suggest most promising avenues for future research. PMID:21668974

  4. Eggshell penetration of various types of hens' eggs by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Grijspeerdt, Koen; De Reu, Koen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Mertens, Kristof; Bamelis, Flip; Kemps, Bart; De Baerdemaeker, Josse; Decuypere, Eddy; Herman, Lieve

    2007-03-01

    Egg weight, shell thickness, number of pores, cuticle deposition, eggshell strength (dynamic stiffness and damping ratio), and the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) to penetrate the eggshell were determined. Penetration was assessed by filling the eggs with a selective medium that allowed viewing of Salmonella growth on the inside of the shell and membrane complex. After inoculation of each shell with on average 2.71 log CFU, the eggs were stored for up to 14 days at 20 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Commercially available eggs were used. At 14 days of storage, only 6.0% of the eggs from free-range hens and 16.0% of the generic (i.e., eggs from hens in conventional battery cages that were given standard feed) white eggs were penetrated. The generic brown, organic, and omega-3-enriched eggs were penetrated at a frequency of 30 to 34%. In a second experiment it was shown that the layer strains of the hen (ISA-Brown Warren versus Bovans Goldline), which were kept in furnished cages, did not affect eggshell penetration by SE. For Bovans Goldline hens, the housing system (furnished cage versus aviary) did not affect penetration, while a trend was visible toward a higher fraction of penetrated eggshells when hens were fed corncob mix rather than standard feed. Eggshell penetration was observed more frequently in the absence of cuticle spots and for eggs having lower dynamic stiffness values. Shell contamination at the end of storage was highly correlated with SE penetration. PMID:17388050

  5. Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan

    2012-02-01

    Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation provides a viable means to reduce NH3 emissions from modern laying-hen houses. PMID:22442932

  6. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  7. Theca cell cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase and aromatase messenger ribonucleic acid abundance and serum steroid levels during follicular atresia associated with incubation behavior in the domestic turkey hen.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, C; Silsby, J L; Rozenboim, I; Pitts, G R; Foster, D N; el Halawani, M E

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine changes in cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (C17) and aromatase (ARO) mRNA contents in the theca layer of preovulatory follicles (POF) as turkey hens transit from egg laying to incubation. Hens were grouped into the following categories: 1) laying hens--laid one egg per day and nested 1-2 times per day; 2) transitional hens--laid one egg per day and nested > 4 times per day; and 3) Day 1, Day 3, and Day 5 incubating hens--laid no eggs for 2, 4, or 6 days, respectively, and nested > 4 times per day. Small white follicles (SWF) and the theca layer from the largest (F1) and the third (F3), fifth (F5), and seventh (F7) largest POF were dispersed and challenged with testosterone (T) for 5 h. Relative levels of C17 and ARO mRNA were examined from the theca layers of F1, F3, F5, F7, and SWF. The number of atretic follicles increased from 0 (layers) to 8 (Day 5 incubating hens). Serum LH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E), but not T, declined on Day 1 of incubation. Basal levels of P, T, and E from theca and SWF cells declined in incubating hens. Both basal and T-stimulated theca and SWF production of E decreased in incubating hens. C17 and ARO mRNA declined in SWF, F7, and F5 during follicular atresia. It is suggested that reduced gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes may be a partial determinant of reduced circulating sex steroid levels in incubating hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819456

  8. Circadian signaling in the chick pineal organ.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James

    2003-07-01

    The chick pineal organ is recognized to contain an endogenous circadian oscillator as well as having direct photic input pathways and the capability of synthesizing melatonin. Despite its interesting circadian cell biology, far less is known about the chick pineal as compared to mammalian pineal glands. The goals of our research were to identify and characterize novel components of the circadian system in this photoneuroendocrine organ. Using a subtractive screening strategy of a nocturnal chick pineal cDNA library, we identified numerous genes whose expression in the chick pineal has never been reported. Among these, we focused our attention on a homologue to the regulatory subunit of the mammalian serine/threonine protein phosphatase (STPP) 2A. The expression of this gene in the chick pineal is highly circadian both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of the PP2A enzyme in this tissue revealed that it is predominantly cytosolic in localization, sensitive to classical PP2A inhibitors, and far more active during the subjective night. Interestingly, the acute pharmacological inhibition of PP2A leads to elevated phosphoCREB levels and concomitant melatonin secretion, indicating that this enzyme participates at some level in the control of nocturnal pineal melatonin synthesis. In a second aspect of our research, we examined the mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythmicity of cyclic GMP in the chick pineal. This signaling molecule is poorly understood, despite its well-known, high-amplitude circadian rhythms and the presence of many cGMP-dependent targets in this tissue. Our work has shown that although both soluble (sGC) and membrane-bound (mGC) forms of guanylyl cyclase are present, the primary contributor to the circadian rhythms of cGMP is the mGC-B enzyme, which is activated only by the natriuretic peptide CNP. As pharmacological blockade of mGC-B (but not sGC) suppresses nocturnal cGMP levels, we conclude that CNP-dependent mechanisms are involved. Hence, the circadian clock in the chick pineal appears to drive either CNP secretion or mGC-B expression (or synthetic efficiency) in order to elevate nocturnal cGMP. Conversely, light may inhibit cGMP by uncoupling this drive. These data provide new strategies for understanding both photic input pathways (presumed to depend on cGMP) and cGMP-dependent cellular function in the chick pineal organ. PMID:12916716

  9. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogenase in chick liver

    PubMed Central

    Corte, E. Della; Stirpe, F.

    1967-01-01

    1. It has been confirmed that the xanthine-dehydrogenase activity of chick liver is enhanced by starvation and by administration of inosine; the effects of these treatments are not additive. 2. Inosine has no effect when given to chicks depleted of the enzyme by feeding a low-protein diet. 3. Actinomycin D prevents the effect of inosine, but itself enhances the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase. 4. The xanthine-dehydrogenase activity is unchanged after addition of orotic acid to the diet, and is stimulated by injection of inorganic iron. PMID:6029610

  10. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  11. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 ( 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 ( 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 ( 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 ( 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 ( 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 ( 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 ( 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

  12. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donk, T; Budai, Z; Ujvri, J; prily, S; Bajzik, G; St?, Z

    2015-12-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n=20), lowest (n=20) and average (n=20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens. PMID:26413904

  13. Limb deformities of farmed ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Isa, J F; Phuti, M S

    1999-12-01

    Limb deformities were detected in 135 out of 885 ostrich chicks, giving a prevalence of 15.3%. Tibiotarsal rotation affected 73% of the chicks with limb deformities, whereas rolled toes accounted for 36%. The right leg was more often affected than the left leg. The incidence of limb deformities was highest in 2- to 3-week-old ostrich chicks. The incidence of limb deformities was highest at the beginning of the breeding season and lowest towards the end, when it was relatively warmer. The mean serum manganese and zinc levels in deformed ostrich chicks were higher than the levels reported for normal chicks. PMID:10599135

  14. Urinary tract cryptosporidiosis in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Trampel, D W; Pepper, T M; Blagburn, B L

    2000-01-01

    Formalin-fixed kidney tissues from adult egg-laying chickens in two houses of an egg-production complex in the upper Midwest were submitted to Iowa State University for histopathologic examination. An increased incidence of visceral gout, average daily mortality 1%-2% higher than expected, and egg production within normal limits were observed in both houses. Numerous developing stages of Cryptosporidium were observed on the apical surface of epithelial cells lining renal collecting tubules and ureters. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize colonization of cryptosporidia, disruption of microvilli, and exfoliation of parasitized epithelial cells. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the wall of ureters and hyperplasia of parasitized epithelial cells resulted in partial obstruction of ureters, which may have induced visceral gout in affected hens. This is the first report of urinary tract cryptosporidiosis occurring in adult hens in a modern commercial egg-production facility. PMID:10879932

  15. Whooping Crane Chick L8-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  16. Whooping Crane Chick L2-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  17. Whooping Crane Chick L3-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  18. Whooping Crane Chick L7-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  19. Whooping Crane Chick L10-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  20. Whooping Crane Chick L1-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  1. Whooping Crane Chick L4-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  2. Whooping Crane Chick L5-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  3. Whooping Crane Chick L6-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  4. Whooping Crane Chick L9-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s....

  5. Whooping Crane Chick L3-10

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  6. Chick nutritional encephalomalacia and prostanoid formation.

    PubMed

    Véricel, E; Budowski, P; Crawford, M A

    1991-07-01

    Nutritional encephalomalacia (NE) was induced in young chicks using a diet low in vitamin E and containing 8% ethyl esters derived from safflower oil fatty acids (S-E group). The same diet with added alpha-tocopheryl acetate (S+E) failed to produce the pathology, and chicks receiving aerated linseed oil--high in alpha-linolenic acid and low in alpha-tocopherol (L-E)--did not develop symptoms. Formation of metabolites from labeled arachidonic acid (AA) by thrombocytes was similar in the S+E and S-E groups, yielding thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and hydroxy fatty acids as the major products. Collagen-induced thrombocyte aggregation and TXB2 production were not significantly different in the S-E and S+E groups, but aggregation values and TXB2 synthesis were significantly less in the L-E group than in the ataxic S-E chicks. Prostaglandin E2 production by aortal rings was significantly influenced by the diet; S-E yielded the highest value and L-E the lowest. These results show that alpha-linolenic acid causes alterations in the AA metabolism and thrombocyte function in young chicks. PMID:2051239

  7. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hen 2-155 and Hen 2-161 photometry and spectroscopy (Jones+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Wesson, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Miszalski, B.; Mohamed, S.

    2015-06-01

    CCD photometry of the central stars of Hen 2-155 and Hen 2-161, carried out using the EFOSC2 instrument on the 3.6-m ESO-NTT. Hen 2-155 was observed with the H?-continuum filter (#743) on the nights of February 27-29, March 1-2 2012, and February 23-26 2014, while Hen 2-161 was ob- served with the Gunn i filter (#705) on the nights of February 29, March 1-2 2012, January 14-15, June 2-6 2013, and February 23-26 2014. (5 data files).

  9. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P < 0.05) versus the indoor group. The crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items. PMID:22820940

  10. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intramembranous osteogenesis and angiogenesis in the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, T J; Owens, P D; Wilson, D J

    1989-01-01

    Membrane bone formation was examined in the developing chick frontal bone of Stage 32-36 embryos using alizarin red whole mounts, wax and resin histology, transmission electron microscopy and India ink injection techniques. Mineralised bone was seen at Stage 36, but was presaged by the appearance of twin mesenchymal condensations at Stage 35. The condensations appeared dorsolateral to the upper edge of the interorbital septum near its centre. The mesenchymal cells of the condensation were fusiform in shape and initially exhibited a close-packed, layered configuration which was avascular. Consequent differentiation of the central cells first into preosteoblasts and then into definitive osteoblasts, accompanied by secretion of bone matrix, coincided with blood vessel invasion of the frontal anlagen. It is suggested that these vascular changes associated with the onset of bone cell differentiation indicate that osteogenic cells may secrete an angiogenesis factor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2482839

  12. Use of a reduced set of single nucleotide polymorphisms for genetic evaluation of resistance to Salmonella carrier state in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Legarra, A; Calenge, F; Mariani, P; Velge, P; Beaumont, C

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella propagation by apparently healthy chickens could be decreased by the selection and use of chicken lines that are more resistant to carrier state. Using a reduced set of markers, this study investigates, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, the feasibility of a genomic selection approach for resistance to carrier state in hen lines. In this study, commercial laying hen lines were divergently selected for resistance to Salmonella carrier state at 2 different ages: young chicks and adults at the peak of lay. A total of 600 birds were typed with 831 informative SNP markers and artificially infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Phenotypes were collected 28 d (389 young animals) or 38 d (208 adults) after infection. Two types of variance component analyses, including SNP data or not, were performed and compared. The set of SNP used was efficient in capturing a large part of the genetic variation. Average accuracies from mixed model equations did not change between analyses, showing that using SNP data does not increase information in this data set. These results confirm that genomic selection for Salmonella carrier state resistance in laying hens is promising. Nevertheless, a denser SNP coverage of the genome on a greater number of animals is still needed to assess its feasibility and efficiency. PMID:21406356

  13. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks. PMID:1313976

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

  15. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, mu...

  16. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  17. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Slection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 210 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen storage, TBARS increased continuously, but not to an extent that would prevent its use as food. The sausages from the ISA Warren genotype had marginally higher TBARS levels during storage. Total colony counts decreased with storage time, with slightly lower values found in the non-spiced sausage material from the ISA Warren hens. In conclusion, when intending to use spent hens as food, ISA Warren are clearly superior to Dekalb White in meat and sausage yield. When processing the meat to sausages, the higher shear energy is probably advantageous. PMID:25288104

  18. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  19. Disease outbreak in laying hens arising from the consumption of fumonisin-contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Prathapkumar, S H; Rao, V S; Paramkishan, R J; Bhat, R V

    1997-12-01

    1. During the last quarter of 1995 an unusual disease outbreak characterised by black sticky diarrhoea, severe reduction in food intake, egg production and body weight follow by lameness and death was observed in 2 layer farms in Andhra Pradesh. A total of 6700 hens of 64 weeks age and 3000 hens of 36 weeks age were affected. 2. Around 10% mortality and a 20% reduction in egg production was observed. Postmortem examinations showed pale yellow coloured livers with peripheral congestion, mild haemorrhage in the proventriculus and watery accumulations in the intestine. 3. The disease was traced to a new batch of food and its withdrawal improved the health status of the flocks. 4. Analysis of the diet indicated contamination with fumonisin B1 up to 8.5 mg/kg and aflatoxin B1 up to 0.1 mg/kg. 5. Diarrhoea was induced in day old cockerels by feeding the suspect diet containing 8.5 mg/kg fumonisin B1, and in laying hens by feeding a normal diet with fumonisin B1 additions of 8 and 16 mg/kg. PMID:9510989

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaolong; Wu, Shugeng; Zhang, Haijun; Yue, Hongyuan; Xu, Shaohui; Ji, Feng; Qi, Guanghai

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens, Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384, 52 weeks old) were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments. Each treatment had six replicates of 16 hens each. All birds were assigned to a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing a mixture of CLA at 0%, 1%, 2% or 4% for six weeks. With increasing dietary CLA, egg weight and feed intake decreased, and yolk colour was darkened. Feed efficiency was improved at 1% and 2% dietary CLA. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly reduced by CLA in a dose dependent manner. A linear decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed after CLA supplementation. With increasing dietary CLA, the deposition of two major isomers of CLA (c9, t11; t10, c12) in yolk lipids increased linearly, the proportion of saturated fatty acids increased and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was highest at 1% CLA. Compared to the control, CLA supplementation significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, inhibited hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion production, and decreased the malonaldehyde concentrations in both serum and liver. The results demonstrated that dietary CLA meliorated serum lipid profiles and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of laying hens. PMID:22164957

  1. Chick embryos can form teratomas from microinjected mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Seiki; Matsubara, Yuko; Hosoe, Misa

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether chick embryos are a suitable experimental model for the evaluation of pluripotency of stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing the reporter gene, LacZ or GFP were injected into the subgerminal cavity of blastoderms (freshly oviposited) or the marginal vein of chick embryos (2 days of incubation). Injected mESCs were efficiently incorporated into the body and extra-embryonic tissues of chick embryos and formed small clusters. Increased donor cell numbers injected were positively associated with the efficiency of chimera production, but with lower viability. A single mESC injected into the blastoderm proliferated into 34.7 ± 3.8 cells in 3 days, implying that the chick embryo provides an optimal environment for the growth of xenogenic cells. In the embryo body, mESCs were interspersed as small clustered chimeras in various tissues. Teratomas were observed in the yolk sac and the brain with three germ layers. In the yolk sac, clusters of mESCs gradually increased in volume and exhibited varied morphology such as a water balloon-like or dark-red solid mass. However, mESCs in the brain developed into a large soft tissue mass of whitish color and showed a tendency to differentiate into ectodermal lineage cells, including primitive neural ectodermal and neuronal cells expressing the neurofilament protein. These results indicate that chick embryos are useful for the teratoma formation assays of mESCs and have a broad-range potential as an experimental host model. PMID:26691605

  2. Improving human nutrition by feeding DDGS to layer hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study of the quality of lipids in DDGS versus corn conducted at NCERC, it was established that DDGS has high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Other studies have shown that DDGS also has high antioxidants, dietary fiber, and xanthophylls, all of which have been shown to have beneficia...

  3. Potential for horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine hens were inoculated orally and intravaginally with a marker strain of Salmonella and Campylobacter at 56 wk-of-age and housed in individual cages in isolation. Challenged hens were comingled with non-challenged hens 2 wk post-inoculation, at a ratio of 1 challenged hen per 4 non-challenged he...

  4. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-04-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  5. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  6. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Luptakova, Lenka; Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental data of carbamate pesticides are scarce although they generally possess low toxicity for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bendiocarb to liver and central nervous system of chick embryos. Bendiocarb (1600 ?g/egg) was administered to the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic day 3 and 10. In the liver and central nervous system we observed no macroscopic or microscopic changes. These organs were also investigated for caspase activity in regard to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The embryolethality after bendiocarb respective dose was high (94 %) on the embryonic day 3, though following results indicated no toxicity to investigated organs and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in survived chick embryos on both the early (day 3 of incubation) and the later (day 10 of incubation) developmental stage. PMID:22540656

  7. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  8. The persistence of drug resistant Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of healthy broiler chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M.; Al-Chalaby, Z. A.; Allen, V.; Linton, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs (oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphonamides) were included in the drinking water of healthy broiler chicks from the sixth to the twentieth day of life to select a resistant gut flora. On the twenty-first day the birds were divided into three groups and reared in separate rooms until 100 days of age. One group was housed in cages with wire floors while the others were reared on litter. Faeces from adult hens were added regularly to the litter of one of these groups to determine its effect on the gut flora of the chicks. The ecology of Escherichia coli was studied using O-serotyping, biotyping and antibacterial drug resistogram typing. The proportion of E. coli in the dominant faecal flora resistant to two to four antibacterial drugs increased with time to reach a peak several days after the drugs were withdrawn. Thereafter, the level of drug resistance in the E. coli declined equally in all three groups. The majority of organisms with multiple resistance were derived from biotypes of O-serotypes initially resistant to only one drug and were identified before the drugs were administered. The decline in the level of resistance in the dominant faecal flora after the fourth week was due to the appearance of either new O-serotypes or new biotypes of O-serotypes previously shown to be multiply resistant, and which were either sensitive or resistant to only one drug. It is probably that these new strains were derived from the food since several O-serotypes appeared simultaneously in all three groups of birds. PMID:6752273

  9. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and phytase on the natural phytate phosphorus utilization by laying hens.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A B; Edwards, H M

    1998-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing a corn-soybean layer diet with either phytase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3], or their combination. The basal diet was formulated to contain 3.00% Ca and 0.33% total P. In Experiment 1, 160, 56-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to treatment groups fed either the basal diet alone or diets supplemented with either 600 phytase units (FTU) per kilogram feed, 5 microg 1,25-(OH)2D3/kg feed, or their combination for an experimental period of 9 wk. Experiment 2 had the same design and treatment groups except that laying hens 24 wk of age were used for 8 wk. In both experiments, phytase had a positive effect on BW and increased plasma dialyzable P, tibia bone ash, and phytate P retention. In the first experiment, the addition of phytase, 1,25-(OH)2D3, or their combination prevented a rapid decrease in egg production due to a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection observed in hens fed the basal diet. However, no benefit in egg production was obtained in the second experiment. No effects on egg weight and egg specific gravity were observed in both experiments. These results clearly indicate that phytase, and to a lesser extent 1,25-(OH)2D3, can be used to increase the utilization of phytate P by laying hens. PMID:9628533

  10. In ovo electroporation in embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Doh, Sung Tae; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study gene regulation in retinal stem/progenitor cells during retinal development. Different type of assays such as reporter gene assay, gene over-expression, gene knock down (shRNA) etc. can be performed using the electroporation technique. This video demonstrates targeted retinal injection and in ovo electroporation into the embryonic chick retina at the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 22-23, which is about embryonic day 4 (E4). Here we show a rapid and convenient in ovo electroporation technique whereby a plasmid DNA that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker is directly delivered into the chick embryonic subretinal space and followed by electric pulses to facilitate DNA uptake by retinal stem/progenitor cells. The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons(1), which has been difficult with the conventional method of injection and electroporation at E1.5(2). PMID:22330044

  11. Amelioration of ethionine toxicity in the chick.

    PubMed

    Lowry, K R; Baker, D H

    1987-06-01

    Several chick bioassays were conducted to evaluate means of ameliorating ethionine toxicity. Supplementing a corn-soy diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) with .075% D,L-ethionine reduced weight gain in 8-day-old chicks by 70% compared to gains of unsupplemented controls. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine prevented reduction in weight gain and feed intake resulting from ethionine supplementation whereas feeding supplemental L-cystine was without effect. Supplementation of the ethionine-containing diet with either choline or betaine ameliorated the growth depression, although neither compound was able to completely overcome the toxic effects of ethionine. Dietary ethionine did not affect plasma levels of free methionine or cystine but did increase plasma free glycine 6-fold. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine caused normalization of plasma glycine levels whereas it elevated plasma methionine concentration. Although results suggested the possibility of ethionine-induced serine or threonine deficiency, dietary additions of .75% L-serine or .75% L-threonine failed to improve chick weight gain. These studies suggest that ethionine, in addition to affecting transsulfuration and transmethylation activity may exert specific effects on certain amino acids in tissue pools. PMID:3658879

  12. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control. PMID:12047094

  13. Prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. The mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. An increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. This paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. These are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. Methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9220131

  14. The effect of sodium fluoride on egg production, egg quality, and bone strength of caged layers.

    PubMed

    Merkley, J W

    1981-04-01

    The development of bone fragility in caged layers is a major problem in the poultry industry. The incidence of bone breakage during the processing of spent hens substantially reduces the economic return from these birds. In two trials, a commercial strain of White Leghorn pullets was used. In each trial, one-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, wing banded, and placed in floor pens. The treated group received fluoridated water at levels up to 300 ppm. The control group of birds received only well water. At 20 weeks of age, birds from each group were transferred to one of two laying batteries. One battery of birds received fluoridated water (100 ppm F). The other served as a control and those birds received only well water. Production rate, egg weight, shell strength, shell thickness, and Haugh units were determined for each bird. At 45 weeks of age, the humeri and tibiae were removed, and bone strength, percentage of bone ash, and fluoride content were determined. Combined data from both trials showed that the fluoride treatment increased the breaking strength of humeri from 6.86 to 13.35 kg and that of tibiae from 6.61 to 13.10 kg. The fluoride treatment also significantly (P less than .01) increased the percentage of bone ash. Egg quality and rate of production were not reduced by the fluoride treatment. PMID:7301737

  15. Analysis of skin color change and related gene expression after crossing of Dongxiang black chicken and ISA layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Wang, H H; Zhang, C X; Li, Q H; Chen, X H; Lou, L F

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the autosomal domi-nant Fm gene in conjunction with the sex-linked Id gene on skin color and related gene expression. Ten Dongxiang black cocks were selected to build ten families by mating 60 individuals of ISA B-line layers. The skin color of the F1 generation was observed at different time points. At 126 days, 36 chickens were slaughtered, and gene expression of TYRP1, TYRP2, MC1R, and EDNRB in breast skin was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The ratio of Dongxiang black chickens with white skin chicks in the F1 generation to that of non-white was 3:7 (HoFF: HeFf). At 126 days, all F1 generation cocks showed white skin (115/115), while the percentages of hens with black skin were 100% (HoFF, 27/27) and 53.75% (HeFf, 43/80). The change in skin color peaked between 42 and 84 days. The offspring of HoFF displayed significantly higher expres-sion of MC1R, compared with those of HeFf (P < 0.05). The "L" value of hen's skin was significantly lower, and TYRP1 and TYRP2 expres-sion was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in cocks with the same Fm/fm genotype. These findings indicate the presence of homozygous and heterozygous Fm in Dongxiang black chickens, with the offspring of homozygous birds showing a higher percentage of black skin percentage. The expression of the four genes studied was correlated with skin color, with TYRP1 and TYRP2 representing the most suitable molecular markers. PMID:26436396

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

  17. Right hemisphere advantage for social recognition in the chick.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G

    1992-09-01

    Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics was studied in pair-reared chicks tested binocularly or with only one eye in use. Chicks were tested on day 3 in pairs composed of either cagemates or strangers. Social discrimination, as measured by the ratio "number of pecks at the strangers/total number of pecks" was impaired in right-eyed chicks with respect to left-eyed and binocular chicks. Male chicks showed higher levels of social pecking than females, and chicks that used both eyes showed higher pecking than monocular chicks. There were no significant differences in the total number of pecks (i.e. pecks at companions plus pecks at strangers) between right- and left-eyed chicks: the impairment in social discrimination of right-eyed chicks seemed to be due partly to a reduction in pecking at strangers and partly to an increase in pecking at companions. It is suggested that neural structures fed by the left eye (mainly located at the right hemisphere) are better at processing and/or storing of visual information which allows recognition of individual conspecifics. This may be part of a wider tendency to respond to small changes in any of a variety of intrinsic stimulus properties. PMID:1407491

  18. Experimental colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    Minimal colonization inocula for two broiler strains of Campylobacter jejuni were determined in broiler chicks aged 2-3 days and 2 weeks. Individually housed chicks were exposed to a single oral or cloacal challenge. Diarrhoeal symptoms were absent in all 380 chicks included in the study. Chick susceptibility to the two C. jejuni strains varied. Colonization was effected by less than 10(2)-10(4) colony forming units (c.f.u.) via cloacal challenge and 10(4)-10(6) c.f.u. via the oral route. Colonization inocula for 2- to 3-day and 2-week-old chicks were similar. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with fresh adult caecal flora or an anaerobic broth culture of adult caecal flora did not inhibit colonization after challenge with low-dose C. jejuni. Susceptible chicks were colonized rapidly. C. jejuni was detected in 167 of 189 (88%) colonized chicks within 3 days of challenge and persisted during the 2-week monitoring period. Our data suggest that colonization of broiler chicks with C. jejuni is effected more easily by the cloacal than the oral route and is independent of age. PMID:3338504

  19. Histological changes during development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo exposed to a static magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Espinar, A.; Carmona, A.; Guerrero, J.M.; Piera, V.

    1997-03-01

    Few studies have been performed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes that exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) can cause to the processes of cell migration and differentiation in the cerebellum during development. Thus, the authors have studied the development of the cerebellum in the chick embryo (n = 144) under a uniform SMF (20 mT). All of their observations were done on folium VIc of Larsell`s classification. The cerebella of chick embryos, which were exposed solely on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 13 of incubation [short exposure (S)1; n = 24], showed an external granular layer (EGL) that was less dense than the EGL in the control group (n = 24). The molecular layer (ML) exhibited a low number of migratory neuroblastic elements. Moreover, the internal granular layer (IGL) was immature, with the cellular elements less abundant and more dispersed than in controls. In chick embryos exposed on day 6 of incubation and sacrificed at day 17 (S2; n = 24), the outstanding feature was the regeneration of the different layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex of chick embryos exposed continuously to an identical field from the beginning of the incubation up to day 13 [long exposure (L)1; n = 24] or day 17 (L2; n = 24) of incubation showed a higher number of alterations than that of group S1. Electron microscopy confirmed the findings from light microscopy and, at the same time, showed clear signs of cell degeneration and delay in the process of neuronal differentiation. This was more apparent in groups L1 (100%) and L2 (100%) than in groups S1 (95.4%) and S2 (65.2%). In conclusion, the present study showed that SMF can induce irreversible development effects on the processes of cell migration and differentiation of the chick cerebellar cortex.

  20. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  1. Phospholipid fatty acids of brain and liver are modified by alpha-tocopherol and dietary fat in growing chicks.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, H; Sallmann, H P

    1996-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids modify phospholipid fatty acids in brain and liver of growing chickens post-hatching. The effect of vitamin E deficiency on this process is unknown and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of chick nutritional encephalomalacia (NE). Therefore laying hens received a diet low in vitamin E (10 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg feed). Resulting chicks were assigned to nine dietary groups each fed with either oleic (18:1n-9, 58 g/kg), linoleic (18:2n-6, 57 g/kg) or linolenic (18:3n-3, 56 g/kg) acid together with 5. 25 or 125 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg feed. NE affecting the cerebellum only occurred in the group given linoleic acid and 5 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg. In 1-d-old chicks and after 1 and 2 weeks the phospholipid fatty acid composition of liver, cerebrum and cerebellum (additionally after 3 weeks) was determined. The feed fatty acids were incorporated into the liver very efficiently during the first week of life. Unsaturation of liver membranes decreased in the order dietary linolenic > linoleic > oleic acid. In liver, also, the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on phospholipid fatty acids was most pronounced. The unsaturation index increased during deficiency, whereas n-9 fatty acids decreased. In the chicken brain the alterations were delayed and less distinct. The cerebellum phospholipids were rich in n-9 fatty acids and as a whole more saturated in comparison with the cerebrum. Cerebellar unsaturation increased when linolenic or linoleic acid was given. However, NE-producing dietary conditions were not accompanied by specific alterations in cerebellar phospholipid fatty acids due to the alpha-tocopherol content of the diet. Rather the alterations of membrane fatty acids in the liver seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of NE. PMID:8774221

  2. The inner perivitelline layer sperm-hole assay: use of filter paper rings for the isolation of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc and new observations on its morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm must penetrate the hens ovum (egg yolk) for fertilization. The inner perivitelline layer (IPL) is a fibrous protein mesh surrounding the ovum that the sperm attach to and then digest a hole through at the onset of the fertilization process. This process of sperm attachment and digestion of ...

  3. A role for aquaporin-4 during induction of form deprivation myopia in chick

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Melinda J; Junghans, Barbara M; Giummarra, Loretta; Murphy, Melanie J

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQP) form a family of specialized water channels known to transport water across cell membranes and reduce osmotic gradients. The isoform AQP4 is highly expressed in the astroglia of the brain and Mller cells in the retina. In the brain, AQP4 play a role in the control of cerebral edema by shunting excess fluid into blood vessels and by upregulating during conditions of hyperosmolarity. Thus, on the basis of the hyperosmolarity seen across the retina and choroid of hatchling chickens made myopic by form deprivation (FD), we predicted an upregulation of retinal AQP4 expression during induction of myopia. Methods Two-day-old hatchling chicks were monocularly form-deprived for 48, 72, or 96 h, and then after biometric assessment, the eyes of these animals and the normal controls of the same age were enucleated. Retinal tissue was prepared either for western blot analysis to show the presence of the AQP4 protein in the chick retina or for immunolocalization using polyclonal AQP4 antibodies to determine regional distribution and intensity of labeling during the induction of form deprivation myopia (FDM). Results As expected, ultrasonography demonstrated that all post hatchling eyes showed rapid elongation with occluded eyes elongating faster than fellow eyes or normal controls and becoming progressively more myopic with the duration of visual deprivation. Western blot analyses revealed an approximately 30 kDa band immunoreactive for AQP4 protein and confirmed the presence of AQP4 in chicks. Immunohistochemical staining showed the greatest positive immunoreactivity for antibodies to AQP4 in the inner retina along the vitreoretinal interface, nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer in all animals. The control eyes showed relatively constant levels of AQP4 expression until day 5 after which the level appeared to decrease. By comparison, positive AQP4 immunoreactivity in the nerve fiber layer increased significantly over the first 48 h in form-deprived eyes and in fellow eyes and then decreased over the next 48 h but not to the level of expression in the normal untreated eyes. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of AQP4 protein in the chick retina and to associate AQP4 expression in the inner retina with the initiation of form deprivation and the period of fastest axial elongation. This increased expression of AQP4 channels near the vitread border during the time of rapid growth suggests a role for AQP4 as a conduit for movement of retinal fluid into the vitreous in form-deprived chicks. PMID:18334967

  4. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in front rollaway nests. Dust baths were used more for pecking and scratching than for dust bathing. Comfort behaviour was more frequent in furnished cages than conventional, although still not frequent. Locomotion was strongly affected by number of birds per cage or by space per bird, being reduced by crowding. Most birds perched at night except in one treatment providing only 10.7 cm perch per bird. 7. Behaviour was more unrestricted and varied, and physical condition was better, in furnished than in conventional cages. However, egg production will cost more in furnished cages, partly because more eggs are downgraded. Dust baths must be fitted with gates that the birds cannot open from outside, but gates for nest boxes were found unnecessary. If a low perch is fitted it must be far enough from the back of the cage for birds to walk there. 8. Where there was less space per bird (more birds per cage) than the requirements in the 1999 European Commission Directive on laying hens, there were: fewer eggs per hen, but still above the breeders' target; lower food consumption; more feather and foot damage, but less than in conventional cages; higher mortality in one trial out of three; less freedom of movement. However, the results were still very good even with 8 birds per cage, and support the principle that furnished cages provide an acceptable way of protecting the welfare of laying hens. PMID:12365505

  5. Distribution and numbers of Campylobacter in newly slaughtered broiler chickens and hens.

    PubMed

    Berndtson, E; Tivemo, M; Engvall, A

    1992-01-01

    If Campylobacter is present in the intestinal tract, broiler carcasses become extensively contaminated during the slaughter process. To determine the distribution and numbers of Campylobacter jejuni/coli in newly slaughtered broiler chickens and hens, a total of 100 birds from six Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at three Swedish processing plants. Campylobacters were isolated in 89% of neck skins, 93% of peritoneal cavity swab samples and in 75% of subcutaneous samples. Muscle samples were only very sparsely contaminated. It is likely that the feather follicles are the orifices where C. jejuni/coli is introduced into the subcutis layer. PMID:1622758

  6. Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yahav, S; Brake, J

    2014-01-01

    Bird embryogenesis takes place in a relatively protected environment that can be manipulated especially well in domestic fowl (chickens) where incubation has long been a commercial process. The embryonic developmental process has been shown to begin in the oviduct such that the embryo has attained either the blastodermal and/or gastrulation stage of development at oviposition. Bird embryos can be affected by "maternal effects," and by environmental conditions during the pre-incubation and incubation periods. "Maternal effects" has been described as an evolutionary mechanism that has provided the mother, by hormonal deposition into the yolk, with the potential to proactively influence the development of her progeny by exposing them to her particular hormonal pattern in such a manner as to influence their ability to cope with the expected wide range of environmental conditions that may occur post-hatching. Another important aspect of "maternal effects" is the effect of the maternal nutrient intake on progeny traits. From a commercial broiler chicken production perspective, it has been established that greater cumulative nutrient intake by the hen during her pullet rearing phase prior to photostimulation resulted in faster growing broiler progeny. Generally, maternal effects on progeny, which have both a genetic and an environmental component represented by yolk hormones deposition and embryo nutrient utilization, have an important effect on the development of a wide range of progeny traits. Furthermore, commercial embryo development during pre-incubation storage and incubation, as well as during incubation per se has been shown to largely depend upon temperature, while other environmental factors that include egg position during storage, and the amount of H2O and CO2 lost by the egg and the subsequent effect on albumen pH and height during storage have become important environmental factors to be considered for successful embryogenesis under commercial conditions. Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens. PMID:25158087

  7. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation. PMID:21345201

  8. Postnatal changes in the distribution and density of neuronal nuclei and doublecortin antigens in domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Mezey, Szilvia; Krivokuca, Dragan; Blint, Eszter; Adorjn, Andrs; Zachar, Gergely; Csillag, Andrs

    2012-01-01

    To understand better the rate of neurogenesis and the distribution of new neurons in posthatch domestic chicks, we describe and compare the expression of the neuronal nuclei protein (NeuN, a.k.a. Fox-3) and doublecortin antigens in the whole brain of chicks 2 days, 8 days, and 14 weeks posthatch. In the forebrain ventricular and paraventricular zones, the density of bromodeoxyuridine-, NeuN-, and doublecortin-labeled cells was compared between chicks 24 hours and 7 days after an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (2 and 8 days posthatch, respectively). The distribution of NeuN-labeled neurons was similar to Nissl-stained tissue, with the exception of some areas where neurons did not express NeuN: cerebellar Purkinje cells and olfactory bulb mitral cells. The ventral tegmental area of 2-day-old chicks was also faintly labeled. The distribution of doublecortin was similar at all timepoints, with doublecortin-labeled profiles located throughout all forebrain areas as well as in the cerebellar granule cell layer. However, doublecortin labeling was not detectable in any midbrain or brainstem areas. Our data indicate that a significant number of new neurons is still formed in the telencephalon of posthatch domestic chicks, whereas subtelencephalic areas (except for the cerebellum) finish their neuronal expansion before hatching. Most newly formed cells in chicks leave the paraventricular zone after hatching, but a pool of neurons stays in the vicinity of the ventricular zone and matures in situ within 7 days. Proliferating cells often migrate laterally along forebrain laminae into still-developing brain areas. PMID:21674497

  9. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O

    1995-12-01

    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application. PMID:8746972

  10. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  11. Assessing thermal comfort of broiler chicks during brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  12. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  13. The Transfer of Endotoxin Induced Immunity from Hens to Poults

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.; Friars, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Turkey hens were vaccinated six times with Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin prior to and during their egg production cycle. The resultant poults possessed a significant degree of immunity to challenge with S. typhimurium. PMID:4258548

  14. A model of Salmonella infection within industrial house hens.

    PubMed

    Prvost, K; Magal, P; Beaumont, C

    2006-10-01

    Salmonella is one of the major sources of toxi-infection in humans. Incidences of human salmonellosis have greatly increased over the past 20 years and this can largely be attributed to epidemics of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 within poultry. The main concern with this bacterium is the existence of silent carriers, i.e. animals harbouring S. enteritidis without expressing any visible symptoms. In this article, we formulate a model for S. enteritidis transmission in hen houses, considering both the hens and the environmental bacterium contamination. By considering the hen's individual development of the disease, we build a model for the production of eggs contaminated by S. enteritidis. The objectives are to analyse the dynamic of the disease, and to provide understanding of measures to avoid the endemicity of S. enteritidis in industrial hen houses. PMID:16780891

  15. [Associated arthropodes in the laying hen excrement].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber D Z; da Costa, Fbio H; Lopes, Wilton C Z; Balieiro, Jlio C de C; Soares, Vando E; do Prado, Angelo P

    2007-01-01

    A research about arthropode fauna in laying hen excrement was carried out in a poultry house in the State of So Paulo, from January 2001 to December 2002. The objective was to verify the frequency of Diptera and Coleoptera collected by Berlese funil and flutuation methods, and to show correlation between the collect methods and sazonality possible in the currents seasons. A total of 29,499 insects were collected from seventy five collects, being 16,702 Diptera (six families) and 12,797 Coleoptera (four families). Some arthropodes presented direct relation with the collect method, the seasons of the years and the rainfall precipitation, with significant increase in the number of insects collected in certain periods of the year. PMID:17934628

  16. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  17. Changes induces by haloperidol (antidepressant drug) on the developing retina of the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elmagid, Badria Fathy; Al-Ghamdi, Fawzyah Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and histological studies were done on the retina of chick embryos of 6th, 10th and 16th days of incubation by a single dose of haloperidol (0.25mg/egg), injected on day zero and 5 of incubation. To get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development retina. Sign of malformation in the chick embryo after administration of haloperidol were seen as absent of the ear vesicles, eyes or decreased size of them. Retardation of growth of the retina at 6th, 10th and 16th days treated chick embryo were observed as evidenced of reduction of the size of the retina, associated with sign of degeneration of the retina cells. Conclusion The injection of haloperidol drug give rise to several side effects as retardation of growth and degeneration of the cells. The decrease of the thickness of the layers and less density of the cells was related to direct effect of the drug on the cells of this organ. Also on the DNA formation and on the retardation of cellular mitotic activates, therefore the retina appeared decrease in thickness and less cell density with degeneration its cells. PMID:23961047

  18. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  19. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  20. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  1. Neuropathological effects of triphenyl phosphite on the central nervous system of the hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, D; Bursian, S J; Lehning, E J

    1992-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of single subcutaneous injections of 1000 mg triphenyl phosphite (TPP)/kg body weight were investigated in White Leghorn hens. At 7 days postexposure, birds began to show signs of mild to moderate ataxia that progressed to severe ataxia and paralysis at 21 days. Inhibition of whole brain neuropathy target esterase was 85% at 48 hr and 73% by 21 days postexposure. After postexposure periods of 7, 14, and 21 days, hens were killed and their brains and spinal cords were examined for degenerating axons and terminals using the Fink-Heimer silver impregnation method. A small amount of degeneration was noted at 7 days. By 21 days, dense degeneration was noted in the spinal gray matter and funiculi. Degeneration was also present in the granular cell layer of cerebellar folia I-VI and in nuclei and fiber tracts of the medulla. Moderate to dense degeneration was also seen in several forebrain and midbrain areas including the paleostriatum, ansa lenticularis, the dorso-intermediate thalamic nucleus, lateral spiriform, pedunculopontine tegmental, and lateral mesencephalic nuclei and in the deeper layers of the optic tectum. These results indicate that, in addition to affecting the spinal cord and brainstem, exposure to TPP also damages higher order centers responsible for processing and integrating sensorimotor, visual, and auditory information. PMID:1601212

  2. The effects of feeding the direct-fed microbial, primalac, on growth parameters and egg production in single comb white leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Davis, G S; Anderson, K E

    2002-06-01

    Two commercial strains of Single Comb White Leghorn hens, HyLine W-36 and DeKalb XL, were reared separately as pullet flocks in an enclosed, environmentally controlled brood-grow house with three banks of quad-deck cages (310 cm2 per bird). There were 1,800 hens of each strain, which were divided into two groups, control feed and a direct-fed microbial (DFM) feed treatment. During the pullet-rearing phase to 18 wk of age, the DeKalb birds had greater parameters of growth and overall feed cost than the HyLine birds. The overall feed cost of the DFM treatment was $0.02 per bird greater than controls. However, the DFM-treated feed improved the livability of the DeKalb birds by 2.68%. At 18 wk of age, 3,528 hens were transferred to an enclosed, mechanically ventilated layer house. The two strains were placed in two differently sized quad-deck layer cages with seven birds per cage; the cage sizes were 35.56 cm x 60.96 cm (2,267.73 cm2 or 310 cm2 per bird) and 14 cm x 32 cm (2,890.32 cm2 or 413 cm2 per bird). There were a total of 144 replications with each strain and DFM treatment combination made up of 36 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages. At 70 wk of age, hens receiving the DFM treatment exhibited greater mean egg weights (61.72 g) and percentages of extra large eggs (XLE, 52.06%) compared to that of controls (61.12 g and 48.98%, respectively). The treatment of 310 cm2/hen DFM produced the least (P < or = 0.05) large eggs; however, this treatment group produced the most (P < or = 0.05) XLE. The use of DFM resulted in a shift from smaller to larger eggs. Regardless of density, the DFM hens had lower (P < or = 0.05) feed cost (FC) compared to FC of the controls (a savings of $0.46/bird between the DFM and control in the 310 cm2 /hen treatment and a $0.83 savings/bird between the DFM and control in the 413 cm2/hen treatment). It was concluded that PrimaLac can improve egg size and lower feed costs, regardless of the bird density used in the present study. PMID:12079039

  3. Early chick mortality associated with rupture of the yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D P; Halvorson, D A

    1993-01-01

    Rupture of the yolk sac was identified in leghorn chicks from six placements of a commercial hatchery that had high mortality (up to 3%) during the first 3 days. The abdomens of these chicks were filled with cloudy yellowish fluid; kidneys were swollen, and many chicks also had severe visceral urate deposition (visceral gout). No significant bacterial growth was detected. The hatchery had recently hired new sexors. After the sexors were cautioned to handle the chicks more carefully, the problem abruptly subsided. In an experimental attempt to reproduce the condition, a graded series of doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ml) of egg yolk were injected intraperitoneally into five groups of twenty 1-day-old chicks. Twelve of the 20 chicks that received the 4-ml dose died. They developed swollen, pale kidneys and had cloudy yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity, but no visceral urate deposition. Only six of the remaining 80 chicks that received lesser doses or no yolk died. PMID:8257362

  4. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  5. The toxicity of purified fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Henry, M H; Wyatt, R D; Fletchert, O J

    2000-10-01

    An investigation of the toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme, in broiler chicks was conducted. Purified FB1 (98.1% pure) was incorporated into the diets of broiler chicks at 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, and fed to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Dietary FB1, at concentrations of 80 mg/kg or less, did not adversely affect body weight, feed efficiency, or water consumption of broiler chicks. The relative weights of the liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius were also unaffected (P < 0.05) by any dietary concentration of FB1 compared with the control (0 mg/kg) group. Total liver lipids of chicks fed 40 or 80 mg FB1/kg were significantly lower than those of the chicks fed either 0 or 20 mg FB1/kg of feed. Liver sphinganine concentration and the sphinganine:sphingosine ratio were increased significantly in all treated groups. Chicks fed dietary FB1 at 80 mg/kg had significantly higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransaminase:aspartate aminotransferase ratios and levels of free sphinganine in the serum. The results of this investigation agree with the results previously described, in which FB1 was supplied to diets from the use of F. moniliforme-contaminated grain; therefore, the use of such material as the source of the mycotoxin in animal feeding studies is appropriate. PMID:11055840

  6. Yolk sac utilization in ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G

    2004-09-01

    The mass of residual yolk sac expressed as a percentage of initial mass of the egg from which the chick hatched decreased sharply in the first 2 days post-hatching. A gradual reduction occurred between 3 and 10 days after which a sharp decline was noted between 11 and 13 days post-hatching. The highest number of chicks with unabsorbed yolk sac was noted on day 5 post-hatching followed by days 6 and 7. Chick mortality followed the same pattern. The dynamics, causes and clinical consequences of yolk sac utilization are discussed. PMID:15580775

  7. Prevention of fatal cage-layer osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mayeda, Bryan; Ernst, R A

    2008-09-01

    Regular necropsy of samples of laying hen mortality at a large cage-layer ranch revealed significant loses due to osteoporosis. The feeding program consisted of feeding a pullet-growing diet until egg production commenced followed by a change to a laying diet. Literature review and experimental results have demonstrated a requirement for 2% dietary calcium for about 2 wk before first egg is anticipated followed by transfer to a higher calcium level during lay. A nutritional regimen of this design was tested on two paired sister flocks of hens. Necropsy of mortality during the tests showed a striking reduction in mortality due to osteoporosis. PMID:18939651

  8. Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).

    PubMed

    Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O

    2007-03-01

    Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (? and ? carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed (P?0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase (P?0.05). For ? and ? carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others (P?0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

  9. [Completion of the set of amino acids contained in high-protein wheat through the addition of protein feeds and L-lysine to rations fed to laying hens].

    PubMed

    Schubert, R; Gruhn, K

    1977-04-01

    2 types of chick rations were fed to 8100 birds. A commercial type of food prepared on the basis of state-controlled standard formulas was used as control ration. The experimental food contained 84% of wheat; the proportion of protein feed in this ration had been reduced by 30%. The chick period was taken to last 8 weeks (controls and half of the experimental groups) or 12 weeks. Until the age of 8 weeks the growth rate of the control birds was by no means better than that of the experimental chicks (8.6 and 8.3 g per bird/day) although the control birds consumed more food (but same level of EFh consumption). At the age of 8 weeks the experimental birds were adjusted to a type of food fed to young hens. The apparently stress-induced lower level of food consumption of the experimental chicks in the period between the 9th and 12th week decreased the rate of weight gains and affected the whole analysis of data for the entire chick period ranging from 0 to 12 weeks (9.0 g per bird per day as compared to 9.6 g). This difference was compensated for in the further course of rearing. No significant differences in the demands for food, energy and crude protein were noticed until the age of 8 weeks. The mortality rates were the same in both groups (2.4% and 3.1%, alphaless than0.05). With regard to the criteria investigated the two rations appear to be equivalent. The 30% decrease in the proportion of protein feed may be regarded as being justified. PMID:556583

  10. Infectious bronchitis in laying hens: interference with response to emulsion vaccine by attenuated live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Box, P G; Ellis, K R

    1985-01-01

    Pullet chicks were reared in isolation; all except a control group were variously vaccinated against infectious bronchitis. Individual haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses were measured from 1 day to 38 weeks old when all birds were challenged with virulent infectious bronchitis virus, and egg production recorded for a further 5 week period. In the controls HI titres remained low until challenge: this caused a loss of 15.1 eggs/hen. In birds injected with oil emulsion killed vaccine (OEV) at 3 and 16 weeks old, the serological response was uniformly high but on challenge the loss in egg production was 2.9 eggs/bird. Birds given H120 live vaccine at 3 weeks and H52 live vaccine at 15 weeks old had a low (23%) individual rate of serological response to the latter, and egg production after challenge was 3.63 eggs/hen less than before. In birds given H120 live vaccine at 3 weeks and emulsion killed vaccine at 16 weeks old, 100% serological response to the latter occurred and egg production was unaffected by challenge. A further group also received H120 and H52 live vaccines at 3 and 15 weeks old respectively: however, they were then subdivided into four groups and injected with emulsion vaccine at either 17, 19, 21 or 23 weeks old. Their response to H52 vaccine was variable. The proportion of birds in each sub-group responding serologically to subsequent vaccination with OEV was 45, 65, 73 and 92% respectively. After challenge egg production in these four sub-groups was reduced by 1.92, 1.15, 0.94 and 1.55 eggs/bird respectively. It is concluded that response to oil emulsion infectious bronchitis vaccine can be impaired if it is used within 8 weeks of H52 live vaccine. Best results are achieved where birds are given a primary dose of H120 live vaccine at 3 weeks old followed by emulsion vaccine 12-16 weeks later. Use of the less attenuated H52 strain of live vaccine before emulsion killed vaccine is contra-indicated. PMID:18766895

  11. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  12. Ex Vivo Culture of Chick Cerebellar Slices and Spatially Targeted Electroporation of Granule Cell Precursors.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, Michalina; Wingate, Richard J T; Butts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar external granule layer (EGL) is the site of the largest transit amplification in the developing brain, and an excellent model for studying neuronal proliferation and differentiation. In addition, evolutionary modifications of its proliferative capability have been responsible for the dramatic expansion of cerebellar size in the amniotes, making the cerebellum an excellent model for evo-devo studies of the vertebrate brain. The constituent cells of the EGL, cerebellar granule progenitors, also represent a significant cell of origin for medulloblastoma, the most prevalent paediatric neuronal tumour. Following transit amplification, granule precursors migrate radially into the internal granular layer of the cerebellum where they represent the largest neuronal population in the mature mammalian brain. In chick, the peak of EGL proliferation occurs towards the end of the second week of gestation. In order to target genetic modification to this layer at the peak of proliferation, we have developed a method for genetic manipulation through ex vivo electroporation of cerebellum slices from embryonic Day 14 chick embryos. This method recapitulates several important aspects of in vivo granule neuron development and will be useful in generating a thorough understanding of cerebellar granule cell proliferation and differentiation, and thus of cerebellum development, evolution and disease. PMID:26709704

  13. Influence of supplemental microbial phytase on first cycle laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient diets from day one of age.

    PubMed

    Punna, S; Roland, D A

    1999-10-01

    Pullets (19 wk of age) previously fed varying levels of aP (available P) with and without phytase (Natuphos) from Day 1 of age were used to determine the influence of 300 FTU phytase/kg diet on hen performance during Phase 1 (Week 21 to 36) and 2 (Week 37 to 48). At 19 wk of age, pullets were switched from developer diets to layer diets. The aP levels used in this portion of the study remained at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% with and without phytase. These were the same levels fed in the starter and developer diets. Feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, egg specific gravity, and mortality were the criteria used. Reduction of aP from 0.4 to 0.2% had no effect on feed intake, egg production, egg weight, or eggshell quality (P > 0.05). However, hens fed 0.1% aP showed reduced feed intake, egg production, and bone mineral density (P < 0.001) and increased mortality (P < 0.001), but 300 FTU/kg phytase supplementation completely prevented these deficiencies. Eggs from hens fed 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% aP diets were heavier than those fed 0.1% aP. Interactions between aP and phytase for feed consumption (P < 0.003), egg production (P < 0.001), and egg weight (P < 0.04) indicated that phytase corrected all deficiency symptoms in hens consuming 0.1% aP but showed no influence on hens fed aP levels > 0.2%. During Phase 2, aP by phytase interactions for feed consumption and egg production demonstrated that dietary phytase-corrected reductions related to P deficiency in hens consuming 0.2% aP. Results indicate that the addition of phytase in pullet diets from Day 1 of age through the first lay cycle can prevent reductions in performance of pullets fed low P diets. PMID:10536789

  14. Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on intestinal health and productivity of coccidian-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2012-07-01

    A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens. PMID:22700503

  15. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data supported a role for lipid metabolism in skeletal heath of laying hens. PMID:23687138

  16. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  17. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  18. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  19. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  20. Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

  1. FILLING AND EMPTYING OF THE ALIMENTARY TRACT OF MEAL FED BROILER BREEDER HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the filling and emptying of the alimentary track, broiler breeder hens were cooped and processed over a two-day period. Hens were fed at 0600 on Day 1 and after access to feed for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h were placed into coops. Half of the hens from each pen were either immediately processed o...

  2. Association of Campylobacter jejuni with laying hens and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, M P

    1984-01-01

    Laying hens were individually caged at 20 weeks of age and tested for fecal excretion of Campylobacter jejuni (minimum level of detection was 100 cfu/g) during a 42-week period. Peak rates of C. jejuni isolation (approximately 25% of hens positive) occurred at two different times, in October and in late April to early May. Before being segregated in late September, birds were allowed to consume fecal matter, litter, and communal drinking water, all likely sources of C. jejuni. The increased excretion rate in late April may have been due to a climatic change. A small portion (8.1%) of the hens chronically excreted (positive less than 30% of the sampling times) the organism, whereas C. jejuni was not detected in 33% of the hens, even though birds were likely exposed to the organism before being segregated. No correlation could be made between rates of C. jejuni excretion and egg production. Of 266 eggs from hens fecally excreting C. jejuni, the organism was isolated from two shell surfaces but no egg contents. Egg penetration studies revealed that the organism would not penetrate into the contents of the eggs but could be isolated occasionally from the inner shell and membranes of refrigerated eggs. PMID:6712220

  3. Binding of HenV clusters to ?-Fe grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschopp, M. A.; Gao, F.; Solanki, K. N.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the formation/binding energetics and length scales associated with the interaction between HenV clusters and grain boundaries in bcc ?-Fe. In this work, we calculated formation/binding energies for 1-8 He atoms in a monovacancy at all potential grain boundary (GB) sites within 15 of the ten grain boundaries selected (122106 simulations total). The present results provide detailed information about the interaction energies and length scales of 1-8 He atoms with grain boundaries for the structures examined. A number of interesting new findings emerge from the present study. First, the ?3(112) "twin" GB has significantly lower binding energies for all HenV clusters than all other boundaries in this study. For all grain boundary sites, the effect of the local environment surrounding each site on the HenV formation and binding energies decreases with an increasing number of He atoms in the HenV cluster. Based on the calculated dataset, we formulated a model to capture the evolution of the formation and binding energy of HenV clusters as a function of distance from the GB center, utilizing only constants related to the maximum binding energy and the length scale.

  4. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2?=?0.7664, P?=?0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2?=?0.6406, P?=?0.0001) and food intake (R2?=?0.784, P?=?0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  6. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

  7. Using neurogenin to Reprogram Chick RPE to Produce Photoreceptor-like Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiumei; Ma, Wenxin; Zhuo, Yehong; Yan, Run-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. One potential therapy for vision loss from photoreceptor degeneration is cell replacement, but this approach presents a need for photoreceptor cells. This study explores whether the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could be a convenient source of developing photoreceptors. Methods. The RPE of chick embryos was subjected to reprogramming by proneural genes neurogenin (ngn)1 and ngn3. The genes were introduced into the RPE through retrovirus RCAS-mediated transduction, with the virus microinjected into the eye or added to retinal pigment epithelial explant culture. The retinal pigment epithelia were then analyzed for photoreceptor traits. Results. In chick embryos infected with retrovirus RCAS-expressing ngn3 (RCAS-ngn3), the photoreceptor gene visinin (the equivalent of mammalian recoverin) was expressed in cells of the retinal pigment epithelial layer. When isolated and cultured as explants, retinal pigment epithelial tissues from embryos infected with RCAS-ngn3 or RCAS-ngn1 gave rise to layers of visinin-positive cells. These reprogrammed cells expressed genes of phototransduction and synapses, such as red opsin, the ?-subunit of cone transducin, SNAP-25, and PSD-95. Reprogramming occurred with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from virally infected embryos and with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from normal embryos, with the recombinant viruses added at the onset of the explant culture. In addition, reprogramming took place in retinal pigment epithelial explants from both young and old embryos, from embryonic day (E)6 to E18, when the visual system becomes functional in the chick. Conclusions. The results support the prospect of exploring the RPE as a convenient source of developing photoreceptors for in situ cell replacement. PMID:19628733

  8. Thymic cell activity of thiouracil-treated chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.; Glick, B.

    1986-03-01

    Thymus glands of chickens fed a diet containing .1% thiouracil from day of hatch are less well developed than those of controls. Thymus weights are reduced, and the cortical and medullary areas are found to have poor cellularity upon histological examination. Fewer mitotic figures are observed in the thymic cortices of thiouracil-treated chickens, and indications of regression at an early age are noticeable in their medullae. The phytohemmagglutin-M response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) is reduced in thiouracil-fed chicks. However, PBL from thiouracil-treated chicks do not produce lower graft versus host responses (GvH). Thymic cells from 1 and 3 week-old chicks were cultured in vitro with BPMI 1640 medium for short lengths of time. The uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR) was measured after 1 and 4 hr incubation periods at 40/sup 0/C in a humidified 5% CO/sub 2/ atmosphere. There was more uptake of /sup 3/HTdR by thymic cells from control chicks after both 1 and 4 hr of incubation. Autoradiographic studies of thymic cells labeled in vitro with /sup 3/HTdR were also conducted. The T cells from chicks treated with thiouracil from day of hatch are less active than those from control chicks. But the functional ability of the T-cell subpopulation involved in GvH is not altered. A thiouracil-induced hypothyroid state would appear to affect thymic development in young chickens.

  9. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling. PMID:26354762

  10. West Nile Virus in American White Pelican Chicks: Transmission, Immunity, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 6475%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

  11. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  12. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    PubMed

    Bubel, F; Dobrza?ski, Z; Gawe?, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l). PMID:25928920

  13. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  14. The effect of low protein pullet growing diets on performance of laying hens housed in the fall.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Douglas, C R; Kalch, L W; Harms, R H

    1982-10-01

    A total of 6000 layer-type pullet chicks were fed either a low protein (9.1%) or a high protein (15.4%) diet from 8 through 18 weeks of the growing period in two experiments. All chicks were fed a commercial starter for the first 8 weeks and the high protein diet from 18 to 21 weeks of age. All chicks were grown in floor pens and were supplied feed and water ad libitum throughout the growing trial. They were placed in either a cage- or floor-laying house and fed a commercial layer diet for 12 periods of 28 days each. The experiment was repeated in the subsequent year. The low protein regimen was found to produce a smaller pullet, delay sexual maturity, delay production peaks, and maintain higher levels of production near the end of the laying period. Pullets fed the low protein grower diet had higher mortality during the growing period, greater feed intake during the laying period, eggs with higher Haugh unit values, and reduced egg production in the laying house. PMID:7178002

  15. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

  16. Effect of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on the accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues of developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Gopalakrishnan, N; Akiba, Y; Sim, J S

    1997-01-01

    The effect of maternal diets on the accretion of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain and liver tissue of developing chick embryos was investigated. Hens were fed diets containing high (HLNA) or low levels of 18:3n-3 (LLNA). The HLNA diet increased (p < 0.05) the content of the 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the yolk lipids with a concomitant reduction (p < 0.005) in 20:4n-6. Diet and time significantly (p < 0.05) affected the transfer of 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) and 20:4n-6 acid from the HLNA and LLNA yolk lipid. In the brain of HLNA chick embryos, a diet- and time-associated increase (p < 0.05) in the phospholipid content was observed. In the brain of HLNA and LLNA embryos, DHA levels increased (p < 0.05) from day 15 to the day of hatching, with a concomitant reduction (p < 0.05) in the liver. The accretion of arachidonic acid plateaued on day 15 in the brain of HLNA and LLNA embryos. PMID:9303215

  17. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens. PMID:26467011

  18. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester on chick liver.

    PubMed

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Fabra de Peretti, A; Castro de Cantarini, S; Duffard, R

    1993-08-01

    Fertilized hen eggs were externally treated with 3.1 mg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D ester) before starting incubation. Liver lipid composition, (14C)2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution and covalent binding to proteins and lipids of chicks hatched from these eggs were studied. Furthermore, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-phosphatase activities as well as reduced glutathione content were determined. The herbicide produced a significant decrease on the total lipids, specially on phospholipids, both in total liver and microsomes. (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution in liver demonstrated that the herbicide passed through the plasmatic membrane and it was present in all the studied fractions. Herbicide bound covalently to hepatic proteins and lipids, being the binding to proteins tenfold higher than to lipids. Because these results might be of potential relevance to the understanding of the 2,4-D toxicity, further studies on the mechanisms of these reactions are necessary. On the other hand, the microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases activities remained unchanged, even though in vitro studies 2,4-D ester caused a decrease of the enzyme activities with an I50 value of 0.2 mM. No significant change in reduced glutathione content between control and treated livers was observed. The catalase activity increased two-fold whereas glucose 6-phosphatase activity decreased 46% with respect to the corresponding control values. These results indicate that 2,4-D ester may have effects on the metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:8368864

  19. Laying hen movement in a commercial aviary: Enclosure to floor and back again.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many producers in the laying hen industry, including in North America, are phasing out conventional cages in response to consumer demands and sometimes subsequent legislation. Alternative housing systems such as aviaries are being implemented in an attempt to improve hen welfare. Aviaries provide additional space and resources to groups of hens, including a litter area on the floor. However, little is known about hen movement between tiered enclosures and floor litter areas in aviary systems. Diurnal rhythms and social attraction may result in peak times of movement that could lead to overcrowding of areas, or alternatively hen preferences may lead to some areas not being fully utilized. We monitored hen movement between tiered enclosures and litter areas, including movement on and off the outer perch, across the day at peak, mid and end of lay in a commercial aviary. Hens moved onto and off of the open litter area across the day, transitioning between tiered enclosures, outer perches, open litter areas, and litter areas under tiered enclosures. At certain times of day, there were periods of greater hen movement down to the open litter area and between litter areas. For example, more hens were typically observed exiting enclosures, jumping from perches to open litter, and traveling between open litter and litter under tiered enclosures in the morning (all P ? 0.001). In all but one instance, more hens were observed on open litter areas in the afternoon than at other times of day (all P ? 0.029). However, hen re-entry to tiered enclosures showed less circadian patterning. Hen movement was observed between areas of interest at all sampled time periods, indicating hens use all areas of the system. Further research should examine whether all individual hens do move between areas equally, including within levels of the tiered enclosure, or if crowding occurs on the outer perches or in the litter during times of peak movement. PMID:26195806

  20. Growth and muscle protein turnover in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kimiaki; Sunde, Milton L.; Swick, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    The growth rates of young chicks were varied from 0 to 10% per day by manipulation of the adequacy of the amino acid and energy supply. The rates of protein synthesis in the white breast (pectoralis thoracica) muscle and the dark leg (gastrocnemius and peronaeus longus) muscles were estimated by feeding l-[U-14C]tyrosine in amino acid/agar-gel diets (`dietary infusion'). This treatment rapidly and consistently produced an isotopic equilibrium in the expired CO2 and in the free tyrosine of plasma and the muscles. Wholebody protein synthesis in 2-week-old chicks was estimated from the tyrosine flux and was 6.4g/day per 100g body wt. In 1-week-old chicks the rate of protein synthesis was more rapid in the breast muscles than in the leg muscles, but decreased until the rates were similar in 2-week-old birds. Synthesis was also more rapid in fast-growing Rock Cornish broilers than in medium-slow-growing New HampshireSingle Comb White Leghorn chicks. No or barely significant decrease in the high rates of protein synthesis, in the protein/RNA ratio and in the activity of RNA for protein synthesis occurred in non- or slow-growing chicks fed on diets deficient in lysine, total nitrogen or energy. Thus the machinery of protein synthesis in the young chick seems to be relatively insensitive to dietary manipulation. In the leg muscles, there was a small but significant correlation between the fractional rate of growth and protein synthesis. A decrease in the fractional rate of degradation, however, appeared to account for much of the accumulation of muscle protein in rapidly growing birds. In addition, the rapid accumulation of breast-muscle protein in rapidly growing chicks appeared to be achieved almost entirely by a marked decrease in the fractional rate of degradation. PMID:743259

  1. Bendiocarbamate toxicity in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Peterovov, E; Sedmera, D; Msek, I; Lesnk, F; Luptkov, L

    2009-01-01

    Carbamate pesticides generally possess low toxicity for warm-blooded vertebrates, but developmental data are scarce. We have therefore evaluated embryotoxicity of choline esterase inhibitor bendiocarbamate in the chick embryo. The pesticide was dissolved in 5% acetone in distilled water and a volume of 200 microl was administered over the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic days 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10. Sampling was performed on embryonic day 10, while the embryos treated on embryonic day 10 were sampled on embryonic day 17. The toxicity of bendiocarbamate was fairly low, and LD50 decreased with advancing development from 1 mg/ embryo on embryonic day 2 to 29 mg on embryonic day 5. Malformations in surviving embryos were observed rarely (< 3 %) and occurred in both control and experimental groups. There was a mild but statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in body weight, most pronounced in the treatment on embryonic days 5 and 10, but the maximum difference from controls was below 15 %. A small but not significant increase in the number of positive cells was observed in the eye, limb buds, and the central nervous system of embryos treated on embryonic days 3 and 4 and examined after supravital whole-mount staining with Lysotracker Red for apoptosis. In agreement with previously published studies in other vertebrate animals, we conclude that bendiocarbamate does not possess significant toxicity in the avian embryo. PMID:19454180

  2. Regeneration following somite removal in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, A L; Bagnall, K M

    1995-11-01

    A technique was developed for ensuring complete removal of single somites with minimal damage to surrounding tissues in 2-day-old chick embryos. Histological examination of the site of somite removal at various time intervals after operation revealed that a regeneration mechanism could be triggered. Replacement of the cells that had been removed could occur, but the extent of the replacement was dependent on the immediate fate of the gap created. If the gap was closed by enlargement of the adjacent somites, no replacement of the cells occurred. If the gap remained, then cells invaded the gap and were able to produce a normal sclerotome and dermomyotome. By labelling adjacent cells with the carbocyanine dye. DiI, it was shown that the replacement cells could come from the adjacent somites, as well as the intermediate mesoderm. Use of an antibody to HNK-1 established that the replacement cells did not come from the neural crest and that the neural crest cell distribution was little affected. Staining with peanut agglutinin showed that the replacement cells were able to adopt the characteristics associated with rostral and caudal halves of the normal sclerotome. These results provide possible explanations for the variety of vertebral anomalies produced by removal of somites and for the production of some congenital vertebral anomalies. PMID:8546337

  3. The effect of Marek's disease vaccination and day-old debeaking on the performance of growing pullets and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Reid, I S

    1977-05-01

    In a 2 X 2 completely randomized factorial design, four hundred day-old Single Comb White Leghorn pullets were randomly assigned to four treatment combinations of vaccinated, non-vaccinated, debeaked and non-debeaked groups. Vaccination and debeaking were performed at day-old by administering 2,000 P.F.U. of HVT vaccine/chick and by removing approximately 2/3 of the upper beak, respectively. All the data were analyzed at 5% level of probability. Vaccination reduced feed consumption significantly only during the early growing period of the first 12 weeks, whereas debeaking caused a significant reduction in feed consumption throughout the experimental period of 80 weeks. Mortality during the 20-week growing period was not affected by either vaccination or debeaking. During the laying period (20-80 weeks of age), vaccination reduced the mortality numerically, while debeaking reduced the mortality significantly. Final body weight, hen-day egg production, egg weight, albumen height and egg shell thickness were not influenced by either vaccination, debeaking or a combination of the two. Debeaking had no effect on the incidence of blood-spotting in the eggs. Vaccination, however, significantly reduced percent blood spots in the eggs. Day-old debeaking effectively prevented the occurrence of cannibalism. PMID:605052

  4. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a

  5. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  6. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  7. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  8. Requirement of NeuroD for Photoreceptor Formation in the Chick Retina

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Run-Tao; Wang, Shu-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The genetic control of photoreceptor cell fate in the vertebrate retina is poorly understood. Published studies suggest that the genetic program underlying photoreceptor production involves neuroD, a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. The present study investigates whether neuroD is necessary for photoreceptor cell development, by using loss-of-function analyses. Method Engrailed-mediated active repression, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to attenuate neuroD expression and function in embryonic chick retina. The development of the retina was subsequently analyzed to determine whether these experimental manipulations would yield photoreceptor deficits in otherwise normal retina. Results Chick embryos infected with retroviruses expressing an active repression construct, En-NeuroD?C, exhibited severe photoreceptor deficits. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina was no longer a contiguous structure, but became fragmented with regions that contained fewer or no photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor deficiency was evident even before the retina became laminated, suggesting that active repression of NeuroD may have affected photoreceptor genesis. No deficiency was observed in other types of retinal cells. Culturing retinal cells in the presence of siRNA against neuroD resulted in a more than 50% reduction in the number of photoreceptor cells and an increase in the number of chx10+ cells. Subjecting the developing retina to antisense oligonucleotides against neuroD yielded fewer photoreceptor cells both in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with these observations, anti-NeuroD antibody specifically labeled the nuclei of the ONL. Conclusions The data suggest a specific and an essential role of neuroD in photoreceptor formation in the chick retina. PMID:14691153

  9. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. )

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  10. Factors affecting methionine toxicity and its alleviation in the chick.

    PubMed

    Harter, J M; Baker, D H

    1978-07-01

    Young male crossbred chicks were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing excess L-methionine or DL-homocysteine to evaluate factors causing methionine toxicity. Chicks were fed diets containing graded levels of excess methionine from 0% to 2.0%. Rate of gain was reduced at all levels of excess methionine, but the magnitude of depression was greater between 1% and 2% than between 0% and 1% excess methionine. Methionine accumulated in plasma of birds fed excess methionine, but plasma levels of homocysteine, cystathionine and cystine remained essentially unchanged. Spleen iron levels increased linearly and blood hemoglobin decreased linearly when chicks were fed diets containing greater than 1% excess methionine, a level equivalent to about 3 times the chicks' requirement. Chicks fed 1.36% homocysteine had reduced gain and gain:feed values, but spleen iron and hemoglobin levels were unchanged. 3-Methylthiopropionate, a possible metabolite in a proposed alternate pathway, caused a precipitous increase in spleen iron levels. Various methyl sources (betaine, choline, methyl acetate) when fed in excess failed to increase spleen iron levels. Methyl mercaptan and methyl mercaptoacetate likewise did not result in an increase in spleen iron deposition. Both the hemosiderosis condition and the reduced food utilization caused by excess methionine were reversed by supplemental glycine plus threonine. PMID:660299

  11. Modeling Chick to Assess Diabetes Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Savita P.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

  12. The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the EU conventional cages for laying hens are forbidden beginning in January 2012, however concerns about a higher transmission rate of Salmonella in alternative cages systems have been raised. The extent to which cage systems may affect the intestinal microbiota of laying hens is not known, and different microbiota may demonstrate different resistance towards colonization with Salmonella. To investigate this, ileal and caecal samples from two experimental studies where laying hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and housed in different systems (conventional cage, furnished cage or aviary), were compared using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). The distribution of genera in the microbiota in caecum was furthermore described by next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. Results Hens in the same cage type developed similar T-RFLP fingerprints of the ileal and caecal microbiota, and these could be separated from layers in the other cages types. No significant difference in the fingerprint profiles could be observed between Salmonella positive and negative samples from same cage. By deep sequencing of 16S rDNA libraries from caecum, 197 different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified, and 195 and 196 OTU respectively, were found in hens in aviary and furnished cages, but only 178 OTU of these were recovered from conventional cages. The ratio between the dominating phyla or families and genera in the microbiota remained fairly constant throughout the study. Faecalibacterium and Butyricimonas were the most prevalent genera found in the caecal microbiota of layers irrespective of the cage type. Conclusions Hens confined in the same cage group tend to develop similar microbiota in their ileum and caecum possibly due to isolation, while differences in the microbiota between cages may be caused by environmental or individual bird factors. Although the cages type had influence on composition of the microbiota in the layers by promoting higher diversity in furnished and aviary systems, we did not observe differences in colonization and excretion pattern of Salmonella from these groups. We suggest, that differences in group size and exposure to a more faecally contaminated environment in the alternative systems may explain the observed differences in diversity of the caecal microbiota. PMID:21859465

  13. [Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of the chick amnion].

    PubMed

    Manukhin, B N; Boĭko, O V

    2008-01-01

    The presence of muscarinic (M) acetylcholine receptors in the noninnervated chick amnion makes it possible to analyze their functioning with presynaptic effects excluded. The M receptors of the amnion mediating its contraction were identified by testing with selective antagonists: pirenzepine for M1, methoctramine for M2, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP) for M3, and tropicamide for M4 receptor subtype. All antagonists acted as competitive inhibitors of M-acetylcholine receptors. With respect to cholinolytic activity estimated from the response to carbacholine (CBC) (-logIC50), the antagonists could be arranged in the following series: 4-DAMP (8.29) > tropicamide (6.97) > pirenzepine (5.85) > methoctramine (5.63). In addition, the effect of forskolin (5 microM), activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was unidirectional with beta-adrenergic agonists; it blocked CBC-induced contractile activity of the amnion, whereas phospholipase C (1.25 U/ml) stimulated this activity. These data suggest that CBC- or acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractile activity of the amnion is mediated by M3 acetylcholine receptors. Evaluation of contractile response to ACh by the tonic component usually revealed one pool of M3 acetylcholine receptors. One pool was also revealed after treatment with 4-DAMP, with the Hill coefficient being increased (ACh, n = 1.07; ACh against the 4-DAMP background, n = 1.48). It is possible to detect two pools of M3-acetylcholine receptors on the basis of either phase-frequency or tonic response, i.e., independently of the test parameter. PMID:18946994

  14. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

  15. Analysis of metabolic pools in broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Maria Mrcia Pereira; Denadai, Juliana Clia; Sartori, Jos Roberto; Campos, Daniel; Macari, Marcos; Pezzato, Antnio Celso; Ducatti, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    This paper shows the possibility of obtaining new parameters for the mathematical modelling of data on stable isotopes in biological systems and its application in obtaining data on metabolic pools of blood plasma, blood serum, liver and muscle of broilers. This theory states that the modelling of turnover used for studies of isotopic incorporation when the metabolism has a single metabolic pool is feasible by the technique of setting an exponential. However, when the metabolism has more than one metabolic pool, it is necessary to apply the linearization technique, linear regression adjustment and evaluation of the assumptions of regression to obtain the kinetic parameters such as half-life (T1/2) and isotope exchange rate (k). The application of this technique on carbon-13 data from 100 one-day-old chicks, with the change of diet composed of grains of the photosynthetic cycle of plants from C4 to C3, in broilers has enabled the discovery that the liver, blood plasma and blood serum have a single metabolic pool; however, the pectoral muscle has two metabolic pools. For the liver, blood plasma and blood serum, the half-life values were found by the exponential fit being T1/2?=?1.4 days with the rate of exchange of k?=?0.502, T1/2?=?2.4 days with k?=?0.293 and T1/2?=?2.0 days with k?=?0.348, respectively. For the pectoral muscle, after linearization, the half-life values were found for T1/2(1)?=?1.7 and T1/2(2)?=?3 days, with exchange rates of k1?=?0.405 and k2?=?0.235, representing approximately 66 and 34?%, respectively. PMID:26382186

  16. Cell movement during chick primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Chuai, Manli; Zeng, Wei; Yang, Xuesong; Boychenko, Veronika; Glazier, James A.; Weijer, Cornelis J.

    2008-01-01

    Gastrulation in amniotes begins with extensive re-arrangements of cells in the epiblast resulting in the formation of the primitive streak. We have developed a transfection method that enables us to transfect randomly distributed epiblast cells in the Stage XIXIII chick blastoderms with GFP fusion proteins. This allows us to use time-lapse microscopy for detailed analysis of the movements and proliferation of epiblast cells during streak formation. Cells in the posterior two thirds of the embryo move in two striking counter-rotating flows that meet at the site of streak formation at the posterior end of the embryo. Cells divide during this rotational movement with a cell cycle time of 67 h. Daughter cells remain together, forming small clusters and as result of the flow patterns line up in the streak. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P21/Waf inhibits cell division and severely limits embryo growth, but does not inhibit streak formation or associated flows. To investigate the role off cellcell intercalation in streak formation we have inhibited the Wnt planar-polarity signalling pathway by expression of a dominant negative Wnt11 and a Dishevelled mutant Xdd1. Both treatments do not result in an inhibition of streak formation, but both severely affect extension of the embryo in later development. Likewise inhibition of myosin II which as been shown to drive cellcell intercalation during Drosophila germ band extension, has no effect on streak formation, but also effectively blocks elongation after regression has started. These experiments make it unlikely that streak formation involves known cellcell intercalation mechanisms. Expression of a dominant negative FGFR1c receptor construct as well as the soluble extracellular domain of the FGFR1c receptor both effectively block the cell movements associated with streak formation and mesoderm differentiation, showing the importance of FGF signalling in these processes. PMID:16725136

  17. Memantine improves observational learning in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Kimbrough, Tiffany N

    2015-06-01

    Evidence of observational learning (social learning) is present in many species. One such task is the one-trial taste-avoidance task, in which Actor chicks peck a bead coated with an aversant substance. Observer chicks learn to avoid beads that are similar in appearance to the one presented to the Actors. It has been firmly established that active learning of the one-trial taste-avoidance task is dependent on a constrained level of glutamate receptor activation. The current study examined the effects of memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on the learning by Observers. Memantine produced an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent response curve; 1.0 mmol/l memantine produced significant improvement. These results demonstrate that memantine influences memory formation for observational learning in the day-old chick and support the hypothesis that memantine can improve memories by altering levels of glutamate during memory formation. PMID:25738760

  18. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  19. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  20. Further studies on mevalonate phosphorylation in neonatal chick brain.

    PubMed

    Linares, A; Aguilera, J A; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-08-01

    Mevalonate phosphorylation was studied in neonatal chick brain. Formation of phosphorylated derivatives of mevalonic acid increased with the pH in the range assays (5.5-9.5). Phosphomevalonate kinase was completely inactivated after treatment at 50 degree C for 5-10 min, whereas mevalonate kinase was found to retain its activity under the same conditions. Exposure to 65 degree C for 5 min resulted in the inactivation of mevalonate kinase. Both mevalonate-activating enzymes from chick brain were located primarily in the soluble fraction. The amounts of phosphomevalonic acid and pyrophosphomevalonic acid did not show a significant diurnal variation to suggest the presence of a circadian rhythm in either kinase. Cholesterol feeding and fasting had no effect on mevalonate phosphorylation by neonatal chick brain. PMID:6273760

  1. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

  2. Corticosterone is not correlated with nest departure in snowy owl chicks (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Romero, L Michael; Holt, Denver W; Maples, Mike; Wingfield, John C

    2006-11-01

    Snowy owl chicks typically depart from nests at approximately 18 days of age, but 3 weeks before taking their first flight. High concentrations of corticosterone have been implicated in behavioral changes in many species, leading us to assess corticosterone's role in chick nest departure. Corticosterone titers in free-living chicks, however, do not predict this departure event. Baseline corticosterone concentrations decrease as chicks age. By 13 days, corticosterone concentrations are 50% of concentrations in 1-day-old chicks. Baseline concentrations, however, do not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Furthermore, corticosterone concentrations become significantly elevated 30min after collecting the baseline sample, indicating that chicks are able to mount a corticosterone response to handling. This stress-induced rise in corticosterone also did not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Brood sizes varied, possibly resulting in increased stress in chicks from larger broods. Although many chicks died before reaching departure age, brood sizes at time of nest departure ranged from 1 to 10 chicks. Brood size was not correlated with age of nest departure or individual corticosterone concentrations. These data indicate that it is unlikely that corticosterone plays a role in triggering nest departure in snowy owl chicks. PMID:16620813

  3. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  4. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H J; Tian, Y D; Guo, Y M; Yuan, J M

    2008-03-01

    1. The influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the antioxidant status in the absence or presence of endotoxin exposure was studied with male broiler chicks. 2. In experiment 1, a total of 240 1-d-old broilers were allotted into 4 dietary groups (0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g pure CLA/kg) to study the influence of CLA on growth performance and antioxidant defence systems. The results showed that growth performance was not altered by 42 d of CLA consumption. Increased total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activities in liver, serum and muscle were observed in chicks given 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. Dietary CLA at 10.0 g/kg also markedly elevated liver catalase (CAT) activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased in liver, serum and muscle in chicks given 5.0 and 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. 3. In experiment 2, a total of 120 1-d-old broilers were fed on a control diet (without CLA) or 10.0 g CLA/kg diet. Half of the birds fed on each diet were injected intraperitoneally with 0.25 mg/kg body weight of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. Decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), TSOD activity and increased ceruloplasmin and MDA concentrations were seen in the challenged chicks. Dietary CLA prevented the loss of body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of chicks followed repeated endotoxin exposure. CLA partially inhibited the increase of serum ceruloplasmin and MDA at 17 and 21 d of age and notably suppressed the decrease of serum TSOD activity at 21 d of age. 4. These results suggested that dietary CLA enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes including TSOD and CAT. Supplementation of CLA has been shown to ameliorate the antioxidant balance and performance of chicks during oxidative stress. PMID:18409096

  5. Ontogeny of bipedal locomotion: walking and running in the chick.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, G D; Gosline, J M; Steeves, J D

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the production of an energy-efficient bipedal walk is an innate attribute of a precocial bird. 2. The locomotor characteristics of hatchling chicks were quantified using kinetic (ground reaction forces) and kinematic (stride length, leg support duration) measurements as the animals moved overground unrestrained. All measurements were made over a range of velocities and at regular intervals throughout the first 2 weeks of life. 3. Ground reaction force records showed that, like all terrestrial walking vertebrates, chicks undergo cyclical increases and decreases in the body's potential and kinetic energy with each step. The out-of-phase exchange of potential with kinetic energy is an efficient mechanism for the conservation of energy during walking. However, comparisons between chicks at posthatching (P) days 1-2 and P14 revealed that P1-2 chicks are unable to conserve energy because they walk with disproportionately small potential energy oscillations. During running, however, the oscillations between potential and kinetic energy are similar for both P1-2 and P14 animals. 4. P1-2 chicks also walk with a shorter stride length than P14 chicks. Examination of limb support durations shows that younger animals (P1-2, P3) spend less time in single limb support than P14 animals during walking but not running. 5. The results show that even highly precocial bipeds need to acquire the ability to walk in a controlled and energy efficient manner, although they can innately run as well as an adult. This disparity could be due to the distinct actions of the legs in these two behaviours, and the requirement for longer durations of single leg support during walking. These differences relate to constraints inherent to bipedal locomotion and many of the locomotor changes occurring in the first weeks after hatching may therefore be analogous to similar changes seen during human locomotor development. PMID:8782119

  6. Partial albumen removal early during embryonic development of layer-type chickens has negative consequences on laying performance in adult life.

    PubMed

    Willems, E; Wang, Y; Willemsen, H; Lesuisse, J; Franssens, L; Guo, X; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Everaert, N

    2013-07-01

    To examine the importance of albumen as a protein source during embryonic development on the posthatch performance of laying hens, 3 mL of the albumen was removed. At hatch, no difference in BW could be observed. Chicks from the albumen-deprived group had a lower residual yolk weight due to higher yolk utilization. During the rearing phase (hatch to 17 wk of age), the BW of the albumen-deprived pullets was lower compared with the control and sham pullets. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived pullets was also lower than the control pullets. However, during the laying phase (18 to 55 wk of age) these hens exceeded the control and sham hens in BW, although this was not accompanied by a higher feed intake. The albumen-deprived hens exhibited a lower egg production capacity as demonstrated by the reduced egg weight, laying rate, and egg mass and increased number of second grade eggs. In addition, the eggs laid by the albumen-deprived hens had a higher proportional yolk and lower proportional albumen weight. In conclusion, prenatal protein deprivation by albumen removal caused a long-lasting programming effect, possibly by differences in energy allocation, in favor of growth and maintenance and impairing reproductive performance. PMID:23776279

  7. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands to establish how farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which factors affected health and welfare. Abstract From 20072008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of silver hybrids: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens had foot-sole wounds, mostly a small crust. Combs were darker in flocks that used the range area more intensively. More fearful flocks had lighter combs. We conclude that organic farms are potentially more animal friendly than other poultry systems based on the animal welfare benefits of the free range areas. However, we also observed mortality rates, internal parasites, keel bone deformities, and foot sole lesions on organic farms that were comparable to or worse than in other husbandry systems. It is unclear whether these remaining problems can be attributed to housing or if they are the result of keeping high productive genotypes in an artificial environment. Organic farms use the same high productive genotypes as other husbandry systems. PMID:26480046

  8. Light- and electron-microscopic observations of theophylline-induced aortic aneurysms in embryonic chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, H.; Matsuoka, R.; Bruyere, H. J.; Gilbert, E. F.; Uno, H.

    1983-01-01

    These investigators have previously developed a model for inducing aortic aneurysms by administering theophylline or caffeine to embryonic chicks. This report describes light-microscopic and ultrastructural changes in aortic walls of theophylline-treated embryos relative to saline-treated controls. Light-microscopic examination of areas of permanent aortic dilatation revealed thinning of the medial layer due to a marked decrease in the number of medial cells. Electron-microscopic observation of aortic walls with aneurysms revealed widely scattered medial cells with scanty cytoplasm containing poorly developed microorganelles, a markedly widened intercellular space with dispersed elastic and collagen fibers in the tunica media, and a disruption of endothelial cells. It is suggested that the induction of aortic aneurysms by theophylline in chick embryos may be attributed to two factors: 1) atrophy and subsequent hypoplasia of the aortic media possibly resulting from an elevated intracellular cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which inhibits mitosis in medial cells, and 2) altered hemodynamics due to the action of theophylline on the embryonic heart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p264-a PMID:6614141

  9. [Respiration and glycolysis in the liver of developing chick embryos and chicks].

    PubMed

    Golovachev, A F; Nadal'yak, E A

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen uptake in liver slices remains constant between the 12th and the 17th days of embryonic development, being equal to that in 30-60-day chicks. During the transition from allantoic respiration to the pulmonary one, oxygen consumption decreases, the decrease being observed up to the end of embryonic period. After hatching, oxygen consumption increases 4-5-fold to the 6-7th and decreases up to the initial level at the 10th day. Respiration of mitochondria isolated from the liver and concentration of cytochromes in mitochondria remain constant. The value P/O is the lowest, whereas catalase activity is the highest during hatching. The intensity of anaerobic glycolysis changes similarly to that of respiration. PMID:1217311

  10. Dietary influence of digestible lysine concentration on Cobb 500 hen broiler breeder reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Mejia, L; McDaniel, C D; Corzo, A

    2012-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reproductive parameters of Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens fed 2 different types of diets varying in digestible lysine concentration. In total, 240 Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual cages and given experimental diets from 35 to 45 wk of age. Treatments 1 and 2 were diets formulated using only commercially available feed ingredients and consisted of digestible lysine intakes of 1,200 (IDL) and 1,010 mg/hen per day (ID). Treatments 3 and 4 consisted of semipurified diets with the inclusion of l-glutamic acid to maintain isonitrogenous conditions with digestible lysine intakes of 1,010 (SPL) and 600 mg/hen per day (SP). Hens fed the SPL and SP diets had lower hen-day egg production than hens fed the ID diet, with hens receiving the IDL diet yielding intermediate values. Hens fed the SP diet had the lowest (P < 0.05) egg weight, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments for egg specific gravity. Fertility and hatchability of eggs set were lowest (P < 0.05) for hens fed the SPL dietary treatment. No differences were observed for early and middle embryonic mortality, contaminated, or pipped eggs. Late embryonic mortality was observed to be higher (P < 0.05) in hens fed the SP diet. A decrease in the daily intake of digestible lysine appeared to improve broiler breeder reproductive performance when hens were fed a semipurified diet. In contrast, the same effect was not observed when hens were fed a standard industry-type diet that contained less lysine. PMID:22252356

  11. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  12. Recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from hens initially infected with serovar Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Guard, Jean; Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Shah, Devendra H; Rothrock, Michael J; Gast, Richard K; Jones, Deana R

    2015-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Kentucky differ greatly in epidemiology. We wanted to know if the non-pathogenic serotype Kentucky impacted the recovery of the pathogen Enteritidis from chickens. To explore this issue, 4 groups of hens were treated as follows: (i) hens were inoculated orally with Kentucky and injected intramuscularly 2 weeks later with Enteritidis, (ii) hens were contact infected with Kentucky and then with Enteritidis, (iii) hens were injected with Enteritidis only, and (iv) hens were contact infected with Enteritidis only. Hens exposed orally to serotype Kentucky received 10 exp9 CFU, and hens injected with serotype Enteritidis received 10 exp7 CFU intramuscularly. Contact infected hens were kept in rooms with deliberately infected hens. Droppings, cecal tonsils and 5 internal organs were sampled and cultured at 6, 13 and 20 days post-infection from the 4 groups. Egg production was monitored. Results suggest that non-pathogenic serotypes of Salmonella may mitigate recovery of Enteritidis from chickens exposed by contact. In summary, we show results from an initial experiment intended to investigate if multiple serotypes impact the ecology of pathogenic S. enterica on-farm. PMID:26190605

  13. Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

    2007-06-01

    A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

  14. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

  15. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Martin CD; Mullens BA

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive.

  16. Predicting and scaling hens' preferences for topographically different responses

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, Catherine E.; Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William

    1995-01-01

    Six hens were exposed to several concurrent (second-order) variable-interval schedules in which the response requirements on the alternatives were varied. The response requirements were one key peck versus five key pecks, one key peck versus one door push, and five key pecks versus one door push. Response- and time-allocation ratios undermatched the obtained reinforcement ratios but were well described by the generalized matching law. Time and response bias estimates from two pairs of response requirements were used to predict bias in the third pairing. The predicted values were close to those obtained; this result supports the notion that both numerically and topographically different responses act as constant sources of bias within the generalized matching law. The differences between the response and time biases could be accounted for by the different times needed to complete each response requirement. The results also suggest that the door push is a useful operant for research with domestic hens. PMID:16812754

  17. Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borg, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (?OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ?OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ?OCs. Plasma ?OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ?OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ?OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ?OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer. PMID:23672486

  18. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to

  19. Acute Toxicity of Ochratoxins A and B in Chicks 1

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, John C.; Doupnik, Ben; Jones, Oscar H.

    1971-01-01

    Ochratoxins A and B were given to 1-day-old Babcock B-300 cockerels to evaluate acute toxic effects. Two trials with ochratoxin A gave 7-day oral median lethal dose estimates of 116 ?g (3.3 mg/kg) and 135 ?g (3.9 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given daily oral doses of 100 ?g of ochratoxin A died on the second day. Single subcutaneous doses of 400 ?g of ochratoxin A were also lethal. The 7-day oral median lethal dose of B was estimated at 1,890 ?g (54 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given oral doses of 100 ?g of ochratoxin B daily for 10 days survived. Sublethal doses of both ochratoxins A and B resulted in growth suppression which was proportional to the amount of ochratoxin given. Visceral gout was the principal gross finding. Microscopic examinations revealed acute nephrosis, hepatic degeneration or focal necrosis, and enteritis. Suppression of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and depletion of lymphoid elements from the spleen and bursa of Fabricius were frequently seen. Both ochratoxins appeared to have similar pathological effects. This is the first report on the toxicity of ochratoxin B. PMID:4928604

  20. Acute toxicity of ochratoxins A and B in chicks.

    PubMed

    Peckham, J C; Doupnik, B; Jones, O H

    1971-03-01

    Ochratoxins A and B were given to 1-day-old Babcock B-300 cockerels to evaluate acute toxic effects. Two trials with ochratoxin A gave 7-day oral median lethal dose estimates of 116 mug (3.3 mg/kg) and 135 mug (3.9 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given daily oral doses of 100 mug of ochratoxin A died on the second day. Single subcutaneous doses of 400 mug of ochratoxin A were also lethal. The 7-day oral median lethal dose of B was estimated at 1,890 mug (54 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given oral doses of 100 mug of ochratoxin B daily for 10 days survived. Sublethal doses of both ochratoxins A and B resulted in growth suppression which was proportional to the amount of ochratoxin given. Visceral gout was the principal gross finding. Microscopic examinations revealed acute nephrosis, hepatic degeneration or focal necrosis, and enteritis. Suppression of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and depletion of lymphoid elements from the spleen and bursa of Fabricius were frequently seen. Both ochratoxins appeared to have similar pathological effects. This is the first report on the toxicity of ochratoxin B. PMID:4928604

  1. LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Cline, Mark A; Layne, Jessica E; Calchary, Wendy A; Sheehy, Robert R; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-15

    Although LPLRFamide was the first member of the RFamide family to be isolated from a vertebrate species, its effects on hunger and satiety-related processes are poorly documented. Thus, we intracerebroventricularly administered LPLRFamide (3.0-15.0 nmol) to both Cobb-500 (a broiler type of Gallus gallus) and Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks and measured their food intake. The threshold of anorexigenic response was 7.0 nmol in Cobb-500 chicks and the effect had diminished by 30 min post-injection. In Bobwhite quail all doses of LPLRFamide tested caused anorexia that remained throughout the 60 min observation period. A comprehensive behavior analysis was conducted and Cobb-500 chicks had increased food pecks early in the observation period and spent a greater amount of time in deep rest. Although food pecks were increased pecking efficiency was decreased. In Bobwhite quail, feeding pecks and the number of jumps were reduced after LPLRFamide treatment. We judged that these behaviors in both species were likely not competitive with ingestion and thus did not secondarily contribute to anorexia. These results demonstrate that LPLRFamide is associated with satiety-related processes in Cobb-500 chicks and Bobwhite quail, while threshold of responses are different. PMID:19646446

  2. The Oldest Bird in the Northern Hemisphere Raises a Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Laysan albatross named Wisdom, is at least 60 years old and was spotted in February 2011 raising a chick at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Islands. The bird has sported and worn out 5 bird bands since she was first banded by U.S. Geological Survey scientist Chandler Robbi...

  3. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  4. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  5. Folate deficiency in chicks fed diets containing practical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Rowland, G N; Ryu, K S

    1991-03-01

    Development of folate deficiency was evaluated in young chicks fed diets containing corn and soybean meal as major constituents. Folic acid deficiency, as indicated by retarded growth and feed efficiency, could be produced in 18-day-old chicks. Chicks fed the basal diet had increased growth when given supplements of either folic acid, choline Cl, or DL-methionine, but not vitamin B12. Relative liver size (grams per 100 g of body weight) was reduced by a methionine or methionine plus choline supplement in two experiments but by folic acid in only one of two experiments. Plasma hemoglobin was reduced by folic acid or a methionine and choline supplement after 42 days on the diets. Folic acid deficiency can be produced in young chicks with a diet based on practical ingredients. Purified diets or very high levels of antibiotic feeding are not necessary to produce folic acid deficiency as long as low levels of methionine and choline are present in the basal diet. PMID:2047351

  6. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  7. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL MEMORY IN OCCLUSION-EXPERIENCED DOMESTIC CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At around day 11 of life, domestic chicks show a tendency to move out of sight of their mother before returning and regaining social and visual contact. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of this voluntary "out-of-sight" behaviour on the development of spatial memory in yo...

  9. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  10. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  11. Predicting chick survival and productivity of Roseate Terns from data on early growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hatfield, J.S.; Link, W.A.; Spendelow, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Early growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks is a strong predictor of chick survival and hence of productivity. We developed discriminant functions to predict chick survival from body-masses measured during the first 3 days of life. Productivity is estimated by assuming that almost all A-chicks (first-hatched in each brood) survive to fledging, and using the discriminant functions to predict survival of B-chicks (second-hatched in each brood). A relation between survival rates and classification rates is derived, allowing discriminant function results to be used in predicting survival rates. In the absence of predation, the resulting estimates of chick survival and productivity are almost as good as those obtained by more intensive methods, but require much less effort and much less disturbance. This approach might be useful for other seabird species in which chick survival is determined primarily by parental performance.

  12. Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi.

    PubMed

    Nowsad, A A; Kanoh, S; Niwa, E

    2000-01-01

    Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi were investigated. The mince from 98-wk-old spent hens was washed two times with 0.1% NaCl. A portion of unwashed and washed mince was mixed with 4% sugar, 4% sorbitol, and 0.2% Na-tripolyphosphate to produce surimi and was kept frozen at -20 C. The mince and surimi were ground with 3% NaCl and a small amount of water to adjust the final moisture content to 80%. A 6 to 8% potato starch was mixed with some pastes. The pastes were stuffed into sausage casings and heated by one-step and two-step heating. The effects of washing, heating, and addition of ingredients on the color, composition, and functional properties of the mince and gel were compared. Washed, spent hen mince was lighter and less red in color and higher in collagen, gel strength, water-holding ability, and cooking yield than unwashed mince. The best temperature and time schedule for the gelation of spent hen mince was 90 C for 15 min in one-step heating. Heating at 100 C for 5 min after preheating at 60 to 70 C for 30 min resulted a gel with distinctly improved gel strength. Sucrose (4%), sorbitol (4%), and Na-tripolyphosphate (0.2%) improved the gel quality of nonfrozen mince but showed little cryoprotective effect against the degradation of frozen-stored product. A 6% potato starch improved the gel texture, cooking yield, and water-holding ability compared with 8% starch. PMID:10685899

  13. Endotoxin-neutralizing activity of hen egg phosvitin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Hongmiao; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-04-01

    Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is responsible for initiating host responses leading to inflammation and sometimes unwanted sepsis, which is associated with high mortality in patients. No therapeutic agents to date are efficacious enough to protect patients from LPS-mediated tissue damage and organ failure. Previously, egg yolk protein phosvitin (Pv) in zebrafish has been shown to act as a pattern recognition receptor, capable of binding to the microbial cell wall components including LPS, we therefore wonder if it has the capacity to block LPS toxicity. In this study we first demonstrated that hen Pv, a naturally occurring protein rich in egg yolk, had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under thermal stress, and then showed that Pv was able to bind to LPS, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan as well as the microbes E. coli and S. aureus. More importantly, we revealed that Pv significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α release from murine RAW264.7 cells and considerably reduced serum TNF-α level in mice. Additionally, hen Pv could promote the survival rate of the endotoxemia mice. Furthermore, hen Pv displayed no cytotoxicity to murine RAW264.7 macrophages and no hemolytic activity towards human red blood cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Pv is an endotoxin-neutralizing agent with a therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of LPS-induced sepsis. PMID:23079731

  14. Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

    2013-07-01

    Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken. PMID:23542656

  15. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed. PMID:7724456

  16. Interactions among arsenic, zinc, and taurine in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment was done using day-old cockerel chicks to ascertain whether Zn and taurine (Tau), through changing methionine (Met) or sulfate metabolism, affect signs of As deprivation. The dietary variables were supplements of As, 0 or 2 ..mu..g/g; Zn, 10 or 40 ..mu..g/g; and Tau, 0 or 0.84%. The basal diet contained (per g): 15 ng As, 7 ..mu..g Zn, and 5.65 mg Met. For comparison purposes two additional groups of chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 ..mu..g As, 40 ..mu..G Zn, 0 Tau, and 0.5 Met. After 26 days, Tau supplementation alleviated many perturbations caused by an apparent methionine deficiency. For example, final body wt was increased from 596 g to 741 g. However, Tau was much less effective than Met in inhibiting the elevation in plasma Mo caused by Met lack. An interaction between Tau and Zn affected several indices including liver Zn concentration. Tau decreased the liver Zn concentration when dietary Zn was 40 ..mu..g/g. An interaction between Tau and As affected plasma urea. Supplemental As elevated urea in chicks fed 0 Tau, but depressed urea in chicks fed 0.84% Tau. Kidney arginase tended to follow a similar trend. The findings show that Tau can fulfill some of the Met requirements of chicks and that Tau interacts with Zn and As. Some findings also support the hypothesis that As has a physiological role that affects arginine and Met metabolism.

  17. Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Commercial Layer Chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko; Wigle, William L; Gallagher, Susan; Johnson, Amy L; Sweeney, Raymond W; Wakenell, Patricia S

    2016-03-01

    This report describes an outbreak of type C botulism in two organic, free-range commercial layer farms in the Midwest. Hens affected were 64-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens and 34-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens owned by the same company, but housed on different premises, with approximately 20,000 birds per house. Mortality over the 2 wk of investigation was estimated to be up to 8% and 2.8%, respectively, with birds acting listless, lethargic, and depressed. Clinical signs consisted of progressive paralysis, and severely affected birds were moribund and laterally recumbent. Hens had ruffled feathers that easily epilated, with loss of muscular tone in the neck, tail, and wings. Hens had closed eyes and were reluctant to move. There were no significant gross or histopathologic lesions. Intestinal samples were submitted to the University of Pennsylvania Botulism Diagnostic Laboratory for real-time PCR and were positive for Clostridium botulinum organisms containing the Type C neurotoxin gene. Speculations on the source of the botulinum toxins include poor mortality removal leading to cannibalism of decomposing carcasses, as well as birds on the farm having access to putrid carcasses in the compost pile from a hole in their outdoor access fence. PMID:26953952

  18. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis() air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 10(4) - 2 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 10(5) - 4 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis() air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis() air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods could induce the non-culturable state. PMID:23540207

  19. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT1 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ?2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. PMID:26706355

  20. USE OF A LIVE ATTENUATED SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM VACCINE TO PROTECT HENS AGAINST S. ENTERITIDIS INFECTION WHILE UNDERGOING MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies demonstrated that Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal were more severe than in full fed hens. Two trials were conducted to determine whether immunizing hens with Megan®Vac1, a commercially-available attenuated S. typhimurium vaccine, w...

  1. Influence of Commercial Laying Hen Housing Systems on the Incidence and Identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-f...

  2. Effects of apomorphine and haloperidol on response suppression learning of young chicks.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S A; Zolman, J F; Mattingly, B A

    1987-04-01

    In four experiments, the effects of augmenting or blocking dopamine receptor activity on response suppression learning of Colburn X Colburn chicks were determined. In each experiment, 4-day-old chicks were trained to key peck for heat reward and then tested for response suppression learning by using either a response-contingent punishment or an extinction-punishment task. Before response suppression testing, different groups of chicks were injected ip with apomorphine (1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg) either alone or after pretreatment with haloperidol (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg). Regardless of the response suppression task used, chicks injected with apomorphine had difficulty inhibiting their responding; whereas, chicks injected with haloperidol, either alone or before apomorphine treatment, responded on fewer trials than saline-treated chicks. During extinction testing, 4-day-old chicks given only apomorphine showed the typical suppressive effect of punishment on responding rather than the paradoxical punishment-induced increase in responding found in normal 1-day-old chicks. These results indicate that activation of dopamine receptors retards response suppression learning of the 4-day-old chick, but functional changes in central dopaminergic mechanisms are not primarily responsible for the normal age-dependent improvement in response suppression learning of the young chick. PMID:3580128

  3. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  4. Effect of dexamethasone on the expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in chick skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuki; Ishida, Aiko; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-03-01

    Expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, is high under catabolic conditions, that result in muscle atrophy. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx is increased by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in mammalian skeletal muscle. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks and in chick myotubes. Chicks were given a single intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after dexamethasone administration, the Pectoralis muscle weight of chicks was decreased. mRNA expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle of chicks was significantly increased by dexamethasone administration. Expression of other proteolytic-related genes (20S proteasome C2 subunit, m-calpain large subunit, and cathepsin B) in skeletal muscle of chicks was not increased by dexamethasone administration. Chick myotubes were incubated with dexamethasone (1, 10 or 100 µmol/L) for 6 h. Expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA in chick myotubes was increased in the presence of all concentrations of dexamethasone. However, expression of other proteolytic-related genes (20S proteasome C2 subunit, m-calpain large subunit and cathepsin B) in chick myotubes was not affected by dexamethasone treatment. These results indicate that dexamethasone enhances atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in chick skeletal muscle, resulting in increased muscle atrophy. PMID:26279163

  5. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

  6. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium, and high illuminance groups did not differ from the concentrations measured at 8 AM. On day 90, low DOPAC concentrations were associated with emmetropia (+0.63 3.61), steep cornea, and shallow vitreous chamber. We concluded that ambient light over a log illuminance range of 1.69-4 is linearly related to vitreal DOPAC concentration. Under both light-dark cycles and continuous light, the intensity of ambient light regulates the release of retinal dopamine. Refractive development is associated with illuminance dependent dopamine release. PMID:22960317

  7. [Mycoplasma synoviae-associated egg-pole shell defects in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Ranck, Martin Frederick; Schmidt, Volker; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Voss, Matthias; Kacza, Johannes; Richter, Andreas; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Hens laying eggs with egg-pole shell defects (EPS) were examined in a clinical prospective study. 86 hens with EPS and 72 hens without EPS from three flocks were selected for this study. It could be proven serologically that hens with EPS had significant (p < 0.05) higher titers against Mycoplasma (M.) synoviae then hens without EPS. PCR tested cloacal swabs for M. synoviae were more frequently positive from hens with EPS (87%; n=72) then from hens without EPS (18%; n=13). Furthermore, M. synoviae could be cultivated from the oviduct of five hens with EPS. Additionally, M. synoviae-DNA was detectable in the albumen of nearly all eggs with EPS (n=48; 98%), contrary to the eggs without EPS (n=11; 26%). Ultrastructural investigation revealed that eggs with EPS showed considerable differences of the egg shell structure as well as the cross section dimension according to eggs without EPS. Due to the significantly more frequent detection of M. synoviae-DNA from the cloaca of chickens with EPS, is an involvement of M. synoviae in laying of EPS in the surveyed herds likely. Further infection experiments with the isolated M. synoviae were not perfomed, therefore about the causal pathogenic role of M. synoviae in the development of eggs with EPS in the surveyed herds can only be speculated. PMID:20329643

  8. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  9. RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM SEGMENTS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF BROILER BREEDER HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of 60+ week old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of their reproductive tracts. In the first group, after processing through defeathering, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from eighteen hens, six from each of three adjac...

  10. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objectives of this research were to determine if inclusion of dietary fiber and a lowered dietary crude protein content would decrease ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 con...

  11. Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

  12. Corticosterone metabolites in laying hen droppings-Effects of fiber enrichment, genotype, and daily variations.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Holm, L; Tauson, R; Wall, H

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest and concern for animal welfare in commercial poultry production. To evaluate stress and welfare in an objective and noninvasive way, fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in droppings can be analyzed. However, the influence of diet, genotype, and daily variations in FCM and production of droppings in laying hens has been poorly investigated. This study examined the effect of insoluble fiber by adding 3% ground straw pellets to the feed to Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in furnished cages between 20 and 40 wk of age. In total, 960 hens were included in the study. Droppings were collected 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days and analyzed by corticosterone immunoassay. Biological validation confirmed the ability of the assay to detect changes in FCM levels. Inclusion of straw pellets in the feed increased FCM concentration in both hen genotypes and increased excretion rate of FCM in LB hens. The LB hens also produced greater amounts of droppings than LSL hens. Both FCM levels and production of droppings varied during the day, although no distinct diurnal rhythm was found. These findings demonstrate that when using FCM to evaluate stress and welfare in laying hens, many factors (e.g., diet, genotype used, and so on) need to be taken into account to allow accurate interpretation of the results. In addition, under certain conditions, excretion rate of FCM might be more appropriate to use compared with FCM concentration. PMID:25125557

  13. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (<1 lux) per day. The 10-h dark period was distributed intermittently throughout the day, averaging 25.0±0.4 min per hour. This hourly light-dark rhythm differs from the typical commercial practice of providing continuous dark period for certain part of the day (e.g. 8 h at night). Distributions of daily feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in <1 lux (61.9% of total) which was significantly higher than under other light intensities (P<0.05). Findings from this study offer insights into preference of fluorescent light intensity by the laying hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to the preferred lighting conditions and rhythm over extended periods are recommended. PMID:26554301

  14. Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to three strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Olver, M D

    1989-03-01

    1. One hundred and twenty 16-week-old, single combed pullets of three strains were fed on a diet containing 160 g protein/kg with or without 50 g clinoptilolite/kg in a trial with 20 hens per treatment. Sterile river sand replaced clinoptilolite in the control diet in order to keep the diets isonergetic. 2. The hens were individually caged in a naturally-ventilated laying house and fed on one of the two diets for ten 28-d periods. 3. No significant dietary effects between treatments were observed with respect to body weight, age at first egg, egg weight, Haugh scores or food intake/hen. 4. Significant dietary effects in favour of clinoptilolite feeding were noticed with the number of eggs laid per hen, shell thickness, efficiency of food utilisation, droppings moisture content and mortality. 5. Significant differences between strains were observed with respect to all measurements taken except food intake/hen d. PMID:2545313

  15. Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P?layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression. PMID:24028402

  16. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers.

    PubMed

    Riber, Anja B; Guzman, Diego A

    2016-01-01

    Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e. , horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3-6, 14-15 and 26-28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion ( p ? 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing ( p ? 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 ( p ? 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages ( p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks ( p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks ( p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  17. The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Oh, S. T.; Jeon, J. Y.; Moon, B. H.; Kwon, H. S.; Lim, S. U.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora. PMID:25049560

  18. MRNA expression and immunocytochemical localization of leptin receptor in the oviduct of the laying hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Agnieszka K; Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, Helena E; Rzasa, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    The role of leptin in female reproduction is fairly well established in mammals, whereas reports concerning leptin action in birds are scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect leptin receptor (LEP-R) mRNA and to localize the leptin receptor protein in the oviduct of laying hens 2h after ovulation by the RT-PCR method and immunocytochemical staining. The RT-PCR reaction demonstrated expression of the long form ofleptin receptor mRNA in all examined oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus and shell gland) and the weakest level was found in the isthmus. The expression of the short isoform was lower than the long form in all examined tissue samples and no differences between oviductal parts were observed. Immunostaining specific for leptin receptor was found in the walls of all examined oviductal parts. The intensity of the immunopositive reaction was the strongest in the epithelium of all examined parts of the oviduct and in the endothelium and muscles of blood vessels. The weakest immunopositive reaction was observed in tubular glands, the connective tissue layer and in circular and longitudinal muscles. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the oviduct may be a target tissue for leptin, where this polypeptide hormon may participate in egg formation and/or its transport through the oviduct of the domestic hen. PMID:19055044

  19. Sexing chick embryos: a rapid and simple protocol.

    PubMed

    Clinton, M; Haines, L; Belloir, B; McBride, D

    2001-03-01

    1. Analysis of gene expression in the developing chick gonads requires the collection of male and female tissues from embryos between 3.5 d and 8.5 d of development. However, male and female chick embryos are indistinguishable by morphological examination before d 7.5 of development. 2. Sex identification of earlier embryos is only possible by molecular methods, which at present are laborious and time consuming. 3. We have devised a PCR-based sexing protocol which combines both sex specific and control reactions in a single tube assay. The assay is rapid and effective over a wide range of DNA concentrations and is tolerant of poor quality DNA. 4. Procedures are described for identifying the sex of individual embryos using either tissue samples or a small number of cells recovered from amniotic fluid. PMID:11337963

  20. Developmental toxicity potential of grayanotoxin I in mice and chicks.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Yasuda, M; Seyama, I

    1990-11-01

    Developmental toxicity potential of grayanotoxin I (GTX I), a toxic diterpenoid contained in plants of the family Ericaceae, with sodium ionophore activity, was studied in mice and chicks. In mice, intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mg GTX I/kg body weight of mouse for three consecutive days during the organogenetic period caused some dams to die, but neither embryotoxicity nor teratogenicity was detected. In chicks, a single injection of 0.1-1.0 microgram GTX I per egg into the extraembryonic coelom on day 1.5 or 2 of incubation, or into the amnionic cavity on day 3 or 4 of incubation induced neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic signs, but 10 micrograms GTX I per egg showed lethal effects when applied on each of those days. PMID:1964479

  1. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  2. Nutritional value of feather-meal protein for chicks.

    PubMed

    Bielorai, R; Iosif, B; Neumark, H; Alumot, E

    1982-02-01

    Ileal absorption of nitrogen was determined for feather meal (FM) samples, using magnesium ferrite as a marker. Diets containing 15% FM were balanced by linear programming, using two nitrogen absorption values for FM: 55%, as found, or 85%, an average value for standard feeds. When nitrogen absorption of FM was calculated as 55%, the growth of chicks from one to three weeks of age was similar to that of the control chicks. Depression of growth occurred when the diet composition was calculated using 85% nitrogen absorption for FM. The official method of pepsin digestibility in vitro, using 0.2% pepsin, did not reflect the nutritive value of FM protein. Results similar to those of nitrogen absorption in vivo were obtained with 0.002% pepsin. The total cystine content of FM and the rate of its liberation by pancreatin may also seve as an indication of the nutritive value of FM protein. PMID:6173471

  3. Specific factors influencing histotypic aggregation of chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, L; Proffitt, R T; Petersen, J R; Pogell, B M

    1977-01-01

    Conditions are described for the reproducible assay of substances affecting the in vitro rate of aggregation of isolated chick embryo hepatocytes. Two low molecular weight (less than 1000) fractions--one that promotes hepatocyte aggregation (HAP) and the other that inhibits this stimulation (HAI)--have been isolated and partially purified from adult chicken liver. One major active component of HAP was identified as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate). The presence of HAP during the entire time of assay was required for largest aggregate formation. HAP had no effect on aggregation of chick embryo neural retina, kidney, or heart cells. Our results and the fact that puromycin completely inhibits aggregate formation suggest that HAP and HAI influence the specific synthesis and interaction of membrane macromolecules involved in the aggregation process. Images PMID:270696

  4. The effect of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic maize and different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus on the performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Tang, C H; Zhang, J M; Wang, X Q

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic corn (maize) (PTC) which has a phytase activity of 21 000 units (U) phytase per kg of maize on productive performance, egg quality, tibia bone quality and phosphorus (P) excretion in laying hens. 2. In the experiment, 1800 44-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 60 hens per replicate. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The layers in the control group (control) were given a basal diet with 0.36% non-phytate P (NPP), while the treatment groups received diets containing 360 U of exogenous phytase/kg with 0.26% NPP (EP) or 360 phytase U of PTC/kg diet with 0.26% (PTC1), 0.21% (PTC2) or 0.16% (PTC3) NPP. 3. The results showed that there was no significant difference in egg production, average daily feed intake, feed efficiency, rate of broken or soft-shell egg production or egg mass among the treatments. There was no significant difference in eggshell thickness or eggshell strength. On the other hand, no differences in any of the bone variables were found between treatments. The faecal P percentage content in EP, PTC1, PTC2 and PTC3 groups was significantly lower than the control group. 4. In summary, the PTC could be used in the feed of laying hens instead of EP to reduce P excretion without effecting production and bone mineralisation. PMID:23815753

  5. Analysis of factors affecting year-round performance of Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens reared under an open-sided housing system.

    PubMed

    Okumura, J; Mori, N; Muramatsu, T; Tasaki, I; Saito, F

    1988-08-01

    Based upon a field survey, an analysis was made to clarify factors affecting year-round performance of laying hens reared within an open-sided housing system. Data were collected from flocks located in Kumagaya city (36 degrees N, Japan), where they were subjected to periodic seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature specific to that area. Monthly performance of Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens at 5 to 16 mo of age was recorded and analyzed in terms of month of hatch, ambient temperature, and age. Changes in egg production and daily egg mass coincided with those in natural daylength. Egg weight was significantly lower in June-hatched layers; egg mass was highest in May and lowest in December hatches. Feed, CP, and ME intakes showed opposite periodic changes to that of ambient temperature with various delay times: ME intake showed no delay, whereas feed and CP intakes had 18 and 29-day delays, respectively. By comparing the performances of April to June and September to November-hatched hens, it was found that natural photoperiod appeared to be more important than ambient temperature in egg production, and that the effect of natural photoperiod became small and insignificant as the bird aged. The effect of temperature on egg production rate was found to be dependent on age of laying hens, i.e., it was more evident in old birds, especially when birds were exposed to a cold climate. Apparent age-dependent changes in the periodic element of egg production rate as related to calendar month were also shown. PMID:3217304

  6. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P=0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P<0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P<0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. PMID:25825783

  7. Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  8. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  9. Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

  10. Biogenesis and function of lipolysosomes in developing chick hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanai, M; Soji, T; Herbert, D C

    1997-12-01

    Proliferation of lipolysosomes is one of the characteristic aspects of embryonic chick hepatocytes. Formation of lipolysosomes is observed in the well-developed trans-Golgi network, with the highest frequency occurring from 11 to 14 days of incubation. The lipolysosomes usually contain a small and electron-dense lipid inclusion; however, during development, they gradually enlarge with an accompanying reduction in the electron density of the inclusion. Lipolysosomes isolated from neonatal chick liver homogenates were mainly composed of esterified cholesterol and showed considerably high activity of lysosomal enzymes. Moreover, the lipolysosome fraction is clearly shown to be a function of intralysosomal lipolysis via acid lipase. This accumulation of esterified cholesterol within lipolysosomes might be attributed to an excessive uptake and conversion of plasma lipoproteins to lipolysosomes. This concept is supported by the appearance of an abundance of coated pits and both "early" and "late" endosomes. The major components of plasma lipoprotein are low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), the cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, whose cholesterol content increases during the last week of incubation when the lipolysosomes quickly enlarge. Plasma lipoprotein particles are produced in the yolk sac epithelium from yolk very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and transferred via the vitelline circulation to the chick liver. After hatching, when the supply of nutrients from the yolk sac is terminated, lipolysosomes immediately decrease in size and number. The cholesterol and fatty acids released are useful as an energy source and lipid metabolism in general, especially after hatching. Food intake induces the use of and accelerates the disappearance of lipolysosomes. Instead of lipolysosomes, lipid droplets appear and increase in number and size with concomitant increases of triglyceride concentrations in the liver homogenates, suggesting that lipogenesis has begun in the chick hepatocyte. PMID:9408911

  11. Coconut oil affects lipoprotein composition and structure of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Hortal, J H; García-Fuentes, E; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    1996-04-01

    Supplementation of 10 or 20% coconut oil in the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in neonatal chicks. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration significantly increased after the addition of 20% coconut oil for 2 weeks. These results show that newborn chicks are more sensitive to saturated fatty acids from coconut oil than adult animals. The effects of this saturated fat on lipoprotein composition were studied for the first 1-2 weeks of neonatal chick life. Coconut oil supplementation in the diet (20%) for 2 weeks increased cholesterol concentration in all the lipoprotein fractions, while 10% coconut oil only increased cholesterol in low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins, an increase that was significant after 1 week of treatment. Similar results were obtained for triacylglycerol concentration after 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in phospholipid and total protein levels were less profound. Coconut oil decreased low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fluidity, measured as total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Changes in esterified cholesterol/phospholipid and triacylglycerol/phospholipid ratios suggest that coconut oil affects the distribution of lipid components in the core of very-low-density particles. Likewise, the esterified cholesterol/triacylglycerol ratio was clearly increased in the low-density, and especially in the very-low-density, fraction after the first week of coconut oil feeding. Our results show that neonatal chick provides a suitable model in which to study the role of very-low-density lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the rapid response to saturated fatty acids with 12-14 carbons. PMID:8743559

  12. Central administration of insulin suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-08-16

    Although the orexigenic action of peptide hormones such as ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide is different between chickens and mammals, the anorexigenic action of peptide hormones is similar in both species. For example, central administration of peptide hormones such as leptin, cholecystokinin or glucagon has been shown to suppress food intake behavior in chickens and mammals. Central administration of insulin suppresses food intake in mammals. However, the anorexigenic action of insulin in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of central administration of insulin on food intake in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of insulin in chicks significantly suppressed food intake. Central administration of insulin significantly upregulated mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but did not influence mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH, an anorexigenic peptide from the post-translational cleavage of POMC), CART and CRF are involved in the anorexigenic action of insulin in chicks. Furthermore, central administration of alpha-MSH or CART significantly suppressed food intake. In addition, alpha-MSH significantly upregulated CRF mRNA expression, suggesting that the anorexigenic action of alpha-MSH is mediated by CRF. Our findings demonstrate that insulin functions in chicks as an appetite-suppressive peptide in the central nervous system and suggest that this anorexigenic action is mediated by CART, alpha-MSH and CRF. PMID:17693022

  13. Interactive and vicarious acquisition of auditory preferences in Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Harshaw, Christopher; Lickliter, Robert

    2007-08-01

    Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure to the call showed a significant preference for the familiar call 24 hr following exposure and significantly greater preferences than chicks given noncontingent exposure. Chicks given vicarious exposure to recordings of another chick interacting with the maternal call showed significant deviations from chance responding; however, the direction of chick preference (toward the familiar or unfamiliar) depended on the particular call used. These results indicate that both direct and indirect (vicarious) exposure to stimulus contingency can enhance the acquisition of auditory preferences in precocial avian hatchlings. Precocial avian hatchlings thus likely play a more active role in directing their own perceptual and behavioral development than has typically been thought. PMID:17696658

  14. Efficiency of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Bazzano, G; Lèche, A; Martella, M B; Navarro, J L

    2012-01-01

    1. The feasibility and accuracy of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks was assessed using chicks of two captive populations of greater rhea in Córdoba, Argentina. 2. A total of 46 greater rhea chicks of 2 to 3 months of age were randomly arranged into three groups and the members of each group were sexed by a different operator. 3. A feather of each chick was plucked for sexing through a molecular method and results were used as controls. 4. Sex was correctly assigned by cloacal inspection in 98% of the cases. Chick manipulation was easily performed and no infections or traumatic lesions were observed a posteriori. 5. Cloacal sexing of rhea chicks up to 3 months of age does not affect animal welfare and should be considered an efficient alternative to molecular methods. PMID:22978597

  15. Ahemeral light cycles and protein levels for older laying hens.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, J O; Ousterhout, L E

    1983-03-01

    Variations in light:dark ratios and timing schedules of 26- and 28-hr ahemeral cycles were examined for their effects on shell quality and egg weight. In two experiments utilizing 2578 White Leghorn Laying hens, 16-week long ahemeral treatments were instituted abruptly late in the pullet laying season and again following a forced-molt production cycle. Ahemeral light-dark cycles of 28-hr length resulted in significantly heavier shell and egg weights as compared to 26-hr ahemeral cycles or the control 24-hr cycle. Ahemeral 26-hr cycles did not significantly increase egg weight compared to the 24-hr controls but did increase shell weight. Varying total light in 28-hr cycles from 20 to 10 hr with the light given in either one continuous period or interrupted by two intermediate dark periods and as either 18 or 16 hr of continuous light in the 26-hr cycles did not result in significant differences in shell or egg weight compared to the other treatments of the same cycle length. Rate of lay was lower for the hens given only 10 hr of interrupted light in a 28-hr cycle but was not otherwise affected by light treatment. Dietary protein levels of 15% (as compared to 17%) and 14% (as compared to 16 and 18%) consistently reduced egg weights (P less than .10 or less than .05) and tended to improve shell quality. These experiments further demonstrated the effectiveness of 26- and 28-hr ahemeral light-dark cycles in increasing shell weight as a method of extending the economic laying period of either older pullets or force-molted hens without a sacrifice in the number of eggs produced. PMID:6844216

  16. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  17. The nutritional value of moldy grains for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I; Paster, N; Lisker, N

    1982-11-01

    The effect was determined of mold development in corn and sorghum grains on their lipid content and nutritional value for broiler chicks. The grains, whole or ground, with their original moisture content (12.1 to 13.0%) or increased moisture content (15.0% moisture), were stored for 63 to 96 days prior to their incorporation into the diets fed to the chicks. Increasing the moisture content caused the development of the naturally occurring fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus spp.). The moldy grains did not contain aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin or zearalenone. Storage of whole or ground grains or of moistened whole corn did not result in differences in their fat content, in the metabolizable energy (ME) of the diets containing these grains, or in the performance of chicks fed these diets, but moistened whole sorghum affected performance adversely. Fat content in moistened ground grains decreased markedly during storage, but fatty acid ratios, vitamin E, carotene, xanthophyll, and protein levels were not markedly affected. These ground moldy grains reduced the dietary fat level during the 3 weeks of the feeding period in two out of three experiments and significantly (P less than .05) lowered ME values and depressed performance. Soybean oil supplementations to diets containing these grains increased dietary ME values and partially or completely restored performance. It is concluded, therefore, that the decreased energy level in diets containing ground moldy grains (not containing mycotoxins) is an important factor for their reduced nutritional value. PMID:7163107

  18. Effect of bendiocarb on development of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Petrovov, Eva; Mazensk, Dvid; Vdoviakov, Katarna; Massanyi, Peter; Luptkov, Lenka; Smrco, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Agrochemicals, including pesticides, are being used in increasing amounts in agriculture and are therefore potential environmental contaminants which may affect a variety of biological systems. The pesticide residues directly affect the embryos, disturbing their normal development and causing pathophysiological and morphological changes. We have observed embryotoxicity of cholinesterase inhibitor bendiocarb in the chick embryo. The pesticide dissolved in 10% acetone in water for injection was applied in a volume of 200 microl over the embryo through membrana papyracea at embryonic days (ED) 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10. The toxicity of bendiocarb was rather low, and lethal dose (LD(50)) decreased with advancing development from 0.97 mg per egg at ED 2 to 28.6 mg on ED 5. The malformations in surviving embryos were observed rarely (<2%) and occurred in both control and experimental groups. In the treatment at ED 5 and 10 there was a statistically significant reduction in body weight, but the maximum difference from controls was below 14%. In treated chick embryos on ED 3 and 4 was observed a small but not significant increase in number of dead cells using supravital staining. We conclude that bendiocarb possesses no significant toxicity in the avian embryo. Our analysis of bendiocarb embryotoxic potential in the chick embryo supports the earlier observations in other animal models, testifying to the relative safety of bendiocarb for the embryo or fetus. PMID:20127737

  19. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chen, Jian-Long; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26177723

  20. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-06-01

    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks. PMID:17445984

  1. Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

  2. Glutathione plays a role in the chick intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Tolosa de Talamoni, N; Marchionatti, A; Baudino, V; Alisio, A

    1996-10-01

    DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) administration to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol produces a rapid decrease in the Ca2+ transfer from lumen-to-plasma and in the intestinal glutathione content. This response was reversed by addition of glutathione monoester to the intestinal sac. Variables related to the Ca2+ homeostasis such as plasma Ca and P, and intestinal calbindin D28k were not modified by BSO given to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity, on the contrary, was highly reduced by BSO in vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with vitamin D3. This effect showed time and dose-dependency. Although the mechanism/s of action of BSO on the intestinal Ca absorption is unknown, it is quite possible that thiol groups of protein involved in the Ca2+ transport are affected by the GSH depletion and/or by block of the antioxidant ability of vitamin D3. Thus, reactive oxygen compounds would be increased and, therefore, the Ca2+ movement from lumen to plasma decreases. PMID:8916550

  3. Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A. M.; Joshi, C. G.; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3mg/kg, 28.4mg/kg and 42.6mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species.

  4. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

  5. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient content. PMID:26286995

  6. Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation.

    PubMed

    Nys, Y; Mongin, P

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of the upper jejunum to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium permeability was constant throughout egg formation. Thus, the increase of net absorption during shell calcification was not due to enhanced mucosal capacity for calcium translocation, but rather to a better solubilization of calcium carbonate in the upper digestive tract. However, this capacity increased at the onset of egg production, as shown by the difference between immature and mature birds. PMID:7349414

  7. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected immune responses in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Fritsche, K L; Rottinghaus, G E

    1999-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate immune responses in chicks fed fumonisin B1 (FB1). Day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to dietary treatments: 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg FB1/kg diet. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed diets for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6x10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected after 180 min. Chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet had significantly higher numbers of bacterial colonies in blood, spleen, and liver (P<0.05) than control chicks. In Experiment 2, chicks were placed on the diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL inactivated Newcastle Disease virus vaccine on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment, and primary and secondary antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. The secondary antibody response in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control chicks. In Experiment 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to FB1 in vivo or in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens was lower (P<0.05) in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet than in control chicks. For the in vitro study, cell proliferation was lower (P<0.05) when cells were exposed to > or = 2.5 microg FB1/mL. Data of the current study suggested that FB1 is immunosuppressive in chicks when present in the ration at 200 mg FB1/kg diet. PMID:10515357

  8. The possible presence of a bursa-independent, IgM-producing system in chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K; Abe, S

    1975-01-01

    The number of splenic plaque-forming cells significantly increased in bursectomized chicks immunized secondarily with SRBC. Further experiments using rabbit antiserum specific to the bursa of Fabricius indicate that the different types of antibody-producing cells might be engaged in the synthesis of IgM in bursectomized chicks. The possible presence of a bursa-independent, IgM-producing system in chicks is suggested. PMID:1091545

  9. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  10. General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D. H.; Bao, J.

    2012-01-01

    Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study. PMID:25049618

  11. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  12. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  13. Age-related differences of hexachlorocyclohexane effect on hepatic oxidative stress parameters of chicks.

    PubMed

    Samanta, L; Chainy, G B

    1997-05-01

    Acute hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH; 50 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) treatment in young (30-day-old) chicks resulted in elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPX) only in nuclear fractions of livers while the same treatment in immature (7-day-old) chicks resulted in elevation of LPX in various liver subcellular fractions. Treatment of various subcellular fractions of livers with HCH in vitro stimulated increased LPX in young chicks than in immature ones. Hepatic cytoplasmic CN-sensitive and -resistant superoxide dismutase activities in immature chicks were inhibited significantly by HCH but no effect was observed in case of young chicks. The pesticide treatment in both immature and young chicks did not influence hepatic catalase activity. The level of glutathione in the liver of young chicks increased in response to the pesticide treatment but remained unaffected in the case of immature chicks. The results of the present study show that HCH-induced changes in hepatic oxidative stress parameters in chicks are age dependent. PMID:9378513

  14. The development of responses to novel-coloured objects in male and female domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M

    1994-04-01

    Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel colour was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar colour were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex difference was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in colour prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of colour. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935

  15. Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, J.; Suryan, R.M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

  16. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  17. Study of the Infectivity of Saline-Stored Campylobacter jejuni for Day-Old Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 4 weeks before the strains became nonculturable. The results from this study suggest that the role of starved and aged but still culturable campylobacters may be diminutive, but even more, that the role of viable but nonculturable stages in campylobacter epidemiology may be negligible. Even high levels of maternally derived anti-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization. PMID:11319130

  18. Exogenous leptin advances puberty in domestic hen.

    PubMed

    Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, Helena Elzbieta; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Monika; Proudman, John; Jacek, Tomasz; Mika, Maria; Sechman, Andrzej; Rzasa, Janusz; Gertler, Arieh

    2006-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant chicken leptin administered to fed ad libitum and feed-restricted immature chickens of a layer strain on ovarian development and the timing of sexual maturity. In the first experiment 11-week-old pullets (77 days of age) fed ad libitum were injected daily with leptin at four dose levels (4, 16, 64 and 256 microg/kg body weight) until sexual maturity (lay of the first egg). Leptin treatment at the highest dose significantly (P<0.05) advanced the onset of puberty (day 116.3+/-1.0) in comparison to controls (day 121.3+/-1.2). The rises of luteinizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone in blood plasma were also advanced by leptin treatment. In the second experiment, both full-fed and feed-restricted pullets (79 days of age) were injected daily with leptin (256 microg/kg body weight). In birds fed ad libitum, exogenous leptin again significantly (P<0.05) advanced first ovipostion (day 118.4+/-1.4 versus day 124.4+/-1.7), while abolishing the significant (P<0.05) delay caused by feed restriction (day 131.5+/-1.6) and restoring the normal onset of sexual maturity (day 125.7+/-1.6). Analysis of the ovaries in 106-day-old pullets revealed that leptin injections advanced follicular development, particularly in birds fed ad libitum, and significantly (P<0.01) reduced follicular apoptosis both in full-fed and feed-restricted birds. In conclusion, we have shown that in female chickens exogenous leptin advances the onset of puberty by attenuation of ovarian apoptosis and enhancement of folliculogenesis. PMID:16303278

  19. Topical application of garlic reduces northern fowl mite infestation in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Birrenkott, G P; Brockenfelt, G E; Greer, J A; Owens, M D

    2000-11-01

    Northern fowl mites (NFM) are external parasites that can lower egg production and cause anemia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was conducted with New Hampshire Red and Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens. Hens were individually caged and provided a complete laying diet and water ad libitum. Hens were assigned to groups in a way that assured that treatments, within each breed, would be applied to comparable numbers of birds with light and heavy mite infestations. Each hen was sprayed around the vent with either water or 10% garlic juice in water. Spraying continued each week for 3 wk. During the fourth week, each bird was scored for the presence of NFM on its skin and feathers. A small snippet of feathers was removed from below the vent of each hen and placed in a labeled petri dish with a round, white filter paper insert. The NFM content of each dish was scored by two individuals approximately 1 h after sampling. There was no significant difference in the NFM scores for hens based on breed or future treatment. After the birds were treated for 3 wk, there was no significant difference in external NFM scores based on breed. There were significantly fewer NFM on the birds treated with garlic juice compared with controls, based on external and petri dish scoring (P < 0.002 and P < 0.04, respectively). The reduction in external NFM score was also significant (P < 0.004), with controls declining approximately 0.2 units, whereas garlic-treated hens had a 1.8-unit decrease in external NFM score. Topical application of garlic juice may be an effective way to decrease NFM in laying hens. PMID:11092328

  20. Use of infrared thermography to assess laying-hen feather coverage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Dong, B

    2013-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT. For all the 6 body parts and the area-weighted overall, the area of excellent feather (EF) determined by IRT was positively correlated with the 4-scale scores determined by FS (P < 0.05), whereas the areas of fair feather (FF), no feather (NF), and body surface temperature were negatively correlated with FS scores (P < 0.05). Feather deterioration occurred for elder hens at all body parts. Feather coverage of the hens was classified as 98.7% EF, 1.3% FF, and 0% NF at 28 wk of age; 70.2% EF, 20.6% FF, and 9.2% NF at 56 wk of age; and 35.4% EF, 17.1% FF, and 49.5% NF at 73 wk of age. As a result of less feather coverage and higher surface temperature, sensible heat loss was speculated to be higher for 56- and 73-wk-old hens than for 28-wk-old hens, potentially leading to higher feed-to-egg conversion for the elder hens. It was concluded that IRT is a promising technique or tool that may provide a more objective and quantitative evaluation of laying-hen feather conditions and delineation of bird thermoregulation. PMID:23300292

  1. Effects of dietary energy content on the performance of laying hens in furnished and conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, E; Venlinen, E; Rossow, L; Valaja, J

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary energy content on the egg production and egg quality of hens kept in 3-hen conventional cages or 8-hen furnished cages. A total of 1,088 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were housed in either furnished or conventional cages and offered low- or high-energy diets (from 2,342 to 2,414 kcal/kg or from 2,581 to 2,629 kcal/kg) during 3 consecutive feeding phases of 20, 16, and 16 wk, respectively. The same dietary energy effects were observed in both cage systems. The hens that received the low-energy diet consumed more feed (P < 0.01) and produced fewer eggs per day (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the high-energy diet. Over the entire experiment, housing had no significant effects on production parameters, but during the third feeding phase, the production rate was smaller in furnished cages than in conventional cages (P < 0.01). Because of the greater live weight of the hens in furnished cages at the beginning of the experiment, these hens consumed more feed during the first feeding phase than the hens in conventional cages. During the third feeding phase, the hens in furnished cages consumed less feed than those in conventional cages (P < 0.01), probably because of their better feather cover. No differences in feed conversion ratio were found between the cage types. The results of this study confirm the results of previous studies providing evidence of equal production rates and feed conversion ratios in furnished and conventional cages. PMID:18420974

  2. A twice-a-day feeding regimen optimizes performance in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, R; Zaghari, M; Shivazad, M; Zare Shahneh, A

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of different methods of feed allocation on performance, plasma hormone concentration, and ovarian morphology, an experiment was conducted using 32 Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. The experiment was started at 27 wk and lasted to 39 wk of age. Feeding regimens included: i) hens with an ad libitum feeding program, ii) hens that received their restricted feed once a day, iii) hens that received their restricted feed twice a day, and iv) hens that received their restricted feed 3 times a day. Each hen was assumed as an experimental unit and treatments were replicated 8 times. Daily egg production, BW, and egg and yolk weights were measured. Two blood samples were taken 3 and 6 h after the first feed allocation every 2 wk. Plasma samples were assayed for glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), cholesterol, as well as leptin-like concentration, glucagon, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone. Liver, abdominal fat pad, and ovary were collected at necropsy. Ovaries were weighed and follicles were characterized as large yellow follicles, small yellow follicles, and large white follicles. Results showed inferior egg production in ad libitum-fed birds along with high levels of plasma glucose, TAG, cholesterol, leptin-like concentration, and testosterone. Twice-a-day-fed birds produced more egg in the entire production period than once-a-day-fed birds. Better performance of twice-a-day-fed hens was associated with lower plasma glucose, TAG, and leptin-like concentration, whereas their estradiol and glucagon were higher than once-a-day-fed hens. Results obtained in our study suggest that allocation of restricted feed 2 times a day may alleviate or delay lipotoxicity development and improve reproductive performance in broiler breeder hens. PMID:20634525

  3. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Anja B.; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a long-term reduction of fearfulness in brooder birds was found. Results support the suggestion that rearing with dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing some of the major welfare problems in layers. Abstract Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion (p ≤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ≤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ≤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks (p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  4. Isolation of a novel thermophilic Campylobacter from cases of spotty liver disease in laying hens and experimental reproduction of infection and microscopic pathology.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Tim R; Chanter, Jeremy I; Young, Stuart C L; Cawthraw, Shaun; Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Vidal, Ana B; Salguero, Francisco J; Irvine, Richard M

    2015-09-30

    The condition known as spotty liver disease or spotty liver syndrome can cause significant mortality in free range laying hen flocks. It has been described in Europe and Australia but the aetiology has not been established. There are similarities between spotty liver disease and avian vibrionic hepatitis, a condition which was reported in the 1950s. A Vibrio-like organism was suspected to be the cause of avian vibrionic hepatitis, although this organism was never fully characterised. We report the isolation of a novel Campylobacter from five separate outbreaks of spotty liver disease. The conditions required for culture, the growth characteristics, electron microscopical morphology and results of the phenotypic tests used in the identification of this novel Campylobacter sp. are described. The novel Campylobacter is slow growing and fastidious and does not grow on media routinely used for isolating Campylobacter sp. The morphology is typical for a Campylobacter sp. and phenotypic tests and a duplex real time PCR test differentiate the novel Campylobacter from other members of the genus. 16S rRNA analysis of 19 isolates showed an identical sequence which appears to represent a hitherto unknown sub lineage within the genus Campylobacter. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of four week old SPF chickens produced microscopic liver pathology indistinguishable from natural disease and the novel Campylobacter was recovered from the experimentally infected chicks. The isolates described appear to be a possible causal organism for spotty liver disease. PMID:26130518

  5. Individual and combined effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and moniliformin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Broomhead, J N; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2003-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 100, 200 mg FB1/kg) and moniliformin (M; 0, 100, 200 mg M/kg) were evaluated using a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Significant mortality (P < 0.05) occurred in chicks fed all diets containing 200 mg M/kg (50%-65%). Compared with controls and chicks fed FB1, both feed intake and body weight gain were decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed diets containing 100 mg M/kg. Chicks fed M had heavier heart weights (P < 0.05) than control chicks or chicks fed FB1. Compared with controls, chicks fed diets containing 200 mg M/kg or a combination of 200 mg FB1/kg and 100 mg M/kg had increased kidney and liver weights (P < 0.05). Significant FB1 by M interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for serum total protein and aspartate aminotransferase. Mild to moderate periportal extramedullary hematopoiesis and mild focal hepatic necrosis were observed in chicks fed FB1 alone. An increased incidence of large pleomorphic cardiomyocyte nuclei, loss of cardiomyocytes, and mild focal renal tubular mineralization were observed in chicks fed M alone. Both cardiac and renal lesions were observed in chicks fed combinations of FB1 and M. Data indicate FB1 and M, alone or in combination, can adversely affect chick performance and health at these dietary concentrations. The interactive effects of FB1 and M were not synergistic and were less than additive in nature. At the dietary concentrations studied, M is much more toxic to broilers than FB1. PMID:14708984

  6. Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

  7. Oxidative damage in different tissues of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Ahmad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Maintenance of body temperature in a cold environment is crucial for survival in homeotherms. However, we have previously reported that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia, decreased behavioral activity, and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, as well as no change in mitochondrial substrate oxidation enzymes. Various metabolic abnormalities and/or tissue damage may also decline the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate oxidative damage in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C for 12 h) neonatal chicks, we studied lipid peroxidation when compared to the control chicks kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Malondialdehyde (MDA), was measured in plasma, brain, heart, liver and skeletal muscle (pectoralis superficialis and gastrocnemius). Weight gain and feed consumption did not change when chicks were exposed to low-temperature as compared to that of control chicks. On low-temperature exposure, body temperature was significantly decreased and plasma non-esterified fatty acid level was 1.3-fold higher than that of control chicks. In low-temperature exposed chicks, brain and heart MDA levels were 2.1- and 1.2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control chicks. This increase in MDA levels was not observed in plasma, liver and muscle of low-temperature-exposed chicks. In conclusion, there is evidence of increased lipid peroxidation in brain and heart of neonatal chicks exposed to low-temperature. We hypothesize that this oxidative damage in brain and heart may contribute to the impaired physiological, behavioral and thermoregulatory responses that potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19256080

  8. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretire, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  9. A comparison of two methods for assessing critical flicker fusion frequency in hens.

    PubMed

    Railton, Renee Caron Richards; Foster, T Mary; Temple, William

    2009-02-01

    This paper compared two general methods for assessing critical fusion frequency in hens (gallus gallus domesticus). The first method was a conditional discrimination procedure with the stimuli presented successively. The second was a two-alternative forced-choice procedure with the stimuli presented simultaneously. It was found that both methods of stimulus presentation gave comparable results suggesting that either method is useful when investigating psychophysics in animals. The results also show that hens' critical fusion frequency is considerably higher than that of humans which may account for hens' inability to recognise images presented on standard computer or television monitors. PMID:19101613

  10. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Dsire S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vgsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 20012004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic measures, including efficient biosecurity routines, to reduce the risk of infectious diseases and cannibalism in litter-based housing systems for laying hens. PMID:19146656

  11. Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Aury, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Toquin, Marie-Thrse; Huneau-Salan, Adeline; Le Ntre, Yolne; Allain, Virginie; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks during a single visit to the farm. Two logistic regression models (specific to each production) were used to assess the association between management practices and the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of the flock. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 30.9% (95% CI: 21.0; 40.9) and 31.7% (95% CI: 24.0; 39.4) for cage-layers and broiler flocks, respectively. For layer flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when pets were present on the production site. When droppings were evacuated by conveyor belt with deep pit storage, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination decreased significantly. Feed meal was found to be associated with a higher risk of L. monocytogenes contamination than feed crumb. For broiler flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when farmers did not respect the principle of two areas (clean and dirty) at the poultry house entrance. A first disinfection by thermal fogging and the absence of pest control of the poultry house before the arrival of the next flock was found to increase the risk of contamination. When litter was not protected during storage and when farm staff also took care of other broiler chicken houses, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination increased significantly. In the case of the watering system, nipples with cups were found to decrease the risk of contamination. PMID:21176855

  12. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of electric and low-frequency microwave fields on hen egg white lysozyme.

    PubMed

    English, Niall J; Solomentsev, Gleb Y; O'Brien, Paul

    2009-07-21

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of various mutants of hen egg white lysozyme have been performed at 300 K and 1 bar in the presence of both external static electric and low-frequency microwave (2.45 GHz) fields of varying intensity. Significant nonthermal field effects were noted, such as marked changes in the protein's secondary structure relative to the zero-field state, depending on the field conditions, mutation, and orientation with respect to the applied field. This occurred primarily as a consequence of alignment of the protein's total dipole moment with the external field, although the dipolar alignment of water molecules in both the solvation layer and the bulk was also found to be influential. Substantial differences in behavior were found for proteins with and without overall net charges, particularly with respect to translational motion. Localized motion and perturbation of hydrogen bonds were also found to be evident for charged residues. PMID:19624238

  13. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of electric and low-frequency microwave fields on hen egg white lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Niall J.; Solomentsev, Gleb Y.; O'Brien, Paul

    2009-07-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of various mutants of hen egg white lysozyme have been performed at 300 K and 1 bar in the presence of both external static electric and low-frequency microwave (2.45 GHz) fields of varying intensity. Significant nonthermal field effects were noted, such as marked changes in the protein's secondary structure relative to the zero-field state, depending on the field conditions, mutation, and orientation with respect to the applied field. This occurred primarily as a consequence of alignment of the protein's total dipole moment with the external field, although the dipolar alignment of water molecules in both the solvation layer and the bulk was also found to be influential. Substantial differences in behavior were found for proteins with and without overall net charges, particularly with respect to translational motion. Localized motion and perturbation of hydrogen bonds were also found to be evident for charged residues.

  14. Structure of pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of fertile hens' eggs induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, F. G.

    1980-01-01

    The fine structure of the chorioallantoic membrane of the fertile hen's egg infected with herpes simplex virus Types 1 and 2 was examined. Lesions induced by Type 1 virus were small, confined to the chorionic layer of the membrane and proliferative in nature with slight cellular infiltration into the mesoderm after incubation up to 7 days. With the Type 2 virus-induced pocks, reaction occurred throughout the thickness of the chorioallantoic membrane, and haemorrhages, necroses, ulceration and cellular infiltration of the mesoderm were prominent features. Inoculation of the membranes with Type 2 virus resulted in a large number of infected chorion cells compared with Type 1, whilst the cells of the mesoderm and blood vessels became infected with Type 2 virus but not Type 1. Two types of intranuclear granules, lattice structures in both nuclei and cytoplasm and virus particles with variously structured cores were found specifically in Type 2 infected cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6257269

  15. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hammershj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10.2 vs. 9.9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding of fermented feed increased intestinal health by acidification of the upper digestive tract, forming a natural barrier towards infection with acid sensitive pathogens, e.g. E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. 8. It was concluded that fermented wet feed offers potential benefits for health and nutrition, but may become suitable for layers only after the practical problems related to this feeding form have been overcome. However, an early adaptation of the birds during the rearing period seems to be necessary. PMID:19373724

  16. Neural fold fusion in the cranial region of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lawson, A; England, M A

    1998-08-01

    Cranial neural fold fusion in the chick embryo is known to commence in the midbrain region before progressing cranially and caudally to involve the fore- and hindbrain regions, respectively. The two epithelial layers at the tips of the neural folds that participate in fusion are the surface ectoderm and the neuroepithelium. We have examined and compared cranial neural fold fusion in both layers, and our results show that fusion of the neuroepithelial component of the neural folds, unlike that of the surface ectoderm, starts in the caudal portion of the forebrain. Second, contrary to the widely accepted opinion, we have demonstrated that in the hindbrain region, fusion of the neuroepithelial component of the neural folds does not occur. Soon after neural fold apposition, a neuroepithelial eminence appears in rhombomeres 1 and 2, and this, together with other neuroepithelial cells in the dorsal midline of the hindbrain, undergoes massive apoptosis. The absence of neuroepithelial fusion in the hindbrain may be due to the presence of massive apoptosis among neuroepithelial cells that should have participated in the fusion process. The events described above may predispose the hindbrain to the development of neural tube defects. The appearance of cranial neural crest cells in the midline during their migration may enhance the fusion of the surface ectodermal portion of the neural folds. PMID:9707321

  17. Immune response following vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis using 2 commercial bacterins in laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Q.L.; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Desrosiers, Annie; Boulianne, Martine

    2010-01-01

    The humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response to 2 commercial killed Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccines (Layermune and MBL SE4C) was evaluated in laying hens. Layers were distributed in 2 experimental groups. The first received a single immunization at 16 wk of age, while the second experimental group was immunized at 12 wk of age and again at 18 wk of age. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were measured using a commercial SE ELISA kit and showed persistent levels from 3 to 32 and 34 wk post-vaccination. The vaccination protocol using 2 immunizations showed a higher seroconversion level than the single vaccination. However, our results for bacterial intracellular survival indicated that IgG titers were not linked with bacterial killing. Local IgA production was measured in the intestines and oviducts with an in-house SE whole cell antigen ELISA. Only the MBL SE4C vaccine elicited IgA antibody production when tested on intestine and oviduct mucosal secretions, 3-weeks post-vaccination in both immunization protocol groups. To evaluate the CMI response, the splenic T-cells and B-cells populations were analyzed using flow cytometry. The CD3/B-cell ratio decreased 3 wk after the second immunization in the twice vaccinated Layermune group due to an increase in B-cells. PMID:20885842

  18. Precocial bird mothers shape sex differences in the behavior of their chicks.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Ccilia; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Compared to mammals and altricial birds, evaluations of differences related to precocial birds' sex have often been limited to sexual behavior. Nevertheless, the extensive use of precocial bird models for investigating behavioral development issues requires in depth knowledge concerning the emergence of sex differences. Here, we evaluated behavioral differences between Japanese quail chicks in relation to their sex. We know that maternal influences are strong and early social environment shapes behavioral development in this species. Therefore, we investigated the emergence of sex differences in two very different early social situations to evaluate the impact of precocial bird mothers on sex differences. We assessed behavioral differences related to sex of (1) non-brooded chicks and of (2) brooded chicks, using various ethological tests to evaluate emotional reactivity and social motivation differences related to sex. Our results show that both non-brooded and brooded chicks present behavioral differences related to sex. They differed greatly according to chicks' early experience. Sex-related differences between maternally deprived (non-brooded) chicks concerned mainly fearfulness, whereas differences between male and female brooded chicks concerned mainly their reactions to social isolation. We hypothesize that mothers attenuate sex differences related to fearfulness by being a model for responses to fear-eliciting situations and by providing a similar secure basis to both males and females. We finally propose that mothers induce differences in chicks' sociality by providing asymmetrical care toward males and females. PMID:24616263

  19. Routes for Campylobacter coli colonization of the intestinal track of chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly hatched chick may be exposed to significant levels of Campylobacter from various sources in the hatchery and grow-out environments. Once the Campylobacter reach the ceca of the young chick they are able to multiply to high levels in a relatively short time period. This creates a situatio...

  20. ChickScope: An Interactive MRI Classroom Curriculum Innovation for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, B. C.; Carragher, B. O.; Damon, B. M.; Dawson, M. J.; Eurell, J. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Lauterbur, P. C.; Marjanovic, M. M.; Mason-Fossum, B.; Morris, H. D.; Potter, C. S.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-01-01

    Describes ChickScope, a 21-day chick embryonic development project, to demonstrate the remote control of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instrument through the World Wide Web. Topics include remote instrumentation and the Web, teacher-based implementation, impact in elementary and secondary school classrooms, and future directions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  2. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  3. Chick kidney ferredoxin: complementary DNA cloning and vitamin D effects on mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R D; Henry, H L

    1996-08-01

    Vertebrate ferredoxin is non-heme iron-sulfur protein found in steroideogenic tissues that serves as an electron shuttle in mitochondrial mixed function oxidase systems such as the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase. A 2530-bp chick kidney ferredoxin cDNA was cloned, and the association between ferredoxin mRNA levels and the regulation of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity by vitamin D status was examined. The cDNA sequence indicates that the chick kidney mitochondrial mixed function oxidases use the same ferredoxin as do those in the chick testis and that the chick ferredoxin shares greater than 92% amino acid homology with mammalian ferredoxins. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicates that there is a single copy of the ferredoxin gene present in the chick genome. Three species of mRNA, 1.8, 3.5 and 5.5 kb, were identified by Northern analysis. Slot blot analysis of poly A+ RNA from kidneys of vitamin D-deficient or replete chicks indicates a 40% induction of ferredoxin message levels in the vitamin D-deficient chick kidney. This suggests that gene regulation of ferredoxin may be part of the mechanism of regulation for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the chick kidney. PMID:8840510

  4. The mind through chick eyes: memory, cognition and anticipation.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Aoki, Naoya; Yanagihara, Shin

    2003-04-01

    To understand the animal mind, we have to reconstruct how animals recognize the external world through their own eyes. For the reconstruction to be realistic, explanations must be made both in their proximate causes (brain mechanisms) as well as ultimate causes (evolutionary backgrounds). Here, we review recent advances in the behavioral, psychological, and system-neuroscience studies accomplished using the domestic chick as subjects. Diverse behavioral paradigms are compared (such as filial imprinting, sexual imprinting, one-trial passive avoidance learning, and reinforcement operant conditioning) in their behavioral characterizations (development, sensory and motor aspects of functions, fitness gains) and relevant brain mechanisms. We will stress that common brain regions are shared by these distinct paradigms, particularly those in the ventral telencephalic structures such as AIv (in the archistriatum) and LPO (in the medial striatum). Neuronal ensembles in these regions could code the chick's anticipation for forthcoming events, particularly the quality/quantity and the temporal proximity of rewards. Without the internal representation of the anticipated proximity in LPO, behavioral tolerance will be lost, and the chick makes impulsive choice for a less optimized option. Functional roles of these regions proved compatible with their anatomical counterparts in the mammalian brain, thus suggesting that the neural systems linking between the memorized past and the anticipated future have remained highly conservative through the evolution of the amniotic vertebrates during the last 300 million years. With the conservative nature in mind, research efforts should be oriented toward a unifying theory, which could explain behavioral deviations from optimized foraging, such as "nave curiosity," "contra-freeloading," "Concorde fallacy," and "altruism." PMID:12719641

  5. Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase in neonatal chick brain.

    PubMed

    Marco, C; Morillas, L G; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1986-02-28

    An acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity which directly incorporates palmitoyl coenzyme A into cholesterol esters using endogenous cholesterol as substrate was demonstrated in microsomal preparations from neonatal chick brain. The enzyme showed, at pH 7.4, about 2-fold greater activity than that observed at pH 5.6. Nearly 10-times higher esterifying activity was found in brain microsomes using palmitoyl coenzyme A than that with palmitic acid. The acyltransferase activity was clearly different from the other cholesterol-esterifying enzymes previously found in brain, which incorporated free fatty acids into cholesterol esters and did not require ATP or coenzyme A as cofactors. Chick brain microsomes also incorporated palmitoyl coenzyme A into phospholipids and triacylglycerols. However, most of the radioactivity from this substrate was found in the fatty acid fraction, due to the presence of an acyl coenzyme A hydrolase activity in the enzyme preparations. Therefore, the formation of palmitate was tested during all the experiments. The brain acyltransferase assay conditions were optimized with respect to protein concentration, incubation time and palmitoyl coenzyme A concentration. Microsomal activity was independent of the presence of dithiothreitol in the incubation medium and microsomes can be stored at -40 degrees C for several weeks without losing activity. Addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin to brain microsomal preparations produced a considerable increase in the acyltransferase activity, while acyl coenzyme A hydrolase was clearly inhibited. Results obtained show the existence in neonatal chick brain of an acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity similar to that found in a variety of tissues from different species but not previously reported in brain. PMID:2868756

  6. Role of loose feathers on the development of feather pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, S G A; von Borell, E

    2008-05-01

    1. The effect of the presence of loose feathers (on the floor) on the behaviour and plumage condition of laying hens (Lohmann Silver, LS) was studied during the rearing and laying periods. 2. From one day old, 60 birds in each of 4 straw-bedded pens (n = 240 in total) with 6.5 birds/m(2) were either kept under conventional rearing and management conditions (CT: control group with feathers on the floor; n = 120) or in pens from which the feathers were collected from the floor 4 times/week (FR: feathers removed; n = 120). Fifty birds from each of these 4 groups (n = 200 in total) were randomly selected at the age of 16 weeks and allocated to 4 identical pens in a poultry layer house (PH; with perches and 1/3 slatted floor) with access to an outside area (winter garden, WG) at a stocking density of 6 birds/m(2) in both PH and WG. 3. Observations on feather pecking and other behaviours (feeding, drinking, preening, standing, sitting, foraging, moving and dust bathing) were carried out at 8 ages: 6, 10, 15 (rearing period), 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 weeks (laying period). Feather scoring was carried out at 15, 32 and 39 weeks of age. 4. There were no differences in feather pecking rates, forms (gentle, severe and aggressive pecks) as well as in the plumage condition between groups at the end of the rearing period. 5. Birds in the FR group exhibited lower rates and less severe feather pecking during the laying period. Accordingly, birds in the control group had worse feather condition at 32 and 39 weeks of age. Feather pecking rates within groups were, in general, greater in the afternoon compared to the morning periods. Birds in the control group were more active in walking. 6. Wings, rump, tail and back were the main targets for feather pecking. The majority of feather pecking occurred on the floor (66%) followed by feeding area (26%), perches (4%) and slats (4%). 7. Our results suggest that loose feathers on the floor may play an important role in the development and severity of feather pecking behaviour in laying hens and support the hypothesis (McKeegan and Savory, 1999) that feather pecking can be viewed as redirected foraging behaviour. PMID:18568748

  7. Congenital skeletal abnormalities in a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco).

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Andrs; de Trocniz, Patricia Fdez; Vila, Mnica; Lpez-Beceiro, Ana M; Pereira, Jos L

    2003-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco) coming from a Wild Fauna Recovery Center with multiple congenital malformations in the limbs. The animal was unable to fly and showed marked malnutrition and poor general appearance. Physical, radiologic, and anatomic examinations showed osseous malformations including dislocation of radius and carpometacarpus with abnormal nonfunctional fixation of ligamentum propatagialis, absence of most parts of the bones of the manus in both wings, and twisted nonfused left tarsometatarsus with marked griphosis of digits. Routine toxicologic and pathologic examinations did not reveal a specific etiology. PMID:14562912

  8. Congenic method in the chick limb buds by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2008-08-01

    Electroporation is a powerful tool with which to study limb development. Limb development, however, remains an intricate series of events, requiring the precise dissection of developmental processes using relevant transgenes. In this review, we describe the anatomy of the limb field as the basis of targeted electroporation, and specific expression vectors are discussed. We share a useful protocol for electroporation of chick limb buds, and the expression pattern of enhanced green fluorescent protein in the limb buds is used to demonstrate relevant embryonic patterning. Finally, useful trouble-shooting techniques are described. PMID:18638168

  9. Hypolipidemic activity of silver preparations in chicks, Gallus serregineus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Budania, Ragini; Shah, Mili; Jain, Priyanka; Gaur, B L

    2004-05-01

    Three silver preparations (Varak or foil, ash or Raupya bhasma and sol or colloidal solution) were fed to three groups of young, male chicks for 10 days. There was significant fall in all the plasma lipid fractions--total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol. There was a marked rise in silver content of plasma and whole blood, ranging from 4 to 13 times, suggesting that the observed hypolipidemic action may be due to silver. The administration of the three silver preparations did not cause any retardation in growth, toxic manifestation, side effect or untoward reaction. PMID:15233477

  10. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  11. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  12. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  13. Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-β-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver. PMID:22069604

  14. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

  15. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  16. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  17. Demonstrating Cell Traction--Using Hens' Egg Vitelline Membrane as Substratum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways in which hens' egg vitelline membranes can be used to demonstrate cell traction effects. Reviews procedures for using and culturing the membranes and identifies topic areas for student projects. (ML)

  18. Effects of feather cover and insulative jackets on metabolic rate of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, B D; Morrison, W D; Leeson, S; Bayley, H S

    1983-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of feather cover and newly-devised insulative jackets on the heat production in Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens at 20 C. An open-circuit calorimeter was used to measure the gaseous exchange of the birds. With ad libitum feeding, birds with clipped back and breast feathers produced 6% more heat than did normally feathered hens. This difference was removed by placing jackets on the defeathered birds. The jackets also decreased the surface temperature of the feather-clipped areas, indicating an effective insulation. When the jackets were applied to naturally poor-feathered hens, fasting heat production decreased significantly, but not to the base level of that of normally feathered hens. PMID:6622359

  19. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; Russo, Tamara P; De Luca Bossa, Luigi M; Borrelli, Luca; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    As no data are available on the prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes carried by Campylobacter spp. in laying hens, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of both Campylobacter spp. and cdt genes in 1680 laying hens from four different farms. The samples were analyzed by culture methods and by polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 1097/1680 cloacal swabs. Among the isolates, 913 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni whereas 345 were identified as Campylobacter coli. All isolates carried cdt genes. The results presented here confirm the very common occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in laying hens and underline that the cdt genes may also be frequently present in both C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from laying hens. PMID:21500644

  20. Vitamin K deficiency does not functionally impair skeletal metabolism of laying hens and their progeny.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, P A; LLoyd, Q P; Gay, C V; Leach, R M

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of vitamin K deficiency on indices of skeletal metabolism in laying hens, developing embryos and young growing chickens. Laying hens were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet for 28 wk, which resulted in impaired blood clotting and reduced bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) concentration compared with vitamin K-sufficient hens. However, this treatment did not influence egg production, eggshell deposition or other reproductive performance criteria. Vitamin K-deficient embryos were able to mobilize sufficient quantities of calcium for normal skeletal development, although they exhibited severe reduction in blood clotting and bone Gla concentration. Similar results were obtained from progeny of both vitamin K-sufficient and -deficient hens fed deficient diets for 4 wk after hatching. These results indicate that a severe reduction in skeletal protein Gla concentration does not interfere with normal development of this tissue. PMID:8120656

  1. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  2. Effect of incubating egg exposure to magnetic field on the biophysical blood properties of newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ghannam Magdy; Mohamed, Shafey Tarek; Abd-Alaah, Aly Amany; Kassem, Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar; Suliman, Al-Ayed Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Due to widespread of human exposure to electromagnetic fields, there has been increasing public concern about the potential health risks from low-frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF-EMF. The magnetic fields (MFs) affects functions of the living organisms, such as DNA synthesis and ion transportation through the cell membranes. In the present work, the effects of short-term exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) prior to incubation were investigated on the biophysical blood properties of chicks hatched from layer-type breeder eggs. The eggs were exposed to a MF of 0.75 mT at 50 Hz for 20, 40 and 60 min before incubation. This study was performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules and the membrane solubility of red blood cells (RBCs) using the non-ionic detergent octylglucoside. Exposure of the eggs to a MF increased the conductivity of the Hb molecules. The pronounced increase in the conductivity of the exposed eggs might be attributed to an increase in the surface charge of the Hb macromolecules, resulted from the formation of highly active molecular species. This speculation can be supported by the increase in the relaxation time of the exposed groups. The solubilization process of the RBC membrane indicates a loss in the mobility of RBCs in the blood of hatching chicks. PMID:26525029

  3. Age-dependent improvement in passive avoidance learning of the young chick: cholinergic mediation?

    PubMed

    Zolman, J F; Mattingly, B A

    1982-06-01

    Cholinergic mediation of the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick was studied by determining the performance of 4-day-old chicks, pretreated with scopolamine, during passive avoidance (PA) and extinction testing. In Experiment 1, chicks were trained briefly to key peck for heat reward (prepunishment training), and then tested for PA learning under immediate, 2-sec-delayed, or no shock condition. Half of the chicks in each wing-shock (5 mA, 5 sec) condition received saline injections before prepunishment training and .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections after prepunishment training. The rest of the chicks received .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections both before and after prepunishment training. For chicks in both scopolamine groups, delaying shock onset resulted in significantly less response suppression than immediate response-contingent shock. In Experiment 2, 4-day-old chicks injected with either saline or scopolamine were trained to key peck for heat reward and then tested for resistance to extinction under either response-contingent shock or nonshock conditions. Punishment decreased the number of extinction responses for both saline and scopolamine groups of chicks. Previous studies have shown that normal 1-day-old chicks do not show a significant delay of punishment effect during PA testing and that response-contingent punishment increases the number of their responses during extinction. Hence, the results of the present experiments indicate that the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick cannot be explained solely by a significant increase in central cholinergic functioning. PMID:7096681

  4. Ventilation plays an important role in hens' egg production at high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Ruzal, M; Shinder, D; Malka, I; Yahav, S

    2011-04-01

    Birds dissipate considerable heat through respiratory-evaporative and cutaneous-evaporative mechanisms and sensible heat loss (SHL) via radiation, convection, and conduction. The significance of SHL in laying hens is still to be confirmed. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of ventilation on egg production and quality during exposure to high ambient temperature. Lohman laying hens were raised outdoors up to age 35 wk, and 300 hens with similar egg production were divided among 5 treatments each comprising 4 replicates of 15 hens. Birds in 4 treatments were kept in computerized controlled-environment rooms acclimated to 35°C and 50% RH, with ventilation flow rates of 0.5, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m/s, respectively, and those in the control were kept outdoors. Hens were acclimated to the controlled environment rooms for 1 wk and to the targeted environmental conditions for another week, and then were subjected to measurements for 2 wk. Egg production, mass, and shell density, and feed and water consumption were monitored. Body temperature, SHL, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The high environmental temperature impaired egg production and quality: whereas exposure of hens to ventilation flows of 2.0 and 3.0 m/s elicited significant recovery of these parameters with time, exposure to a rate of 0.5 m/s negatively affected these parameters throughout the experimental period. The highest feed intake and water consumption were observed in hens exposed to 2.0 and 3.0 m/s, respectively, and the highest SHL was observed in those exposed to 3.0 m/s. It can be concluded that ventilation rate significantly affected hens exposed to high ambient temperature: high ventilation (3.0 m/s) improved egg production whereas low ventilation (0.5 m/s) negatively affected production and quality. PMID:21406372

  5. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    PubMed Central

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Ampe, Bart A.; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D’Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L.T.; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Until 2012, laying hens in the EU were often housed in conventional cages that offered limited space and few opportunities to perform highly motivated behaviors. Conventional cages are now banned in the EU in order to improve animal welfare. In this study, egg farmers were surveyed (winter 2013–2014) to assess whether they perceived any changes in animal welfare since changing housing systems, what role hen welfare played in choosing a new housing system, and which aspects of hen welfare they find most important. The data show that the answers differ depending on which housing system the farmers currently use and whether they had used conventional cages in the past. Abstract As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  6. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Srensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  7. The Little Red Hen: A Story of Productive Resources and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Abbejean

    2005-01-01

    "The Little Red Hen" is a classic story. Many children have not had the opportunity to see where a commercial loaf of bread comes from, or to feel the bounce of rising dough in a kitchen. "The Little Red Hen" not only helps to introduce the process, but gives the students an opportunity to reflect how they might feel if they did the work on a

  8. Phosphate excretion in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Martindale, L.

    1973-01-01

    1. The excretion of phosphate during the calcifying and non-calcifying phases of egg formation was studied. 2. The pattern of phosphate excretion was observed during increasing body loads of phosphate. 3. A tubular mechanism for phosphate excretion is proposed in which tubular phosphate secretion occurs proximal to, or coincidental with reabsorption. 4. Parathyroid extract increased the rate of phosphate excretion and appeared to inhibit both the reabsorptive and secretory mechanisms. 5. The pattern of excretion of phosphate loads by hens in the calcifying phase was closely similar to that of birds in the non-calcifying phase when treated with parathyroid extract. 6. The relationship between shell calcification and the parathyroids is discussed. PMID:4783092

  9. Foregut endoderm is required at head process stages for anteriormost neural patterning in chick.

    PubMed

    Withington, S; Beddington, R; Cooke, J

    2001-02-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm, the future pharynx and foregut lining, emerges from the anterior primitive streak and Hensen's node as a cell monolayer that replaces hypoblast during chick gastrulation. At early head process stages (4+ to 6; Hamburger and Hamilton) it lies beneath, lateral to and ahead of the ingressed axial mesoderm. Removal of the monolayer beneath and ahead of the node at stage 4 is followed by normal development, the removed cells being replaced by further ingressing cells from the node. However, similar removal during stages 4+ and 5 results in a permanent window denuded of definitive endoderm, beneath prechordal mesoderm and a variable sector of anterior notochord. The foregut tunnel then fails to form, heart development is confined to separated lateral regions, and the neural tube undergoes no ventral flexures at the normal positions in brain structure. Reduction in forebrain pattern is evident by the 12-somite stage, with most neuraxes lacking telencephalon and eyes, while forebrain expressions of the transcription factor genes GANF and BF1, and of FGF8, are absent or severely reduced. When the foregut endoderm removal is delayed until stage 6, later forebrain pattern appears once again complete, despite lack of foregut formation, of ventral flexure and of heart migration. Important gene expressions within axial mesoderm (chordin, Shh and BMP7) appear unaffected in all embryos, including those due to be pattern-deleted, during the hours following the operation when anterior brain pattern is believed to be determined. A specific system of neural anterior patterning signals, rather than an anterior sector of the initially neurally induced area, is lost following operation. Heterotopic lower layer replacement operations strongly suggest that these patterning signals are positionally specific to anteriormost presumptive foregut. The homeobox gene Hex and the chick Frizbee homologue Crescent are both expressed prominently within anterior definitive endoderm at the time when removal of this tissue results in forebrain defects, and the possible implications of this are discussed. The experiments also demonstrate how stomodeal ectoderm, the tissue that will, much later, form Rathke's pouch and the anterior pituitary, is independently specified by anteriormost lower layer signals at an early stage. PMID:11152630

  10. Ultrastructural identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Gandahi, J A; Chen, S F; Yang, P; Bian, X G; Chen, Q S

    2012-06-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are widely believed to be neuroeffector cells of smooth muscle activity in all tubular organs, including the oviduct. The avian oviduct involves the secretion, sheathing, and transportation of a large-sized egg, but there is no information available on ICC in this special organ. We have demonstrated the presence of ICC in different segments throughout the oviduct in the laying hen and provided details on their ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy technique, for the first time. The observed ICC appeared bipolar and multipolar cells of different shapes, with varying nuclear morphologies, a thin rim of electron-dense cytoplasm, and an infrequent basal lamina. They showed moniliform primary processes with one or 2 secondary or terminal processes. We found ICC near smooth muscle cells, nerve fibers, and the epithelia, where they make specialized contacts in the form of close membrane associations or gap-like junctions and peg-and-socket-like junctions. Intricate labyrinthine-type networking contacts were also present in ICC processes. Moreover, we report for the first time, that ICC in avian oviduct make interdigitating contacts with the epithelium. Cytoplasmic organelles identified in ICC include numerous well-developed mitochondria, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dispersed intermediate filaments. Many caveolae and vesicles were also present. Golgi bodies and centrioles were rare. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, were distinct cells with larger cytoplasmic area, more rough endoplasmic reticulum, and less mitochondrial content. No basal lamina, intermediate filaments, or caveolae were present in fibroblasts. Their processes were shorter and showed no contacts with smooth muscle cells or nerves. We conclude that these ICC might also have a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of motility and transportation in the hen oviduct, as already proved in mammalian oviduct. Such role of ICC might also be responsible for the function of the muscular infundibulum, where the fertilization takes place, and that moves to surround the released ovum, failure of which results in the internal laying. PMID:22582301

  11. [Microbial colonisation of the caecal mucosa of specific pathogen-free chicks and adherence of an adult SPF chicken microflora to the caeca of a conventional newly hatched chick: study by scanning electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Morin, M; Colin, P; Lahellec, C; Bennejean, G

    1989-10-01

    Two studies were conducted by SEM in order to evaluate the relationship between the caecal microflora morphology and the age of SPF chicks and the colonising of an adult SPF chick caecal microflora to the caecal mucosa of conventional newly hatched chicks. These experiments indicated that the number of 'adhering' bacteria increases with the age of the chick, that the morphological and quantitative changes of the caecal microflora are completed by about 15 days of age and that a complete bacterial colonisation of the caecal wall of a newly hatched chick occurs only 24 h after treatment with an adult caecal microflora. PMID:18679891

  12. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  13. Histopathology of ovarian tumors in laying hens, a preclinical model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Animesh; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Dirks, Angela L; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale B.; Bradaric, Michael J.; Edassery, Seby L; Rotmensch, Jacob; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The high mortality rate due to ovarian cancer is attributed to the lack of an effective early detection method. Due to the non-specificity of symptoms at early stage, most of the ovarian cancer cases are detected at late stages. This makes the access to women with early stage disease problematic and presents a barrier to development and validation of tests for detection of early stage of ovarian cancer in humans. Animal models are used to elucidate disease etiologies and pathogenesis that are difficult to study in humans. Laying hen is the only available animal that develops ovarian cancer spontaneously; however, detail information on ovarian tumor histology is not available. The goal of this study was to determine the histological features of malignant ovarian tumors in laying hens. A total of 155 young and old (1-5 years of age) laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were selected randomly and evaluated gross and microscopically for the presence of ovarian tumors. Histological classification of tumors with their stages and grades were performed with reference to those for humans. Similar to humans, all four types including serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell or mixed carcinomas were observed in hen ovarian tumors. Some early neoplastic as well as putative ovarian lesions were also observed. Similarities in histology, metastasis and stages of hen ovarian cancer to those of humans demonstrate the feasibility of the hen model for additional delineation of the mechanism underlying ovarian carcinogenesis, preclinical testing of new agents for the prevention and therapy of this disease. PMID:19509547

  14. Chick embryo pancreatic transplants reverse experimental diabetes of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Eloy, R; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M; Grenier, J F

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of xenogeneic embryonic tissue in the treatment of experimental diabetes has been investigated in rats. The splenic lobes (80) of 15- to 18-d-old chick embryos, composed almost exclusively of endocrine tissue, were implanted directly into the hepatic parenchyma of the rat recipient. The biochemical and metabolic changes in the recipients suggest that embryonic transplants of 15-d-old chick pancreases were able to significantly improve, for a prolonged period of time (18 mo), the diabetic state of nonimmunosuppressed rats. None of the recipients of 18-d-old embryos splenic lobes exhibited a long-term improvement of the diabetic state after transplantation. The complete destruction of the pancreatic B cells of the recipients was assessed by: (a) immunocytochemical investigations of the recipient's pancreas, (b) measurement of insulin in the liver and pancreas of the recipients and (c) in situ vascular perfusion of their pancreas submitted to high glucose challenge. The results suggest that pancreatic tissue of the 15-d-old embryos is immunologically immature lacking one or several lymphocyte subsets implicated in the afferent lood of "non-self" recognition. Images PMID:156734

  15. Central projections of lagenar primary neurons in the chick.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Amany; Reed, Caitlyn; Maklad, Adel

    2013-10-15

    Perception of linear acceleration and head position is the function of the utricle and saccule in mammals. Nonmammalian vertebrates possess a third otolith endorgan, the macula lagena. Different functions have been ascribed to the lagena in arboreal birds, including hearing, equilibrium, homing behavior, and magnetoreception. However, no conclusive evidence on the function of the lagena in birds is currently available. The present study is aimed at providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the function of the lagena in the chicken as an example of terrestrial birds. The afferents from the lagena of chick embryos (E19) to the brainstem and cerebellum were investigated by the sensitive lipophilic tracer Neuro Vue Red in postfixed ears. The results revealed that all the main vestibular nuclei, including the tangential nucleus, received lagenar projections. No lagenar terminals were found in auditory centers, including the cochlear nuclei. In the cerebellum, the labeled terminals were found variably in all of the cerebellar nuclei. In the cerebellar cortex, the labeled fibers were found mostly in the uvula, with fewer afferents in the flocculus and paraflocculus. None was seen in the nodulus. The absence of lagenar afferent projections in auditory nuclei and the presence of a projection pattern in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum similar to that of the utricle and saccule suggest that the primary role of the lagena in the chick lies in the processing of vestibular information related to linear acceleration and static head position. PMID:23749554

  16. Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes. PMID:1380327

  17. Shh regulates chick Ebf1 gene expression in somite development.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Allen, Steve; McGonnell, Imelda; Mansour, Ali A; Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    The chick early B-cell factor 1 (cEbf1) is a member of EBF family of helix loop helix transcription factors. Recently, we have proved that cEbf1 expression in feather is regulated by Shh. It is therefore possible that the somitic expression of cEbf1 is controlled by Shh signals from the notochord. To assess this hypothesis, the expression profile of cEbf1 was first detailed in somites of chick embryos (from HH8 to HH28). cEbf1 expression was mainly localised in the medial sclerotome and later around the vertebral cartilage anlagen of body and pedicles. Tissue manipulations (notochord ablation) and Shh gain and loss of function experiments were then performed to analyse whether the notochord and/or Shh regulate cEbf1 expression. Results from these experiments confirmed our hypothesis that the medial somitic expression of cEbf1 is regulated by Shh from the notochord. In conclusion, cEbf1 gene is considered as a medial sclerotome marker, downstream to and regulated by the notochord derived Shh, which may be functionally involved in somitogenesis. PMID:25455103

  18. Development of respiratory rhythms in perinatal chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Khandoker, A H; Nobuta, M; Moriya, K; Akiyama, R; Tazawa, H

    2002-04-01

    In chick embryos, gas exchange takes place via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the lungs at approximately 1 day prior to hatching. The present study was designed to elucidate the development of respiratory rhythms in the chick embryo during the whole pipping (perinatal) period with a condenser-microphone measuring system. The microphone was hermetically attached on the eggshell over the air cell on day 18 of incubation. It first detected a cardiogenic signal (i.e. acoustocardiogram), and then beak clapping and breathing signals (acoustorespirogram, ARG). The first signals of lung ventilation appeared intermittently and irregularly approximately once per 5 s among the clapping signals after the embryo penetrated its beak into the air cell (internal pipping, IP). The respiratory rhythm then developed irregularly, with a subsequent more regular rate. The envelope pattern of breathing from the onset of IP through external pipping (EP) to hatching was constructed by a specially devised procedure, which eliminated external and internal noises. The envelope patterns indicated that the IP, EP and whole perinatal periods of 10 embryos were 14.1+/-6.4 (S.D.), 13.6+/-4.0 and 27.6+/-5.4 h, respectively. In addition, they also indicated the period of embryonic hatching activity (i.e. climax) which was 48+/-19 min. The development of respiratory rhythm was also shown by the instantaneous respiratory rate (IRR) which was designated as an inverse value of two adjacent ARG waves. PMID:11897192

  19. Distinct modes of floor plate induction in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Patten, Iain; Kulesa, Paul; Shen, Michael M; Fraser, Scott; Placzek, Marysia

    2003-10-01

    To begin to reconcile models of floor plate formation in the vertebrate neural tube, we have performed experiments aimed at understanding the development of the early floor plate in the chick embryo. Using real-time analyses of cell behaviour, we provide evidence that the principal contributor to the early neural midline, the future anterior floor plate, exists as a separate population of floor plate precursor cells in the epiblast of the gastrula stage embryo, and does not share a lineage with axial mesoderm. Analysis of the tissue interactions associated with differentiation of these cells to a floor plate fate reveals a role for the nascent prechordal mesoderm, indicating that more than one inductive event is associated with floor plate formation along the length of the neuraxis. We show that Nr1, a chick nodal homologue, is expressed in the nascent prechordal mesoderm and we provide evidence that Nodal signalling can cooperate with Shh to induce the epiblast precursors to a floor-plate fate. These results indicate that a shared lineage with axial mesoderm cells is not a pre-requisite for floor plate differentiation and suggest parallels between the development of the floor plate in amniote and anamniote embryos. PMID:12917296

  20. Exploring RPE as a Source of Photoreceptors: Differentiation and Integration of Transdifferentiating Cells Grafted into Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lina; Yan, Run-Tao; Ma, Wenxin; Zhang, Huanmin; Wang, Shu-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To study the possibility of generating photoreceptors through programming RPE transdifferentiation by examining cell differentiation after transplantation into the developing chick eye. Methods RPE was isolated, and the cells were dissociated, cultured, and guided to transdifferentiate by infection with retrovirus expressing neuroD (RCAS-neuroD), using RCAS–green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a control. The cells were then harvested and microinjected into the developing eyes of day 5 to day 7 chick embryos, and their development and integration were analyzed. Results Cells from the control culture integrated into the host RPE. When grafted cells were present in large number, multilayered RPE-like tissues were formed, and the extra tissues consisted of grafted cells and host cells. None of the cells from the control culture expressed photoreceptorspecific genes. In contrast, most cells from RCAS-neuroD–infected culture remained depigmented. A large number of them expressed photoreceptor-specific genes, such as visinin and opsins. Antibodies against red opsin decorated the apical tips and the cell bodies of the grafted, transdifferentiating cells. In the subretinal space, visinin+ cells aligned along the RPE or an RPE-like structure. When integrated into the host outer nuclear layer, grafted cells emanated elaborate, axonal arborization into the outer plexiform layer of the host retina. Conclusions Cultured RPE cells retained their remarkable regenerative capabilities. Cells guided to transdifferentiate along the photoreceptor pathway by neuroD developed a highly ordered cellular structure and could integrate into the outer nuclear layer. These data suggest that, through genetic programming, RPE cells could be a potential source of photoreceptor cells. PMID:17065528

  1. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. PMID:26287003

  2. Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Halaby, W S; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2005-11-01

    Experiment 1 was conducted to study the effects of feeding 60% untreated ervil seeds (UE) or ervil soaked in water at room temperature (RTWE) or at 40 degrees C (40WE) for 72 h with water change every 12 h on the performance and internal organ size of broilers. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet (control) and diets containing 60% UE, RTWE, or 40WE were fed to battery caged broilers in 4 replicates with 8 birds per replicate, from 8 to 49 d. Broilers consuming UE from 8 to 28 d gained less weight, used feed less efficiently, and had heavier liver, pancreas, and gall bladder weights (%BW) than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Compared with control birds, broilers on 40WE had similar relative organ weights, except for kidney, but lower BW gain at 49 d (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ervil seeds were soaked in 1% acetic acid at room temperature (RTAAE) or at 40 degrees C (40AAE) for 24 h. A conventional diet and diets containing 60% UE, 40WE, RTAAE, or 40AAE were fed to individually caged laying hens in 4 replicates per treatment with 5 hens per replicate for 42 d. Hens on UE had the poorest performance followed by RTAAE, 40WE, and then 40AAE (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, all treated ervil diets resulted in lower shell thickness values but higher Haugh unit scores (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, 30% dietary UE and 40AAE at 10, 20, and 30% were fed to layers for 56 d. The general performance of hens on 30% 40AAE was comparable with that of the control except for BW and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Compared with UE, the performance of broilers and layers was improved by 40WE and that of hens was further enhanced by 40AAE. In addition, diets containing up to 20% 40AAE had no adverse effects on feed conversion, egg production, or quality of hens. PMID:16463969

  3. Granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone during early growth of hen ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Lee, Jeeyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the laying hen ovary, the cyclic recruitment of a follicle represents a process in which a single follicle is selected to enter the rapid growth phase and undergo final maturation prior to ovulation. Published data support the proposal that final differentiation of the granulosa cell (GC) layer commences at the time of follicle selection. This process is characterized by the enhanced capacity for FSH-induced cell signaling via the protein kinase A/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. One consequence of such signaling within the GC layer is the initial capacity for steroidogenesis (predominantly progesterone production) mediated by increased expression of mRNA encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A). Prior to selection, the GC layer remains minimally responsive to a 3 h challenge with FSH (10 ng/mL), in vitro, compared to that from the most recently selected 9- to 12-mm follicle. By comparison, when the duration of the cell culture prior to FSH challenge is increased to 18 h, GCs collected from 1- to 2-mm, 3- to 5-mm, and 6- to 8-mm follicles respond to a 3 h FSH challenge by increasing STAR expression and progesterone production, with the greatest response from GCs collected from 6- to 8-mm follicles. Culture with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) enhances both CYP11A expression and FSH responsiveness at each stage of development, with the greatest response again occurring in GCs from 6- to 8-mm follicles. Significantly, factors that activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or protein kinase C (PKC) signaling prevent the ability of prolonged culture or culture with BMP6 to induce FSH-responsiveness and the initiation of GC differentiation at each stage of development. Collectively, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that prior to follicle selection, inhibitory cell signaling (e.g., MAPK, PKC) maintains the GC layer in an undifferentiated state in follicles of all sizes, even in the presence of a differentiation-promoting signal (BMP6). The process by which the GC layer from the single 6- to 8-mm follicle selected each ovulatory cycle ultimately escapes inhibitory signaling to initiate FSH-responsiveness remains to be established. PMID:26574040

  4. Behaviour, health and integument of four hybrids of laying hens in modified and conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, P; Tauson, R; Appleby, M C

    1996-07-01

    1. In 2 trials the health and behaviour of a total of 3552 caged laying hens of 4 hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in trial 2, were studied. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens per cage, a special version of the 'Edinburgh modified cage' called 'Modified and enriched cage' (ME) with 4 ISA or 5 Leghorn hens per cage, conventional metal cages with 4 hens per cage without (CO) and with a perch (PC) and conventional plastic cages (PL) with three hens per cage. GA and ME included nests, perches and sandbaths. 2. In the first trial f1p4nest models were used, artificial turf and welded wire floor. In the second trial both nest models were used in GA, while all nests in ME were equipped with artificial turf. In the second trial there were 4 sandbath treatments in ME; no sandbath, sandbath (25 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks of age, sandbath first opened at 26 weeks and double size sandbath (50 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks. Hens in GA were allowed access to the sandbaths from 26 weeks. 3. At 35 and 55 weeks the best plumage condition (feather cover) was found in PL and GA but plumage condition in ME was not significantly inferior than in GA. Hens in GA had the dirtiest plumage and most bumble foot but no toe pad hyperkeratosis. Some toe pad hyperkeratosis occurred in the other systems. Most keel bone lesions were found in systems with perches. The highest mortality was registered in GA. Hens in systems with perches, sandbaths and nests had increased strength of humerus at slaughter. 4. More eggs were laid in nests with artificial turf than in welded wire floor nests. LSL hens laid larger proportions of eggs in the nests (94% and 92% in the two trials) than the other hybrids. Less than 1% of the eggs in ME and 2% in GA were laid in the sandbaths. 5. The use of perches in ME and PC was approximately 30% in the day time. At night the use was 93% in ME and 89% in PC in trial 1 and 96% in ME and 81% in PC in trial 2. 6. Hens in ME with the double sized sandbath both visited the sandbath and performed dust bathing behaviour most, followed by hens in GA, hens in ME with access to the bath from 16 weeks and last, hens in ME with access to the bath from 26 weeks. 7. It is concluded that enrichments of laying cages are used by the hens to a large extent if properly constructed and managed, implying an increased behavioural repertoire of the hens compared with conventional cages. With perches at only one level and with smaller groups of birds, ME provided better hygiene and inspection properties than GA. PMID:8842459

  5. Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Maurer, Barbara; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sandrian, Michelle G.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Baumann, Bernhard; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo. PMID:25401028

  6. Can Non-Beak Treated Hens be Kept in Commercial Furnished Cages? Exploring the Effects of Strain and Extra Environmental Enrichment on Behaviour, Feather Cover, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Krysta L H; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Baker, Laurence; Widowski, Tina M; Sandilands, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Commercial laying hens are prone to injurious pecking (IP), a common multifactorial problem. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design assessed the effects of breed (Lohmann Brown Classic (L) or Hyline Brown (H)), beak treatment (infra-red treated (T) or not (NT)), and environment (extra enrichment (EE) or no extra enrichment (NE)) on mortality, behaviour, feather cover, and beak shape. Hens were allocated to treatments at 16 weeks of age and data were collected every four weeks from age 19 to 71 weeks. Data were analysed in Genstat using mixed models. L hens had higher all and IP-related mortality than H hens (p < 0.003), whilst NT hens had higher mortality than T hens but only due to culling of whole cages (p < 0.001). Feather cover for L hens deteriorated more quickly with age at most body sites than H hens (age × breed × body site p < 0.001). For NT hens, feather cover was worse at most body sites (beak treatment × body site p < 0.001), and worsened more quickly with age (age × beak treatment p = 0.014) than T hens. L and NE hens performed more bird-to-bird pecking than H and EE hens, respectively (breed p = 0.015, enrichment p = 0.032). More damage to mats and ropes was caused by L and NT hens than by H and T hens, respectively (age × breed p < 0.005, beak treatment p < 0.001). Though H hens had fewer mortalities and better feather cover, breed effects may have been influenced by farm management practices, as they may have been better suited to H than L hens. Though EE hens performed less bird-to-bird pecking, the enrichments were less effective at reducing feather cover damage and mortality than expected. PMID:26927190

  7. Discrimination of shape and size sues by day-old chicks in two one-trial learning tasks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) to discriminate between the shape and size of beads was investigated in two one-trial tasks, taste avoidance and sickness-conditioned learning. Previous studies determined that color is a critical classification cue for conditioned stimuli in these tasks. In taste avoidance learning, a chick pecks a bead coated with a bitter substance. In sickness-conditioned learning, chicks peck a dry bead and are injected 30min later with lithium chloride. Chicks could discriminate beads of different sizes, but not different shapes, when trained in the taste avoidance task, whereas in the sickness-conditioned learning task, chicks could discriminate shape, but not size. These results suggest that chicks use a number of classificatory cues to remember an avoidance response, and, in the absence of color cues, chicks rely on different cues for different learning tasks. PMID:26655890

  8. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  9. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior. PMID:25930217

  10. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    PubMed

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision. PMID:25867056

  11. Maternal vitamin E supplementation affects the antioxidant capability and oxidative status of hatching chicks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yih-Fwu; Tsai, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Yi-Chun; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2005-10-01

    The effects of maternal vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of chicks were investigated. Female breeder chicks were fed corn-soybean growing diets without supplemental vitamin E for a 17-wk developmental period. After 17 wk, the birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and fed corn-soybean diets supplemented with 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg/kg vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate), respectively. Blood samples were collected and pullets were artificially inseminated at 35 wk of age. Eggs laid beginning on d 2 after insemination were placed in an incubator. At the time of hatching, 12 chicks from each treatment were randomly sampled and killed. Livers and brains of chicks were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidant status. Plasma vitamin E concentrations increased linearly (P < 0.001; r = 0.997) with the increase in supplemental vitamin E, but those in egg yolk reached a plateau at 120 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, of chick brain decreased linearly (P < 0.01; r = -0.909) with the increase in supplemental vitamin E. Pullets given 160 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had lower plasma MDA concentrations than those given 0 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for the reactive oxygen species levels, an indicator of oxidative stress, of chick brain and liver. For antioxidant enzymes, chicks of pullets given 120 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had higher (P < 0.05) activities of liver catalase than those given 0-80 mg/kg. Chicks of pullets given 160 mg/kg supplemental vitamin E had higher (P < 0.05) activities of brain superoxide dismutase than those given 0-40 mg/kg. These results indicated that maternal supplementation with high levels of vitamin E (120-160 mg/kg) enhances antioxidant capability and depresses oxidative stress in chicks. PMID:16177212

  12. Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

  13. CROP IMMUNE RESPONSE POST-SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CHALLENGE IN EIGHT COMMERCIAL LAYER BREED-STRAINS AND SPECIFIC-PATHOGEN-FREE (SPF)WHITE LEGHORNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pre- and post-SE-challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops of eight commercial layer-breeds (5 white-egg & 3 brown-egg layer strains) and SPF-White Leghorn chickens were evaluated. The hen groups were orally challenged with ~10e8 cfu/ml Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a. Fecal and crop samp...

  14. Presence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with fowl typhoid disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Landnez, Martha; Snchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Guard, Jean; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2014-03-01

    A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar, and San Andres, were positive for Salmonella enterica. Salmonella was isolated from liver and spleen (71.42%), pools of organs (liver, spleen, and ovarian follicles; 25.71%), and drag swabs (2.85%). Serotype was assigned using single nucleotide polymorphisms or DNA microarray hybridization. Sixteen strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, and 13 of Salmonella Gallinarum were identified. Seven strains yielded three unique sequences, and they were designated as UN0038, UN0052, and UN0054 by intergenic sequence ribotyping. These strains were later identified as Salmonella serotypes Isangi, Braenderup, and Yoruba, respectively, by DNA microarray hybridization. The discovery that a common human pathogen (Salmonella Enteritidis) was coisolated from farms with an avian pathogen (Salmonella Gallinarum) in similar commercial brown layer hens and in different regions indicates that it is important to investigate the dynamics of Salmonella infection and determine the serotypes circulating within the same ecologic niche. PMID:24758131

  15. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  16. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge infection administered on day 14 relative to NIC. In addition, pens of birds where 100% of chicks were immunized were not well protected compared to NIC, and resistance to coccidiosis infection in immunized chicks was less than resistance in chicks challenged at 21 days. These results in total suggest that, when birds are challenged after 21 days, cohorts are protected from detrimental effects of challenge infection. However, when challenge infection is given at 14 days, cohorts are not well protected. The results support a conclusion that protection to coccidiosis is conveyed to cohorts by contact with oocysts shed into the litter by immunized chicks, but this resistance may take 14 days to develop. PMID:26292542

  17. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P<0.05) in plasma CORT, glucose, uric acid (UA), insulin, cholesterol (Chol) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), but the concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TG) were decreased (P<0.05). CORT treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed while the mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) in CORT-treated hens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed by CORT treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that CORT plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, CART, POMC, CCK and MCRs) and a dynamic balance between these appetite-associated peptides in the hypothalamus and the gastrointestinal tract defines the feeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. PMID:22554475

  18. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished and Battery Cages on Egg Production and Physiological Parameters of White Leghorn Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in a species-special “natural” or “near to natural” environment. This study was to examine if housing environment, furnished cages vs. battery cages, causes a similar impact on well-being in laying hens. One hundred seventy-two, on...

  19. Individual Consistency of Feather Pecking Behavior in Laying Hens: Once a Feather Pecker Always a Feather Pecker?

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Swanson, Janice C.; Siegford, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n = 300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37 weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3 cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest boxes. The number of severe feather pecks given (SFPG) and received (SFPR) was used to categorize hens as feather peckers (P), victims (V), neutrals (N), or feather pecker-victims (PV) at each age. Hens categorized as PV exhibited pecking behaviors similar to P and received pecks similar to V. SFP given were correlated with APs given, but not with gentle feather pecks (GFP) given throughout the study. State-transition plot maps illustrated that 22.5% of P remained P, while 44% of PV remained PV throughout the duration of the study. Lifetime behavioral categories identified hens as a consistent feather pecker (5%), consistent neutral (3.9%), consistent victim (7.9%), consistent feather pecker-victim (29.4%), or inconsistent (53.8%) in their behavioral patterns throughout their life. Consistent feather peckers performed more SFP than hens of other categories, and consistent neutral hens received fewer GFP than consistent feather PV. No differences in corticosterone or whole blood serotonin levels were observed among the categories. Approximately, half of the population was classified as a feather pecker at least once during the study, while the remainder was never categorized as a feather pecker. Therefore, even if the development and cause of feather pecking may be multifactorial, once the behavior has been developed, some hens may persist in feather pecking. However, as some hens were observed to never receive or perform SFP, emphasis should be made to select for these hens in future breeding practices. PMID:26664935

  20. Effect of physical feed restriction during rearing on Large White turkey breeder hens: 3. Body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Crouch, A N; Grimes, J L; Christensen, V L; Krueger, K K

    2002-12-01

    Large White turkey breeder hens were used to evaluate the effect of three different levels of physical feed restriction on subsequent body and carcass composition. The four feed treatments were 1) ad libitum fed throughout the study (CC), 2) feed restricted from 16 to 24 wk (CR), 3) feed restricted from 3 to 16 wk (RC), and 4) feed restricted from 3 to 24 wk (RR). Feed restriction was implemented so that RC and RR hens achieved a 45% reduction in BW compared to CC hens at 16 wk. From 16 to 24 wk, feed was allotted to RR and CR hens to maintain a slight increase in BW. At the completion of each restriction period, hens were gradually returned to ad libitum feeding. At 30 wk, hens were photostimulated for a 20-wk summer season egg production cycle. Restricted fed hens had increased moisture levels at 16 and 30 wk and decreased fat levels at 16, 30, 39, and 54 wk (P < or = 0.05). Absolute and relative weights of the pectoralis major muscle were greater in hens fed ad libitum through 43 wk (P < or = 0.05). There were no differences in the number of maturing yellow follicles due to treatment. However, restricted fed hens had higher peak egg production during early lay but decreased subsequent and cumulative egg production. Changes in egg production were associated with changes in breast muscle weight. Prolactin levels were greater in hens in-production compared to hens out-of-production; however, there were no differences due to feed treatment. In conclusion, further research on quantitative feed-restriction programs, which result in body weight reductions as described in this study, should address specific physiological and nutritional requirements and not be implemented as general programs. PMID:12512568

  1. Dietary L-arginine levels affect the liver protein turnover and alter the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and proteolysis of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Bu, X C; Yan, H X; Lu, J J; Zou, X T

    2016-02-01

    Amino acids are considered to be anabolic factors that affect protein turnover. The aim of this study was to test the effects of dietary L-arginine (Arg) levels on protein metabolism in the liver of laying hens and the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and proteolysis. Xinyang black commercial laying hens (n = 864, 31 wk of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicates of 36 birds. The dietary treatments were corn-corn gluten meal based diets containing 0.64, 0.86, 1.03, 1.27, 1.42, and 1.66% L-Arg, respectively. Serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were maximized in the 1.27% L-Arg group, and serum concentration of urea acid was the lowest in the 1.27% L-Arg group. The 1.27% L-Arg group had the highest fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate in the liver. Consistent with the data on protein turnover, mRNA abundances of target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 increased in the liver of layers fed 1.27% L-Arg, while mRNA abundances of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome decreased at the same dietary L-Arg level. In conclusion, the dietary level of L-Arg increased the liver fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate of laying hens, and the action of an appropriate level of dietary L-Arg involves upregulating the gene expression of the TOR signaling pathway accompanied by suppressing the mRNA expression of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome in the liver. PMID:26628340

  2. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Rhe, Ilen; Krmer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Lwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jrgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 42 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 222 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25717083

  3. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Ctia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  4. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Ctia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  5. Apparent amino acid absorption from feather meal by chicks.

    PubMed

    Bielorai, R; Harduf, Z; Iosif, B; Alumot, E

    1983-05-01

    The apparent absorption values of individual amino acids from two samples of feather meal (FM) were determined in the lower ileum of chicks fed on diets containing magnesium ferrite as a marker. The average absorption values for FM amino acids were low, approximately 0.50, as compared with approximately 0.85 for soya bean, used as a control. Values for individual amino acids from FM differed distinctly, ranging from 0.20 to 0.70. Low values were obtained for aspartic acid, histidine, lysine, glutamic acid and cystine. An indication of the low absorption of the previously-mentioned amino acids was obtained by analysing the amino acid composition of the FM residues undigested by pepsin or pancreatin. The reasons for testing the apparent rather than the true absorption are discussed. PMID:6407522

  6. Release of acetylcholine by chick embryo heart before innervation.

    PubMed

    Coraboeuf, E; Le Douarin, G; Obrecht-Coutris, G

    1970-02-01

    1. In chick embryo hearts, 3-day-old and not yet innervated, repetitive direct stimulation causes a transitory inhibition of the spontaneous rhythm.2. The degree of post-stimulation inhibition depends on the frequency and duration of the artificial stimulation and on the concentration of K and Ca ions in the extracellular solution.3. After treatment with atropine (10(-5) g/ml.) post-stimulation inhibition is no longer observed. The spontaneous rhythm is accelerated by atropine. The findings therefore suggest that an ACh-like substance is released from the non-innervated embryonic heart during activity.4. By use of the dorsal muscle of the leech for biological assay the liberation of an ACh-like substance from the non-innervated embryonic heart was confirmed. PMID:5498489

  7. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes. PMID:26859350

  8. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  9. Validation of impaired renal function chick model with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Kubena, L.F.; Phillips, T.D.; Heidelbaugh, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium is a highly toxic element when soluble salts are administered parenterally, whereas the index of toxicity is very low when ingested. In the salt form, uranium is one of the oldest substances used experimentally to induce mammalian renal failure. Renal damage occurs when uranium reacts chemically with the protein of columnar cells lining the tubular epithelium, leading to cellular injury and necrosis. Uranyl nitrate (UN) is the most common uranium salt utilized for nephrotoxic modeling. The development of an impaired renal function (IRF) chick model required a suitable nephrotoxic compound, such as UN, for validation, yet toxicity data for chickens were notably absent in the literature. The objective of the present study was to validate the IRF model with UN, based upon preliminary nephrotoxic dosages developed in this laboratory.

  10. Acid glycosidases from hen oviduct and egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Droba, M; Droba, B; Błedniak, D

    2005-12-01

    Activities of seven acid glycosidases: beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-HEX), alpha- and beta-galactosidase (alpha- and beta-GAL), alpha- and beta-mannosidase (alpha- and beta-MAN), alpha-glucosidase and alpha-fucosidase in magnum region of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) oviduct, and four acid glycosidases: beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN in egg albumen, were investigated. beta-HEX from magnum and egg albumen hydrolysed 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylhexosamine-6-sulphate (4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4)) like mammalian beta-HEX form A. Multiple forms of magnum and egg albumen beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN were separated by strong anion exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing method. Chromatofocusing of the magnum resulted in the appearance of multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.18, 5.43, 5.55, 5.34, 5.27 and 5.16, for beta-GAL with pI of 4.98, 4.84, 4.77, 4.64 and 4.68-4.63, for alpha-MAN with pI of >or=7.4, 6.75, 6.62 and 6.26, and for beta-MAN two forms with pI of 6.37 and 5.77. Chromatofocusing of egg albumen yields multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.24, 6.08, 5.55 and 5.35, for beta-GAL two forms with pI of 5.10 and 4.86-4.80 for alpha-MAN multiple forms with pI of >or=7.4, 6.80, 6.60 and 6.30, and for beta-MAN forms with pI of 6.30 and 5.77. In conclusion, this study was the first to show beta-HEX activity against 4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4) in the magnum and albumen of bird eggs, corresponding to beta-HEX A activity in mammals. Main multiple forms of beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN occurring in the magnum were revealed in the egg albumen. Comparison with a cock of the same breed showed that hen egg magnum and albumen has the same multiple forms of the enzymes that are found in the epididymides and seminal plasma of the cock. PMID:16236536

  11. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n?=?120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1?ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20?mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1?ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20?mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20?mg/kg showed significantly (P???0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P???0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P???0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P???0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P???0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks. PMID:26071807

  12. The chick separation stress paradigm: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Feltenstein, Matt W; Warnick, Jason E; Guth, Amanda N; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2004-02-01

    To expand the generalizability of the chick separation stress paradigm as a high-throughput anxiolytic screen, six positive drug probes (doses in mg/kg: meprobamate 15-120, pentobarbital 2.5-20.0, chlordiazepoxide 2.5-15.0, buspirone 2.5-10.0, imipramine 1-15, and clonidine 0.10-0.25) and five negative drug probes (amphetamine 0.5-4.0, scopolamine 0.2-1.6, caffeine 5-20, chlorpromazine 1-30, and haloperidol 0.03-1.00) were evaluated in the test. Seven-day-old chicks received intramuscular injections of either vehicle or drug probe 15 min prior to tests in either a mirror (low-stress) or a no-mirror (high-stress) condition for a 3-min observation period. The dependent measures were distress vocalizations to index separation stress and sleep onset latency to index sedation. All positive drug probes attenuated distress vocalizations in a dose-dependent manner, except buspirone. All positive drug probes affected sleep onset latency in a dose-dependent manner, except buspirone and imipramine. In all cases, the anxiolytic-like effect of positive drug probes was greater than its sedative effect. None of the negative drug probes affected either distress vocalizations or sleep onset latency, except for the highest dose of amphetamine, which caused pronounced stereotypy. These findings demonstrate that this anxiolytic screen is sensitive to a wide range of positive pharmacological probes and insensitive to a wide range of negative pharmacological probes. PMID:14751448

  13. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

  14. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  15. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage.

    PubMed

    Masse, P G; Colombo, V E; Gerber, F; Howell, D S; Weiser, H

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of vitamin B6 would produce morphological characteristics of osteochondral lathyrism. To accomplish this goal, morphological characteristics of chick cartilage in which lathyrism was produced by two separate dietary regimens was compared to morphological changes encountered in vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 deficiency should reduce activity of lysyloxidase needed for producing intermolecular cross-links. The question to be addressed was: would this latter deficiency impair collagen morphological features and secondarily other structures indirectly by reducing collagen molecular assembly? Failure of cross-linking of collagen in the positive controls was related to a lack of functional aldehyde cross-link intermediates which are blocked by homocysteine and aminoacetonitrile. Day-old-male Lohmann chicks were fed adequate (6 mg/kg) or vitamin B6-deficient diets. Cross-link defects were induced by homocysteine-rich diets (0.6% w/w) or a diet containing aminoacetonitrile (0.1% w/w). Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age and Ossa tarsalia articular cartilage specimens, as well as the proximal end of tarsometatarsus were dissected from the tibial metatarsal joint, a major weight-bearing site. Light microscopic observations revealed reduction of subarticular trabecular bone formation, concurrent with overexpansion of the hypertrophic cell zone. Ultrastructural electron microscopy observation of articular fibro-cartilage indicated significant thickening of collagen fibers in vitamin B6 deficient birds, as well as the positive controls in comparison to that of cage-matched control birds. It was concluded that vitamin B6 deficient cross-linking may be responsible for the observed delay in bone development and aforementioned cartilage histological alterations. PMID:2080430

  16. Pro-photoreceptor activity of chick neurogenin1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Run-Tao; He, Li; Wang, Shu-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A better understanding of photoreceptor fate specification may lead to efficient production of photoreceptors for cell replacement studies. This study investigates the role of proneural bHLH gene neurogenin1 (ngn1) in photoreceptor genesis using the chick retina. Methods In situ hybridization was used to delineate the spatial and temporal pattern of ngn1 expression. RCAS retrovirus was used to drive overexpression of ngn1 in retinal cells, and siRNA was used to reduce ngn1 expression in loss-of-function experiments. Results Chick ngn1 was transiently expressed during early phases of retinal neurogenesis, from embryonic day 3 (E3) to E6, with cells expressing ngn1 confined to the apical side of the retinal neuroepithelium. The time window and the anatomical location of ngn1 expression coincided with photoreceptor genesis and differed from that of other transiently expressed proneural bHLH genes, such as ash1, ath3, ath5, and ngn2. Most ngn1-expressing cells lacked BrdU incorporation and lacked phosphorylated histone H3. In low density cell culture, ngn1 overexpression increased neuroD expression, expanded the photoreceptor population, but reduced the ganglion population. Treatment of dissociated retinal cells with siRNA against ngn1 mRNA specifically reduced the photoreceptor population. Overexpression of ngn1 in the retina reduced the expression of ash1, ath5, chx10, and ngn2. Conclusions The data suggest that ngn1 participates in a complex transcriptional network and may play a role in guiding a progenitor cell to the photoreceptor pathway. PMID:19578021

  17. The effects of water deprivation on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Cree, Shelby; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Freedom from thirst is one of the most undeniable welfare requirements. Nevertheless, the welfare implication of water deprivation because of a particular situation (e.g., transport) or as an involuntary consequence (e.g., sick, injured, or subordinate animals) remains unclear. This experiment investigated the behavioral changes in laying hens following various durations of water deprivation by using a motivation test based on passing through a narrow, vertical gap to access water. Twenty laying hens were subjected to water deprivation for various durations (0, 12, 18, 24, or 32 h) and the cost of access was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap (150, 135, 120, or 100 mm) to access the water side of the testing cage. An incomplete randomized block design was used with two tests per hen per wk for 5 wk. The testing apparatus was identical to their home cage but with two cages connected through an adjustable vertical gap and a drinker on the other side. Hens spent more time in the control side rather than the water side at 100 mm compared to 120 mm (P = 0.03). The hens' willingness to pass through a narrow vertical gap in order to access water did not vary according to the duration of water deprivation. Nonetheless, water-deprivation duration had a marked effect on the hens' location and behavior. Hens spent more time in the vicinity of the drinker at 18, 24, and 32 h compared to 0 and 12 h (P < 0.05). Hens spent more time drinking at 24 h and 32 h, followed by 18, 12, and finally 0 h (P < 0.05). Drinking latency and frequency were higher for all water-deprivation durations as compared to the 0 h control (P < 0.05). Water deprivation can be characterized by behavioral changes such as drinking duration, reaching a plateau at 24 h. Complementary physiological data are warranted to fully assess the impact of water deprivation on hen welfare. PMID:26628345

  18. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Daz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Mndez-Ramrez, I; Chilpa-Galvn, N C; Avila-Gonzlez, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 gkg(-1) (low) or 500 gkg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (gkg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 gkg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 gkg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 gkg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 gkg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ngmL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ngmL(-1). PMID:25352677

  19. Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in Cecal Contents of Laying Hens Fed Various Molting Diets Using Bacterial Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laying hens are typically induced to molt in order to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12-14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella Enteriditis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes ...

  20. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    PubMed

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  2. Hen1 is required for oocyte development and piRNA stability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kamminga, Leonie M; Luteijn, Maartje J; den Broeder, Marjo J; Redl, Stefan; Kaaij, Lucas J T; Roovers, Elke F; Ladurner, Peter; Berezikov, Eugene; Ketting, Ren F

    2010-11-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germ line-specific small RNA molecules that have a function in genome defence and germ cell development. They associate with a specific class of Argonaute proteins, named Piwi, and function through an RNA interference-like mechanism. piRNAs carry a 2'-O-methyl modification at their 3' end, which is added by the Hen1 enzyme. We show that zebrafish hen1 is specifically expressed in germ cells and is essential for maintaining a female germ line, whereas it is dispensable in the testis. Hen1 protein localizes to nuage through its C-terminal domain, but is not required for nuage formation. In hen1 mutant testes, piRNAs become uridylated and adenylated. Uridylation frequency is highest on retro-transposon-derived piRNAs and is accompanied by decreased piRNA levels and mild derepression of transposon transcripts. Altogether, our data suggest the existence of a uridylation-mediated 3'-5' exonuclease activity acting on piRNAs in zebrafish germ cells, which is counteracted by nuage-bound Hen1 protein. This system discriminates between piRNA targets and is required for ovary development and fully efficient transposon silencing. PMID:20859253

  3. Hens use occlusion to judge depth in a two-dimensional picture.

    PubMed

    Forkman, B

    1998-01-01

    Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were taught to peck at a touch screen. On the screen was a grid on which a square and a circle were depicted. The square and the circle were given different positions at random for each trial, but were never overlapping. The hens were rewarded for pecking at the symbol that was higher up on the grid/screen, i.e. at the one that to a human observer was seen as being further away. Every tenth trial was a probe trial in which the animals were presented with either the circle overlapping the square or vice versa. The hens were never rewarded during the probe trials. As mentioned, the hens had learned to peck at the symbol that appeared to be further away during the nonprobe trials. During the probe trials the hens pecked at the symbol that was occluded, i.e. in the absence of any other cues they used occlusion to determine which of the two symbols was further away. The results suggest that not only can nonhuman animals use image height as a cue but that they can generalise this to situations in which occlusion is the only depth cue present. PMID:10209648

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  5. Effect of zinc toxicity in laying white leghorn pullets and hens.

    PubMed

    Palafox, A L; Ho-A, E

    1980-09-01

    Two experiments involving 124 Single Comb White Leghorn (Hy-Line) laying pullets and hens were conducted to determine the effect of zinc toxicity on bird performance. Twenty milligrams of zinc per gram of diet fed for 5 days significantly lowered fertility and hatchability of pullet eggs collected 14 to 28 days after the 5-day zinc feeding period. Zinc significantly depressed body weight on the day 5 of zinc feeding and significantly lowered egg poroduction from 0 to 4 weeks of test. Egg production from 4 to 12 weeks, feed conversion from 0 to 12 weeks, final body weight, and livability were not significantly affected. Hens fed the supplemental zinc for five days had depressed egg production from 0 to 4 weeks. Egg production from 4 to 12 weeks, feed conversion, final body weight, and livability were not significantly affected. Compared to their respective controls, 2% supplemental zinc fed for 5 days significantly improved hen but not pullet egg weight. Hen eggs collected 28 days after hens received the zinc diet contained significantly less potassium, copper, and zinc than the controls. PMID:7433361

  6. Effect of nitrofurazone or novobiocin on Salmonella enteritidis cecal colonization and organ invasion in Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Manning, J G; Hargis, B M; Hinton, A; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Creger, C R

    1992-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (433 mg/liter drinking water) administration to leghorn laying hens for 72 hours with a 48-hour withdrawal period before nitrofurazone-sensitive Salmonella enteritidis challenge resulted in a S. enteritidis culture-positive rate significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than that of unmedicated controls when hens were cultured 6 days following challenge. In a similar experiment, simultaneous nitrofurazone administration and S. enteritidis challenge resulted in no significant differences in S. enteritidis isolation frequency. However, unchallenged nitrofurazone-medicated contact control hens showed a significantly higher S. enteritidis culture-positive rate than the unchallenged unmedicated controls. This increase in apparent S. enteritidis susceptibility was associated with significantly lower cecal propionic acid and fewer anaerobic colony-forming units (CFU). In a third experiment, nitrofurazone treatment had no effect when the antibiotic was withdrawn 72 hours before S. enteritidis challenge. In a subsequent experiment, novobiocin (385 mg/kg) or nitrofurazone (300 mg/kg) was administered to adult hens for 7 days before challenge with nitrofurazone and novobiocin-resistant S. enteritidis. Both nitrofurazone and novobiocin administration resulted in a significantly higher S. enteritidis culture-positive rate than unmedicated controls at end of the experiment 7 days post-challenge. Results indicate that administration of some antibiotics may enhance susceptibility to S. enteritidis in leghorn hens. PMID:1627106

  7. Influences of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defense system of the chick.

    PubMed

    Combs, G F

    1981-09-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defense system (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase) were investigated in the chick. Two-week-old chicks were reared using a vitamin E-free, low-selenium, semipurified basal diet alone or supplemental with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) and/or selenium (.10 ppm). Whereas vitamin E sustained chick growth, survival, and protection from exudative diathesis (ED), it did not significantly affect the enzymatic components of the oxidant defense system. Dietary selenium promoted chick growth and protection against ED in the absence of vitamin E and sustained glutathione peroxidase activity in several tissues. The latter effect was associated with decreases in reduced glutathione concentrations observed in liver and blood. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in liver and brain in selenium deficiency. Glutathione reductase activities in liver, kidney, lung, and brain were not affected by diet. PMID:7322995

  8. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  9. Thymus dependency of antigen-binding cells in the bone marrow and spleen of chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K

    1977-01-01

    The bone marrow and spleen of normal unimmunized chicks contain lymphoid cells which form rosettes with quail red blood cells (QRBC), but not with sheep red blood cells. The number of these antigen binding cells (QRBC-ABC) were restored to their original level 2-3 weeks after whole body X-irradiation following a temporary but drastic decrease in the number of QRBC-ABC. This recovery is not observed in chicks which have been thymectomized or thymectomized and bursectomized. However, QRBC-ABC numbers were restored in bursectomized chicks comparable with those levels in control chicks. Anti-thymic serum effectively blocked rosette formation and it seems that QRBC-ABC are a thymus-dependent population. Possibly, the thymus exerts an influence on the genesis of QRBC-ABC through a humoral mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:300356

  10. A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo

    PubMed Central

    Borges, R.M.; Horne, J.H.; Melo, A.; Vidal, J.T.; Vieceli, F.M.; Melo, M.O.; Kanno, T.Y.N.; Fraser, S.E.; Yan, C.Y.I.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation. PMID:24068190

  11. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  12. Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during