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Sample records for layer hen chicks

  1. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems B. Huber-Eicher* , F advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspeci®cs remains a serious problem with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both

  2. Are genetic differences in foraging behaviour of laying hen chicks paralleled by hybrid-specic

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Are genetic differences in foraging behaviour of laying hen chicks paralleled by hybrid behaviour found earlier, we hypothesised that genetically determined differences in foraging behaviour could the hypothesis put forward that genetic differences in foraging behaviour could be the basis for the genetic in

  3. Body compositional changes and growth alteration in chicks from hens fed conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Leone, Vanessa A; Worzalla, Sharon P; Cook, Mark E

    2009-05-01

    Effects of feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to hens on progeny chick development and composition at hatch (NHC) and three weeks of age (TWC) were assessed. CLA (0 or 0.5%, composed of mixed isomers of cis-9,trans-11 or trans-10,cis-12-CLA) was fed to hens with either safflower (SO) or olive oil (OO) (3 or 3.5%) to assure successful hatch for 2 weeks prior to collection for incubation. Maternal CLA feeding had no effect on hatchability, but improved egg fertility (p < 0.05). Maternal feeding of CLA with SO increased 21 day-old progeny growth, while CLA with OO decreased growth (oil*CLA, p < 0.05). In 25 day-old chicks (TWC), but not NHC, maternal CLA decreased the proportion of total body water (p < 0.05) and increased body ash (p < 0.05). While monounsaturated fatty acids were decreased and saturated fatty acids increased in eggs and NHC from hens fed CLA, no differences in fatty acid composition were observed in chicks at 25 days of age from hens fed CLA. Maternal CLA feeding resulted in the presence of c9,t11 and t10,c12-CLA in NHC, but only c9,t11 in the TWC. In conclusion, hens fed CLA led to improved fertility and altered body composition at 3 weeks of age. PMID:19224262

  4. Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K; Uddin, G M N; Barua, H; Roy, K; Biswas, D; Ahad, A; Debnath, N C

    2008-03-17

    We determined the flock sizes and rates of loss caused by different factors in broody-hen chicks (BHC) up to 60 days of age on 600 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh. The smallholders were beneficiaries of a village poultry production chain called 'Smallholder Livestock Development Project-2' (SLDP-2) which was undertaken with the financial assistance of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). For estimating survival time of BHC, we observed chicks in 80 smallholdings. SLDP-2 aims at ameliorating poverty among women by poultry rearing at village level; in total, 104,000 key rearers, constituting 96% of all of the beneficiaries of the SLDP-2 area, were enrolled in 26 upazilas (a lower administrative unit of Bangladesh). A key rearer is a smallholder who rears at least five 'Sonali' (RIR x Fayoumi) and some indigenous (desi) chickens in a semi-scavenging system. Sonali chickens are supplied from the development project, and have higher egg production while the broodiness of the desi hens is exploited to get chicks hatched for future stocks; thus, the chicks hatched and reared to 60 days old at key rearers' households are called BHC. In this study 32% of the smallholders had BHC each month. At the beginning of a month, the median number of chicks in a flock was 8, and the mean survival time was 50.5 days. Incidence rates of loss of BHC from disease, predation, selling and slaughtering were 0.102, 0.086, 0.009 and 0.002 per chick-month at risk, respectively. The major predators were crows, mongooses and eagles with incidence rates of loss being 0.018, 0.016 and 0.010 per chick-month at risk, respectively. Colibacillosis (both single and mixed infections) contributed to the death of 21% of dead BHC collected; Newcastle disease and salmonellosis contributed to the next highest (14 and 12%) proportional mortalities. PMID:17850905

  5. Knudsen Layers from Moment Equations Henning Struchtrup

    E-print Network

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    xxxx Knudsen Layers from Moment Equations Henning Struchtrup University of Victoria, Canada / ETH is conserved 0 t + 1 x = 0 H-theorem t + x = 0 entropy density, flux, generation = - 1 2 1 -1 f2 dµ ?? #12;H-theorem for moments PN approximation gives second law t + x = 0 with quadratic expressions

  6. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  7. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Escarcha, Jacquelyn F; Callaway, Todd R; Byrd, J Allen; Miller, Dan N; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2012-10-01

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growing birds. Therefore, the present study was designed to quantify differences in artificially inoculated cecal Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks (n = 60 in each of two replications) fed 0%, 25%, and 50% of their diet (w/w) replaced with alfalfa meal from day (d) 7 to d14 after hatch. Alfalfa supplementation reduced cecal populations of Salmonella by 0.95 and 1.25 log10 colony-forming unit per gram in the 25% and 50% alfalfa groups compared to controls. Alfalfa feeding reduced (p < 0.05) the number of cecal- and crop-positive birds compared to controls. Increasing levels of alfalfa increased (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the proportion of acetate in the cecum. Surprisingly, alfalfa inclusion did not negatively impact average daily gain (ADG) in birds over the 7-d feeding period. Alfalfa inclusion at 50% of the diet increased (p < 0.05) the number of bacterial genera detected in the cecum compared to controls, and also altered proportions of the microbial population by reducing Ruminococcus and increasing Clostridia populations. Results support the idea that providing a fermentable substrate can increase gastrointestinal VFA production and bacterial diversity which in turn can reduce colonization by Salmonella via natural competitive barriers. However, further studies are obviously needed to more fully understand the impact of changes made in diet or management procedures on poultry production. PMID:22953742

  8. Differences in the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Inui, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Yu; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic selection results in a higher growth rate and meat yield in broiler chickens than in layer chickens. We herein demonstrated differences in the effects of 24 h of fasting on the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks. The mRNA levels of proteolysis-related genes were analyzed in the pectoralis major muscle of 14-day-old chicks after 0 or 24 h of fasting. The mRNA levels of ubiquitin ligases such as atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) as well as transcription factor forkhead box class O (FOXO) 1 were significantly increased by fasting in broiler and layer chicks, suggesting that the FOXO1-induced ubiquitin-proteasome system, a major proteolytic system in skeletal muscles, was activated by fasting in both chicks. The mRNA levels of atrogin-1 were significantly lower in broiler chicks than in layer chicks after fasting. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly decreased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. The mRNA levels of FOXO3 were significantly increased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. Therefore, the ubiquitin-proteasome system did not appear to have been fully upregulated in broiler chicks. These results suggest that differences in the expression of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation are one of the causes of the high growth rate in broiler chickens. PMID:25899861

  9. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000?mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500?mg/kg YE?+?500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60?d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW?+?YE groups during the 60?d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60?d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE?+?YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60?d growing period. PMID:22029790

  10. Effects of in ovo injection of bovine lactoferrin before incubation in layer breeder eggs on tibia measurements and performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Saki, A A; Mahmoudi, H

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing concern about welfare of laying hens in cages, and one aspect of this topic relates to bone fragility. Therefore, bone anabolic components such as bovine lactoferrin (bLF) may be an effective strategy to maintain the integrity and health of bones. A total of 1080 eggs were divided into four groups with three replicates, each comprising 270 eggs; (1) control group was injected with 100 ?l of normal saline per egg; (2, 3 and 4) groups including 22.5 (low), 45 (medium) and 67.5 µg (high) of bLF in 100 µl of normal saline per egg. Eggs were incubated and after hatching, chicks were reared to 28 weeks of age. Tibia measurements were obtained at hatch and at 28 weeks of age. Tibia weight at hatch, was not influenced by in ovo injection of bLF in comparison with the control. Eggs injected with the high concentration of bLF (67.5 µg of bLF per egg) showed significant strengthening in laying-hen tibias at 28 weeks of age, as measured by ultimate force and bending stress, compared with the control. Egg weights from hens treated with this concentration of bLF were also significantly greater than the control. Our data suggest that tibia cortical thickness is a suitable variable for evaluating bone status reflecting bone integrity and strength. The present study also shows that bLF (67.5 µg of bLF per egg) injected into layer breeder eggs before incubation can be used to improve bone strength and egg weight of laying hens at 28 weeks of age, while having no detrimental effect on embryo hatchability. PMID:26178907

  11. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  12. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250?000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16?h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9?Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2?m(3)?h(-1)?hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls that represented potential to increase ventilation energy efficiency, and reduce carbon footprints and operational costs. PMID:22404801

  13. Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis Infection Alters the Indigenous Microbiota Diversity in Young Layer Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Khin K. Z.; Saelao, Perot; Halstead, Michelle M.; Chanthavixay, Ganrea; Chang, Huai-Chen; Garas, Lydia; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Zhou, Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    Avian gastrointestinal (GI) tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors, especially during the early posthatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7?days post infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and postinfection time points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the GI tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the GI microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in the late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected and infected groups, suggested possible antagonistic interaction between members of these two taxa, which could potentially influences the overall microbial population in the gut. Our results also revealed that genetic difference between two lines had minimal effect on the establishment of microbiota population. Overall, this study provided preliminary insights into the contributing role of S. Enteritidis in influencing the overall makeup of chicken’s gut microbiota. PMID:26664988

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN 1 D OLD LAYER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to determine if any relationship exists between body weight and beak characteristics in day old chicks for developing an automated system to standardize infrared beak treatment. At the hatchery, 1-day-old W-36 chicks (n=344) were weighed and digital pictures were taken of th...

  15. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N = 3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N = 3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P = 0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P = 0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P = 0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P < 0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90 ± 0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279 ± 0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16 ± 0.07 mm and 0.347 ± 0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P > 0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. PMID:26475072

  16. The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1936-01-01

    ~~~~~~ sSla:i2t 7,' $ The Quantities of Vitam~n f Required By Growing Chicks AGRICULTURAZl AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF' TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President 'IF the ( must ment ing 2 per : chick varie 6118 W from for I that ie vitamin A in the feed... of the hen laying the eggs from which chicks are hatched and the vitamin A intake of the chicks , be adequate if good results are to be obtained. These e'xperi- ;s showed that chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens receiv- !65 Sherman-Mnnsell units...

  17. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P < 0.05) villus height and villus surface area compared with the control birds. Seaweed supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria [e.g., Bifidobacterium longum (4- to 14-fold), Streptococcus salivarius (4- to 15-fold)] and importantly reduced the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of the chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CC and SG treatments than in the control. In conclusion, dietary supplementation using red seaweed inclusions can act as a potential prebiotic to improve performance, egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  18. Effects of dietary alfalfa inclusion on Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growi...

  19. Curlew Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Curlew Chicks hatch in late June and are almost immediately ready to leave the nest. The coloring and pattern of the downy chicks provides camouflage to protect them from avian and mammalian predators. Chicks follow their parents on long hikes to feeding areas. Curlews also migrate long distances ea...

  20. Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on 3 measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Prieto, M T; Torres, O

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of auditory enrichment (by means of classical music) or physical enrichment (by means of hanging colored string bunches and barley grains on the floor) on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in chicks of several layer breeds. In experiment 1, 192 chicks from 8 Spanish breeds and 1 White Leghorn population were reared in cages with or without music auditory enrichment until 8 wk of age. The effect of music auditory enrichment was significant for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). The ratios were higher in chicks reared without music than in those reared with music, suggesting that auditory enrichment from classical music reduces stress in chicks. There were significant differences in morphological trait measurements (relative asymmetry of wing length, leg width, and combined asymmetry; P < 0.05), being greater in chicks reared without music. This result suggests that FA is a good indicator for stress level in chicks, given that it follows the same trend as that found for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. There was a significant treatment by breed interaction (P < 0.05) for tonic immobility duration, indicating no consistent effect by auditory enrichment on tonic immobility duration across breeds. In experiment 2, 180 chicks from 3 Spanish breeds were housed in pens with or without physical enrichment (colored plastic string bunches and barley grains on the floor) until 6 wk of age. The effect of physical enrichment on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and FA was not significant, indicating no effect on fear and stress in layer chicks. In conclusion, auditory enrichment by means of classical music is a reliable method for reducing stress levels in several breeds of layer chicks. However, music auditory enrichment was not effective in reducing fearfulness in any of the layer breeds. Physical enrichment by means of colored plastic string bunches and floor barley grains does not appear to be an effective method for reducing stress and fear in layer chicks. PMID:22010229

  1. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune® FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune®FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of white leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing M. gallisepticum mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect a...

  2. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was not affected by enzyme supplementation. The results indicated that higher inclusion levels of undecorticated sunflower seed meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. PMID:26047672

  3. Characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter concentrations in high-rise and manure-belt layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Lide; Bogan, Bill W.; Wang, Kaiying; Cortus, Erin L.; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Diehl, Claude A.

    2012-09-01

    Indoor air pollutants at high concentrations in poultry houses can potentially affect workers' health, and animal welfare and productivity. This paper presents research results of a 2-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from to date the most comprehensive study on a single farm in two 180,000-bird high-rise (HR) and two 200,000-bird manure-belt (MB) layer hen houses located in Indiana, USA. Air was sampled at ventilation fans of the mechanically-ventilated houses. Concentrations of NH3 and CO2 were measured with photoacoustic multi-gas monitors. Concentrations of H2S and PM10 were monitored with pulsed fluorescence analyzers and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM), respectively. The 2-year mean ± standard deviation concentrations at ventilation fans of the four layer hen houses were 48.9 ± 39 and 51.9 ± 40.7 ppm in HR, and 13.3 ± 9.1 and 12.9 ± 10.5 ppm in MB for NH3; 26.4 ± 17.6 and 24.9 ± 19 ppb in HR, 40.0 ± 21.1 and 41.2 ± 31.5 ppb in MB for H2S; 1755 ± 848 and 1804 ± 887 ppm in HR, and 2295 ± 871 and 2285 ± 946 ppm in MB for CO2; and 540 ± 303 and 552 ± 338 ?g m-3 in HR, and 415 ± 428 and 761 ± 661 ?g m-3 in MB for PM10. Compared with the MB houses, concentrations of the HR houses were higher for NH3, and lower for CO2, H2S, and PM10 (P < 0.05). High concentrations of NH3 detected in winter represent potential challenges to workers' health and animal welfare. Variations in pollutant concentrations at the exhaust fans were affected by outdoor temperature, ventilation, bird condition, and farm operation. A new weekly variation, characterized by significantly lower PM10 concentrations on Sundays, was identified and was related to the weekly schedule of house operational activities.

  4. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken. PMID:25972012

  5. Anatomical organization of the visual dorsal ventricular ridge in the chick (Gallus gallus): Layers and columns in the avian pallium.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Galleguillos, Patricio; Fernández, Máximo; Marin, Gonzalo J; Letelier, Juan C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) is one of the main components of the sauropsid pallium. In birds, the DVR is formed by an inner region, the nidopallium, and a more dorsal region, the mesopallium. The nidopallium contains discrete areas that receive auditory, visual, and multisensory collothalamic projections. These nidopallial nuclei are known to sustain reciprocal, short-range projections with their overlying mesopallial areas. Recent findings on the anatomical organization of the auditory DVR have shown that these short-range projections have a columnar organization that closely resembles that of the mammalian neocortex. However, it is unclear whether this columnar organization generalizes to other areas within the DVR. Here we examine in detail the organization of the visual DVR, performing small, circumscribed deposits of neuronal tracers as well as intracellular fillings in brain slices. We show that the visual DVR is organized in three main laminae, the thalamorecipient nucleus entopallium; a dorsally adjacent nidopallial lamina, the intermediate nidopallium; and a contiguous portion of the ventral mesopallium, the mesopallium ventrale. As in the case of the auditory DVR, we found a highly topographically organized system of reciprocal interconnections among these layers, which was formed by dorsoventrally oriented, discrete columnar bundles of axons. We conclude that the columnar organization previously demonstrated in the auditory DVR is not a unique feature but a general characteristic of the avian sensory pallium. We discuss these results in the context of a comparison between sauropsid and mammalian pallial organization. PMID:25982840

  6. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 ?g 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. PMID:25743414

  7. Passive protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection from maternally derived antibodies of hens vaccinated with a ghost vaccine.

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo; Li, Guangxing

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated maternal immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis acquired through the egg yolk. Two-hundred 19-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) broiler breeders which were randomly divided into two groups of equal size were injected with S. Enteritidis ghosts (5 × 10(9) colony forming units in 0.1 ml per hen) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 0.01 mol ? l(-1), pH 7.4) twice, respectively, with an interval of 2 weeks. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect specific antibodies against S. Enteritidis. S. Enteritidis-specific antibody levels in the vaccinated group increased over time and were significantly higher than those of the control group on days 28 (P < 0.001) and 35 (P < 0.001) post-vaccination. Ten 7-day-old chicks from hens that were vaccinated with a S. Enteritidis ghost vaccine were challenged at 14 days of age with 5 × 10(9) CFU of S. Enteritidis DH091 (homologous to the vaccine strain), 8/10 (80%) chicks from vaccinated hens survived, whereas 3/10 (30%) chicks from unvaccinated hens survived. The chicks acquired high levels of serum antibodies against S. Enteritidis. These results reveal that maternal antibodies in chicks acquired from vaccinated hens through eggs can confer a significant protection against S. Enteritidis infection. PMID:25200368

  8. Black Noddy with Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Black Noddy (with a chick) is one of eight seabird species whose population density was studied on the French Frigate Shoals' Tern Island by biologists with the USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center's Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Climate Change Project. ...

  9. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  10. Whooping Crane Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This young chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  11. Whooping Crane Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This adolescent chick, hatched and raised at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, is one of ten whooping cranes being released in Louisiana in February 2011. It is a milestone for the state and for the birds, which have not lived in the state since the 1950s. ...

  12. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  13. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  14. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (=?group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n?=?40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated. PMID:26364806

  15. EFFECTS OF BROILER REARING ENVIRONMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM FROM COMMERCIAL LAYER HENS TO BROILER CHICKENS: ROLE OF ACID-BASE BALANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted concurrently to determine and compare, blood pH, blood gases, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in mycoplasma-free, F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers, and FMG contact-infected broilers. FMG-inoculated layers had the highest partial pressure of O2 and the l...

  16. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  17. A biosensor based on electroactive dipyrromethene-Cu(II) layer deposited onto gold electrodes for the detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus type H5N1 in hen sera.

    PubMed

    Jarocka, Urszula; Sawicka, Ró?a; Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, W?odzimierz; S?czy?ska, Violetta; Por?bska, Anna; Dehaen, Wim; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a biosensor for the detection of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the influenza virus hemagglutinin. The steps of biosensor fabrications are as follows: (i) creation of a mixed layer containing the thiol derivative of dipyrromethene and 4-mercapto-1-butanol, (ii) complexation of Cu(II) ions, (iii) oriented immobilization of the recombinant histidine-tagged hemagglutinin, and (iv) filling free spaces with bovine serum albumin. The interactions between recombinants hemagglutinin from the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 and anti-hemagglutinin H5 monoclonal antibodies were explored with Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry. The biosensor displayed a good detection limit of 2.4 pg/mL, quantification limit of 7.2 pg/mL, and dynamic range from 4.0 to 100.0 pg/mL in buffer. In addition, this analytical device was applied for the detection of antibodies in hen sera from individuals vaccinated and non-vaccinated against the avian influenza virus type H5N1. The limit of detection for the assay was the dilution of sera 1: 7?×?10(6), which is about 200 times better than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:26297459

  18. Recovery of fertility from adult ovarian tissue transplanted into week-old Japanese quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    Fertility of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from immature chickens and Japanese quail has been recovered by transplantation. This is of special importance for non-mammalian vertebrates in which cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes are challenging because their oogenesis is characterised by vitellogenesis. This study tested whether fertility of adult quail ovarian tissue could be recovered by transplantation. Ovaries were isolated from mature Japanese quail hens, trimmed, cut into 3- to 4-mm2 pieces and transplanted into ovariectomised, week-old chicks. Recipients were administered an immunosuppressant for two weeks. Ten of 12 recipients survived until sexual maturity and seven laid eggs, but all stopped laying by 17 weeks of age. The age at first egg of recipients laying eggs (75.7±4.2 days) was greater than that of untreated hens (51.8±1.7 days) and egg production of recipients during the laying period (21.7±5.7) was less than that of untreated hens (60.8±3.5). Recipients were paired with males from the WB line for test mating. Only two hens laid eggs during the test period but both produced 100% donor-derived offspring. This research demonstrated that the reproductive potential of ovarian tissue from adult quail hens can be restored by transplantation. PMID:24157187

  19. Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2006-01-01

    In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

  20. Colour categorization by domestic chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. D.; Osorio, D.; Baddeley, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Spectral stimuli form a physical continuum, which humans divide into discrete non-overlapping regions or categories that are designated by colour names. Little is known about whether non-verbal animals form categories on stimulus continua, but work in psychology and artificial intelligence provides models for stimulus generalization and categorization. We compare predictions of such models to the way poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) generalize to novel stimuli following appetitive training to either one or two colours. If the two training colours are (to human eyes) red and greenish-yellow or green and blue, chicks prefer intermediates, i.e. orange rather than red or yellow and turquoise rather than green or blue. The level of preference for intermediate colours implies that the chicks interpolate between the training stimuli. However, they do not extrapolate beyond the limits set by the training stimuli, at least for red and yellow training colours. Similarly, chicks trained to red and blue generalize to purple, but they do not generalize across grey after training to the complementary colours yellow and blue. These results are consistent with a modified version of a Bayesian model of generalization from multiple examples that was proposed by Shepard and show similarities to human colour categorization. PMID:11600071

  1. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial hens: a serological study based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Leong, V Y; Glisson, J R; Resurreccion, R S; Cheng, I H

    1994-01-01

    Serum samples collected from 23 flocks of commercial hens from three different companies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus, and data were analyzed statistically. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were compared from hens that were unvaccinated, once-vaccinated, or twice-vaccinated, from single-age farms or multiple-age farms, from molted or unmolted flocks, and from different companies. There were significant differences among the groups compared by vaccination, between the single-age and multiple-age groups, and between the molted and unmolted groups. The GMT of unvaccinated flocks and the GMT of molted flocks that had been vaccinated once as pullets with a chick-tissue-culture-origin (CTCO) live vaccine could not be differentiated. The ELISA is useful to detect and quantitate ILT vaccine-induced antibody, but it does not reliably identify older flocks that were vaccinated at a young age with CTCO vaccine. PMID:7980280

  2. Evidence for embryotoxicity of gossypol in mice and chicks with no evidence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Li, Y F; Booth, G M; Seegmiller, R E

    1989-01-01

    Effects of gossypol treatment were studied in pregnant mice and chick embryos. Pregnant Balb C mice were treated orally with 60 or 120 mg/kg of gossypol acetic acid on days 6-13 of pregnancy and killed on day 18. The uteri were removed, the number of resorptions and late fetal deaths were recorded, and the fetuses were weighed and assessed for malformations. Fertilized hen eggs were injected with 0.25 mg gossypol/egg at 24, 48, 72, or 96 h of incubation. The embryos were examined at day 9 of incubation. The mutagenic potential of gossypol was determined by the Ames test. Treatment of mice with gossypol produced significant adverse effects on the dam and offspring including decreased pregnancy weight gain of the dam and growth retardation of the offspring. There were increased resorptions and late fetal deaths in mice and high mortality in chick embryos. Exencephalic fetuses were observed in one of four litters exposed to the higher dose of gossypol, micromelia was observed in one of 26 chick embryos treated at 24 h, and gastroschisis was observed in one of 21 chick embryos treated at 72 h. No malformations were observed in the controls. The number of revertants per plate in the gossypol treatment group (100 or 500 mg gossypol/plate) did not differ significantly from that of control. This study provides evidence that gossypol has embryotoxic and possibly teratogenic activity in mouse and chick embryos but no mutagenic activity according to the Ames assay. PMID:2520508

  3. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  4. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen

    PubMed Central

    ABOU ELAZAB, Mohamed Fahmy; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  5. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen.

    PubMed

    Abou Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  6. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

  7. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  8. Fingerprinting Passports Henning Richter1

    E-print Network

    Mostowski, Wojciech

    Fingerprinting Passports Henning Richter1 , Wojciech Mostowski2 , and Erik Poll2 1 Lausitz, The Netherlands {woj,erikpoll}@cs.ru.nl Abstract. Passports issued nowadays have an embedded RFID chip a security risk, in that an attacker could access a person's passport without the owner knowing. While

  9. Prof. Dr. Henning Luter Publikationen

    E-print Network

    Baer, Christian

    Prof. Dr. Henning Läuter Publikationen Refereed papers Läuter, H. et al. (2008). Estimation. Vonta et al.: p. 187-198, Birkhäuser. Läuter, H. (2008). Approximate likelihood in survival models. In. Mesbah, M. Nikulin, 121-130, ISTE&J.Wiley, London. Läuter, H. and Liero, H. (2006). Nonparametric

  10. Molt performance and bone density of cortical, medullary, and cancellous bone in laying hens during feed restriction or alfalfa-based feed molt.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Donalson, L M; Bloomfield, S A; Hogan, H A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of alfalfa-based molt diets on molting performance and bone qualities. A total of 36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were used for the study. There were 6 treatments: pretrial control (PC), fully fed (FF), feed withdrawal (FW), 90% alfalfa:10% layer ration (A90), 80% alfalfa:20% layer ration (A80), and 70% alfalfa:30% layer ration (A70). For the PC treatment, hens were euthanized by CO(2) gas, and bones were collected before molt was initiated. At the end of the 9-d molt period, hens were euthanized, and femurs and tibias were collected to evaluate bone qualities by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, mechanical testing, and conventional ash weights. The hens fed alfalfa-based molt diets and FW stopped laying eggs within 5 d after molt started, and all hens in these groups had reduced ovary weights compared with those of the FF hens. In the FW and A90 groups, total femur volumetric bone mineral densities (vBMD) at the midshaft were significantly lower, but those of the A80 and A70 groups were not significantly different from the values for the PC and FF hens. In cortical bone density, the midshaft tibial vBMD were significantly higher for FF and A70 hens than for PC hens. The medullary bone densities at the midshaft femur or tibia of the FW, A90, A80, and A70 hens were reduced compared with those of the PC hens. Femur cancellous densities at the distal femur for the FW and A90 hens were significantly reduced compared with those of the PC and FF hens. The FW, A80, and A70 hens yielded significantly higher elastic moduli, and the A80 hens had higher ultimate stress compared with the PC hens, suggesting that the mechanical integrity of the midshaft bone was maintained even though the medullary vBMD was reduced. These results suggest that alfalfa-based molt diets exhibit molt performance similar to FW, that medullary and cancellous bones are labile bone compartments during molting, and that alfalfa-based molt diets may be beneficial to maintain the mechanical properties of bones during molt. PMID:17704367

  11. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and shell eggs. Eggshells testing positive for Salmonella were 59 times higher when fecal samples were positive and nine times higher when floor dust samples were positive. Risk factors associated with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in laying hens were flock size, housing system, and farms with hens of different ages. As a summary, this systematic review demonstrated that Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs in layer production systems is multifactorial. This study provides a knowledge base for the implementation of targeted intervention strategies to control Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs. PMID:26473681

  12. KIRSTEN I. GRIMM1 & HENNING UFFENORDE2

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    KIRSTEN I. GRIMM1 & HENNING UFFENORDE2 Erster Nachweis von Miogypsina, einer Großforaminifere aus.kirsten.grimm@stadt.mainz.de), Naturhistorisches Museum Mainz/Landessammlung für Naturkunde Rheinland-Pfalz, Reichklarastr. 10, 55116 Mainz 2 Dr. H. Uffenorde (e-mail: Henning.Uffenorde@geo.uni-goettingen.de), Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universität

  13. Black-footed Albatross with Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-footed albatross with chick, nesting black-footed albatrosses are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise and sudden flooding on low-lying islands. Location: Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge ...

  14. Effects of drinking water treatment on susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced molt.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Byrd, J A; Moore, R W; Ricke, S C; Nisbet, D J

    2005-02-01

    Feed deprivation is used in the layer industry to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens. Unfortunately, the stress involved increases susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis (SE), the risk of SE-positive eggs, and incidence of SE in internal organs. Leghorn hens over 50 wk of age were divided into 4 treatment groups of 12 hens each in experiment 1 and 3 treatment groups of 12 hens in experiments 2 and 3; hens were placed in individual laying hen cages. Treatment groups were 1) nonmolted (NM) and received feed and distilled water for 9 d, 2) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received distilled water, 3) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% lactic acid (LA) in distilled water. An additional group (4) in experiment 1 only was force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% acetic acid in distilled water. Seven days before feed removal hens were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod, which was continued throughout the experiment. Individual hens among all treatments were challenged orally with 10(4) SE on d 4 of feed removal. When compared with the NM treatments, weight losses were significantly higher in the M treatments, regardless of water treatments. When compared with NM treatments, crop pH was significantly higher in the M treatment receiving distilled water. Crop pH was reduced to that of the NM controls by 0.5% acetic acid in the drinking water. No consistent significant changes were observed for volatile fatty acids. The number of hens positive for SE in crop and ceca after culture and the number of SE per crop and per gram of cecal contents were higher in the M treatments, when compared with the NM treatments, but there was no effect of addition of either of the acids to the drinking water. Additional research using different acid treatment regimens may provide a tool for reducing the incidence of SE in eggs and internal organs during and following molting of laying hens. PMID:15742955

  15. List of Publications (Dr. Anke Henning) Citation report (Scopus: Author = Henning A; 2004-2015; articles only; author ID: 22835171300)

    E-print Network

    , Fillmer A, Tsao J, Pruessmann KP, Henning A. Reduction of Voxel Bleeding in Highly Accelerated Parallel 1H. (IF 3.27) 11. Chen X, Boesiger P, Henning A. J-refocused 1H PRESS DEPT for localized 13C MRList of Publications (Dr. Anke Henning) Citation report (Scopus: Author = Henning A; 2004

  16. Effect of substrate provision on performance and behaviour of laying hens in the pecking and scratching area of furnished cages.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Guinebretière, M; Michel, V

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was set up to study the effects of substrate provision on performance and behaviour in the pecking and scratching area (PSA) of non-beak-trimmed hens housed in large furnished cages (60 hens/cage). 2. Three layer hybrids (two brown and one white, ISA-Hendrix Genetics, France) and two substrate conditions (with or without wheat bran automatically distributed on the PSA) were compared in a 3 × 2 experimental design with 12 cages per treatment. 3. Substrate distribution improved laying rate with no impact on the frequency of dirty or cracked eggs. 4. Substrate distribution improved the viability and body integrity of hens, which were not beak-trimmed. 5. Distribution of substrate tended to increase the number of hens in the PSA and enhanced their pecking and scratching behaviours but had a negative impact on the number of dust bath bouts per cage and encouraged dust bathing on the wire floor close to the feeder. 6. The white hens laid more eggs in the nest than the brown birds and used the PSA more for pecking, scratching and dust bathing at the end of the day than the brown hens, underlining the necessity to adapt cage furnishing and rearing management to specific behaviours of each layer genotype. PMID:24875434

  17. Antidote to Controversy? Responses to Carolyn Henly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mary Ella; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides four practicing teachers' written responses to Carolyn Henly's article entitled "Reader Response Theory as Antidote to Controversy: Teaching "The Bluest Eye," which appears in the same issue. (HB)

  18. Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang

    2010-02-10

    The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components. PMID:20055415

  19. Effects of separation of resources on behaviour, physical condition and production of laying hens in furnished cages.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, T; Azuma, T; Eguchi, Y; Uetake, K; Tanaka, T

    2009-01-01

    1. Based on our previous studies, we designed a medium-sized furnished cage with a dust bath and nest box on both sides of the cage (MFS) and evaluated its usefulness. 2. We used 180 White Leghorn layers. At the age of 17 weeks, the birds were distributed at random into one of the 4 cage designs: conventional cages (CC; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage), small (SF; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage) and medium furnished cages (MFL; 6 cages and 10 hens per cage) with a 'localised' dust bath and nest box on one side of the cage, and MFS (6 cages and 10 hens per cage). The total allocation of resources per bird was similar for all furnished cage designs. Behaviour, physical condition and production were measured in each cage. 3. Moving was more frequent in MFS and MFL than in CC and SF. The proportion of hens performing aggressive pecking and severe feather pecking was higher in MFL than CC and SF. These aggressive interactions occurred frequently in the dust bath area in MFL; however, these tendencies were not found in MFS. Egg production and egg mass were lower in MFL than in SF, while the production in MFS was similar to those in CC and SF. MFS hens laid eggs on the cage floor more often than in MFL. 4. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the possible usefulness of MFS. However, some inconsistent results and ways of improving MFS design were also identified. PMID:19234928

  20. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  1. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogenase in chick liver

    PubMed Central

    Corte, E. Della; Stirpe, F.

    1967-01-01

    1. It has been confirmed that the xanthine-dehydrogenase activity of chick liver is enhanced by starvation and by administration of inosine; the effects of these treatments are not additive. 2. Inosine has no effect when given to chicks depleted of the enzyme by feeding a low-protein diet. 3. Actinomycin D prevents the effect of inosine, but itself enhances the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase. 4. The xanthine-dehydrogenase activity is unchanged after addition of orotic acid to the diet, and is stimulated by injection of inorganic iron. PMID:6029610

  2. Extrapituitary beta TSH and GH in early chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A E; Harvey, S

    2001-12-20

    Somatotropes and thyrotropes are thought to be derived from the same cellular lineage and the expression of both growth hormone (GH) and thyrotropin (beta TSH) is thought to be dependent upon the same (Pit-1) transcription factor. The presence and comparative distribution of GH- and beta TSH-immunoreactivity in early chick embryos, was therefore investigated, especially as extrapituitary GH-immunoreactive cells are present in some peripheral tissues of early chick embryos prior to the ontogenic differentiation of the pituitary gland. At the end of the first trimester of incubation (embryonic day (ED) 7), GH-immunoreactivity was widespread in the head, particularly in neural tissue. Strong labeling was found in the diencephalon and mesencephalon and in neural ganglia and the trigeminal nerve. beta TSH-immunoreactivity was also present in these tissues, although restricted to the ependymal cells lining the diocoele and mesocoele and absent from mantle layers. It was also present in the cellular layer lining the otic vesicle, which was devoid of GH staining. In contrast, Rathke's pouch, the primordial pituitary gland was without GH- or beta TSH-staining. Control sections incubated with preabsorbed antisera or with pre-immune serum were completely devoid of staining. In the trunk, the epidermal cells were stained for beta TSH, but not for GH. Intense GH-immunoreactivity was present in the ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord and was particularly strong in the outer marginal layer. In contrast, beta TSH-immunoreactivity was again restricted to ependymal cells lining the spinal canal, which were devoid of GH-immunoreactivity. Strong GH staining was also present in the dorsal and ventral root ganglia, both of which lacked significant beta TSH staining. In non-neural tissues, both GH and beta TSH staining was present in the crop, although in topographically different cells. beta TSH-immunoreactivity was also present in the cells lining the bronchial ducts and the adluminal linings of the pleural and pericardial cavities. GH-immunoreactivity, in contrast, was absent from the lung but present in the surrounding intracostal muscles and in the Müllerian duct. Both GH- and beta TSH-immunoreactivity was present in liver hepatocytes. These results clearly show, for the first time, the presence of TSH-immunoreactivity in central and peripheral tissues of the ED7 chick embryo, prior to the differentiation of pituitary thyrotropes. They also show that beta TSH- and GH-immunoreactive cells are differentially located within embryonic tissues. PMID:11738806

  3. Food, wood, or plastic as substrates for dustbathing and foraging in laying hens: A preference test.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Urselmans, S; Kjaer, J B; Schrader, L

    2010-08-01

    The provision for dustbathing material will be a legal requirement in cage-housing systems for laying hens within the European Union beginning in 2012. At present, food particles are widely used and typically offered in small amounts on Astroturf mats one or more times per day to facilitate dustbathing, pecking, and scratching. In the present study, we compared layers' preference for food and 3 other (nonnutritive) substrates for foraging and dustbathing. In each of 2 identical trials, 72 hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor and additionally contained 4 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding either wood shavings (WS), lignocellulose (LN, soft wood fiber, pelleted), Astroturf mat without substrate (AT), or food particles (FP). Hens were housed from 18 wk of age and video recordings were done at wk 21, 24, and 27. Time spent and frequency of dustbathing, duration of a single dustbath (DB), frequency of foraging behavior, and relative frequency and duration of behavioral patterns within a single DB were recorded during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. The FP treatment was preferred for foraging over WS, LN, and AT. Time spent dustbathing and number of DB were higher in LN compared with WS, FP, and AT, whereas average duration of a single DB was longer in FP compared with LN and WS. More vertical wing shakes and scratching bouts within a single DB were observed in LN compared with AT. Bill raking occurred more frequently in WS and LN in comparison to FP and AT. No differences in the relative durations of behavioral patterns within a single DB were found. In conclusion, FP were preferred for foraging but not for dustbathing, indicating that FP may not be an optimal dustbathing substrate for laying hens. PMID:20634510

  4. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 ?g/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 ?g/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  5. Ultrasonic eggshell thickness measurement for selection of layers.

    PubMed

    Kibala, Lucyna; Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona; Kasperek, Kornel; Zieba, Grzegorz; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for using ultrasonic technology (USG) to record eggshell thickness for selection of layers. Genetic correlations between eggshell strength and its thickness have been reported to be around 0.8, making shell thickness a selection index candidate element. Applying ultrasonic devices to measure shell thickness leaves an egg intact for further handling. In this study, eggs from 2 purebred populations of Rhode Island White (RIW) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens were collected on a single day in the 33rd week of the farm laying calendar from 2,414 RIR and 4,525 RIW hens. Beginning from the large end of the egg, measurements were taken at 5 latitudes: 0º (USG0), 45º (USG45), 90º (USG90), 135º (USG135), and 180º (USG180). To estimate the repeatability of readings, measurements were repeated at each parallel on 3 meridians. Electronic micrometer measurement ( EMM: ) were taken with an electronic micrometer predominantly at the wider end of eggs from 2,397 RIR and 4,447 RIW hens. A multiple-trait statistical model fit the fixed effect of year-of-hatch × hatch-within-year, and random effects due to repeated measurements (except EMM) and an animal's additive genetic component. The shell was thinnest in the region where chicks break it upon hatching (USG0, USG45). Heritabilities of shell thickness in different regions of the shell ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 (EMM) in RIW and from 0.12 to 0.23 (EMM) in RIR and were highest for USG45 and USG0. Because the measurement repeatabilities were all above 0.90, our recommendation for balancing egg strength against hatching ease is to take a single measurement of USG45. Due to high positive genetic correlations between shell thickness in different regions of the shell its thickness in the pointed end region will be modified accordingly, in response to selection for USG45. PMID:26316340

  6. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodetoxification of aflatoxin-contaminated chick feed.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Castañeda, Z I; Avila-Gonzalez, E; Casaubon-Huguenin, M T; Cervantes-Olivares, R A; Vásquez-Peláez, C; Hernández-Baumgarten, E M; Moreno-Martínez, E

    2008-08-01

    Two studies were done to study detoxification of aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated chick feed with Nocardia corynebacteroides (NC). In the first study, pathogenicity of the bacteria was studied; in the second, the nutritional value of detoxified feed was evaluated. Commercial corn was divided into 2 sublots, one of which was contaminated with AF. Both lots were divided into 2 parts; the first was inoculated with NC. Four corn-soybean diets were prepared from the 4 corn lots. A completely randomized design was used with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in which the factors were AF contaminated or not and NC inoculated or not. One hundred Ross 308 chicks (1-d-old, male) were used in 4 treatments with 5 repetitions and 5 chickens per cage. Bird weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Each week, 1 chick per treatment repetition was killed for histopathologic analysis of liver, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, pancreas, and small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and for analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the 3 sections of the intestine. At 21 d (the end of both experiments), 1 chick per treatment repetition was killed, and moisture, lipid content, and residual AF in liver were detected. Results at 3 wk did not show differences between treatments (P > 0.05) in any of the variables. In the second study, the same methodology was used except that greater levels of AF were used (800 and 1,200 mug of AFB1/kg of feed). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in body weight, lipid content, and residual AF in liver. Histopathologic studies showed statistical differences in lesion severity in liver, duodenum, and kidney. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed severe lesions of intestinal mucosa that mainly affected tight junctions in AF treatments. It can be concluded that NC is safe for chicks and may be used to partly detoxify chicken feed contaminated with AF. PMID:18648051

  8. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  9. Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K. J.; Jeong, T. S.; Youn, C. J.

    2014-09-01

    The temperature-dependent photoresponse characteristics of MnAl2S4 layers have been investigated, for the first time, by use of photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy. Three peaks were observed at all temperatures. The electronic origin of these peaks was associated with band-to-band transitions from the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y) to the conduction-band state ?1( s). On the basis of the relationship between PC-peak energy and temperature, the optical band gap could be well expressed by the expression E g( T) = E g(0) - 2.80 × 10-4 T 2/(287 + T), where E g(0) was estimated to be 3.7920 eV, 3.7955 eV, and 3.8354 eV for the valence-band states ?4( z), ?5( x), and ?5( y), respectively. Results from PC spectroscopy revealed the crystal-field and spin-orbit splitting were 3.5 meV and 39.9 meV. The gradual decrease of PC intensity with decreasing temperature can be explained on the basis of trapping centers associated with native defects in the MnAl2S4 layers. Plots of log J ph, the PC current density, against 1/ T, revealed a dominant trap level in the high-temperature region. By comparing PC and the Hall effect results, we confirmed that this trap level is a shallow donor 18.9 meV below the conduction band.

  10. Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2009-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather damage. Day-old pullets were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (3 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 8 replicates (pens) per treatment. At 17 wk of age, pens with hens were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments according to a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (4 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 6 replicates per treatment. Compared with 0% dilution level, feed intake of laying hens of 10, 15, and 20% dilution levels increased by 8.4% (9.5 g/hen per d), 16.5% (18.1 g/hen per d), and 20.9% (23.6 g/hen per d), respectively. The ME(n) intake was similar for all dilution levels. Hens fed standard-NSP laying diets had similar insoluble NSP intake for all dilution levels (9.3 g/hen per d). Insoluble NSP intake of hens fed high-NSP laying diets increased from 15.6 g/hen per day (0% dilution) to 18.9 g/hen per day (20% dilution). Providing high- vs. standard-NSP layer diet decreased relative proventriculus contents (1.1 vs. 0.3 g/kg of BW) and increased empty gizzard weight (14.3 vs. 24.4 g/kg of BW). Hens that were fed standard-NSP diets had more feather damage compared with hens fed high-NSP diets (0.58 vs. 0.30 arbitrary units). Increasing the insoluble NSP intake resulted in decreased proventricular weight and increased gizzard weight and its contents, which are indicators of improved functioning of the gut, thereby linearly reducing feather damage. Providing diluted rearing diets increased feed intake from the first weeks of life onwards. It was hypothesized that pullets were increasingly "imprinted" on feed as pecking substrate if dilution level increased. This may decrease feather pecking and could explain the improved feather condition at 49 wk of age when 15% diluted rearing diet was fed. PMID:19276419

  11. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  12. Role of En2 in the tectal laminar formation of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Omi, Minoru; Harada, Hidekiyo; Watanabe, Yuji; Funahashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Harukazu

    2014-05-01

    The chick optic tectum consists of 16 laminae. Here, we report contribution of En2 to laminar formation in chick optic tecta. En2 is specifically expressed in laminae g-j of stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale (SGFS). Misexpression of En2 resulted in disappearance of En2-expressing cells from the superficial layers (laminae a-f of SGFS), where endogenous En2 is not expressed. Misexpression of En2 before postmitotic cells had left the ventricular layer indicated that En2-misexpressing cells stopped at the laminae of endogenous En2 expression and that they did not migrate into the superficial layers. Induction of En2 misexpression using a tetracycline-inducible system after the postmitotic cells had reached superficial layers also resulted in disappearance of En2-expressing cells from the superficial layers. Time-lapse analysis showed that En2-misexpressing cells migrated back from the superficial layers towards the middle layers, where En2 is strongly expressed endogenously. Our results suggest a potential role of En2 in regulating cell migration and positioning in the tectal laminar formation. PMID:24803658

  13. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  14. Amelioration of ethionine toxicity in the chick.

    PubMed

    Lowry, K R; Baker, D H

    1987-06-01

    Several chick bioassays were conducted to evaluate means of ameliorating ethionine toxicity. Supplementing a corn-soy diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) with .075% D,L-ethionine reduced weight gain in 8-day-old chicks by 70% compared to gains of unsupplemented controls. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine prevented reduction in weight gain and feed intake resulting from ethionine supplementation whereas feeding supplemental L-cystine was without effect. Supplementation of the ethionine-containing diet with either choline or betaine ameliorated the growth depression, although neither compound was able to completely overcome the toxic effects of ethionine. Dietary ethionine did not affect plasma levels of free methionine or cystine but did increase plasma free glycine 6-fold. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine caused normalization of plasma glycine levels whereas it elevated plasma methionine concentration. Although results suggested the possibility of ethionine-induced serine or threonine deficiency, dietary additions of .75% L-serine or .75% L-threonine failed to improve chick weight gain. These studies suggest that ethionine, in addition to affecting transsulfuration and transmethylation activity may exert specific effects on certain amino acids in tissue pools. PMID:3658879

  15. In ovo electroporation in embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Doh, Sung Tae; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study gene regulation in retinal stem/progenitor cells during retinal development. Different type of assays such as reporter gene assay, gene over-expression, gene knock down (shRNA) etc. can be performed using the electroporation technique. This video demonstrates targeted retinal injection and in ovo electroporation into the embryonic chick retina at the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 22-23, which is about embryonic day 4 (E4). Here we show a rapid and convenient in ovo electroporation technique whereby a plasmid DNA that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker is directly delivered into the chick embryonic subretinal space and followed by electric pulses to facilitate DNA uptake by retinal stem/progenitor cells. The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons(1), which has been difficult with the conventional method of injection and electroporation at E1.5(2). PMID:22330044

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

  17. Ontogenesis of Immunity to Erythrocyte Antigens in the Chick

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, J. B.; Tucker, D. F.

    1963-01-01

    Erythrocytes labelled with chromium51 were injected into embryos and young chicks and a similar challenge given soon after the majority of the initial dose had been eliminated. While tolerance was the typical response in embryos and chicks up to 3 days of age, immunity could be induced in most chicks from this time onwards. The intensity of the immune response increased rapidly until the 12th day of age. No maternal antibody could be detected. Pretreatment of the embryo with testosterone impaired the immune response of 14-day-old chicks. PMID:14088897

  18. European Quantum Key Distribution Henning Weier

    E-print Network

    Weinfurter, Harald

    European Quantum Key Distribution Network Henning Weier M¨unchen 2011 #12;#12;European Quantum Key Bedarf deutlich steigt. 5 #12;#12;Abstract Information is one of the key assets of our society. Secure communication is vital for economy, national and international stability. Quantum key distribution (QKD) has

  19. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  20. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  1. A role for aquaporin-4 during induction of form deprivation myopia in chick

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Melinda J; Junghans, Barbara M; Giummarra, Loretta; Murphy, Melanie J

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQP) form a family of specialized water channels known to transport water across cell membranes and reduce osmotic gradients. The isoform AQP4 is highly expressed in the astroglia of the brain and Müller cells in the retina. In the brain, AQP4 play a role in the control of cerebral edema by shunting excess fluid into blood vessels and by upregulating during conditions of hyperosmolarity. Thus, on the basis of the hyperosmolarity seen across the retina and choroid of hatchling chickens made myopic by form deprivation (FD), we predicted an upregulation of retinal AQP4 expression during induction of myopia. Methods Two-day-old hatchling chicks were monocularly form-deprived for 48, 72, or 96 h, and then after biometric assessment, the eyes of these animals and the normal controls of the same age were enucleated. Retinal tissue was prepared either for western blot analysis to show the presence of the AQP4 protein in the chick retina or for immunolocalization using polyclonal AQP4 antibodies to determine regional distribution and intensity of labeling during the induction of form deprivation myopia (FDM). Results As expected, ultrasonography demonstrated that all post hatchling eyes showed rapid elongation with occluded eyes elongating faster than fellow eyes or normal controls and becoming progressively more myopic with the duration of visual deprivation. Western blot analyses revealed an approximately 30 kDa band immunoreactive for AQP4 protein and confirmed the presence of AQP4 in chicks. Immunohistochemical staining showed the greatest positive immunoreactivity for antibodies to AQP4 in the inner retina along the vitreoretinal interface, nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer in all animals. The control eyes showed relatively constant levels of AQP4 expression until day 5 after which the level appeared to decrease. By comparison, positive AQP4 immunoreactivity in the nerve fiber layer increased significantly over the first 48 h in form-deprived eyes and in fellow eyes and then decreased over the next 48 h but not to the level of expression in the normal untreated eyes. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of AQP4 protein in the chick retina and to associate AQP4 expression in the inner retina with the initiation of form deprivation and the period of fastest axial elongation. This increased expression of AQP4 channels near the vitread border during the time of rapid growth suggests a role for AQP4 as a conduit for movement of retinal fluid into the vitreous in form-deprived chicks. PMID:18334967

  2. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  3. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  4. Assessing thermal comfort of broiler chicks during brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  5. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  6. AGE-RELATED SURVIVAL AND BEHAVIOR OF SNOWY PLOVER CHICKS

    E-print Network

    Colwell, Mark

    AGE-RELATED SURVIVAL AND BEHAVIOR OF SNOWY PLOVER CHICKS MARK A. COLWELL1,3 , SUSAN J. HURLEY1, and response to natural and anthropogenic danger for the threatened Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) in coastal northern California, USA. Plover chicks were most likely to die in the first

  7. ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR

    E-print Network

    Aldridge, Cameron

    ASSESSING CHICK SURVIVAL OF SAGE GROUSE IN CANADA: FINAL PROJECT REPORT FOR 2000 SAGE GROUSE) 492-9457 aldridge@ualberta.ca December, 2000 #12;ii ABSTRACT The Alberta sage grouse population has also performed a 2-stage pilot experiment, focusing on attaching transmitters to sage grouse chicks. I

  8. TLR4 is constitutively expressed in chick thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Quan-Hang; Wu, Hui; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

    2014-04-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to play a regulatory role in immune cell development; however, studies regarding the role of TLR4 in the development of the chick thymus are scarce. In this study, we investigated the distribution and expression pattern of TLR4 in normal chick thymi at different stages of development, in order to better understand the role of TLR4 in chick thymus development. We studied the thymi from 15 chicks, collected at days 7, 21 and 35 of age. The relative change in TLR4 mRNA expression in the chick thymus at different ages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and changes in protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, the distribution of TLR4 in the chick thymus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and compared with the distribution of TLR4 expression in juvenile female pigs (gilts). Our results indicated that TLR4 was constitutively expressed in the chick thymus. TLR4 was primarily expressed in the thymic cortico-medullary junction and the medulla, particularly in the epithelial cells of Hassall's corpuscles. The mRNA and protein expression level of TLR4 increased in the thymus with increasing age (p<0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by epithelial cells in the chick thymus, suggesting it may participate in thymic development by inducing factors affecting its development. PMID:24507560

  9. Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    Spatially and temporally controlled electroporation of early chick embryos Octavian Voiculescu helped the chick embryo to become a powerful system to study gene regulation and function during development. Although this is a simple procedure for embryos of 2-d incubation, earlier stages (from laying

  10. Hen Process in Effective Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Young-Ho Song; Tae-Sun Park

    2003-11-17

    An effective field theory technique that combines the standard nuclear physics approach and chiral perturbation theory is applied to the $hen$ process, ${}^{3}{He}+n\\to {}^{4}{He}+ \\gamma$. For the initial and final nuclear states, high-precision wave functions are generated via the variational Monte Carlo method using the Argonne $v_{14}$ potential and Urbana VIII trinucleon interactions, while the relevant transition operators are calculated up to ${\\cal O}(Q^4)$ in HB$\\chi$PT. The imposition of the renormalization condition that the magnetic moments of ${}^{3}{He}$ and ${}^{3}{H}$ be reproduced allows us to carry out a parameter-free calculation of the $hen$ cross section. The result, $\\sigma=(60\\pm 3\\pm 1) \\mu b$, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, $(54\\pm 6) \\mu b$ and $(55\\pm 3) \\mu b$. This agreement demonstrates the validity of the calculational method previously used for estimating the reaction rate of the solar $hep$ process.

  11. Analysis of skin color change and related gene expression after crossing of Dongxiang black chicken and ISA layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Wang, H H; Zhang, C X; Li, Q H; Chen, X H; Lou, L F

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the autosomal domi-nant Fm gene in conjunction with the sex-linked Id gene on skin color and related gene expression. Ten Dongxiang black cocks were selected to build ten families by mating 60 individuals of ISA B-line layers. The skin color of the F1 generation was observed at different time points. At 126 days, 36 chickens were slaughtered, and gene expression of TYRP1, TYRP2, MC1R, and EDNRB in breast skin was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The ratio of Dongxiang black chickens with white skin chicks in the F1 generation to that of non-white was 3:7 (HoFF: HeFf). At 126 days, all F1 generation cocks showed white skin (115/115), while the percentages of hens with black skin were 100% (HoFF, 27/27) and 53.75% (HeFf, 43/80). The change in skin color peaked between 42 and 84 days. The offspring of HoFF displayed significantly higher expres-sion of MC1R, compared with those of HeFf (P < 0.05). The "L" value of hen's skin was significantly lower, and TYRP1 and TYRP2 expres-sion was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in cocks with the same Fm/fm genotype. These findings indicate the presence of homozygous and heterozygous Fm in Dongxiang black chickens, with the offspring of homozygous birds showing a higher percentage of black skin percentage. The expression of the four genes studied was correlated with skin color, with TYRP1 and TYRP2 representing the most suitable molecular markers. PMID:26436396

  12. Effects of housing, perches, genetics, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on keel bone deformities in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Käppeli, S; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E; Pfulg, A; Schäublin, H; Stoffel, M H

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have shown a high prevalence of keel bone deformities in commercial laying hens. The aim of this project was to assess the effects of perch material, a vitamin D feed additive (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3); HyD, DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), and genetics on keel bone pathology. The study consisted of 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 4,000 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were raised in aviary systems until 18 wk of age. Two factors were investigated: perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal) and feed (with and without HyD). Afterward, the hens were moved to a layer house with 8 pens with 2 aviary systems. Daily feed consumption, egg production, mortality, and feather condition were evaluated. Every 6 wk, the keel bones of 10 randomly selected birds per pen were palpated and scored. In the second experiment, 2,000 Lohmann Brown (LB) hens and 2,000 Lohmann Brown parent stock (LBPS) hens were raised in a manner identical to the first experiment. During the laying period, the hens were kept in 24 identical floor pens but equipped with different perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal). The same variables were investigated as in the first experiment. No keel bone deformities were found during the rearing period in either experiment. During the laying period, deformities gradually appeared and reached a prevalence of 35% in the first experiment and 43.8% in the second experiment at the age of 65 and 62 wk, respectively. In the first experiment, neither HyD nor the aviary system had any significant effect on the prevalence of keel bone deformities. In the second experiment, LBPS had significantly fewer moderate and severe deformities than LB, and rubber-coated metal perches were associated with a higher prevalence of keel bone deformities compared with plastic perches. The LBPS laid more but smaller eggs than the LB. Again, HyD did not affect the prevalence of keel bone deformities. However, the significant effect of breed affiliation strongly indicates a sizeable genetic component that may provide a basis for targeted selection. PMID:21753197

  13. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  14. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen storage, TBARS increased continuously, but not to an extent that would prevent its use as food. The sausages from the ISA Warren genotype had marginally higher TBARS levels during storage. Total colony counts decreased with storage time, with slightly lower values found in the non-spiced sausage material from the ISA Warren hens. In conclusion, when intending to use spent hens as food, ISA Warren are clearly superior to Dekalb White in meat and sausage yield. When processing the meat to sausages, the higher shear energy is probably advantageous. PMID:25288104

  15. Ex Vivo Culture of Chick Cerebellar Slices and Spatially Targeted Electroporation of Granule Cell Precursors.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, Michalina; Wingate, Richard J T; Butts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar external granule layer (EGL) is the site of the largest transit amplification in the developing brain, and an excellent model for studying neuronal proliferation and differentiation. In addition, evolutionary modifications of its proliferative capability have been responsible for the dramatic expansion of cerebellar size in the amniotes, making the cerebellum an excellent model for evo-devo studies of the vertebrate brain. The constituent cells of the EGL, cerebellar granule progenitors, also represent a significant cell of origin for medulloblastoma, the most prevalent paediatric neuronal tumour. Following transit amplification, granule precursors migrate radially into the internal granular layer of the cerebellum where they represent the largest neuronal population in the mature mammalian brain. In chick, the peak of EGL proliferation occurs towards the end of the second week of gestation. In order to target genetic modification to this layer at the peak of proliferation, we have developed a method for genetic manipulation through ex vivo electroporation of cerebellum slices from embryonic Day 14 chick embryos. This method recapitulates several important aspects of in vivo granule neuron development and will be useful in generating a thorough understanding of cerebellar granule cell proliferation and differentiation, and thus of cerebellum development, evolution and disease. PMID:26709704

  16. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  17. The Vitamin A Requirements of Hens for Egg Production. 

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M., (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1935-01-01

    August 31, 1934, the duration of the experiment bein: lays. The pens in which the fowls were kept have cement floors to pr lccess to green feed. The hens had an abundance of sunshine so tha !quivalent of vitamin D was well supplied. The hens fed...

  18. Sampling Dirty Data for Matching Attributes Henning Khler

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xiaofang

    Sampling Dirty Data for Matching Attributes Henning Köhler The University of Queensland Brisbane, Australia henning@itee.uq.edu.au Xiaofang Zhou The University of Queensland and NICTA Brisbane, Australia on the same samples. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.1 [Database Management]: Logical Design General

  19. Macroscopic transport equations for rarefied gas flows Henning Struchtrup

    E-print Network

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Macroscopic transport equations for rarefied gas flows Henning Struchtrup University of Victoria, conservation laws, H-theorem, scaling · study a variety of methods to derive laws for ij, qi from Boltzmann -- shock wave structures -- boundary value problems #12;Henning Struchtrup Macroscopic Transport Equations

  20. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  1. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  2. Oxidative stability of silky fowl eggs. Comparison with hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2004-03-10

    Oxidative stability of original silky fowl's eggs was investigated. The silky fowl's whole eggs indicated significant oxidative stability compared to hen's eggs in storage for 14 days. The hen eggs showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides on 6 days of storage at room temperature. In contrast, the silky fowl eggs showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides until 8 days and then a gradual increase. Though pigment extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1) solvent from hen's whole egg turned brown for 14 days, the pigment extracted from silky fowl's whole egg slowly turned brown. Unsaturated fatty acids in silky fowl eggs were 62.5% among total fatty acids, while the unsaturated fatty acids of hen's eggs were 53.9%. It is speculated that the silky fowl eggs show oxidative stability owing to the higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in the silky fowl eggs compared with that of hen eggs. PMID:14995141

  3. Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1932-01-01

    analyzed for lime and Table 1. Percentage of Lime and Phosphoric Acid in Feeds Used in Series 2, 3, and 4.* Feeds CaO p2os Yellow corn meal 0.02 0.71 Dried buttermilk 2.20 2.19 Alfalfa leaf meal 2.36 0.63 Steamed bone meal 33.34 25.65 Oyster Shell 63....) I Ration 6 ( Ration 5 1 Ration 4 1 Ration.1 1 Ration 3 1 Ration 2 Oyster I Shell 2% Bone Meal 3% Percent CeO in ration Percent P205 in raton CaO-P205 Ratio Experiment 1 Mean gain per chick -__....--_-_---. Units of feed per unit of gain...

  4. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  5. Identification of Mammosomatotrophs in the Turkey Hen Pituitary: Increased Abundance during

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Identification of Mammosomatotrophs in the Turkey Hen Pituitary: Increased Abundance during turkey hens is associated with recruitment of lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. In this study we have- mosomatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of egg-laying turkey hens and incubating hens, and 2) verify PRL

  6. The inner perivitelline layer sperm-hole assay: use of filter paper rings for the isolation of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc and new observations on its morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm must penetrate the hen’s ovum (egg yolk) for fertilization. The inner perivitelline layer (IPL) is a fibrous protein mesh surrounding the ovum that the sperm attach to and then digest a hole through at the onset of the fertilization process. This process of sperm attachment and digestion of ...

  7. COLLAGEN METABOLISM IN THE NORMAL AND LATHYRITIC CHICK

    PubMed Central

    Tanzer, Marvin L.; Gross, Jerome

    1964-01-01

    1. Radioisotope incorporation studies of normal and lathyritic chick embryo bone collagen do not demonstrate any interference by lathyrism with collagen synthesis or fibril formation. 2. The results indicate that a portion of the extractable collagen from lathyritic chick embryo bone represents newly synthesized protein. Evidence from a double labeling experiment and from analysis of isotope flow between the extractable and non-extractable pools suggests the extractable lathyritic collagen is heterogeneous. We propose that the lathyritic process affects collagen in all states of aggregation, probably in varying degree. 3. Puromycin, administered intravenously, reduces the amount of extractable collagen in both normal and lathyritic chick embryo bone, and diminishes the incorporation of labeled proline into collagen. 4. Marked fluctuations in incorporation of labeled amino acids into chick embryo bone collagen suggests the occurrence of wide fluctuations in metabolism of this protein. PMID:14164482

  8. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2?=?0.7664, P?=?0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2?=?0.6406, P?=?0.0001) and food intake (R2?=?0.784, P?=?0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  9. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  10. Electroporation in Chick Embryos 1. Culture fertilized chick eggs (Charles River Lab, 1-800-772-3271) on their sides

    E-print Network

    Electroporation in Chick Embryos 1. Culture fertilized chick eggs (Charles River Lab, 1-800-772-3271) on their sides at 38.5°C for 33~38 hours. Mark the orientation (top). 2. Spray and wipe egg surface with 70% EtOH. 3. Make a small hole in the pointed end of eggs with scissors. Remove 3 ml of albumen with 20-gauge

  11. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in front rollaway nests. Dust baths were used more for pecking and scratching than for dust bathing. Comfort behaviour was more frequent in furnished cages than conventional, although still not frequent. Locomotion was strongly affected by number of birds per cage or by space per bird, being reduced by crowding. Most birds perched at night except in one treatment providing only 10.7 cm perch per bird. 7. Behaviour was more unrestricted and varied, and physical condition was better, in furnished than in conventional cages. However, egg production will cost more in furnished cages, partly because more eggs are downgraded. Dust baths must be fitted with gates that the birds cannot open from outside, but gates for nest boxes were found unnecessary. If a low perch is fitted it must be far enough from the back of the cage for birds to walk there. 8. Where there was less space per bird (more birds per cage) than the requirements in the 1999 European Commission Directive on laying hens, there were: fewer eggs per hen, but still above the breeders' target; lower food consumption; more feather and foot damage, but less than in conventional cages; higher mortality in one trial out of three; less freedom of movement. However, the results were still very good even with 8 birds per cage, and support the principle that furnished cages provide an acceptable way of protecting the welfare of laying hens. PMID:12365505

  12. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  13. Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  14. NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals coordinate laminar formation in the developing chick optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuji; Sakuma, Chie; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    The optic tectum comprises multiple layers, which are formed by radial and tangential migration during development. Here, we report that Neuropilin 1 (NRP1)-mediated Sema3A signals are involved in the process of tectal laminar formation, which is elaborated by tangential migration. In the developing chick tectum, NRP1, a receptor for Sema3A, is expressed in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive intermediate layers IV and V. Sema3A itself is a diffusible guidance factor and is expressed in the overlying layer VI. Using stable fluorescent labeling of tectal cells, we show that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are formed by the neurons that have been dispersed by tangential migration along the tectal efferent axons. When Sema3A was mis-expressed during laminar formation, local Sema3A repelled the tangential migrants, thus eliminating MAP2-positive neurons that expressed NRP1. Furthermore, in the absence of the MAP2-positive neurons, tectal layers were disorganized into an undulated form, indicating that MAP2-positive intermediate layers are required for proper laminar formation. These results suggest that NRP1-mediated Sema3A signals provide repulsive signals for MAP2-positive neurons to segregate tectal layers, which is important in order to coordinate laminar organization of the optic tectum. PMID:25183873

  15. Detection of Human and Chick Nuclear Antigens in Nuclei of Chick Erythrocytes during Reactivation in Heterokaryons with HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ringertz, Nils R.; Carlsson, Sten-Anders; Ege, Thorfinn; Bolund, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Inactive nuclei of chick erythrocyte resume RNA synthesis and increase in volume and dry mass in heterokaryons made by virus-induced fusion of human tumor cells (HeLa) with chick erythrocytes. Nuclear growth is due primarily to migration of human macromolecules into the chick nucleus. Human nucleoplasmic antigens were detected in the nucleoplasm and human nucleolar antigens were detected in the nucleoli of reactivated chick erythrocyte nuclei. After some time, chick-specific nucleolar antigens appear in the nucleoli of both the reactivated chick nuclei and the HeLa cellnuclei. The results suggest that human nuclear proteins play an important part in the reactivation of the chick genome. Images PMID:4332018

  16. Growth and muscle protein turnover in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kimiaki; Sunde, Milton L.; Swick, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    The growth rates of young chicks were varied from 0 to 10% per day by manipulation of the adequacy of the amino acid and energy supply. The rates of protein synthesis in the white breast (pectoralis thoracica) muscle and the dark leg (gastrocnemius and peronaeus longus) muscles were estimated by feeding l-[U-14C]tyrosine in amino acid/agar-gel diets (`dietary infusion'). This treatment rapidly and consistently produced an isotopic equilibrium in the expired CO2 and in the free tyrosine of plasma and the muscles. Wholebody protein synthesis in 2-week-old chicks was estimated from the tyrosine flux and was 6.4g/day per 100g body wt. In 1-week-old chicks the rate of protein synthesis was more rapid in the breast muscles than in the leg muscles, but decreased until the rates were similar in 2-week-old birds. Synthesis was also more rapid in fast-growing Rock Cornish broilers than in medium-slow-growing New Hampshire×Single Comb White Leghorn chicks. No or barely significant decrease in the high rates of protein synthesis, in the protein/RNA ratio and in the activity of RNA for protein synthesis occurred in non- or slow-growing chicks fed on diets deficient in lysine, total nitrogen or energy. Thus the machinery of protein synthesis in the young chick seems to be relatively insensitive to dietary manipulation. In the leg muscles, there was a small but significant correlation between the fractional rate of growth and protein synthesis. A decrease in the fractional rate of degradation, however, appeared to account for much of the accumulation of muscle protein in rapidly growing birds. In addition, the rapid accumulation of breast-muscle protein in rapidly growing chicks appeared to be achieved almost entirely by a marked decrease in the fractional rate of degradation. PMID:743259

  17. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O

    1995-12-01

    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application. PMID:8746972

  18. North Fork Hen House Tour June 27, 2015

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    of the tour is to raise awareness of backyard poultry, to celebrate hometown hen houses, and to share enthusiasm for raising chickens, ducks, and poultry. The tour will be self-guided; visitors will be given

  19. The Transfer of Endotoxin Induced Immunity from Hens to Poults

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.; Friars, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Turkey hens were vaccinated six times with Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin prior to and during their egg production cycle. The resultant poults possessed a significant degree of immunity to challenge with S. typhimurium. PMID:4258548

  20. Feature Interaction in Internet Telephony Jonathan Lennox, Henning Schulzrinne

    E-print Network

    Lennox, Jonathan

    Feature Interaction in Internet Telephony Jonathan Lennox, Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University the Session Initiation Protocol [2, 3]. Many of the discussions and observation's also apply to H.323 [4

  1. Using Query Profiles for Clarification Henning Rode and Djoerd Hiemstra

    E-print Network

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Using Query Profiles for Clarification Henning Rode and Djoerd Hiemstra University of Twente, The Netherlands {h.rode, d.hiemstra}@cs.utwente.nl Abstract. The following paper proposes a new kind of relevance

  2. Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the

    E-print Network

    Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have

  3. Motivation to dust-bathe of laying hens housed in cages and in aviaries.

    PubMed

    Colson, S; Arnould, C; Michel, V

    2007-03-01

    New housing systems for commercial egg production, furnished cages and non-cage systems, should improve the welfare of laying hens. In particular, thanks to the presence of a litter area, these new housing systems are thought to satisfy the dust-bathing motivation of hens more than in conventional cages, in which no litter area is present. However, although apparently obvious, there is no concrete evidence that non-cage systems, particularly aviaries, satisfy hens' motivation to dust-bathe and thus improve hens' welfare in terms of dust-bathing behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare hens' dust-bathing motivation when housed for a long time under similar conditions to commercial conditions in laying aviaries (with litter) and in conventional cages (without litter). Three treatments were compared: hens reared in floor pens then housed in conventional cages, hens reared in furnished floor pens then housed in a laying aviary, and hens reared in rearing aviaries then housed in a laying aviary. All three treatments provided access to litter during the rearing period. After transfer to the laying systems, access to litter was maintained for the aviary hens but stopped for the cage hens. Twelve groups of four hens per treatment were tested 36 to 43 weeks after transfer. The hens were placed in sawdust-filled testing arenas, and latency to dust-bathe, duration and number of dust baths, and number of hens dust-bathing were recorded. Latency to dust-bathe was shorter, dust baths were longer and more numerous and more hens dust-bathed among cage hens than among aviary hens. Our results indicate that hens' motivation to dust-bathe was more satisfied in laying aviaries than in conventional cages. Thus, laying aviaries improve hens' welfare in term of dust-bathing behaviour compared with conventional cages. PMID:22444341

  4. Modeling Chick to Assess Diabetes Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Savita P.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

  5. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. )

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  6. Effect of dietary fructose on broiler chick performance.

    PubMed

    Miles, R D; Campbell, D R; Yates, J A; White, C E

    1987-07-01

    The effect of feeding various levels of dietary fructose, furnished by high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), to broiler-type chicks housed in Petersime batteries was studied in two experiments. In experiment 1, HFCS was added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet at levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15%. In Experiment 2, HFCS was added to the diet at levels of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 15%. In both experiments diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In Experiment 1, chicks fed HFCS consumed more feed (P less than or equal to .05) and grew more rapidly (P less than or equal to .05) than chicks fed the control diet. No differences in the feed to gain ratio were observed among treatments. Feeding HFCS resulted in non-significantly higher liver weight and percent liver lipid. Values for kidney weights and plasma uric acid were higher (P less than or equal to .05) in chicks fed 15% HFCS. In Experiment 2, adding 4, 6, and 15% HFCS resulted in more rapid growth (P less than or equal to .05). No significant differences were observed in feed intake and kidney weights. Chicks fed the 15% HFCS diet had heavier (P less than or equal to .05) livers. PMID:3671293

  7. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  8. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  9. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  10. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  11. Sources of Hens Though it's sometimes possible to buy five-month old pullets (young hens) that are ready to

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    or a homemade wooden trough work well as feeders for hens. Whatever type you choose, its design shouldn't allow or four gallon water pail also works well. Purchased or homemade nesting boxes should allow one opening

  12. Analysis of metabolic pools in broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, José Roberto; Campos, Daniel; Macari, Marcos; Pezzato, Antônio Celso; Ducatti, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    This paper shows the possibility of obtaining new parameters for the mathematical modelling of data on stable isotopes in biological systems and its application in obtaining data on metabolic pools of blood plasma, blood serum, liver and muscle of broilers. This theory states that the modelling of turnover used for studies of isotopic incorporation when the metabolism has a single metabolic pool is feasible by the technique of setting an exponential. However, when the metabolism has more than one metabolic pool, it is necessary to apply the linearization technique, linear regression adjustment and evaluation of the assumptions of regression to obtain the kinetic parameters such as half-life (T1/2) and isotope exchange rate (k). The application of this technique on carbon-13 data from 100 one-day-old chicks, with the change of diet composed of grains of the photosynthetic cycle of plants from C4 to C3, in broilers has enabled the discovery that the liver, blood plasma and blood serum have a single metabolic pool; however, the pectoral muscle has two metabolic pools. For the liver, blood plasma and blood serum, the half-life values were found by the exponential fit being T1/2?=?1.4 days with the rate of exchange of k?=?0.502, T1/2?=?2.4 days with k?=?0.293 and T1/2?=?2.0 days with k?=?0.348, respectively. For the pectoral muscle, after linearization, the half-life values were found for T1/2(1)?=?1.7 and T1/2(2)?=?3 days, with exchange rates of k1?=?0.405 and k2?=?0.235, representing approximately 66 and 34?%, respectively. PMID:26382186

  13. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20?kHz, 1.1?mT(rms) or 60?kHz, 0.11?mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20?kHz or 60?kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. PMID:23998264

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic

    E-print Network

    Marinova, Elena

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cicer arietinum (chick pea) in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Bulgaria Cicer arietinum (chick pea), is one of the elements of the Neolithic founder crop assemblage, that chick pea did not appear in the archaeobotanical record during the first stages of the Bulgarian

  15. Corticosterone is not correlated with nest departure in snowy owl chicks (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Romero, L Michael; Holt, Denver W; Maples, Mike; Wingfield, John C

    2006-11-01

    Snowy owl chicks typically depart from nests at approximately 18 days of age, but 3 weeks before taking their first flight. High concentrations of corticosterone have been implicated in behavioral changes in many species, leading us to assess corticosterone's role in chick nest departure. Corticosterone titers in free-living chicks, however, do not predict this departure event. Baseline corticosterone concentrations decrease as chicks age. By 13 days, corticosterone concentrations are 50% of concentrations in 1-day-old chicks. Baseline concentrations, however, do not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Furthermore, corticosterone concentrations become significantly elevated 30min after collecting the baseline sample, indicating that chicks are able to mount a corticosterone response to handling. This stress-induced rise in corticosterone also did not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Brood sizes varied, possibly resulting in increased stress in chicks from larger broods. Although many chicks died before reaching departure age, brood sizes at time of nest departure ranged from 1 to 10 chicks. Brood size was not correlated with age of nest departure or individual corticosterone concentrations. These data indicate that it is unlikely that corticosterone plays a role in triggering nest departure in snowy owl chicks. PMID:16620813

  16. Memantine improves observational learning in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Kimbrough, Tiffany N

    2015-06-01

    Evidence of observational learning (social learning) is present in many species. One such task is the one-trial taste-avoidance task, in which Actor chicks peck a bead coated with an aversant substance. Observer chicks learn to avoid beads that are similar in appearance to the one presented to the Actors. It has been firmly established that active learning of the one-trial taste-avoidance task is dependent on a constrained level of glutamate receptor activation. The current study examined the effects of memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on the learning by Observers. Memantine produced an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent response curve; 1.0?mmol/l memantine produced significant improvement. These results demonstrate that memantine influences memory formation for observational learning in the day-old chick and support the hypothesis that memantine can improve memories by altering levels of glutamate during memory formation. PMID:25738760

  17. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  18. Values of Various Protein Feeds for Growing Chicks

    E-print Network

    Couch, James Russell; Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1940-01-01

    for more than two weeks. Lights were so supplied that the chicks had a fourteen-hour feeding period daily. Feed and tap water were before the chicks at all times. At least three feeds rich in protein were used in each ration. Substi- tution of one... COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] This bulletin contains a report of six experiments which were conducted to learn more about the supplemental value of fish meal, meat and bone scraps, cottonseed meal, soybean...

  19. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  20. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  1. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (ir-LH) cells in the lung and stomach of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, N; Shiino, M; Shimizu, Y; Nogami, H; Ishii, S

    1996-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactivity was detected in the lung and stomach of chick embryos by the immunoperoxidase staining technique using specific antiserum to chicken LH. Immunoreactive LH (ir-LH) cells first appeared in the primordial cells of the epithelial layer of lung bud and foregut as well as of Rathke s pouch in the 3-day-old embryo, Hamburger and Hamilton stage 21. Ir-LH cells increased in number with advancing age of embryos in the lung, stomach, and pituitary gland. In the lung of 7-day-old embryos, stage 31, the ir-LH cells were distributed in the epithelium of primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi, and their shapes were pseudostratified columnar, simple columnar, and simple cuboidal, depending on their sites in the intrapulmonary airway. Ir-LH cells were more numerous in the median part than in the lateral part of the lung, and the population in the epithelial layer of entobronchi of the secondary bronchi was 4 times higher than that in ectobronchi and laterobronchi of the secondary bronchi and in the primary bronchi. The immunoreactive products were found, either in the entire cell or in the apical part, facing the lumina of bronchi. In the stomach, ir-LH cells were found in the epithelial layer of gastric glands. No ir-LH cells were observed in interstitial regions, which consisted of mesenchymal cells and blood vessels, in the lung and stomach tissues. With advancing age, ir-LH cells changed their shapes to flat or squamous, coincident with the formation of parabronchi. Other pituitary hormones were not observed immunohistochemically in either the lung or stomach before hatching. Preabsorption of the antiserum against avian LH with the purified chicken LH or the extract of pituitaries from 10-day-old embryos completely destroyed the immunoreactivity to the cells in the lung and the pituitary. A single band of the immunoreaction products, whose molecular weight was around 25 K daltons, was shown by the immunostaining of nitrocellulose membrane transblotted after sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified pituitary LH, extracts of pituitaries from 10-day-old embryos, and the extracts of lungs from 7-, 10-, and 14-day-old chick embryos. These results demonstrated that ir-LH cells are present in extrapituitary tissues, and may play an important role during the development of chick embryonic lung and stomach. PMID:8581956

  2. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  3. Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on intestinal health and productivity of coccidian-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2012-07-01

    A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 × 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens. PMID:22700503

  4. Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borgå, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (?OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ?OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ?OCs. Plasma ?OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ?OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ?OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ?OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer. PMID:23672486

  5. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  6. Electron Microscopy of Degenerative Changes in the Chick Basilar Papilla

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    regions of complete hair cell loss were composed of expanded supporting cell processes with normal study of the substructural alterations in the chick basilar papilla at the earliest signs of hair cell by conventional transmission electron mi- croscopy. Examination was limited to the basal region, where all hair

  7. Folate deficiency in chicks fed diets containing practical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Rowland, G N; Ryu, K S

    1991-03-01

    Development of folate deficiency was evaluated in young chicks fed diets containing corn and soybean meal as major constituents. Folic acid deficiency, as indicated by retarded growth and feed efficiency, could be produced in 18-day-old chicks. Chicks fed the basal diet had increased growth when given supplements of either folic acid, choline Cl, or DL-methionine, but not vitamin B12. Relative liver size (grams per 100 g of body weight) was reduced by a methionine or methionine plus choline supplement in two experiments but by folic acid in only one of two experiments. Plasma hemoglobin was reduced by folic acid or a methionine and choline supplement after 42 days on the diets. Folic acid deficiency can be produced in young chicks with a diet based on practical ingredients. Purified diets or very high levels of antibiotic feeding are not necessary to produce folic acid deficiency as long as low levels of methionine and choline are present in the basal diet. PMID:2047351

  8. Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks

    E-print Network

    Colwell, Mark

    331 Movements and Fledging Success of Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ) Chicks CAROL A * Corresponding author; E-mail: capepeirce@yahoo.com Abstract.--Movements of adult Snowy Plovers (Charadrius that eventually fledged and those that died. Plovers consistently used the same areas of the beach each year

  9. AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS

    E-print Network

    AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING-NECKED PHEASANT CHICKS By EUGENE E. WOEHLER AND JOHN M. GATES. J, January 1970 Pl'. 228-231 20-W #12;AN IMPROVED METHOD OF SEXING RING·NECKED PHEASANT CHICKSl of Naturol Resources, Modison Abstract: Sex of newly hatched pheasants (Phasianus colchicm) can be easily

  10. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  11. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  12. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  13. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL MEMORY IN OCCLUSION-EXPERIENCED DOMESTIC CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At around day 11 of life, domestic chicks show a tendency to move out of sight of their mother before returning and regaining social and visual contact. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of this voluntary "out-of-sight" behaviour on the development of spatial memory in yo...

  15. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-09-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  16. The Oldest Bird in the Northern Hemisphere Raises a Chick

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Laysan albatross named Wisdom, is at least 60 years old and was spotted in February 2011 raising a chick at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Islands. The bird has sported and worn out 5 bird bands since she was first banded by U.S. Geological Survey scientist Chandler Robbi...

  17. Binding of HenV clusters to ?-Fe grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschopp, M. A.; Gao, F.; Solanki, K. N.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the formation/binding energetics and length scales associated with the interaction between HenV clusters and grain boundaries in bcc ?-Fe. In this work, we calculated formation/binding energies for 1-8 He atoms in a monovacancy at all potential grain boundary (GB) sites within 15 Å of the ten grain boundaries selected (122106 simulations total). The present results provide detailed information about the interaction energies and length scales of 1-8 He atoms with grain boundaries for the structures examined. A number of interesting new findings emerge from the present study. First, the ?3(112) "twin" GB has significantly lower binding energies for all HenV clusters than all other boundaries in this study. For all grain boundary sites, the effect of the local environment surrounding each site on the HenV formation and binding energies decreases with an increasing number of He atoms in the HenV cluster. Based on the calculated dataset, we formulated a model to capture the evolution of the formation and binding energy of HenV clusters as a function of distance from the GB center, utilizing only constants related to the maximum binding energy and the length scale.

  18. The coevolutionary potential of a `generalist' parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    419 The coevolutionary potential of a `generalist' parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae F of each host species. Since the hen flea, Ceratophyllus gallinae, is a rather generalist parasite of birds the literature on the prevalence and intensity of hen flea infestations in bird nests we estimated the number

  19. Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

  20. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  1. Formation of amyloid fibrils from fully reduced hen egg white lysozyme

    E-print Network

    Luhua, Lai

    Formation of amyloid fibrils from fully reduced hen egg white lysozyme AONENG CAO, DAOYING HU hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), which is a good model of random coil structure, has been converted. 2001; Kallberg et al. 2001). Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), an extensively studied small protein

  2. Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

  3. Structureenergy relations in hen egg white lysozyme observed during refolding from a quenched unfolded statew

    E-print Network

    Structure­energy relations in hen egg white lysozyme observed during refolding from a quenched by rapidly quenching thermally unfolded hen egg white lysozyme in a glassy matrix, followed by reheating possible tech- nique to quench fast-folding proteins.9 Hen egg white lysozyme was chosen as the model

  4. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  5. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

  6. Interactions among arsenic, zinc, and taurine in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment was done using day-old cockerel chicks to ascertain whether Zn and taurine (Tau), through changing methionine (Met) or sulfate metabolism, affect signs of As deprivation. The dietary variables were supplements of As, 0 or 2 ..mu..g/g; Zn, 10 or 40 ..mu..g/g; and Tau, 0 or 0.84%. The basal diet contained (per g): 15 ng As, 7 ..mu..g Zn, and 5.65 mg Met. For comparison purposes two additional groups of chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 ..mu..g As, 40 ..mu..G Zn, 0 Tau, and 0.5 Met. After 26 days, Tau supplementation alleviated many perturbations caused by an apparent methionine deficiency. For example, final body wt was increased from 596 g to 741 g. However, Tau was much less effective than Met in inhibiting the elevation in plasma Mo caused by Met lack. An interaction between Tau and Zn affected several indices including liver Zn concentration. Tau decreased the liver Zn concentration when dietary Zn was 40 ..mu..g/g. An interaction between Tau and As affected plasma urea. Supplemental As elevated urea in chicks fed 0 Tau, but depressed urea in chicks fed 0.84% Tau. Kidney arginase tended to follow a similar trend. The findings show that Tau can fulfill some of the Met requirements of chicks and that Tau interacts with Zn and As. Some findings also support the hypothesis that As has a physiological role that affects arginine and Met metabolism.

  7. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    PubMed

    Bubel, F; Dobrza?ski, Z; Gawe?, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l). PMID:25928920

  8. The Dog, Hen and Corn...and post-completion errors Paul Curzon, Middlesex University, Interaction Design Centre

    E-print Network

    Curzon, Paul

    The Dog, Hen and Corn...and post-completion errors Paul Curzon, Middlesex University, Interaction the ravine and continues into the village. On the occasion in question she buys a new hen and a sack of corn. If she leaves the hen and the corn alone on either side, the hen will eat the corn. Similarly if she

  9. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  10. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium, and high illuminance groups did not differ from the concentrations measured at 8 AM. On day 90, low DOPAC concentrations were associated with emmetropia (+0.63 ± 3.61), steep cornea, and shallow vitreous chamber. We concluded that ambient light over a log illuminance range of 1.69-4 is linearly related to vitreal DOPAC concentration. Under both light-dark cycles and continuous light, the intensity of ambient light regulates the release of retinal dopamine. Refractive development is associated with illuminance dependent dopamine release. PMID:22960317

  11. Electrical tuning in hair cells isolated from the chick cochlea.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P A; Nagai, T; Evans, M G

    1988-07-01

    Tall (inner) hair cells were isolated from specific locations in the chick cochlea. The electrical membrane properties of these cells were recorded using the tight-seal whole-cell technique. Depolarizing current steps elicited damped voltage oscillations that ranged in frequency from 100 to 250 Hz among cells from the middle third of the cochlea (basal cells). The current-voltage relation obtained under voltage clamp was dominated by calcium-activated potassium current in the voltage range over which these oscillations occurred. Tall hair cells isolated from the apical tip of the cochlea (apical cells) exhibited action potentials and lower frequency voltage oscillations (5-14 Hz) during depolarizing current steps. Outward currents in these cells were 20-fold slower than those found in the basal cells. These results suggest that electrical tuning of hair cells may play a role in determining the frequency selectivity of the chick cochlea. PMID:3249237

  12. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  13. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  14. hen we fall sick, we take a medicine that (hope-

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    I/O VIVAT 28.1 //2 W hen we fall sick, we take a medicine that (hope- fully) makes us improve and feel better soon. But how does this medicine actually work `under the hood'? Why do we need exactly that amount of exactly those substances to get better? And what do computers have to do with this

  15. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  16. Infinite matroids in graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Reinhard

    Infinite matroids in graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Abstract It has recently been shown that infinite matroids can be axiomatized in a way that is very similar to finite matroids and permits duality. This was previously thought impossible, since finitary infinite matroids must have non-finitary duals. In this paper

  17. Duality in infinite graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Reinhard

    Duality in infinite graphs Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Abstract The adaption of combinatorial duality to infinite graphs has been ham- pered by the fact that while cuts (or cocycles) can be infinite together with its ends and can be infinite. Our approach enables us to complete Thomassen's results about

  18. Axioms for infinite matroids Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Matthias Kriesell

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Reinhard

    Axioms for infinite matroids Henning Bruhn Reinhard Diestel Matthias Kriesell Rudi Pendavingh Paul Wollan Abstract We give axiomatic foundations for infinite matroids with duality, in terms of independent the solution to a problem of Rado of 1966. Introduction Traditionally, infinite matroids are most often defined

  19. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  20. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  1. Effects of flaxseed lignans on laying hen reproductive parameters 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Abigail Koehler

    1997-01-01

    Flaxseed, rich in the essential omega-3 fatty acid (FA) linolenic acid (LNA; C18:3n-3), can be included in laying hen rations for the production of omega-3 FAenriched shell eggs. In addition to being a rich source of LNA, flaxseed is also the most...

  2. Henning Rodhe's scientific publications ~ 130 publications in refereed journals

    E-print Network

    Nilsson, Johan

    1 Henning Rodhe's scientific publications ~ 130 publications in refereed journals Editor and author of 5 books Rodhe, H. 1968. A simple nonlinear model of the zonally averaged circulation in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Report, Institute of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, 48 pp. Rodhe, H. 1970

  3. Twisted Verma modules and their quantized analogues Henning Haahr Andersen

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Henning Haahr

    Twisted Verma modules and their quantized analogues Henning Haahr Andersen 1. Introduction In [AL for some very helpful comments. 2. The classical case 2.1. Let h denote a Cartan subalgebra of g and choose a set R + of positive roots in the root system R attached to (g; h): Then we have the usual triangular

  4. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  5. Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A. M.; Joshi, C. G.; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3 mg/kg, 28.4 mg/kg and 42.6 mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180 bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species.

  6. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  7. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  8. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  9. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  10. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  11. Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, J.; Suryan, R.M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

  12. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

  13. J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):1220, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    12 J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):12­20, 2005 Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks Brian L. Spears,1 determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from, survival, telemetry, turkey Increasing population recruitment through reproductive success is often key

  14. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  15. Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) Chick Diet at Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    E-print Network

    Emslie, Steve

    395 Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) Chick Diet at Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, was in- vestigated in 2003 and 2004. Primary objectives were the diet of Royal Tern chicks at Fisher- man Island National Wildlife Refuge, Virgin- ia, over two breeding

  16. Effects of Low Phytic Acid Barley on Zinc Utilization in Young Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21 day experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of low phytic acid barley (LPB) on Zn utilization by young broiler chicks, and to determine the contribution of endogenous phytase, present in LPB. In the first experiment, 96 d-old male chicks were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangeme...

  17. Routes for Campylobacter coli colonization of the intestinal track of chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly hatched chick may be exposed to significant levels of Campylobacter from various sources in the hatchery and grow-out environments. Once the Campylobacter reach the ceca of the young chick they are able to multiply to high levels in a relatively short time period. This creates a situatio...

  18. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase zeta/beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    chick spinal cord. RPTPZ/b was expressed throughout the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing spinal a single ,9 kbp RPTPZ/b transcript expressed in the embryonic chick spinal cord, indicating that the shorter alternative-splice products of RPTPZ/b found in rodent spinal cord and brain

  19. Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks.

    PubMed

    Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W

    2010-07-01

    Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. PMID:20223237

  20. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  1. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  2. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  3. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  4. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17 Animals...examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described...flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks,...

  5. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  6. Oncogenic Lmo3 cooperates with Hen2 to induce hydrocephalus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Isogai, Eriko; Okumura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Megumi; Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Tando, So; Ohira, Miki; Haraguchi, Seiki; Nakagawara, Akira; Fushiki, Shinji; Nagase, Hiroki; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that LMO3 and HEN2 act as oncogenes in neuroblastoma development through up-regulating MASH1 transcription by interfering with HES1. To confirm these results in vivo, we generated transgenic mice of these genes. Lmo3 or Hen2 was expressed under the control of Wnt1 promoter, which is expressed in the central nervous system and neural crest of the sympathoadrenal lineage from which neuroblastoma develops. Heterozygous Lmo3 and Hen2 transgenic mice (Tg (Lmo3) and Tg (Hen2)) developed hydrocephalus at higher frequency than for the wild type mice, and all heterozygous double-transgenic mice (Tg (Lmo3; Hen2)) developed hydrocephalus. Therefore, Lmo3 and Hen2 may be involved in and have synergistic effects on hydrocephalus development. Although aqueduct stenosis occurred in all genotypes, it was mild in Tg (Lmo3; Hen2) mice. Furthermore, hydrocephalus was detected at E18.5 in Tg (Lmo3; Hen2). These results suggest that the causes of hydrocephalus are not only aqueduct stenosis but also disorder of neocortical development. A similar phenotype was reported in Robo1/2?/? mice, in which Hes1 expression level was decreased in ventricular zone progenitors. Thus, it is suggested that the expression levels of Lmo3 and/or Hen2 could determine the fate of stem cells by inhibiting Hes1 function during nervous system development and might be a trigger of aberrant neurogenesis in vivo. PMID:26156403

  7. Recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from hens initially infected with serovar Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Guard, Jean; Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Shah, Devendra H; Rothrock, Michael J; Gast, Richard K; Jones, Deana R

    2015-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Kentucky differ greatly in epidemiology. We wanted to know if the non-pathogenic serotype Kentucky impacted the recovery of the pathogen Enteritidis from chickens. To explore this issue, 4 groups of hens were treated as follows: (i) hens were inoculated orally with Kentucky and injected intramuscularly 2 weeks later with Enteritidis, (ii) hens were contact infected with Kentucky and then with Enteritidis, (iii) hens were injected with Enteritidis only, and (iv) hens were contact infected with Enteritidis only. Hens exposed orally to serotype Kentucky received 10 exp9 CFU, and hens injected with serotype Enteritidis received 10 exp7 CFU intramuscularly. Contact infected hens were kept in rooms with deliberately infected hens. Droppings, cecal tonsils and 5 internal organs were sampled and cultured at 6, 13 and 20 days post-infection from the 4 groups. Egg production was monitored. Results suggest that non-pathogenic serotypes of Salmonella may mitigate recovery of Enteritidis from chickens exposed by contact. In summary, we show results from an initial experiment intended to investigate if multiple serotypes impact the ecology of pathogenic S. enterica on-farm. PMID:26190605

  8. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

  9. HEN1 encodes a 20-kilodalton phosphoprotein that binds an extended E-box motif as a homodimer.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L; Baer, R

    1994-01-01

    HEN1 and HEN2 encode neuron-specific polypeptides that contain the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif, a protein dimerization and DNA-binding domain common to several known transcription factors. We now describe characteristics of the HEN1 gene product that are consistent with its postulated role as a transcription factor that functions during development of the mammalian nervous system. Thus, transcription of the HEN1 gene is activated upon the induction of neural differentiation in PC12 cells by nerve growth factor. HEN1 encodes a 20-kDa polypeptide (pp20HEN1) that is phosphorylated exclusively at serine residues and forms dimeric bHLH complexes either by self-association or by heterologous interaction with the E2A gene products (E12 or E47). The resultant HEN1/HEN1 homodimers and HEN1/E2A heterodimers bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Moreover, a binding site selection procedure revealed that HEN1-HEN1 homodimers preferentially recognize E-box motifs represented by an 18-bp consensus sequence (GGGNCG CAGCTGCGNCCC). The E-box half-site recognized by HEN1 polypeptides (GGGNCGCAG) is distinct from those of other known bHLH proteins, suggesting that HEN1 binds, an regulates the transcription of, a unique subset of target genes during neural development. Images PMID:8289804

  10. Prof. Dr. Stefan Brass 07. Juni 2011 Dr. Henning Thielemann

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    Prof. Dr. Stefan Brass 07. Juni 2011 Dr. Henning Thielemann Institut f¨ur Informatik Universit Homeverzeichnis und f¨ur dieses Verzeichnis m¨ussen Sie aller Welt das Recht geben, dadurch zu wechseln (d.h. auf sein: cd public_html chmod a+r h3.html · Wenn Ihr Benutzername "xyz" ist, w¨are diese Datei unter

  11. Congenital skeletal abnormalities in a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco).

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Andrés; de Trocóniz, Patricia Fdez; Vila, Mónica; López-Beceiro, Ana M; Pereira, José L

    2003-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a tawny owl chick (Strix aluco) coming from a Wild Fauna Recovery Center with multiple congenital malformations in the limbs. The animal was unable to fly and showed marked malnutrition and poor general appearance. Physical, radiologic, and anatomic examinations showed osseous malformations including dislocation of radius and carpometacarpus with abnormal nonfunctional fixation of ligamentum propatagialis, absence of most parts of the bones of the manus in both wings, and twisted nonfused left tarsometatarsus with marked griphosis of digits. Routine toxicologic and pathologic examinations did not reveal a specific etiology. PMID:14562912

  12. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  13. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  14. Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-?-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver. PMID:22069604

  15. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  16. Effect of incubating egg exposure to magnetic field on the biophysical blood properties of newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ghannam Magdy; Mohamed, Shafey Tarek; Abd-Alaah, Aly Amany; Kassem, Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar; Suliman, Al-Ayed Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Due to widespread of human exposure to electromagnetic fields, there has been increasing public concern about the potential health risks from low-frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF-EMF. The magnetic fields (MFs) affects functions of the living organisms, such as DNA synthesis and ion transportation through the cell membranes. In the present work, the effects of short-term exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) prior to incubation were investigated on the biophysical blood properties of chicks hatched from layer-type breeder eggs. The eggs were exposed to a MF of 0.75 mT at 50 Hz for 20, 40 and 60 min before incubation. This study was performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules and the membrane solubility of red blood cells (RBCs) using the non-ionic detergent octylglucoside. Exposure of the eggs to a MF increased the conductivity of the Hb molecules. The pronounced increase in the conductivity of the exposed eggs might be attributed to an increase in the surface charge of the Hb macromolecules, resulted from the formation of highly active molecular species. This speculation can be supported by the increase in the relaxation time of the exposed groups. The solubilization process of the RBC membrane indicates a loss in the mobility of RBCs in the blood of hatching chicks. PMID:26525029

  17. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  18. Foregut endoderm is required at head process stages for anteriormost neural patterning in chick.

    PubMed

    Withington, S; Beddington, R; Cooke, J

    2001-02-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm, the future pharynx and foregut lining, emerges from the anterior primitive streak and Hensen's node as a cell monolayer that replaces hypoblast during chick gastrulation. At early head process stages (4+ to 6; Hamburger and Hamilton) it lies beneath, lateral to and ahead of the ingressed axial mesoderm. Removal of the monolayer beneath and ahead of the node at stage 4 is followed by normal development, the removed cells being replaced by further ingressing cells from the node. However, similar removal during stages 4+ and 5 results in a permanent window denuded of definitive endoderm, beneath prechordal mesoderm and a variable sector of anterior notochord. The foregut tunnel then fails to form, heart development is confined to separated lateral regions, and the neural tube undergoes no ventral flexures at the normal positions in brain structure. Reduction in forebrain pattern is evident by the 12-somite stage, with most neuraxes lacking telencephalon and eyes, while forebrain expressions of the transcription factor genes GANF and BF1, and of FGF8, are absent or severely reduced. When the foregut endoderm removal is delayed until stage 6, later forebrain pattern appears once again complete, despite lack of foregut formation, of ventral flexure and of heart migration. Important gene expressions within axial mesoderm (chordin, Shh and BMP7) appear unaffected in all embryos, including those due to be pattern-deleted, during the hours following the operation when anterior brain pattern is believed to be determined. A specific system of neural anterior patterning signals, rather than an anterior sector of the initially neurally induced area, is lost following operation. Heterotopic lower layer replacement operations strongly suggest that these patterning signals are positionally specific to anteriormost presumptive foregut. The homeobox gene Hex and the chick Frizbee homologue Crescent are both expressed prominently within anterior definitive endoderm at the time when removal of this tissue results in forebrain defects, and the possible implications of this are discussed. The experiments also demonstrate how stomodeal ectoderm, the tissue that will, much later, form Rathke's pouch and the anterior pituitary, is independently specified by anteriormost lower layer signals at an early stage. PMID:11152630

  19. Glutamine metabolism in chick enterocytes: absence of pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase and citrulline synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Flynn, N E; Yan, W; Barstow, D G

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P-5-C) synthase is deficient in chick enterocytes therefore resulting in the lack of synthesis of ornithine and citrulline from glutamine. Post-weaning pig enterocytes, which are known to contain P-5-C synthase and to synthesize both ornithine and citrulline from glutamine, were used as positive controls. Enterocytes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 0-30 min in the presence of 2 mM [U-14C]glutamine or 2 mM ornithine plus 2 mM NH4Cl. In chick enterocytes, glutamine was metabolized to NH3, CO2, glutamate, alanine and aspartate, but not to ornithine, citrulline, arginine or proline. Likewise, there was no formation of citrulline, arginine, alanine or aspartate from ornithine in chick enterocytes. Furthermore, the rate of conversion of ornithine into proline in chick enterocytes was only about 4% of that in cells from pigs. To elucidate the reason for the inability of chick enterocytes to synthesize ornithine and citrulline from glutamine, the activities of the enzymes involved were measured. No activity of P-5-C synthase or ornithine carbamoyltransferase was found in chick enterocytes, in contrast with cells from post-weaning pigs. It was also demonstrated that the activity of ornithine aminotransferase in chick enterocytes was only 3% of that in cells from pigs. Thus the present findings elucidate the biochemical reason for the lack of endogenous synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in chicks. Our results also explain previous observations that ornithine cannot replace arginine or proline in the diet of chicks. We suggest that the absence of P-5-C synthase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase in enterocytes is the metabolic basis for the nutritional requirement of arginine in the chick. PMID:7702565

  20. Physiological and fitness correlates of experimentally altered hatching asynchrony magnitude in chicks of a wild seabird.

    PubMed

    Merkling, Thomas; Chastel, Olivier; Blanchard, Pierrick; Trouvé, Colette; Hatch, Scott A; Danchin, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    Nest-bound chicks depend entirely on their parents for food, often leading to high sibling competition. Asynchronous hatching, resulting from the onset of incubation before clutch completion, facilitates the establishment of within-nest hierarchy, with younger chicks being subject to lower feeding and growth rates. Because social and nutritional stresses affect baseline stress hormone levels in birds, younger chicks are expected to have higher levels of corticosterone than their siblings. As previous studies showed that hatching asynchrony magnitude influences the course of sibling competition, it should also affect baseline corticosterone. We measured baseline corticosterone at age 5 days in nestling black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in 3 types of experimental broods: synchronous, asynchronous, and highly asynchronous. Sexual dimorphism takes place during chick-rearing and might also influence baseline corticosterone, we thus included chick sex in our analyses and also monitored chick growth and survival. Baseline corticosterone did not differ among A-chicks, but was higher in B-chicks from highly asynchronous broods compared with the other brood types, in line with the presumed increase in nutritional stress. In asynchronous broods, A-chicks had higher baseline corticosterone than their siblings, contrary to our expectations. We interpret that result as a cost of dominance among A-chicks. In line with previous studies, mass gain was negatively correlated with baseline corticosterone levels. We found that baseline corticosterone predicted survival in a sex-specific way. Regardless of hatching rank, males with higher baseline corticosterone suffered higher mortality, suggesting that males were more sensitive to high level of stress, independently of its cause. PMID:24380674

  1. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells. PMID:24570429

  2. Biological modification of rabies virus as a result of its adaptation to chicks and developing chick embryos

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Hilary

    1954-01-01

    This article describes experiments indicating a change in pathogenicity for laboratory animals of the Flury strain of rabies virus at high egg passages. Factors such as dilution of virus, number of egg passages, age of animals, and route of inoculation are taken into account. The results of the author's investigations indicate that living chick-embryo-adapted virus can be used both as a vaccine administered before exposure to rabies virus, and as an adjunct to antiserum in the protective treatment of animals after exposure. PMID:13182592

  3. Chick embryo pancreatic transplants reverse experimental diabetes of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Eloy, R; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M; Grenier, J F

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of xenogeneic embryonic tissue in the treatment of experimental diabetes has been investigated in rats. The splenic lobes (80) of 15- to 18-d-old chick embryos, composed almost exclusively of endocrine tissue, were implanted directly into the hepatic parenchyma of the rat recipient. The biochemical and metabolic changes in the recipients suggest that embryonic transplants of 15-d-old chick pancreases were able to significantly improve, for a prolonged period of time (18 mo), the diabetic state of nonimmunosuppressed rats. None of the recipients of 18-d-old embryos splenic lobes exhibited a long-term improvement of the diabetic state after transplantation. The complete destruction of the pancreatic B cells of the recipients was assessed by: (a) immunocytochemical investigations of the recipient's pancreas, (b) measurement of insulin in the liver and pancreas of the recipients and (c) in situ vascular perfusion of their pancreas submitted to high glucose challenge. The results suggest that pancreatic tissue of the 15-d-old embryos is immunologically immature lacking one or several lymphocyte subsets implicated in the afferent lood of "non-self" recognition. Images PMID:156734

  4. AFFERENT REGULATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE CHICK COCHLEAR NUCLEUS

    PubMed Central

    NICHOLAS, A. H.; HYSON, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The chick auditory brain stem has been a useful model system for examining the afferent-dependent signals that regulate postsynaptic neurons. Like other sensory systems, compromised afferent input results in rapid death and atrophy of postsynaptic neurons. The present paper explores the possible contributions of an oxidative stress pathway in determining neuronal fate following deafferentation. Levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid damage measured by 4-hydroxynonenal formation, and a compensatory reactive oxygen species-induced response regulated by glutathione s transferase M1 and the reactive oxygen species-sensitive transcriptional factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 were examined. Unilateral cochlea removal surgery was performed on young posthatch chicks. Labeling in the cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis, on opposite sides of the same tissue sections were compared by densitometry. The results showed a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species in the deafferented nucleus magnocellularis by 6 h following cochlea removal. This increase in reactive oxygen species was accompanied by lipid damage and a compensatory upregulation of both glutathione s transferase M1 and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Double-labeling revealed that glutathione s transferase M1 expression was highest in neurons that were likely to survive deafferentation, as assessed immunocytochemically with Y10b, a marker for ribosomal integrity. Together, these data suggest reactive oxygen species are generated and a compensatory detoxifying pathway is upregulated in the first few hours following deafferentation. This is consistent with the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in determining whether a given neuron survives following deafferentation. PMID:16650604

  5. Dexamethasone Exposure Accelerates Endochondral Ossification of Chick Embryos Via Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Yan, Yu; Chen, Jian-Long; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Yang, Ren-Hao; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Ka Ho Lee, Kenneth; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is widely used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases in the clinic. Increasingly, there is more attention being paid to the side effect of Dex. In this study, we investigated the involvement and mechanism of Dex exposure in accelerating mineralization during long bone formation. We first determined that Dex exposure could accelerate long bone mineralization in vivo, but there was no apparent difference between control and Dex-treated in the phalanges model in vitro. Next, we established that Dex exposure promoted angiogenesis in the chick yolk sac membrane model. In addition, it increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration in culture. We found that Dex could enhance angiogenesis when phalanges were cultured on chick chorioallantoic membrane and correspondingly increased the expression of angiogenesis-related genes in the phalanges. Furthermore, we also revealed that Dex exposure reduced the number of osteoblasts and simultaneously increased the number of osteocytes in ex vivo-cultured phalanges. Runx-2 and Col10?1 expressions were up-regulated by Dex exposure, indicating that Dex exposure accelerated the terminal differentiation of osteoblasts. Lastly, we demonstrated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the presence of Dex accelerated their mineralization. In summary, we have shown that the ability of Dex to initiate angiogenesis is the mechanism that allows it to accelerate mineralization during long bone formation. PMID:26468166

  6. USE OF A LIVE ATTENUATED SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM VACCINE TO PROTECT HENS AGAINST S. ENTERITIDIS INFECTION WHILE UNDERGOING MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies demonstrated that Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal were more severe than in full fed hens. Two trials were conducted to determine whether immunizing hens with Megan®Vac1, a commercially-available attenuated S. typhimurium vaccine, w...

  7. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior. PMID:25930217

  8. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  9. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  10. OIKOS 102: 6774, 2003 Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    OIKOS 102: 67­74, 2003 Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea reproduction Mirjam. G. and Richner, H. 2003. Induced responses of nestling great tits reduce hen flea reproduction flea (Ceratophyllus gallinae). In the laboratory we measured the number of eggs and larvae produced

  11. Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

    2014-11-01

    Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

  12. Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

  13. www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE to your major or an area of possible career interest. Nearly a thousand internship opportunities are listed in Blue Hen Careers. Internship directories that list national and international internships

  14. www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE about careers in a particular field/industry/employer and to identify potential opportunities. 80, coaches UD Alumni Relevant online groups (such as the Blue Hen Career Network on LinkedIn) Where & how

  15. RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM SEGMENTS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF BROILER BREEDER HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of 60+ week old broiler breeder hens were assessed for the presence of Campylobacter within segments of their reproductive tracts. In the first group, after processing through defeathering, the reproductive tracts were aseptically excised from eighteen hens, six from each of three adjac...

  16. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models Hyoung-joo Lee1, and 2 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK Feather pecking in laying hens of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking

  17. HABITAT SELECTION AND USE BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001

    E-print Network

    HABITAT SELECTION AND USE BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001 BY Rebecca D BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001 This thesis is approved as a creditable. Schilowsky 2007 Habitat selection and use by breeding female ring- necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

  18. Corticosterone metabolites in laying hen droppings-Effects of fiber enrichment, genotype, and daily variations.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Holm, L; Tauson, R; Wall, H

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest and concern for animal welfare in commercial poultry production. To evaluate stress and welfare in an objective and noninvasive way, fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in droppings can be analyzed. However, the influence of diet, genotype, and daily variations in FCM and production of droppings in laying hens has been poorly investigated. This study examined the effect of insoluble fiber by adding 3% ground straw pellets to the feed to Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in furnished cages between 20 and 40 wk of age. In total, 960 hens were included in the study. Droppings were collected 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days and analyzed by corticosterone immunoassay. Biological validation confirmed the ability of the assay to detect changes in FCM levels. Inclusion of straw pellets in the feed increased FCM concentration in both hen genotypes and increased excretion rate of FCM in LB hens. The LB hens also produced greater amounts of droppings than LSL hens. Both FCM levels and production of droppings varied during the day, although no distinct diurnal rhythm was found. These findings demonstrate that when using FCM to evaluate stress and welfare in laying hens, many factors (e.g., diet, genotype used, and so on) need to be taken into account to allow accurate interpretation of the results. In addition, under certain conditions, excretion rate of FCM might be more appropriate to use compared with FCM concentration. PMID:25125557

  19. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  20. Evaluation of Yeast Cell Wall on Early Production Laying Hen Performance 

    E-print Network

    Hashim, Mohammed Malik Hashim 1981-

    2012-11-08

    he influence of two levels of yeast cell wall on phase one laying hen performance was investigated in this study. A total of 75 Lohmann W-36 replacement pullets, 17-weeks-old, were distributed among 75 laying hen cages (1 bird per pen). A total of 3...

  1. Regularized 13 moment equations for hard sphere molecules: Linear bulk Henning Struchtrup and Manuel Torrilhon

    E-print Network

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Regularized 13 moment equations for hard sphere molecules: Linear bulk equations Henning Struchtrup moment equations for hard sphere molecules: Linear bulk equations Henning Struchtrup1,a) and Manuel Grad-type moment system, which is systematically reduced by means of the Order of Magnitude Method [H

  2. Kinetic model and moment method for polyatomic gases Behnam Rahimi and Henning Struchtrup

    E-print Network

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Kinetic model and moment method for polyatomic gases Behnam Rahimi and Henning Struchtrup Citation for Polyatomic Gases Behnam Rahimi and Henning Struchtrup Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, the model has a non-linear H-theorem. The model is used to construct a system of 36 moment equations, which

  3. The Dietary Effects of Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Oh, S. T.; Jeon, J. Y.; Moon, B. H.; Kwon, H. S.; Lim, S. U.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108), 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05), although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001) and Haugh unit (p<0.01) improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05). The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001) and quadratic (p<0.01) response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora. PMID:25049560

  4. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klenova, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick’s nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick’s state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  5. The effect of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic maize and different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus on the performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Tang, C H; Zhang, J M; Wang, X Q

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with phytase transgenic corn (maize) (PTC) which has a phytase activity of 21 000 units (U) phytase per kg of maize on productive performance, egg quality, tibia bone quality and phosphorus (P) excretion in laying hens. 2. In the experiment, 1800 44-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 60 hens per replicate. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The layers in the control group (control) were given a basal diet with 0.36% non-phytate P (NPP), while the treatment groups received diets containing 360 U of exogenous phytase/kg with 0.26% NPP (EP) or 360 phytase U of PTC/kg diet with 0.26% (PTC1), 0.21% (PTC2) or 0.16% (PTC3) NPP. 3. The results showed that there was no significant difference in egg production, average daily feed intake, feed efficiency, rate of broken or soft-shell egg production or egg mass among the treatments. There was no significant difference in eggshell thickness or eggshell strength. On the other hand, no differences in any of the bone variables were found between treatments. The faecal P percentage content in EP, PTC1, PTC2 and PTC3 groups was significantly lower than the control group. 4. In summary, the PTC could be used in the feed of laying hens instead of EP to reduce P excretion without effecting production and bone mineralisation. PMID:23815753

  6. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient content. PMID:26286995

  7. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  8. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  9. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline. PMID:22458512

  10. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  11. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

  12. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  13. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  14. A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo

    PubMed Central

    Borges, R.M.; Horne, J.H.; Melo, A.; Vidal, J.T.; Vieceli, F.M.; Melo, M.O.; Kanno, T.Y.N.; Fraser, S.E.; Yan, C.Y.I.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation. PMID:24068190

  15. Female Roseate Tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that biparental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  16. Female roseate tern fledges a chick following the death of her mate during the incubation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Zingo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the death of her mate during the incubation period and a shortage (or lack of availability) of food in nearby waters, a female Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) nesting at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge in Connecticut was able to raise a chick to fledging in 1995 without human assistance. The growth and development of this chick was slower than that of other single chicks in the colony; it never weighed more than 90 g and did not fledge until 32 days of age. Despite this exceptional female's ability to rear a chick on her own, this observation supports the idea that bi-parental care is important in Roseate Terns, particularly during years of food shortage.

  17. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  18. Competitive adsorption from mixed hen egg-white lysozyme/surfactant solutions at the air-water interface studied by tensiometry, ellipsometry, and surface dilational rheology.

    PubMed

    Alahverdjieva, V S; Grigoriev, D O; Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R; Möhwald, H

    2008-02-21

    The competitive adsorption at the air-water interface from mixed adsorption layers of hen egg-white lysozyme with a non-ionic surfactant (C10DMPO) was studied and compared to the mixture with an ionic surfactant (SDS) using bubble and drop shape analysis tensiometry, ellipsometry, and surface dilational rheology. The set of equilibrium and kinetic data of the mixed solutions is described by a thermodynamic model developed recently. The theoretical description of the mixed system is based on the model parameters for the individual components. PMID:18225877

  19. Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. )

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

  20. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  1. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4??g/2??L) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033

  2. Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

  3. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  4. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Eichhorst, Bruce A; Warburton, David

    2007-07-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. PMID:17464443

  5. Changes in the Differential Leukocyte Count of Chicks Inoculated with Salmonella1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E. L.; Stephens, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of Salmonella anatum and S. heidelberg infections on the differential leukocyte counts of baby chickens. Newly hatched broiler-type chicks were inoculated in the yolk sac with suspensions of either S. anatum or S. heidelberg. At 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after inoculation, blood was taken by heart puncture from chicks of both inoculated groups and from a group of uninoculated chicks. The averages of the leukocyte counts of three or four chicks from each group were used as the blood values for specific time intervals. The six classes of leukocytes counted were lymphocytes, monocytes, juveniles, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The leukocytes classified as juveniles were immature or degenerate heterophils and were found almost exclusively in the infected chicks. Changes in heterophil, juvenile, and lymphocyte counts were affected by both the number of cells in the inoculum (300 versus 3 million cells of S. anatum) and species (S. anatum and S. heidelberg). Infection with either Salmonella species resulted in the development of a severe heterophilic leukopenia, and a significant increase in the percentage of both juveniles and lymphocytes by 48 hr postinoculation. Mortality rate was higher in groups of chicks inoculated with S. heidelberg than in groups given S. anatum. PMID:5422304

  6. Body condition, hormonal correlates and consequences for survival in common tern chicks.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Alexander; Palme, Rupert; Hoppen, Hans-Otto; Becker, Peter H

    2011-10-01

    Although sibling competition in avian species has been extensively studied, the proximate mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recent research proposed that steroid hormones, in particular testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), might play a role either in promoting competitive behavioral displays or in response to chronic nutritional stress accompanied by a sustained competitive situation. Here, we examine body condition, endogenous T levels and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) as non-invasive measures of CORT in sibling broods of wild common tern chicks (Sterna hirundo) during three post-natal developmental stages. In this species, distinct within-brood size asymmetries are imposed by an asynchronous hatching interval, and sexes show slightly different growth patterns. First-hatched (a-)chicks were in better condition than their later-hatched sibling (b-chick). FGM levels inversely covaried with condition and were elevated at the end of pre-fledging development. T levels of a- and b-chicks changed with age, although the direction of the changes differed, with b-chicks eventually having higher levels than their older siblings. Survival to fledging was not associated with FGM but with T levels, which tended to be higher in surviving chicks. Our results are discussed with regard to how plasticity in steroid hormones could be involved in mediating sibling competition in common terns. PMID:21735224

  7. Effects of Mycotoxin Contaminated Diets on Immunosuppression or Interference with Other Physiological Parameters in Commercial-Strain Laying Chicks, Pullets or Hens 

    E-print Network

    Iselt, Stephanie Mae

    2013-04-08

    The principal objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of mycotoxin contaminated diets (deoxynivalenol (DON)), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and fumonisin (FUM)), with or without the use of a commercially available deactivating compound...

  8. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10.2 vs. 9.9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding of fermented feed increased intestinal health by acidification of the upper digestive tract, forming a natural barrier towards infection with acid sensitive pathogens, e.g. E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. 8. It was concluded that fermented wet feed offers potential benefits for health and nutrition, but may become suitable for layers only after the practical problems related to this feeding form have been overcome. However, an early adaptation of the birds during the rearing period seems to be necessary. PMID:19373724

  9. Unexpected pattern of antibody response of hens following infectious bursal disease virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Dawe, D L; Resurreccion, R S; Dickson, T G

    1990-11-01

    The antibody titers to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of a group of hens were determined every 2 weeks during the laying period using a kinetic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When the titers of the flock were regressed against time, the flock titer decayed with statistically significant linearity. However, when the antibody titers of individual hens were measured, their titers regressed on time in a significant quartic curvilinear fashion. Since these hens were not reimmunized, this suggests that a anamnestic response was stimulated from an unknown external source. PMID:2176015

  10. De novo lipogenesis and lipolysis activities in normal (Dw) and dwarf (dw) White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Burghelle-Mayeur, C; Tixier-Boichard, M; Merat, P; Demarne, Y

    1989-01-01

    1. In vitro activities of glucose oxidation, de novo lipogenesis and lipolysis were compared in normal (Dw) and dwarf (dw) laying hens. 2. Dwarfism reduced the hepatic glucose oxidation while de novo lipogenesis was not altered. As liver weight was depressed, total liver lipogenesis capacity was probably reduced by dwarfism. 3. As compared to normal hens, de novo lipogenesis and basal or stimulated lipolysis were lower in dwarf adipose tissue while its lipid content was enhanced in dwarfs. 4. Results suggest that in laying hens dwarfism reduces the adipose tissue lipid mobilization but probably also the liver de novo lipogenesis. PMID:2680251

  11. Gene Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Selenoproteins Correlates with Apoptosis in Various Muscles of Se-Deficient Chicks123

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks. PMID:23514769

  12. Gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins correlates with apoptosis in various muscles of se-deficient chicks.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen

    2013-05-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks. PMID:23514769

  13. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  14. Reduction of provisioning effort in response to experimental manipulation of chick nutritional status in the Horned Puffin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, J.F.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using a supplemental feeding experiment, we investigated the ability of adult Horned Puffins to decrease provisioning effort in response to reduced nutritional requirements of chicks. We found no difference between experimental and control groups in parental provisioning before supplementary feeding was initiated. After receiving supplemental food for seven days, experimental chicks grew faster, gained more mass and received 87% less food from their parents than did control chicks. These results demonstrate that Horned Puffin parents can decrease food provisioning in response to a decrease in their chick nutritional requirements. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  15. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. PMID:26287003

  16. Plasticity in the growth of the chick eye: emmetropization achieved by alternate morphologies.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Howland, Howard

    2015-05-01

    Both refractive properties of the eyes and ambient light conditions affect emmetropization during growth. Exposure to constant light flattens the cornea making chicks hyperopic. To discover whether and how growing chick eyes restore emmetropia after exposure to constant light (CL) for 3, 7, or 11weeks, we returned chicks to normal (N) conditions with 12h. of light alternating with 12h. of darkness (designated the "R", or recovery, condition) for total periods of 4, 7, 11, or 17weeks. The two control groups were raised in CL conditions or raised in N conditions for the same length of time. We measured anterior chamber depths and lens thicknesses with an A-scan ultrasound machine. We measured corneal curvatures with an eight-axis keratometer, and refractions with conventional retinoscopy. We estimated differences in optical powers of CL, R and N chicks of identical age by constructing ray-tracing models using the above measurements and age-adjusted normal lens curvatures. We also computed the sensitivity of focus for small perturbations of the above optical parameters. Full refractive recovery from CL effects always occurred. Hyperopic refractive errors were absent when R chicks were returned to N for as little as 1week after 3weeks CL treatment. In R chicks exposed to CL for 11weeks and returned to N, axial lengths, vitreous chamber depths and radii of corneal curvatures did not return to normal, although their refractions did. While R chicks can usually recover emmetropia, after long periods of exposure to CL, they cannot recover normal ocular morphology. Emmetropization following CL exposure is achieved primarily by adjusting the relationship between corneal curvature and axial length, resulting in normal refractions. PMID:25765992

  17. Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

  18. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  19. Demonstrating Cell Traction--Using Hens' Egg Vitelline Membrane as Substratum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways in which hens' egg vitelline membranes can be used to demonstrate cell traction effects. Reviews procedures for using and culturing the membranes and identifies topic areas for student projects. (ML)

  20. PeertoPeer Internet Telephony using SIP Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne

    E-print Network

    Peer­to­Peer Internet Telephony using SIP Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne Department­T recommendation H.323 [3] typically employ a registration server for every domain. The user agents (or IP phones

  1. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  2. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  3. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  4. Molecular Architecture of the Chick Vestibular Hair Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Krey, Jocelyn F.; Hassan, Ahmed; Metlagel, Zoltan; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Pagana, James M.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Jeffery, Erin D.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Zhao, Hongyu; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L.; Auer, Manfred; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Hair bundles of the inner ear have a unique structure and protein composition that underlies their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified >1100 proteins, present from a few to 400,000 copies per stereocilium, from purified chick bundles; 336 of these were significantly enriched in bundles. Bundle proteins that we detected have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton structure and dynamics, energy metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, and cell signaling. Three-dimensional imaging using electron tomography allowed us to count the number of actin-actin crosslinkers and actin-membrane connectors; these values compared well to those obtained from mass spectrometry. Network analysis revealed several hub proteins, including RDX (radixin) and SLC9A3R2 (NHERF2), which interact with many bundle proteins and may perform functions essential for bundle structure and function. The quantitative mass spectrometry of bundle proteins reported here establishes a framework for future characterization of dynamic processes that shape bundle structure and function. PMID:23334578

  5. Tissue PO2 and growth rate in early chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Meuer, H J; Hartmann, V; Jopp, S

    1992-11-01

    We determined dry mass, frequency distribution of tissue PO2 and microvascular density of head and trunk of early chick embryos between day 4 and day 6 of incubation. During this period the percentage of the dry mass of the head on total dry mass increased from 31% to 48% indicating that the head grows faster than the trunk. Tissue PO2 values ranged between zero and arterial PO2. About half of the numbers were less than 5 Torr. Mean tissue PO2 was significantly higher in the head than in the trunk. This was paralleled by a significantly higher microvascular density in the head. The high frequency of low tissue PO2 values found at each day at all measuring sites suggests that the embryonic tissue of both head and trunk extracts as much oxygen from the capillary blood as possible. Consequently, growth rate strongly depends on oxygen availability. Since the arterial PO2 is the same in the head and in the trunk (Meuer and Baumann, 1988), the diversity of tissue PO2 and growth rate found in this study is probably caused by differences in the structure of the microvascular bed resulting in variations of tissue blood perfusion, capillary transit time and diffusion distance. PMID:1494722

  6. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  7. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase C? (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds. PMID:25249465

  8. Extracellular pancuronium affects sodium current in chick embryo sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Maestrone, E.; Magnelli, V.; Nobile, M.; Usai, C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of pancuronium on transmembrane sodium conductance was investigated in dorsal root ganglion neurones of chick embryos. The Na+ current was measured by use of the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. 2. Externally perfused pancuronium (50 microM to 1 mM) reversibly inhibited the current by a fast mechanism of action. Inhibition was concentration-dependent (with a half-effective dose of 170 microM) but not voltage-dependent. 3. The activation and inactivation kinetics of the Na+ current were estimated in pancuronium and in control solution by fitting experimental data with a Hodgkin-Huxley theoretical model. 4. The activation time constant tau m, at negative membrane voltages, was larger in the presence of pancuronium than in the control. In contrast, the inactivation time constant tau h was smaller during drug perfusion at membrane voltages < -10 mV. The steady-state inactivation h infinity was not affected by pancuronium. 5. These results suggest that pancuronium may reduce the sodium current by interacting with the sodium channels in both the resting and open states. PMID:8012707

  9. Afferent connections of the oculomotor nucleus in the chick.

    PubMed

    Labandeira-Garcia, J L; Guerra-Seijas, M J; Labandeira-Garcia, J A; Jorge-Barreiro, F J

    1989-04-22

    Horseradish peroxidase was injected into the oculomotor nucleus of the chick in order to locate and characterize the neurons projecting to this nucleus. In the rostral mesencephalon, 120-180 neurons were labelled in the medial area of the ipsilateral nucleus campi Foreli; 190-220 in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (most of them contralateral); and smaller numbers bilaterally in the medial mesencephalic reticular formation, the nucleus of the basal optic root complex, and the central grey matter. More caudally, numerous neurons were labelled in the contralateral abducens nucleus and the vestibular complex and a few in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. Labelled neurons appeared ipsilaterally in the caudal region of the nucleus vestibularis superior and in the rostral tip of the nucleus descendens just lateral to the tractus lamino-olivaris. In the contralateral vestibular complex, a group of labelled cells observed in the dorsolateral area may be homologous to the mammalian cell group Y. At the level of the contralateral abducens nucleus, the most numerous group of cells (625-700) projecting to the oculomotor nucleus formed a lateromedial fringe that affected the nucleus tangentialis, the rostral tip of the nucleus descendens, and the ventrolateral region of the nucleus medialis. Only a few labelled neurons were seen in the contralateral nucleus vestibularis superior, the ipsilateral cell group A, and the ipsilateral nucleus vestibularis medialis. PMID:2723150

  10. Ovoglycoprotein, a protein of hen's-egg white

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, B.

    1965-01-01

    1. A description is given of the isolation of a glycoprotein from hen's-egg white; it has been called ovoglycoprotein. 2. It contains 13·6% of hexose, 13·8% of hexosamine and 3% of sialic acid. 3. Hexose occurs as mannose and galactose in the ratio 2:1, hexosamine as glucosamine and sialic acid as N-acetylneuraminic acid. 4. It has S20,w 2·47s and a minimum molecular weight, calculated from the tryptophan content, of 24400. 5. At pH3·9 in acetate buffer, I0·1, which is in the isoelectric region, it is resolved into two components, one of which moves slowly towards the anode while the other moves slowly towards the cathode. PMID:5837783

  11. Expansion, folding, and abnormal lamination of the chick optic tectum after intraventricular injections of FGF2.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Luke D; Alaama, Roula A; Freise, Amanda C; Huang, Johnny C; Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2012-06-26

    Comparative research has shown that evolutionary increases in brain region volumes often involve delays in neurogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of such changes on subsequent development. To get at this question, we injected FGF2--which delays cell cycle exit in mammalian neocortex--into the cerebral ventricles of chicks at embryonic day (ED) 4. This manipulation alters the development of the optic tectum dramatically. By ED7, the tectum of FGF2-treated birds is abnormally thin and has a reduced postmitotic layer, consistent with a delay in neurogenesis. FGF2 treatment also increases tectal volume and ventricular surface area, disturbs tectal lamination, and creates small discontinuities in the pia mater overlying the tectum. On ED12, the tectum is still larger in FGF2-treated embryos than in controls. However, lateral portions of the FGF2-treated tectum now exhibit volcano-like laminar disturbances that coincide with holes in the pia, and the caudomedial tectum exhibits prominent folds. To explain these observations, we propose that the tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in FGF2-treated tecta outpaces the expansion of the pial surface, creating abnormal mechanical stresses. Two alternative means of alleviating these stresses are tectal foliation and the formation of pial holes. The latter probably alter signaling gradients required for normal cell migration and may generate abnormal patterns of cerebrospinal fluid flow; both abnormalities would generate disturbances in tectal lamination. Overall, our findings suggest that evolutionary expansion of sheet-like, laminated brain regions requires a concomitant expansion of the pia mater. PMID:22723357

  12. Sites of gene expression for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide throughout the brain of the chick (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, W J; Mccune, S K; Talbot, R T; Sharp, P J; Hill, J M

    1997-04-28

    The peptide neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has several important functions in vertebrates, particularly, influencing the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems both in developing and in adult animals. To document potential brain areas that might play significant functional roles, the distribution of VIP mRNA was examined throughout the entire chick brain by using in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH). In addition, a VIP binding-site study was completed that focused on the lateral septal organ (LSO), a circumventricular organ of potential significance in avian species. The areas where VIP message was found included the olfactory bulbs, posterior hippocampus, parahippocampal area, hyperstriatum, archistriatum/nucleus (n.) taenia (amygdala), medial part of the LSO, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, medial preoptic region, bed n. of the pallial commissure, anterior hypothalamic (hypo.) n., lateral hypo. area (most extensive and dense message), periventricular hypo. n., lateral to the paraventricular n., ventromedial hypo. n., stratum cellulare externum, inferior hypo. n., infundibular hypo. n., median eminence, three layers within the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale, area ventralis of Tsai, n. tegmenti pedunculopontinus pars compacta (substantia nigra), intercollicular n., central gray, locus ceruleus, parabrachial n., ventrolateral medulla, reticular pontine area, in and about the n. vestibularis descendens. When compared with immunocytochemistry that detected the presence of the peptide product VIP, more areas of the brain were found to contain perikarya expressing VIP by using ISHH, particularly in the telencephalon and the mesencephalon. VIP binding sites were found in the lateral portion of the LSO where the blood-brain barrier is not fully developed. Hence, the LSO was found to contain neural elements that synthesize as well as bind VIP. VIP appears to be a useful peptide for defining major components of the visceral forebrain system in birds. PMID:9087422

  13. The Little Red Hen: A Story of Productive Resources and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Abbejean

    2005-01-01

    "The Little Red Hen" is a classic story. Many children have not had the opportunity to see where a commercial loaf of bread comes from, or to feel the bounce of rising dough in a kitchen. "The Little Red Hen" not only helps to introduce the process, but gives the students an opportunity to reflect how they might feel if they did the work on a…

  14. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  15. Ultrastructural identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Gandahi, J A; Chen, S F; Yang, P; Bian, X G; Chen, Q S

    2012-06-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are widely believed to be neuroeffector cells of smooth muscle activity in all tubular organs, including the oviduct. The avian oviduct involves the secretion, sheathing, and transportation of a large-sized egg, but there is no information available on ICC in this special organ. We have demonstrated the presence of ICC in different segments throughout the oviduct in the laying hen and provided details on their ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy technique, for the first time. The observed ICC appeared bipolar and multipolar cells of different shapes, with varying nuclear morphologies, a thin rim of electron-dense cytoplasm, and an infrequent basal lamina. They showed moniliform primary processes with one or 2 secondary or terminal processes. We found ICC near smooth muscle cells, nerve fibers, and the epithelia, where they make specialized contacts in the form of close membrane associations or gap-like junctions and peg-and-socket-like junctions. Intricate labyrinthine-type networking contacts were also present in ICC processes. Moreover, we report for the first time, that ICC in avian oviduct make interdigitating contacts with the epithelium. Cytoplasmic organelles identified in ICC include numerous well-developed mitochondria, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dispersed intermediate filaments. Many caveolae and vesicles were also present. Golgi bodies and centrioles were rare. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, were distinct cells with larger cytoplasmic area, more rough endoplasmic reticulum, and less mitochondrial content. No basal lamina, intermediate filaments, or caveolae were present in fibroblasts. Their processes were shorter and showed no contacts with smooth muscle cells or nerves. We conclude that these ICC might also have a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of motility and transportation in the hen oviduct, as already proved in mammalian oviduct. Such role of ICC might also be responsible for the function of the muscular infundibulum, where the fertilization takes place, and that moves to surround the released ovum, failure of which results in the internal laying. PMID:22582301

  16. Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Halaby, W S; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2005-11-01

    Experiment 1 was conducted to study the effects of feeding 60% untreated ervil seeds (UE) or ervil soaked in water at room temperature (RTWE) or at 40 degrees C (40WE) for 72 h with water change every 12 h on the performance and internal organ size of broilers. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet (control) and diets containing 60% UE, RTWE, or 40WE were fed to battery caged broilers in 4 replicates with 8 birds per replicate, from 8 to 49 d. Broilers consuming UE from 8 to 28 d gained less weight, used feed less efficiently, and had heavier liver, pancreas, and gall bladder weights (%BW) than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Compared with control birds, broilers on 40WE had similar relative organ weights, except for kidney, but lower BW gain at 49 d (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ervil seeds were soaked in 1% acetic acid at room temperature (RTAAE) or at 40 degrees C (40AAE) for 24 h. A conventional diet and diets containing 60% UE, 40WE, RTAAE, or 40AAE were fed to individually caged laying hens in 4 replicates per treatment with 5 hens per replicate for 42 d. Hens on UE had the poorest performance followed by RTAAE, 40WE, and then 40AAE (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, all treated ervil diets resulted in lower shell thickness values but higher Haugh unit scores (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, 30% dietary UE and 40AAE at 10, 20, and 30% were fed to layers for 56 d. The general performance of hens on 30% 40AAE was comparable with that of the control except for BW and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Compared with UE, the performance of broilers and layers was improved by 40WE and that of hens was further enhanced by 40AAE. In addition, diets containing up to 20% 40AAE had no adverse effects on feed conversion, egg production, or quality of hens. PMID:16463969

  17. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  18. Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.

    PubMed

    Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn

    2000-02-01

    In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

  19. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions. PMID:16574801

  20. The chick chorioallantoic membrane: a model of short-term study of Dupuytren's disease.

    PubMed

    Mîndril?, Ion; Pârv?nescu, Horia; Pirici, Daniel; Niculescu, Mihaela; Buteic?, Sandra Alice; Taisescu, Oana; Tarnita, D?nut Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a progressive fibroproliferative disorder that impairs hand function by altering the normal structures of the palmar fascial bands. Nodules composed almost entirely of myofibroblasts and cords are pathognomonic of Dupuytren's disease. The myofibroblasts express alpha-smooth muscle actin that is especially involved in development of the disease. We aimed to evaluate whether the xenograft of Dupuytren's fibromatosis taken from operating room and transplanted on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) survives with its histological and immunohistological features. Fresh samples obtained from eight patients with Dupuytren's disease were minced and immediately inoculated onto 24 CAMs of 8-day-old chick embryos. The implanted CAMs were examined daily by stereomicroscopy and finally the xenografts were examined and characterized in histological sections using a panel of antibodies. The xenografts were incorporated into the CAMs 6-7 days after transplantation, continued to grow and stimulated angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAMs. The CAMs vessels entered the xenografts and anastomosed with the newly formed xenografts vessels (CD34+ and CD105+) those containing nucleated chick erythrocytes. Myofibroblasts (?-SMA+) and macrophages (CD68+) were readily recognized in the xenograft thickness. We concluded that the xenografts of Dupuytren's fibromatosis transplanted onto chick embryo CAMs continued to develop and preserved the histological and immunohistological features. PMID:24969989

  1. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L.; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.X.; Fry, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  2. Exogenous prolactin-releasing peptide's orexigenic effect is associated with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous administration of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) exerts anorexigenic effects in rats while causing orexigenic effects in chicks. While the central mechanism mediating PrRP's effect on food intake in rodents is somewhat understood, in chicks information is lacking. Therefore, this study was designed to elucidate the hypothalamic mechanism of PrRP induction of hunger perception in chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of PrRP dose-dependently increased their food intake with no effect on water intake or whole blood glucose concentration. The threshold of food intake stimulation was as low as 3pmol, thus as compared to other neuropeptides PrRP is exceptionally potent. The mRNA abundance of several appetite-associated neuropeptide genes was quantified and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA was increased in PrRP-injected chicks. Therefore, the orexigenic effects of PrRP may be associated with increased NPY-ergic tone. These results provide insight into the evolutionary aspects of appetite regulation during the course of divergent evolution of mammals and birds. PMID:26349952

  3. PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.; Buehler, D.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

  4. Pharmacological reversal of cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21722654

  5. Effect of all-trans retinol and retinoic acid nutriture on the immune system of chicks.

    PubMed

    Davis, C Y; Sell, J L

    1983-10-01

    The effects of all-trans retinol and retinoic acid (RA) on the humoral and cell-mediated immune response and on lymphoid organ weights of broiler chicks were examined. Chicks were fed diets supplemented with retinol or RA at 0, 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms/g diet. The diets were fed continuously from day of hatch or after depletion of hepatic vitamin A reserves. Rapid vitamin A deficiency was induced in chicks by initially feeding the diet containing 2.0 micrograms RA/g diet and subsequently feeding diets containing 0 or 0.2 microgram RA/g diet. Serum antibody hemagglutination titers, in response to intravenous injection of human serum albumin (HSA), were not affected by level or chemical form of vitamin A supplemented in diets. In vitamin A-deficient chicks, there was an inverse relationship observed between the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained per milliliter of blood and their ability to proliferate in response to mitogenic stimulation. Growth of the bursa of Fabricius and the thymus was impaired in chicks fed a vitamin A-free diet. A partial deficiency of vitamin A adversely affected relative bursa weight but not that of thymus. In general, RA was inferior to retinol in maintenance of lymphoid tissue. PMID:6619972

  6. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  7. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e. ?=?0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e. ?=?0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e. ?=?0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  8. Behaviour, health and integument of four hybrids of laying hens in modified and conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, P; Tauson, R; Appleby, M C

    1996-07-01

    1. In 2 trials the health and behaviour of a total of 3552 caged laying hens of 4 hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in trial 2, were studied. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens per cage, a special version of the 'Edinburgh modified cage' called 'Modified and enriched cage' (ME) with 4 ISA or 5 Leghorn hens per cage, conventional metal cages with 4 hens per cage without (CO) and with a perch (PC) and conventional plastic cages (PL) with three hens per cage. GA and ME included nests, perches and sandbaths. 2. In the first trial f1p4nest models were used, artificial turf and welded wire floor. In the second trial both nest models were used in GA, while all nests in ME were equipped with artificial turf. In the second trial there were 4 sandbath treatments in ME; no sandbath, sandbath (25 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks of age, sandbath first opened at 26 weeks and double size sandbath (50 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks. Hens in GA were allowed access to the sandbaths from 26 weeks. 3. At 35 and 55 weeks the best plumage condition (feather cover) was found in PL and GA but plumage condition in ME was not significantly inferior than in GA. Hens in GA had the dirtiest plumage and most bumble foot but no toe pad hyperkeratosis. Some toe pad hyperkeratosis occurred in the other systems. Most keel bone lesions were found in systems with perches. The highest mortality was registered in GA. Hens in systems with perches, sandbaths and nests had increased strength of humerus at slaughter. 4. More eggs were laid in nests with artificial turf than in welded wire floor nests. LSL hens laid larger proportions of eggs in the nests (94% and 92% in the two trials) than the other hybrids. Less than 1% of the eggs in ME and 2% in GA were laid in the sandbaths. 5. The use of perches in ME and PC was approximately 30% in the day time. At night the use was 93% in ME and 89% in PC in trial 1 and 96% in ME and 81% in PC in trial 2. 6. Hens in ME with the double sized sandbath both visited the sandbath and performed dust bathing behaviour most, followed by hens in GA, hens in ME with access to the bath from 16 weeks and last, hens in ME with access to the bath from 26 weeks. 7. It is concluded that enrichments of laying cages are used by the hens to a large extent if properly constructed and managed, implying an increased behavioural repertoire of the hens compared with conventional cages. With perches at only one level and with smaller groups of birds, ME provided better hygiene and inspection properties than GA. PMID:8842459

  9. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  10. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  11. Sources of Food Delivered to Ring-Billed, Herring and Great Black-Backed Gull Chicks in Marine Environments

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    . Regurgitants of Ring-billed Gull chicks contained freshwater/terrestrial and marine invertebrates and fish. A stable isotope mixing model incorpo- rating both 13 C and 15 N in chick regurgitants and blood estimated their young, whether salt in marine food imposes a physiological cost on these young in comparison to young

  12. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  13. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  14. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults for salmonella. 147.17 Section 147.17... poults for salmonella. The laboratory procedure described in this section is recommended for the... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from...

  15. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

    1948-01-01

    Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

  16. Maturation of firing pattern in chick vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Shao, M; Hirsch, J C; Peusner, K D

    2006-08-25

    The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes. In birds and mammals, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing of action potentials is essential for vestibular nucleus neurons to generate mature vestibular reflex activity. The emergence of spike-firing pattern and the underlying ion channels were studied in morphologically-identified principal cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from brain slices of late-term embryos (embryonic day 16) and hatchling chickens (hatching day 1 and hatching day 5). Spontaneous spike activity emerged around the perinatal period, since at embryonic day 16 none of the principal cells generated spontaneous action potentials. However, at hatching day 1, 50% of the cells fired spontaneously (range, 3 to 32 spikes/s), which depended on synaptic transmission in most cells. By hatching day 5, 80% of the principal cells could fire action potentials spontaneously (range, 5 to 80 spikes/s), and this activity was independent of synaptic transmission and showed faster kinetics than at hatching day 1. Repetitive firing in response to depolarizing pulses appeared in the principal cells starting around embryonic day 16, when <20% of the neurons fired repetitively. However, almost 90% of the principal cells exhibited repetitive firing on depolarization at hatching day 1, and 100% by hatching day 5. From embryonic day 16 to hatching day 5, the gain for evoked spike firing increased almost 10-fold. At hatching day 5, a persistent sodium channel was essential for the generation of spontaneous spike activity, while a small conductance, calcium-dependent potassium current modulated both the spontaneous and evoked spike firing activity. Altogether, these in vitro studies showed that during the perinatal period, the principal cells switched from displaying no spontaneous spike activity at resting membrane potential and generating one spike on depolarization to the tonic firing of spontaneous and evoked action potentials. PMID:16690214

  17. INTRODUCTION The chick homologue of Spemann's organizer, Hensen's node,

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    , comprising loose middle layer cells that are intimately associated with the underlying endoderm (Adelman rostral to the above-mentioned fan-shaped structure, and suggested that the mesodermal cells behind are expressed in both mesodermal and endodermal layers of the triangular structure (e.g. goosecoid, Izpisúa

  18. Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

  19. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  20. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

  1. From woman to chick: the rhetorical evolution of women in american film 

    E-print Network

    Day, Danya Rhae

    2009-05-15

    aired on the E! Network on February 12, 2006, and a feature article on the greatest chick flicks of all time in the July 2004 issue of O Magazine. See Karen Durbin, ?The Mighty Chick Flick,? O, The Oprah Magazine, July 2004, http... to improve, he forced me to become a better writer and scholar in the process. The development of these skills will serve me well in all my future endeavors. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Jim Aune and Dr. Jimmie Killingsworth...

  2. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    PubMed

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  3. Furnished Cage System and Hen Well-Being: Comparative Effects of Furnished and Battery Cages on Egg Production and Physiological Parameters of White Leghorn Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in a species-special “natural” or “near to natural” environment. This study was to examine if housing environment, furnished cages vs. battery cages, causes a similar impact on well-being in laying hens. One hundred seventy-two, on...

  4. Individual Consistency of Feather Pecking Behavior in Laying Hens: Once a Feather Pecker Always a Feather Pecker?

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Swanson, Janice C.; Siegford, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n?=?300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37?weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3?cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest boxes. The number of severe feather pecks given (SFPG) and received (SFPR) was used to categorize hens as feather peckers (P), victims (V), neutrals (N), or feather pecker-victims (PV) at each age. Hens categorized as PV exhibited pecking behaviors similar to P and received pecks similar to V. SFP given were correlated with APs given, but not with gentle feather pecks (GFP) given throughout the study. State-transition plot maps illustrated that 22.5% of P remained P, while 44% of PV remained PV throughout the duration of the study. Lifetime behavioral categories identified hens as a consistent feather pecker (5%), consistent neutral (3.9%), consistent victim (7.9%), consistent feather pecker-victim (29.4%), or inconsistent (53.8%) in their behavioral patterns throughout their life. Consistent feather peckers performed more SFP than hens of other categories, and consistent neutral hens received fewer GFP than consistent feather PV. No differences in corticosterone or whole blood serotonin levels were observed among the categories. Approximately, half of the population was classified as a feather pecker at least once during the study, while the remainder was never categorized as a feather pecker. Therefore, even if the development and cause of feather pecking may be multifactorial, once the behavior has been developed, some hens may persist in feather pecking. However, as some hens were observed to never receive or perform SFP, emphasis should be made to select for these hens in future breeding practices. PMID:26664935

  5. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  6. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    PubMed

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  8. Stress Detection and Classification of Laying Hens by Sound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Stress adversely affects the wellbeing of commercial chickens, and comes with an economic cost to the industry that cannot be ignored. In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility. The proposed system is structured hierarchically with three binary-classifier support vector machines. First, it selects an optimal acoustic feature subset from the sound emitted by the laying hens. The detection and classification module detects the stress from changes in the sound and classifies it into subsidiary sound types, such as physical stress from changes in temperature, and mental stress from fear. Finally, an experimental evaluation was performed using real sound data from an audio-surveillance system. The accuracy in detecting stress approached 96.2%, and the classification model was validated, confirming that the average classification accuracy was 96.7%, and that its recall and precision measures were satisfactory. PMID:25656176

  9. ATP-induced noncooperative thermal unfolding of hen lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Honglin; Yin, Peidong; He, Shengnan; Sun, Zhihu; Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Zhuang, Hao; Zhang, Guobin; Wei, Shiqiang

    2010-07-02

    To understand the role of ATP underlying the enhanced amyloidosis of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, combined with tryptophan fluorescence, dynamic light-scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry, is used to examine the alterations of the conformation and thermal unfolding pathway of the HEWL in the presence of ATP, Mg{sup 2+}-ATP, ADP, AMP, etc. It is revealed that the binding of ATP to HEWL through strong electrostatic interaction changes the secondary structures of HEWL and makes the exposed residue W62 move into hydrophobic environments. This alteration of W62 decreases the {beta}-domain stability of HEWL, induces a noncooperative unfolding of the secondary structures, and produces a partially unfolded intermediate. This intermediate containing relatively rich {alpha}-helix and less {beta}-sheet structures has a great tendency to aggregate. The results imply that the ease of aggregating of HEWL is related to the extent of denaturation of the amyloidogenic region, rather than the electrostatic neutralizing effect or monomeric {beta}-sheet enriched intermediate.

  10. Ocelot and oncilla spermatozoa can bind hen egg perivitelline membranes.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Gediendson Ribeiro; de Paula, Tarcizio Antônio Rego; Deco-Souza, Thyara de; Garay, Rafael de Morais; Letícia Bergo, C F; Csermak-Júnior, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Leanes Cruz; Alves, Saullo Vinícius Pereira

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the capacity of ocelot and oncilla spermatozoa to bind to the perivitelline membranes (PVMs) of hen eggs in a sperm binding assay (S-PVM). In addition, a device that improves the standardization of the assay was developed. The number of sperm bound to the PVM in fresh (T1) and frozen-thawed (T2) semen from both species was compared to the sperm quality observed in routine tests. The PVM was stretched on a circular silicone device to create a standardized area for analysis. In both treatments and for both species, the spermatozoa were able to bind to the PVM, indicating that PVM may be used for a sperm binding assay in ocelot and oncilla. The S-PVM assay did not differ in fresh and frozen-thawed ocelot sperm (p>0.05). However, fewer oncilla sperm (p<0.05) were bound to the PVM in T2, indicating that the proposed test may be able to detect injuries that compromise sperm binding abilities. The device maintained the PVM stretched during the processing and defined the evaluation area. PMID:26526118

  11. Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much attention has beeni ABSTRACT Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat and in particular to optimal operation of HENs. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also

  12. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  13. LIVE ATTENUATED AND KILLED SALMONELLA VACCINES CAUSE AN INCREASE IN CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AMONG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of 16 and 32 week old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines and two weeks later CMI was assessed using splenic mononuclear cel...

  14. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, EXCRETION, AND METABOLISM OF A SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF O-ETHYL O-4-NITROPHENYL PHENYLPHOSPHONOTHIOATE IN HENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disposition and metabolism of a single oral 10 mg/kg (LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled (14C)EPN (O-ethyl O-4 nitrophenyl (14C) phenylphosphonothioate) were studied in adult hens. The birds were protected from acute toxicity with atropine sulfate. Three treated hens were kill...

  15. Single and combined effects of organic selenium and zinc on egg fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of exotic cochin hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of three diets supplemented with organic selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) on the performance of Cochin exotic breeder hens. Cochin hens (n=120) and males (n=12) at 42 wks of age were separated into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment. ...

  16. Potential for horizontal transmission of Salmonella & Campylobacter among caged & cage-free laying hens pp. 41-44.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of table egg producers transitioning to cage-free housing systems, it is important to determine what effects housing systems may have on the spread of Salmonella and Campylobacter among hens. In each of five sequential trials, hens were inoculated with marker strains of Sa...

  17. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  18. EFFECT OF THERMAL AND HORMONAL MANIPULATION OF DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS ON POST HATCH BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stressors applied to pregnant mammals can affect the behavior and physiology of offspring. However, specific effects are difficult to determine due to confounding maternal variables. Developing chick embryos may prove an effective model in studying prenatal stress without maternal influence. Fert...

  19. EQUALIZING THE ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY WITHIN CHICK BRAIN IMMERSED IN BUFFER SOLUTION AT DIFFERENT CARRIER FREQUENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented here are the numerical relationships between incident power densities that produce the same average electric field intensity within a chick brain half immersed in buffered saline solution and exposed to a uniform electromagnetic field at carrier frequencies of 50, 147, ...

  20. Effect of coprophagia on colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coprophagous activity is normal among broiler chickens. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the effect of coprophagia on estimates of the population of Campylobacter jejuni RM1221 necessary to colonize 50% of broiler chicks inoculated (colonization dose 50% or CD50). Campylobacter je...

  1. LOW-THRESHOLD HEAT RECEPTOR IN CHICK SENSORY NEURONS IS UPREGULATED INDEPENDENTLY OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR

    E-print Network

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia

    previously demonstrated that chick dorsal root ganglion neurons, which are insensitive to capsaicin, re responding to heat also responded to capsaicin, whereas after 3­4 days, more than one-half of the heat-responsive neurons did not respond to capsaicin. These data suggest the existence of low-threshold heat receptors

  2. Lack of an effect of static magnetic field on calcium efflux from isolated chick brains

    SciTech Connect

    Bellossi, A.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 45/Ca2+ efflux from neonatal isolated chick brains was measured. The brains were exposed to uniform or nonuniform static magnetic fields. The field intensity ranged from 200-900 mT. The exposure took place during incubation and/or when efflux was being measured. No difference appeared in the /sup 45/Ca2+ efflux between controls and exposed brains.

  3. Early-age heat exposure affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S

    2001-07-01

    Exposure of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later age. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat exposure. PMID:11404306

  4. A stab in the dark: chick killing by brood parasitic honeyguides.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Koorevaar, Jeroen

    2012-04-23

    The most virulent avian brood parasites obligately kill host young soon after hatching, thus ensuring their monopoly of host parental care. While the host eviction behaviour of cuckoos (Cuculidae) is well documented, the host killing behaviour of honeyguide (Indicatoridae) chicks has been witnessed only once, 60 years ago, and never in situ in host nests. Here, we report from the Afrotropical greater honeyguide the first detailed observations of honeyguides killing host chicks with their specially adapted bill hooks, based on repeated video recordings (available in the electronic supplementary material). Adult greater honeyguides puncture host eggs when they lay their own, but in about half of host nests at least one host egg survived, precipitating chick killing by the honeyguide hatchling. Hosts always hatched after honeyguide chicks, and were killed within hours. Despite being blind and in total darkness, honeyguides attacked host young with sustained biting, grasping and shaking motions. Attack time of 1-5 min was sufficient to cause host death, which took from 9 min to over 7 h from first attack. Honeyguides also bit unhatched eggs and human hands, but only rarely bit the host parents feeding them. PMID:21900311

  5. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Comparison of Challenge Models for Determining the Colonization Dose of Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coprophagous activity is normal among broiler chickens. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the effect of coprophagia on estimates of the population of Campylobacter jejuni RM1221 necessary to colonize 50% of broiler chicks inoculated (colonization dose 50% or CD50). Campylobacter je...

  7. OFF-CENTER SPHERICAL MODEL FOR DOSIMETRY CALCULATIONS IN CHICK BRAIN TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents calculations for the electric field and absorbed power density distribution in chick brain tissue inside a test tube, using an off-center spherical model. It is shown that the off-center spherical model overcomes many of the limitations of the concentric spheri...

  8. Life History and Social Learning: Megapode Chicks Fail to Acquire Feeding Preferences From Conspecifics

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    to feed from a distinctively colored dish. In control training trials, chicks saw a robot standing next such as chickens, suggesting that life history plays an important role in the evolution of learning. Animals can or interacting with companions. Such social learning often provides functional bene- fits (see reviews in Galef

  9. Instantaneous and Cumulative Influences of Competition on Impulsive Choices in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Amita, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0 and 4.5?s), and were tested in binary choices between a small–short delay option (SS) and a large–long delay alternative (LL). To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1) the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2) the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2?weeks according to a “behavioral titration” procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3) choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4) the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsiveness remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified) factors may be indirectly involved. PMID:21954375

  10. Acute injections of corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine retards food passage in the crop of chicks.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Madoka; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Cline, Mark A; Tachibana, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether acute injection of stress-related hormones, corticosterone (CORT), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) affect food passage in the crop of chicks (Gallus gallus). Subcutaneous (SQ) injection of CORT significantly retarded the food passage in the crop of chicks. Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NE and E also significantly decreased the crop emptying rate. Additional experiments by using agonists of adrenergic receptors found that IP injection of phenylephrine and clonidine but not isoproterenol retarded the food passage in the crop of chicks. These results demonstrated that the effect of NE and E would be mediated by alpha-1-, alpha-2- rather than beta-adrenergic receptor. Finally, we found that injection of CORT, NE and E had no effect on the number of defecations while intracerebroventricular injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin-3 significantly increased it. These results suggest that CORT, NE and E might affect the food passage in the upper digestive tract in chicks. PMID:26519762

  11. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (ARG), vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative contro...

  12. Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 757768 Feather pecking in domestic chicks: its relation to dustbathing and foraging

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 757­768 Feather pecking in domestic chicks: its relation to dustbathing 1996; MS. number: 5113R) Abstract. Feather pecking is a serious problem in poultry housing, as it may lead to feather damage, injuries and even mortality. We tested predictions of the two prevalent

  13. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen. PMID:25840967

  14. The chick embryo past, present and future as a model system in developmental biology

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    Preface The chick embryo ­ past, present and future as a model system in developmental biology The embryo of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) holds the record as the animal with the longest continuous at different periods during incubation to observe the progress of embryo development, and by around 300 BC

  15. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  16. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  18. Effects of multistage or single-stage incubation on broiler chick quality and performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single-stage (SS) incubation has benefit over multistage (MS) incubation by matching incubator environment to embryo needs. Eggs from a young breeder flock may be incubated diffeerently than eggs from old flocks. Information on chick quality and performance are scarce. The objective of this study...

  19. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS: PREVALENCE,

    E-print Network

    Mora, Miguel A.

    SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS% to 95%. Seventeen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes were isolated, of which the 4,5,12:i of Salmonella, but provided no evidence of transmission between these two species. Similar conclusions were

  20. Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat

    E-print Network

    Irwin, Andrew J.

    Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat M. Allison University, Sackville, NB E4L 1E6, Canada Abstract Pygoscelis penguins are experiencing general penguin species and used a maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) to spatially and temporally model suit- able

  1. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    PubMed

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. PMID:25743158

  2. Specific immunolabeling of brain macrophages and microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Miguel A; Santos, Ana M; Martín-Oliva, David; Calvente, Ruth; Tassi, Mohamed; Marín-Teva, José Luis; Navascués, Julio

    2006-06-01

    The present study showed that the HIS-C7 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the chick form of CD45, is a specific marker for macrophages/microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system (CNS). HIS-C7-positive cells were characterized according to their morphological features and chronotopographical distribution patterns within developing and adult CNS, similar to those of macrophages/microglial cells in the quail CNS and confirmed by their histochemical labeling with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, a lectin that recognizes chick microglial cells. Therefore, the HIS-C7 antibody is a valuable tool to identify brain macrophage and microglial cells in studies of the function, development, and pathology of the chick brain. CD45 expression differed between chick microglia (as revealed with HIS-C7 antibody) and mouse microglial cells (as revealed with an antibody against mouse form of CD45). Thus, a discontinuous label was seen on mouse microglial cells with the anti-mouse CD45 immunostaining, whereas the entire surface of chick microglial cells was labeled with the anti-chick CD45 staining. The functional relevance of these differences between species has yet to be determined. PMID:16461367

  3. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of ??-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired immunity. PMID:26217026

  4. Nutritional and Hormonal Induction of Fatty Liver Syndrome and Effects of Dietary Lipotropic Factors in Egg-type Male Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. I.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, B. K.; Oh, S. T.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with male chicks to investigate the influence of hormones and nutrients on the development of fatty liver syndrome (FLS) as well as the effects of dietary lipotropic factors on hepatic fat accumulation and lipogenic enzyme gene expression. A total of two-hundred sixteen 4-wk-old Hy-Line male chicks were divided into six groups and fed an experimental diet (T1, low-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T2, high-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T3 and T5, low-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors; T4 and T6, high-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors) for six weeks. The chicks in T5 and T6 groups were treated with intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate for three days prior to biopsy and clinical analysis of FLS. Chicks treated with estrogen had significantly greater liver weights than untreated chicks. The abdominal fat contents were increased in chicks consuming high-energy diets as compared to those consuming low-energy diets. Treatment with estrogen significantly increased the concentrations of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid (p<0.05). The hepatic triacylglycerol levels were tenfold higher in the estrogen treated chicks than in the untreated chicks. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde levels between the treatment groups. Estrogen treatment dramatically increased the levels of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ApoB mRNA. The results indicated that treatment with exogenous estrogen in growing male chicks induced hepatic fat accumulation, which might be partially due to increased lipogenic enzyme gene expression. PMID:25049674

  5. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  6. Reconstitution and structure of a bacterial Pnkp1RnlHen1 RNA repair complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pei; Selvadurai, Kiruthika; Huang, Raven H.

    2015-04-17

    Ribotoxins cleave essential RNAs for cell killing, and RNA repair neutralizes the damage inflicted by ribotoxins for cell survival. We report a new bacterial RNA repair complex that performs RNA repair linked to immunity. This new RNA repair complex is a 270-kDa heterohexamer composed of three proteins—Pnkp1, Rnl and Hen1—that are required to repair ribotoxin-cleaved RNA in vitro. The crystal structure of the complex reveals the molecular architecture of the heterohexamer as two rhomboid-shaped ring structures of Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 heterotrimer fused at the Pnkp1 dimer interface. The four active sites required for RNA repair are located on the inner rim of each ring. Furthermore, the architecture and the locations of the active sites of the Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 heterohexamer suggest an ordered series of repair reactions at the broken RNA ends that confer immunity to recurrent damage.

  7. Reconstitution and structure of a bacterial Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 RNA repair complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Selvadurai, Kiruthika; Huang, Raven H.

    2015-01-01

    Ribotoxins cleave essential RNAs for cell killing, and RNA repair neutralizes the damage inflicted by ribotoxins for cell survival. Here we report a new bacterial RNA repair complex that performs RNA repair linked to immunity. This new RNA repair complex is a 270-kDa heterohexamer composed of three proteins—Pnkp1, Rnl and Hen1—that are required to repair ribotoxin-cleaved RNA in vitro. The crystal structure of the complex reveals the molecular architecture of the heterohexamer as two rhomboid-shaped ring structures of Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 heterotrimer fused at the Pnkp1 dimer interface. The four active sites required for RNA repair are located on the inner rim of each ring. The architecture and the locations of the active sites of the Pnkp1–Rnl–Hen1 heterohexamer suggest an ordered series of repair reactions at the broken RNA ends that confer immunity to recurrent damage. PMID:25882814

  8. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein

    PubMed Central

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the production of lutein enriched chicken eggs.

  9. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, René A; Mullers, Ralf H E; Meijer, Haro A J; Underhill, Les G

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n = 17) at Malgas Island, Saldanha Bay, South Africa. At the same time, the growth rate of a large sample of chicks was measured (n = 338). These data, together with literature values on resting metabolic rate and body composition, were used to construct and partition the nestling energy budget. Nestling FMR (kJ d(-1)) increased with body mass according to FMR = 1.23m(0.923), r(2) = 0.944. Mass-specific FMR (FMRratio; kJ d(-1) g(-3/4)) was independent of chick age (r(2) = 0.20, P > 0.05); mean mass-specific FMR was 4.11 ± 1.28, n = 17. Peak daily-metabolized energy (DME), which represents the maximum rate at which parents must supply their nestlings, occurred at age 71 d and was 2,141 kJ d(-1). Between the ages 51 and 92 d (43% of the fledging period), the DME of Cape gannet chicks was equal to or surpassed 90% of adult FMR at the nest. Energy demand during this period of peak DME represented 58% of the total metabolized energy, which was estimated at 150.1 MJ for an average chick during a 97-d period, from hatching to fledging. Sensitivity analysis of the energy budget indicated that the model was robust; the biggest source of error (±15%) was for the mass-FMR equation used in the model. PMID:26052637

  10. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  11. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates. PMID:17717813

  12. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems. PMID:25306464

  13. Comparative in vitro study of the inhibition of human and hen esterases by methamidophos enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Guilherme L; DeOliveira, Georgino H; Oliveira, Regina V; Ehrich, Marion

    2012-02-26

    The current Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for evaluating organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) require the observation of dosed animals over several days and the sacrifice of 48 hens. Adhering to these protocols in tests with enantiomers is difficult because large quantities of the compound are needed and many animals must be utilized. Thus, developing an in vitro screening protocol to evaluate chiral organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that can induce delayed neuropathy is important. This work aimed to evaluate, in blood and brain samples from hens, human blood, and human cell culture samples, the potential of the enantiomeric forms of methamidophos to induce acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and/or delayed neurotoxicity. Calpain activation was also evaluated in the hen brain and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The ratio between the inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and AChE activities by the methamidophos enantiomers was evaluated as a possible indicator of the enantiomers' abilities to induce OPIDN. The (-)-methamidophos exhibited an IC(50) value approximately 6 times greater than that of the (+)-methamidophos for the lymphocyte NTE (LNTE) of hens, and (+)-methamidophos exhibited an IC(50) value approximately 7 times larger than that of the (-)-methamidophos for the hen brain AChE. The IC(50) values were 7 times higher for the human erythrocyte AChE and 5 times higher for AChE in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Considering the esterases inhibition and calpain results, (+)-methamidophos would be expected to have a greater ability to induce OPIDN than the (-)-methamidophos in humans and in hens. PMID:22198100

  14. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid. PMID:12828207

  15. Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

  16. Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, V; Ahmed, A M H; Mallet, S; Faure, J M; Nys, Y

    2006-02-01

    1. Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs. 2. Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to 70 weeks of age in 108 standard cages at 6 per cage (60 cmx63.5 cm), in 96 cages at 5 per cage (59.5 cmx55.5 cm) or in two designs of furnished cage at 15 per cage (24 F15M cages and 36 F15P cages made by two manufacturers) which contained equipment varying in size and location (nests, dust baths and perches). Half of the hens were beak-trimmed in each design. 3. Mortality was low in beak-trimmed hens (<5%) but was unacceptably high in non-beak-trimmed hens due to cannibalism (>40%, 516 hens). Mortality was worse in standard cages than in furnished cages. Consequently, hen-housed egg production was significantly lowered in non-beak-trimmed hens. 4. Egg laying in beak-trimmed hens reared in furnished cages occurred mainly in the nest (80 and 84.8% in F15M and F15P) but also in the dust bath (13.3 and 9.4% in F15M and F15P) and in other parts of the cage (6.7 and 5.8% in F15M and F15P). 5. The total percentage of broken (visual observation) and hair-cracked eggs (candling) was high in the furnished cage designs (15.4 and 19.6% in F15M and F15P, respectively) compared with standard cage designs (8.1 and 12.2% in S6 and S5). This was mainly due to hair-cracked eggs, the highest percentages occurring in the nests, especially in the design with a narrow nest and no egg saver (11.1% in F15M compared to 17.6% in F15P) as a consequence of egg accumulation in the cradle and relatively low frequency of manual egg collection. 6. Eggshell quality (index and breaking strength) was only slightly influenced by cage effects so differences in egg breakage were attributable to impacts related to cage design. 7. It is concluded that beak trimming remains the most effective way to prevent cannibalism, although furnished cages with a large group of hens slightly reduced the incidence, and that further development and optimisation of furnished cages is needed to reach egg quality similar to standard cages. PMID:16546790

  17. Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the bioefficacy of organic compared with inorganic manganese (Mn) for eggshell quality. An amino acid-Mn complex or Mn sulfate monohydrate was used as the organic or inorganic Mn source. A total of six hundred forty-eight 50-wk-old layers (Hy-Line Brown) were divided into 9 groups; each group consisted of 6 replicates with 12 layers each. The feeding trial lasted 12 wk. During the first 4 wk of the feeding trial, the groups were fed a basal diet, which met the nutrient requirements of the layers, except for Mn. During the following 8 wk, 9 levels of Mn (inorganic Mn: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; organic Mn: 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were used to supplement, respectively, in the basal diet on an equimolar basis. An exponential regression model was applied to calculate the bioefficacy of organic Mn compared with the inorganic Mn. Dietary supplementation with either organic or inorganic Mn did not influence egg production and feed efficiency of (P > 0.05), and eggshell quality did not exhibit a significant response to dietary supplementation with Mn sources at 56 and 58 wk (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with either organic Mn or inorganic Mn significantly enhanced the thickness, breaking strength, and elastic modulus of the eggshells compared with the control group at the end of 62 wk (P < 0.05). At the end of 62 wk, the bioefficacy of organic Mn was 357% (shell thickness), 406% (breaking strength), 458% (elastic modulus), and 470% (eggshell Mn), as efficacious as inorganic Mn at equimolar levels. This study suggests that organic Mn enhances eggshell quality in aged laying hens compared with inorganic Mn. PMID:26047673

  18. Draxin is involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuhong; Zhang, Sanbing; Islam, Shahidul M; Shinmyo, Yohei; Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2010-06-01

    Generation of the appropriate types, numbers and distribution of neurons during the development of the nervous system requires the careful coordination of proliferation, differentiation, and patterning. In this work, we analyzed the roles of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, on the development of chick spinal cord dI3 interneuron. draxin mRNA and/or protein were detected in the roof plate at first and then the boundary region between the ventricular and the mantle zones in chick spinal cord and dorsal basement membrane of the chick spinal cord. Overexpression of draxin caused the decreased and delayed migration of the dI3 interneuron, the reduction of progenitor cell proliferation, and abnormal localization of some ectopic progenitor-like cells in the mantle zone of the spinal cord. Our data reveal that draxin may be involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord. PMID:20503362

  19. Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Park, Shinyoung

    2005-02-17

    are human pathogens and may be contracted from foods. These include S. galinarum (poultry), S. dublin (cattle), S. abortus-equi (horses), S. abortus- ovis (sheep), and S. choleraesuis (swine). Group III correspond to unadapted serovars, with no host...

  20. Structural and biochemical insights into 2?-O-methylation at the 3?-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.

    2010-01-28

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  1. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the Spleens of Hens by Bacterins That Vary in Fimbrial Protein SefD

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Morales, Cesar A.; Icard, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this research was to determine whether variation in the presence of fimbrial protein SefD would impact efficacy of bacterins as measured by recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) from the spleens of hens. Two bacterins were prepared that varied in SefD content. Also, two adjuvants were tested, namely, water-in-oil and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum). Control groups for both adjuvant preparations included infected nonvaccinated hens and uninfected nonvaccinated hens. At 21 days postinfection, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 69.7%, 53.1%, and 86.0% from the spleens of all hens vaccinated with bacterins lacking SefD, bacterins that included SefD, and infected nonvaccinated control hens, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from uninfected nonvaccinates. Results from individual trials showed that both bacterins reduced positive spleens, but that the one with SefD was more efficacious. Alum adjuvant had fewer side effects on hens and egg production as compared to water-in-oil. However, adjuvant did not change the relative recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from spleens. These results suggest that SefD is a promising target antigen for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in hens, and is intended to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in the food supply. PMID:26218804

  2. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens. PMID:26473687

  3. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the Spleens of Hens by Bacterins That Vary in Fimbrial Protein SefD.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ingunza, Roxana; Guard, Jean; Morales, Cesar A; Icard, Alan H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether variation in the presence of fimbrial protein SefD would impact efficacy of bacterins as measured by recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) from the spleens of hens. Two bacterins were prepared that varied in SefD content. Also, two adjuvants were tested, namely, water-in-oil and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum). Control groups for both adjuvant preparations included infected nonvaccinated hens and uninfected nonvaccinated hens. At 21 days postinfection, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 69.7%, 53.1%, and 86.0% from the spleens of all hens vaccinated with bacterins lacking SefD, bacterins that included SefD, and infected nonvaccinated control hens, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from uninfected nonvaccinates. Results from individual trials showed that both bacterins reduced positive spleens, but that the one with SefD was more efficacious. Alum adjuvant had fewer side effects on hens and egg production as compared to water-in-oil. However, adjuvant did not change the relative recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from spleens. These results suggest that SefD is a promising target antigen for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in hens, and is intended to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in the food supply. PMID:26218804

  4. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  5. DNA in situ hybridization for the rapid diagnosis of massive necrotizing avian adenovirus hepatitis and pancreatitis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, M A; Latimer, K S; Resurreccion, R S; Miller, P G; Campagnoli, R P

    1996-01-01

    The present study describes the use of DNA in situ hybridization for the rapid diagnosis of massive necrotizing adenovirus hepatitis and pancreatitis in broiler chicks. A light microscope and DNA probes were used to identify avian adenovirus in replicate sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver and pancreas from field and experimental chicks. Avian adenovirus infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and virus isolation. PMID:8980813

  6. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ? 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  7. The Extracellular ATP Receptor, cP2Y1, Inhibits Cartilage Formation in Micromass Cultures of Chick

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    The Extracellular ATP Receptor, cP2Y1, Inhibits Cartilage Formation in Micromass Cultures of Chick (cP2Y1) during develop- ment of the chick limb. cP2Y1 is strongly expressed in undifferentiated limb was particularly striking surrounding areas of carti- lage formation. We tested whether cP2Y1 was able to regulate

  8. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems and resulting impact on egg quality measures. PMID:25630672

  9. Microbiological differences between laying hen strains housed in various production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sister flocks of three strains of laying hens were housed in conventional cage, free range, and cage free production systems. All flocks were located on a single, commercial-style research facility and provided the same dietary and lighting regimens. Once a season, a sample of shell eggs was asept...

  10. Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 Accepted May 21, 1996 Turkey be- havior, and hyperprolactinemia. Although remarkable changes occur in hormonal profiles as turkey

  11. An Object-Dependent Hand Pose Prior from Sparse Training Data Henning Hamer1

    E-print Network

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    An Object-Dependent Hand Pose Prior from Sparse Training Data Henning Hamer1 Juergen Gall1 Thibaut.vangool@esat.kuleuven.be Abstract In this paper, we propose a prior for hand pose estima- tion that integrates the direct relation between a manipu- lating hand and a 3d object. This is of particular interest for a variety

  12. "One Hen:" Using Children's Literature in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon; Fox, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Can reading a book about a boy and a hen in Ghana make a difference to fifth graders in their Michigan community? Indeed, it can, and in myriad ways. At a suburban elementary school in Michigan, the authors introduced fifth graders to economic concepts in a project-based learning (PBL) unit. They began by reading aloud and discussing the picture…

  13. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from < 0.9 to 1.4 microg/kg after the withdrawal period. Narasin residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture. PMID:15538711

  14. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  15. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter "Sage-Grouse"). During 2008­ 2011, we collected summer survival data from 427

  16. COMPARISON OF S. ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS LEVELS IN CROPS OF FED OR FASTED INFECTED HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term feed withdrawal has been shown to increase ileocecal intestinal colonization and fecal shedding of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in challenged hens. Less information is available regarding effects of fasting on crop colonization. Two trials were conducted to compare effects of 14...

  17. COMPARISONS OF S ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS LEVELS IN CROPS OF FED OR FASTED INFECTED HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term feed withdrawal has been shown to increase intestinal colonization of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in challenged hens. Less information is available regarding effects of fasting on crop colonization. Two trials were conducted to compare effects of 14-day feed withdrawal vs full ...

  18. www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE 19716 I 302-831-1231 I udcareers@udel.edu Updated: [date] Prepare for the Career Fair Before the Fair: · Have your resume

  19. www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    www.udel.edu/CSC @UD Careers I /UDCareers I Blue Hen Career Network 401 Academy St, Newark, DE 19716 I 302-831-1231 I udcareers@udel.edu Updated: 08/2013 Career Assessment Whether you are confused about where to begin in your career or major decision-making process, or you have recently decided

  20. The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial ocks of laying hens

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial ¯ocks of laying hens B. Huber-3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland Accepted 3 May 2001 Abstract Feather pecking and cannibalism remain of feather pecking under commercial conditions. A recent epidemiological survey estimated it to be 37

  1. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  2. Effect of passage through laying hens on organ invasiveness and phenotypic heterogeneity of Salmonella enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horizontal transmission within and between flocks is an important aspect of the epidemiology of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry. Previously, a series of passages through infected laying hens increased the frequency at which an SE isolate was deposited inside eggs. The present study evaluated ...

  3. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  4. WINTER/SPRING 19 hen trauma to the human brain occurs,

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Lynn

    on the location and extent of brain tissue affected. One striking difference in the deficits observed dependsWINTER/SPRING 19 W hen trauma to the human brain occurs, functional loss will depend accompany left-hemisphere stroke. It is obvi- ous when a loved one cannot speak or has difficulty

  5. Ivermectin Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Tissue/Egg Residue Profiles in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Dominguez, Paula; Farias, Cristina; Canton, Lucila; Virkel, Guillermo; Maté, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The goals were to determine the ivermectin (IVM) plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue and egg residue profiles, and in vitro metabolism in laying hens. Experiments conducted were (1) 8 hens were intravenously treated with IVM and blood samples taken; (2) 88 hens were treated with IVM administered daily in water (5 days) (40 were kept and their daily eggs collected; 48 were sacrificed in groups (n = 8) at different times and tissue samples taken and analyzed); (3) IVM biotransformation was studied in liver microsomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC = 85.1 ng·day/mL, Vdss = 4.43 L/kg, and T1/2el = 1.73 days. Low IVM tissue residues were quantified with the highest measured in liver and skin+fat. IVM residues were not found in egg white, but significant amounts were quantified in yolk. Residues measured in eggs were greater than some MRL values, suggesting that a withdrawal period would be necessary for eggs after IVM use in laying hens. PMID:26553292

  6. The Little Red Hen: Bringing a Folktale to Life. Grades K-1. Tapestries for Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kelly; Westley, Joan

    This thematic unit involves kindergarten and 1st grade students in the production of a theatrical performance based on the folktale, "The Little Red Hen." The interdisciplinary unit connects knowledge related to theater arts, art, language arts, music, applied mathematics, social studies, and science. Students visit a local theater and prepare…

  7. CONTROLLING EGG CONTAMINATION BY UNDERSTANDING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  8. IMPROVED EFFICIENCY OF INTACT CROP REMOVAL FOR BROILER BREEDER ROOSTERS AND HENS DURING MANUAL EVISCERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a technique that demonstrated improved efficiency of intact crop removal for broilers, experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the technique in 40 and 41-wk-old broiler breeder roosters and hens. The technique involved (after scalding defeathering, and cutting off the hea...

  9. Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses , Y. Liang2

    E-print Network

    Kentucky, University of

    Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses H. Xin1 , Y. Liang2 , R.S. Gates3 , E. F the sustainability of the animal industry. This paper describes measurement and some preliminary results of ammonia ammonia (NH3) emission factors for poultry confinement facilities for representative housing types, manure

  10. Interworking Between SIP/SDP and H.323 Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne

    E-print Network

    Interworking Between SIP/SDP and H.323£ Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne Dept. of Computer There are currently two standards for signaling and control of Internet telephone calls, namely ITU-T Recommendation H) can allow SIP user agents to call H.323 terminals and vice versa. Our solution addresses user

  11. Eigenvalue inclusions via domain decomposition Henning Behnke, Ulrich Mertins, Michael Plum, and Christian Wieners

    E-print Network

    Wieners, Christian

    Eigenvalue inclusions via domain decomposition Henning Behnke, Ulrich Mertins, Michael Plum for the eigenfunctions and RT 1 approximations for the gradients of the eigenfunctions in H(div; , an error bound for the eigenfunctions is established for weak approximations in H 1(\\Omega\\Gamma . In addition, the rest of the spectrum

  12. Interworking Between SIP/SDP and H.323 Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne

    E-print Network

    Interworking Between SIP/SDP and H.323 #3; Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne Dept. of Computer There are currently two standards for signaling and control of Internet telephone calls, namely ITU­T Recommendation H) can allow SIP user agents to call H.323 terminals and vice versa. Our solution addresses user

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Sodium Salicylate Administration to Laying Hens: Evidence for Time Dependent Increase in Drug Elimination from Plasma and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Po?niak, B?a?ej; Grabowski, Tomasz; Motykiewicz-Pers, Karolina; Bobrek, Kamila; Rak, Lech; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Gawe?, Andrzej; ?wita?a, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus) salicylate (SA) may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT), minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h) and elimination half-life (T1/2el) of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB) increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment. PMID:25893240

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Hario, M; Himberg, K; Hollmén, T; Rudbäck, E

    2000-01-01

    Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991-1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same focal area, although at a much lower frequency. We found disproportionately high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver relative to leg muscle in lesser black-backed chicks compared with common gull and herring gull chicks. The causality between PCB residues and chick diseases remains unknown. No signs of chick edema disease or abnormal frequency of embryonic deaths, commonly associated with organochlorines in biota, were found. It is concluded that studies made in a very small geographical area may not give a good correlation between dose and effect due to an even greater variation in tolerance. Another explanation is that the diseases may not have been PCB-induced. PMID:15093008

  15. Modeling ovarian follicle growth in commercial and heritage Single Comb White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    McLeod, E S; Jalal, M A; Zuidhof, M J

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 84% of the energy in chicken eggs resides in the yolk. A robust model of ovarian follicle development is therefore valuable for estimating energy requirements of laying hens. The current experiment was designed to model the growth of ovarian follicles in 32-wk-old modern commercial line (CL) and unselected heritage line (HL) Single Comb White Leghorn hens. The volume of yolk deposited daily during the rapid growth phase (RGP) was estimated using a double dye technique. For 21 d, 8 CL and 8 HL hens were fed capsules (no. 1) containing Sudan IV (red) and Sudan Black dyes on alternate days. An additional 8 control CL hens were fed empty capsules. Eggs were collected, and the daily volume of yolk deposited was estimated. Significant differences are reported where P < 0.05. Dye had no significant effect on BW, ME intake, or egg weight. Maintenance ME requirements were 192 and 177 kcal/kg(0.67) for CL and HL hens, respectively. Duration of the RGP was shorter (7.35 d) in the CL hens compared with the HL hens (7.95 d). A nonlinear Lomolino model described follicular weight, which varied between strains over d 2 to 9 of follicle development; at each day during development, follicle weights were higher where RGP were shorter. The volume of yolk deposited for the 8 d preceding oviposition in CL was 0.17, 0.28, 0.43, 0.99, 1.84, 2.47, 2.82, 2.86, and 2.51 cm(3); and in HL was 0.17, 0.33, 0.72, 1.40, 2.15, 2.46, 2.48, 2.32, and 1.93 cm(3). The HL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 7 to 5 d before oviposition, and CL had a higher rate of yolk deposition 3 to 1 d before oviposition with no significant difference between lines on d 4 before oviposition. Although growth patterns differed, there were no differences among lines in final follicle weights (14.1 g) or retained energy (42.4 kcal). PMID:25214554

  16. The effect of furnished cages on the immune response of laying hens under social stress.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Huseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of cage furnishing and social stress on some lymphoid organ weight and innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses in laying hens. Sixty-four chickens were used. The chickens were divided into 2 groups; one of the groups was reared in furnished cages (RFC) and the other was reared in conventional cages (RCC). In wk 17, social stress was applied. Heterophil and lymphocyte percentages; liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius weights; phagocytic activity; oxidative burst and chemotaxic activity of heterophil; CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions; and antibody production were measured. The effect of rearing methods was significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentage, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and antibody production. Heterophil percentage and H/L ratio were lower (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively), and antibody production was higher (P = 0.003) in RFC hens compared to RCC hens. The main effect of social stress was also significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentages, and H/L ratio. Heterophil percentage was higher (P = 0.049); H/L ratio tended to be higher (P = 0.068); and lymphocyte percentage tended to be lower (P = 0.072) due to stress. In addition, thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights tended to be lower (P = 0.073 and P = 0.074, respectively) in stressed hens. There were significant interactions between rearing methods and social stress on oxidative burst, chemotaxic activity, and CD4+ and CD8+ proportion (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.054, and P = 0.001, respectively). These parameters were significantly higher in RFC hens, when they were exposed to stress. On the other hand, they did not differ in RCC or unstressed RFC hens. These results indicated that cage furnishing positively affected heterophil functions, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions, and antibody production. Therefore, we suggest that cage furnishing, which is recommended for improving the welfare of animals, is also beneficial for improving the immune response of hens under the stress condition. PMID:26475073

  17. Effects of Microheterogeneity in Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, B. R.; Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    In earlier sodium dodecylsulfate polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies it has been found that commonly utilized commercial hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) preparations contained 0.2-0.4 mol% covalently bound dimers. Here it is shown, using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), that HEWL contains, in addition, two differently charged monomers in comparable amounts. To explore the origin of these microheterogeneous contaminants, purified HEWL (PHEWL) has been oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (0.0026-0.88 M) at various pH levels between 4.5 and 12.0. Optical densitometry of oxidized PHEWL (OHEWL) bands in SDS PAGE gels shows that hydrogen peroxide at 0.88 M in acetate buffer pH 4.5 increased the amount of dimers about sixfold over that in commercial HEWL. OHEWL had, in addition to one of the two monomer forms found in HEWL and PHEWL, three other differently charged monomer forms, each of them representing about 25% of the preparation. SDS-PAGE analysis of OHEWL yielded two closely spaced dimer bands with M(sub r) = 28 000 and 27 500. In addition, larger HEWL oligomers with M, = 1.7 million and 320 000 were detected by gel-filtration fast protein liquid chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection. Non-dissociating PAGE in large pore size gels at pH 4.5 confirmed the presence of these large oligomers in HEWL and OHEWL. Increased microheterogeneity resulted in substantial effects on crystal growth and nucleation rate. On addition of 10 microgram(exp -1) mg ml(exp -1) OHEWL to 32 mg ml(exp -1) HEWL crystallizing solutions, both the number and size of forming crystals decreased roughly proportionally to the concentration of the added microheterogeneity. The same effect was observed in HEWL solutions on addition of 0.03-9,3 M Hydrogen peroxide. Repartioning of the dimer during crystallzation aat various temperatures between 277 and 293 K was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained <= 25 % weight by volume of the oligomers in the solution, with no apparent temperature dependence of the repartioning.

  18. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ? 18 months old than in hens < 18 months old. Despite the fact that we did not find any specific biomarker of Salmonella infection, this is the first report about the change of Salmonella infection and inflammatory response in hematological/serum biochemical values for laying hens. PMID:25912484

  19. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca A.; Hester, Patricia Y.; Eicher, Susan D.; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1? and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-? factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures. PMID:26495988

  20. Protein requirements of bobwhite chicks for survival, growth and efficiency of feed utilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; McClure, H.E.

    1942-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

  1. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed Central

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-01-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl. Images PMID:2280022

  2. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl. PMID:2280022

  3. A novel, nonsurgical method for the treatment of tibiotarsal rotation in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) chicks.

    PubMed

    Stiévenart, Corinne

    2008-03-01

    Rotational limb deformity due to tibiotarsal rotation can affect captive-bred houbara bustard chicks (Chlamydotis macqueenii) from an early age. If not completely corrected, the affected birds can neither be released into the wild nor used in captive-breeding projects. A nonsurgical orthopedic method was developed to correct this deformity before growth is completed. The method consists of hobbling digits III and the distal part of the tarsometatarsus of each leg with a self-adhesive conforming bandage that keeps digits III parallel with enough freedom of movement to allow walking. The tibiotarsal bones are left free. This treatment was successful when it was implemented for 20 days on 10-day-old houbara bustard chicks presenting with 60 degrees to 90 degrees unilateral tibiotarsal rotation. Implementing the same corrective method at an older age was not successful. This cheap, accessible, and noninvasive technique may be applicable to other avian species. PMID:18543599

  4. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop. PMID:25645095

  5. Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-08-30

    Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator. PMID:24815403

  6. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris. PMID:20627261

  7. Control of landing flight by laying hens: implications for the design of extensive housing systems.

    PubMed

    Moinard, C; Statham, P; Green, P R

    2004-10-01

    (1) Ten domestic hens (Lohmann Brown) were video-recorded while moving between perches at a horizontal distance of 0.6, 0.8 or 1.15 m apart. The take-off perch was either 0.2 m above or below the landing perch. (2) Weight and wing area of the hens were measured at the end of the experiment. The same measures where taken from 10 jungle fowls. (3) Clumsy or missed landings were observed on some downward flights over 0.8 and 1.15 m. (4) Hens' trajectories on take-off were closely related to the position of the target perch, and variation in take-off trajectory decreased as the distance between perches increased. (5) The standard deviation of the horizontal distance between head and perch, at the point when the feet first contacted the perch, did not vary with flight distance, suggesting that timing of foot extension was equally accurate at all distances. (6) The standard deviation of the vertical distance between head and perch, at the point when the feet first contacted the perch, did increase with distance, suggesting increasing difficulty in controlling the height of the flight trajectory above the landing perch. (7) Wing loading of the hens (mean 213 N/m2) was approximately twice that of the jungle fowl (mean 111 N/m2). (8) Loss of accuracy in hens' landings at greater distances can be attributed specifically to the effects of high wing loading on the ability to generate and control lift. PMID:15623208

  8. Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens, and ducks.

    PubMed

    Hindle, V A; Lambooij, E; Reimert, H G M; Workel, L D; Gerritzen, M A

    2010-03-01

    European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters (i.e., applied current, behavior) affecting effective water bath stunning. An inventory of current electrical stunning practice was performed in 10 slaughterhouses in the Netherlands. Thereafter, measurements were performed using a single-bird water bath to examine the effects of stunner settings based on the average technical settings observed in the slaughterhouses. Responses were recorded at 50, 400, and 1,000 Hz on broilers and hens and at 50 and 400 Hz on ducks under controlled laboratory conditions. Effects of voltage settings (broilers: 100 to 400 V; hens: 150 to 300 V; ducks: 150 to 400 V) on current levels (broilers: 45 to 444 mA; hens: 40 to 219 mA; ducks: 64 to 362 mA) and consciousness (response to pain stimulus) were recorded immediately after stunning. Brain and heart activity was monitored using electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram technology. Results show that effective stunning using the conventional water bath almost exclusively produces blood splashing in broilers. Effective stunning current levels did not differ significantly between broilers, hens, and ducks effectively stunned hens tended to require lower currents. Effective stuns at higher frequencies resulted in higher currents. Similar input voltage (V) levels (within and between bird type) resulted in significant variation (P < 0.001) in current levels (mA) required for an effective stun, indicating variability in electrical impedance between individual birds. Body weight and bird type did not affect the probability of an effective stun. Multi-bird water bath usage does not ensure effective stunning and technical adjustments can result in detrimental effects on meat quality. Future legislation should consider wave form, relationships between frequency and current allowing for individual impedance variation and effects on meat quality while safeguarding animal welfare. PMID:20181854

  9. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before 16 weeks of age. The measures outlined in this review may be useful for improving the welfare of pullets and adult laying hens. PMID:26009752

  10. Kinetic study of chlordecone orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Jondreville, Catherine; Fournier, Agnès; Mahieu, Maurice; Feidt, Cyril; Archimède, Harry; Rychen, Guido

    2014-11-01

    The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 ?g CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE), 5.5 ± 0.29, 5.3 ± 0.37 and 5.1 ± 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 ± 274, 460 ± 41, 331 ± 23, and 213 ± 8.5 ?g kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 ± 8.4, 127 ± 11 ?g kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 ± 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 ?g CLD kg(-1). PMID:25113213

  11. Importance of adrenergic receptors in prenatally induced cognitive impairment in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Marie E; Rodricks, Candice L; Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Miller, Suzanne L

    2009-02-01

    In the domestic chick, mild hypoxia (24h of 14% oxygen) at two stages of embryonic development results in post-hatch memory deficiencies tested using a discriminated bead avoidance task. The nature of the memory loss depends on the gestational age at which the hypoxia occurs. Hypoxia on embryonic day 10 (E10) of a 21 day incubation results in chicks with no short-term memory 10 min after training, whereas hypoxia on day 14 (E14) results in chicks with good labile memory 30 min after training but no consolidation of memory into permanent storage (120 min). Hypoxia at E14 is associated with increased plasma levels of noradrenaline and therefore we suggest that altered catecholamine exposure within the brain contributes to cognitive problems by modifying the responsiveness of brain beta-adrenoceptors. In ovo administration of noradrenaline, or the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol, at E14 had the same effect on memory consolidation as hypoxia. Following hypoxia at E14, memory could be rescued after training by central injection of a beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, but not by a beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. The differences in the responsiveness of memory processing to beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists suggests alterations to the receptors or downstream of the receptor activation. However, both types of beta-adrenoceptor agonists rescued memory in E10 treated chicks implying that at this age hypoxia does not affect the receptors. In summary, hypoxia or increased levels of stress hormones during incubation alters beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness; the outcome of the insult depends upon the cellular developmental processes at a given embryonic stage. PMID:19027843

  12. The effect of protein depletion and repletion on muscle-protein turnover in the chick.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, M L; Swick, R W

    1981-01-01

    Rates of growth and protein turnover in the breast muscle of young chicks were measured in order to assess the roles of protein synthesis and degradation in the regulation of muscle mass. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo by injecting a massive dose of L-[1-14C]valine, and rates of protein degradation were estimated as the difference between the synthesis rate and the growth rate of muscle protein. In chicks fed on a control diet for up to 7 weeks of age, the fractional rate of synthesis decreased from 1 to 2 weeks of age and then changed insignificantly from 2 to 7 weeks of age, whereas DNA activity was constant for 1 to 7 weeks. When 4-week-old chicks were fed on a protein-free diet for 17 days, the total amount of breast-muscle protein synthesized and degraded per day and the amount of protein synthesized per unit of DNA decreased. Protein was lost owing to a greater decrease in the rate of protein synthesis, as a result of the loss of RNA and a lowered RNA activity. When depleted chicks were re-fed the control diet, rapid growth was achieved by a doubling of the fractional synthesis rate by 2 days. Initially, this was a result of increased RNA activity; by 5 days, the RNA/DNA ratio also increased. There was no evidence of a decrease in the fractional degradation rate during re-feeding. These results indicate that dietary-protein depletion and repletion cause changes in breast-muscle protein mass primarily through changes in the rate of protein synthesis. PMID:6171262

  13. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  14. Growth and anatomical characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with crude petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Pollution of farmlands by overland pipelines carrying crude or refined petroleum are capable of exposing domestic livestock and poultry to varying levels of ingested petroleum products. Prolonged ingestion of low levels of oil-polluted plant materials, seeds and water by livestock and poultry may affect tissues and organs and consequently influence growth and performance. The results reported here are from a preliminary study on gross anatomy and performance characteristics of pullet chicks fed diets contaminated with varying levels of crude petroleum.

  15. Wheat Gray Shorts for the Prevention of Slipped Tendons in Battery Brooder Chicks

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Couch, James Russell

    1936-01-01

    brooders. The symptoms of slipped tendons in the advanced stages are these: the tibial-metatarsal jodnt is swollen and has a bluish-green color caused apparently by small hemorrhages in the underlying tissue, the tendons slip out of place to either side... STATION -- - A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - BULLETIN 1 -- - JUNE, 1936 DIVISION OF POULTRY HUSBANDRY WHEAT GRAY SHORTS FOR THE PREVENTION OF SLIPPED TENDONS IN BATTERY BROODER CHICKS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL...

  16. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA. PMID:21181572

  17. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  18. Fruit or aposematic insect? Context-dependent colour preferences in domestic chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Gamberale-Stille, G.; Tullberg, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    Colours are common stimuli in signalling systems. Requirements to function well as a signal sometimes conflict between different signallers, and the same colour stimulus is used to convey completely different messages to the same receiver. Fruits and aposematic insects both use red coloration as a signal, in the former case to signal profitability and in the latter case as a warning signal. In two experiments, we investigated whether the domestic chick, an omnivorous predator, differed in its unconditioned preference or avoidance of red and green stimuli depending on whether or not the stimulus was an insect. The experiments were designed as preference tests between red and green painted prey. The prey were live insects and artificial fruits (experiment 1), and, to investigate the effect of movement, live and dead insects (experiment 2). The chicks did not show any difference in pecking preference between red and green when fruit-like stimuli were used, but when the prey were insects, green prey were strongly preferred to red prey, and prey movement did not affect this bias. Thus, young chicks may recognize prey as insects and then discriminate between different prey colorations, or one type of food may elicit an unlearned colour preference-avoidance response that is absent with another type of food. PMID:11749705

  19. Interaction of the substratum and electromagnetic fields on embryonic chick cell alignment and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Wilkes, C.; Hamada, S.H. )

    1989-03-01

    All in vitro studies to date on the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have utilized an amorphous substratum (i.e. glass or plastic). Earlier we reported the alignment of chick fibroblast perpendicular to an EMF in a serum-free tissue culture system. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the effect of substratum organization on cell alignment and behavior when an EMF is applied. Fibronectin was isolated from the chicken plasma using agarose and collagen-sepharose affinity columns and its purity checked on SDS-PAGE. The fibronection was applied to glass either as an non-organized matrix or as an organized matrix parallel fibers. Chick embryonic cells require three days to align on organized fibronectin fibers. Unaligned cells (day 1 of culture) can be re-aligned by an EMF in 25 mins. However once aligned on fibronectin, these cells (day 3 of culture) require as much as 3 hours in an EMF before re-aligned can be detected. This may explain (1) why tissues require grater applied fields and longer duration of exposure to an EMF before abnormalities can be detected and (2) chick embryos are especially sensitive to EMF at earlier stages of development. We hypothesize that the resistance of fibronectin attached cells to the perturbation of EMF may be due to de novo fibronectin synthesis.

  20. Energy utilisation of carbohydrate, fat and protein sources in newly hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sulistiyanto, B; Akiba, Y; Sato, K

    1999-12-01

    1. TME, TMEn and metabolisability (TME/gross energy) of energy-yielding foodstuffs were determined in 1, 3 and 10 d old broiler chicks, using the assay method developed by Murakami et al. (1994), in order to characterise energy utilisation during the 10 d after hatching. 2. TME, TMEn and metabolisability of dextrin and starch were low in chicks aged 1 d, and increased with age up to 10 d. Energy values of glucose and maltose at days 1 and 3 could not be determined because of the sudden death of birds soon after the feeding. TMEn and metabolisability of cereal sources were lower in d-old chicks than in those aged 3 and 10 d. At all ages, maize was better utilised than wheat and sorghum. 3. In the fat sources (coconut oil, beef tallow and safflower oil) no age dependency was observed in TME, TMEn and metabolisability. 4. Bioavailability of soyabean meal and fish meal was lower at 1 d than at 3 d and 10 d. Energy utilisation from casein was the highest among the protein sources tested and it was not age dependent. 5. It is concluded that energy utilisation of carbohydrate and protein sources during 10 d post-hatch tended to increase with age. Among the energy yielding foodstuffs fat sources seem to be better utilised, with no age dependency. PMID:10670678

  1. Cultured embryonic chick skeletal muscle cells contain specific receptors for a myotrophic factor identified as neutrotransferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Stamotos, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured embryonic chick myotubes require iron during proliferation and differentiation. Ovotransferrin (OvoTF), the iron-binding protein of egg white, produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of myogenesis, as evaluated by a sensitive quantitative bioassay for acetylcholine receptors. Neurotransferrin, a myotrophic protein isolated from adult chicken sciatic nerve, is immunologically and physiologically very similar, if not identical, to OvoTf. Cultured embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine, homogenized and subjected to immunoprecipitation with antibody against neurotransferrin. The authors demonstrated that neuronal cell enriched cultures synthesize and secrete neurotransferrin. The binding of OvoTf to cultured myotubes is specific, saturated at a concentration of 80 nM OvoTf and reversible. Binding of OvoTf to cultured myotubes occurs at 4/sup 0/C and at 37/sup 0/C. Internalization studies using /sup 125/I-ovotransferrin or /sup 55/Fe-OvoTf suggested that OvoTf is internalized, depleted of iron and then recycled intact to the extracellular milieu. Autoradiography of muscle cell cultures incubated with /sup 125/I-OvoTf revealed clusters of OvoTf receptors along the surface of the myotubes. Electron microscopy autoradiography of myotubes incubated with /sup 55/Fe-OvoTf showed that iron delivered by OvoTf is rapidly distributed throughout the cell. The results of the studies suggest that neurotransferrin may play a critical role during in vivo embryonic chick skeletal muscle development.

  2. Identification, Classification, and Growth of Moa Chicks (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the Genus Euryapteryx

    PubMed Central

    Huynen, Leon; Gill, Brian J.; Doyle, Anthony; Millar, Craig D.; Lambert, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The analysis of growth in extinct organisms is difficult. The general lack of skeletal material from a range of developmental states precludes determination of growth characteristics. For New Zealand's extinct moa we have available to us a selection of rare femora at different developmental stages that have allowed a preliminary determination of the early growth of this giant flightless bird. We use a combination of femora morphometrics, ancient DNA, and isotope analysis to provide information on the identification, classification, and growth of extinct moa from the genus Euryapteryx. Results Using ancient DNA, we identify a number of moa chick bones for the species Euryapteryx curtus, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Anomalopteryx didiformis, and the first chick bone for Pachyornis geranoides. Isotope analysis shows that ?15N levels vary between the two known size classes of Euryapteryx, with the larger size class having reduced levels of ?15N. A growth series for femora of the two size classes of Euryapteryx shows that early femora growth characteristics for both classes are almost identical. Morphometric, isotopic, and radiographic analysis of the smallest Euryapteryx bones suggests that one of these femora is from a freshly hatched moa at a very early stage of development. Conclusion Using morphometric, isotopic, and ancient DNA analyses have allowed the determination of a number of characteristics of rare moa chick femora. For Euryapteryx the analyses suggest that the smaller sized class II Euryapteryx is identical in size and growth to the extant Darwin's rhea. PMID:24923666

  3. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  4. Formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters in chick myotubes: migration or new insertion?

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the feasibility of two mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor (ACHR) accumulation in chick myotubes: diffusion and trapping of previously dispersed surface receptors and localized insertion of new receptors at accumulation sites. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements indicated that the majority of diffusely distributed ACHRs in chick myotube membranes were mobile whereas nearly all receptors within high density clusters were effectively immobile. Unlike previous reports, two rates of ACHR movement characterized the mobile population. Moreover, we found that the estimated diffusion coefficient depended critically on the objective (spot size) used to assay recovery from bleaching. Implications of this finding for mechanisms of receptor immobilization are discussed. Extracts of chick brain, known to increase the number of surface receptors, did not alter receptor mobility. Extracts of Torpedo electric organ that increase the number of receptor aggregates, decreased the mobile fraction of ACHRs. Simulations of the diffusion and trapping mechanism indicated that captured receptors should congregate around the periphery of a receptor patch during the first hour after they were inserted into the membrane. However, newly inserted ACHRs were found to be located centrally within receptor patches under neurites, and this was not consistent with an exclusive diffusion-trapping mechanism. We also studied the mobility of ACHRs near points of contact made by cholinergic growth cones. The rate of receptor movement was increased in the vicinity of growth cones, but the magnitude of this effect was small. PMID:2793937

  5. Mature Turkey Breeder Hens Exposed to Pandemic Influenza H1N1: Resultant Effects on Morbidity, Mortality, and Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert; Bommineni, Yugendar; Falk, Jonathan; Blackway, Adam; Young, Brent; Isenhart, Connie

    2015-03-01

    During the artificial insemination process, turkey breeder hens may become infected with influenza virus acquired from humans. The virus has been shown, through experimental infection, to localize in the reproductive tract, with limited dissemination in other tissues. A limited number of hens were used during these studies, and the overall flock morbidity, mortality, and fecundity were not able to be determined. The current case follows the progression of clinical signs in a flock of commercial breeder hens from onset of egg production losses in one house through the subsequent drops in four remaining houses. Each house contained approximately 3000 hens and followed a sequential loss of shell quality, reduced numbers of eggs, and fertility, while mild clinical signs were observed and mortality was slightly increased in a house with concurrent fowl cholera (Pasturella multocida) infection. PMID:26292554

  6. PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCI.. VOL. 54 <19;51 13; EFFECTS OF ATBAZINE ON PENNED HEN PHEASANTS

    E-print Network

    weeks. No effects were de- tected in weight gain by hens number of eggs laid, eggshell thick- ness with observable embryo development), and hatchabUlty (number or fertile eggs hatched). Thickness of the eggshells

  7. Effect of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on growth performance and antibody production in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Akiba, Yukio; Iwata, Toshio; Kasai, Masaaki

    2003-05-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers mixture on antibody titres against sheep blood erythrocytes (SRBC) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration in plasma was studied in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, male and female broiler chicks (11 d of age, Cobb strain) were fed a diet supplemented with 10 g CLA or 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg diet for 2 weeks. An SRBC suspension (5:100, v/v) in a phosphate buffer was intravenously injected at 18 d of age and a blood sample was taken from the wing vein at 25 d of age. Chicks fed the CLA-supplemented diet had enhanced first antibody titres in plasma to SRBC as compared with those fed the safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet, irrespective of sex differences. In experiment 2, male broiler chicks (8 d of age, Ross strain) were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 10 g CLA/kg diet for 3 weeks. CLA in the CLA diet partially replaced the soyabean oil in the basal diet. The SRBC suspension was intravenously injected at 15 and 25 d of age and a blood sample was obtained at 21 and 29 d of age. The first antibody titres against SRBC were higher in chicks fed the CLA diet than those in chicks fed the basal diet, but the second titres were not. Plasma IgG concentrations in chicks fed the CLA diet were higher than those in chicks fed the basal diet on both sampling days. The results showed that dietary CLA enhanced antibody production in broiler chickens. PMID:12720589

  8. Maturation of the homeothermic response of heart rate to altered ambient temperature in developing chick hatchlings (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Khandoker, A H; Fukazawa, K; Dzialowski, E M; Burggren, W W; Tazawa, H

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of evidence showing that instantaneous heart rate (IHR) of chick hatchlings responds to exposure to altered ambient temperature (Ta; Tazawa H, Moriya K, Tamura A, and Akiyama R. Comp Biochem Physiol A 131A: 797-803, 2002), we elucidate here the developmental timeline for the homeothermic response of HR in newly hatched chicks (days 0-7) maintained at room temperature ( approximately 24-27 degrees C). Hatchlings were exposed to Ta of 25, 35, and 25 degrees C for 1-h periods, respectively, and IHR was measured together with skin temperature (Ts) during this warming and cooling bout. Early 0-day-old (0 day) chicks responded to warming and cooling exposures with various changes in HR baseline. In newly hatched chicks (0-7 h old), HR baseline was elevated during warming (Delta126 beats/min, n = 13) and declined during cooling (-Delta94 beats/min). With progress of development on day 0, the elevation of HR baseline during warming decreased and advanced 0-day chicks tended to decrease HR baseline during warming rather than increase HR. The more developed 1- to 7-day-old chicks exhibited the expected homeothermic decrease in HR during warming. The diurnal variations of HR responses during warming and cooling on the first day of post-egg life indicate that pronounced development of thermoregulatory competence occurs during the day of hatching (day 0). The response of IHR fluctuations to altered Ta was observed in the form of low- and high-frequency oscillations. High-frequency oscillations corresponding to respiratory sinus arrhythmia developed as the hatchlings aged. There was a significant increase in the number of chicks exhibiting both low- and high-frequency oscillations that depended on age and the development of thermoregulatory competence of hatchlings. PMID:14525724

  9. Immunodetection of type I acidic keratins associated to periderm granules during the transition of cornification from embryonic to definitive chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-01

    The change in the modality of cornification from embryonic to definitive epidermis in the chick has been studied using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy to show that the initial soft cornification based on an acidic type I alpha-keratin transits to a definitive hard cornification based on beta-proteins in the claw, scales and feathers. The first two periderm layers contain acidic keratins associated with periderm granules and participate in a mild form of cornification before shedding of the periderm. The transition from embryonic to adult cornification is best seen in the transitional layers of the claw where numerous periderm granules merge with packets or bundles of corneous beta-proteins. This process is hardly seen in scale and feathers where periderm granules remain most in the periderm or in the feather sheath. Periderm granules disappear in corneocytes generated underneath the periderm in scales or in the transitional layer in claws and are replaced by beta-proteins associated to other types of acidic alpha-keratins. This process produces a mechanically resistant corneous material underneath the softer periderm, adapted to terrestrial demand for mechanical protection in scales and in the dorsal part of the claw, the unguis. In the ventral part of the claw, the sub-unguis, scarce or no beta-proteins are accumulated resulting in a softer corneous layer. The study indicates that specific alpha-keratins form the cytoskeletal framework of definitive corneocytes in claws, scales and feathers, and that specialized corneous beta-proteins are deposited over this framework to produce epidermal layers with higher mechanical resistance. PMID:25041831

  10. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-? mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-? (IFN-?) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct. Therefore, both dietary taurine and reduced housing density can ameliorate oviduct injury, enhance oviduct health, and promote egg production in laying hens. PMID:26055907

  11. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better hygiene, and fewer red mite infestations. This suggests that adjustments to the aviary housing design may further improve laying hen welfare and performance. PMID:26188031

  12. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups’ diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-? mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-? (IFN-?) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct. Therefore, both dietary taurine and reduced housing density can ameliorate oviduct injury, enhance oviduct health, and promote egg production in laying hens. PMID:26055907

  13. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A1, 2, 3), semiautomatic systems (S1, 2), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S1-without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms. PMID:26446089

  14. Evaluation of nutrient equivalency of microbial phytase in hens in late lay given maize-soybean or distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Gezen, S S; Kara, C; Gencoglu, H; Meral, Y; Baser, E

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 360 Lohmann LSL-Classic White Leghorn layers (64 weeks old) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of microbial phytase on production, egg quality, bone, selected manure parameters and feed costs. 2. Experimental diets were formulated as follows: (1) maize-soybean (CS), (2) CS+300 units of phytase (FTU)/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYCa+P), (3) CS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYtotal), (4) CS+100 g/kg distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), (5) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYCa+P), or (6) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYtotal). 3. Each dietary treatment was assigned to 4 replicate groups with 3 cages and 5 hens per cage. The hens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. 4. CS+PHYCa+P, CS+PHYtotal, DDGS+PHYCa+P and DDGS+PHYtotal diets supplemented with phytase provided similar percentage egg production, egg weight, egg mass, exterior egg quality, initial and final body weight compared with phytase-free diets. 5. However, supplementation of phytase to the experimental diets and calculation of the total nutrient equivalency for enzyme caused increased feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. 6. No differences in manure dry matter, crude ash, total nitrogen, tibia crude ash, calcium and phosphorus contents were found among the experimental diets. On the other hand, manure total phosphorus content was significantly decreased in the DDGS diet and diets supplemented with phytase in comparison to the CS diet. 7. It was concluded that the addition of microbial phytase to the CS-based diets or diets with DDGS of hens in late lay and using Ca and available P equivalency of enzyme in feed; formulation may provide an economic benefit and decrease the amount of phytate P excretion in the manure without compromising production and egg quality parameters. PMID:23826927

  15. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.

    1987-12-01

    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (P<0.01) promoted greater weight gains than the low energy diet. Brooding chicks with supplemental heat and with the high energy diet, decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (P<0.01) less water than those brooded with heat, irrespective of the dietary energy level. Mortality and blood glucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.

  16. Glutamine metabolism in skeletal muscles from the broiler chick (Gallus domesticus) and the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G Y; Thompson, J R; Baracos, V E

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative decarboxylation of L-[1-14C]glutamine was studied in isolated chick and rat skeletal muscles incubated in the presence of glucose, insulin and plasma concentrations of amino acids. (1) The rate of oxidative decarboxylation of L-[1-14C]glutamine was high, and exceeded that of L-[1-14C]leucine in all muscles. (2) The rate of oxidative decarboxylation of L-[1-14C]glutamine increased with increasing intracellular concentrations of glutamine. (3) The activities of glutamine aminotransferases K and L were more than 10-fold greater in rat than in chick skeletal muscles. (4) Mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase activity was approx. 10-fold greater in chick than in rat skeletal muscles and increased with increasing glutamine concentrations. (5) An inhibitor of glutaminase, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, inhibited the rate of glutamine decarboxylation in chick, but not in rat, skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that glutamine degradation in skeletal muscle may be substantial and may make an important contribution to the regulation of intramuscular glutamine concentrations. A species difference in the pathways and the subcellular location for the conversion of glutamine into 2-oxoglutarate in rat and chick skeletal muscles is implied by the relative activities of glutamine-degrading enzymes. PMID:2012604

  17. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  18. A massive parsec-scale dust ring nebula around the yellow hypergiant Hen 3-1379

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutsemékers, D.; Cox, N. L. J.; Vamvatira-Nakou, C.

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of far-infrared images obtained by the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the discovery of a large and massive dust shell around the yellow hypergiant Hen 3-1379. The nebula appears as a detached ring of 1 pc diameter which contains 0.17 M? of dust. We estimate the total gas mass to be 7 M?, ejected some 1.6 × 104 years ago. The ring nebula is very similar to nebulae found around luminous blue variables (LBVs) except it is not photoionized. We argued that Hen 3-1379 is in a pre-LBV stage, providing direct evidence that massive LBV ring nebulae can be ejected during the red supergiant phase.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Avian ?-Defensin 11, an Antimicrobial Peptide of the Hen Egg?

    PubMed Central

    Hervé-Grépinet, Virginie; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Labas, Valérie; Magallon, Thierry; Derache, Chrystelle; Lavergne, Marion; Gautron, Joël; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Nys, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Natural antimicrobial peptides are present in different compartments (eggshell, egg white, and vitelline membranes) of the hen egg and are expected to be involved in the protection of the embryo during its development and to contribute to the production of pathogen-free eggs. In the present study, we used vitelline membranes from hen (Gallus gallus) eggs as a source of avian ?-defensin 11 (AvBD11). A purification scheme using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase chromatography was developed. Purified AvBD11 was analyzed by a combination of mass spectrometry approaches to characterize its primary sequence and structure. A monoisotopic molecular species at [M + H]+ of 9,271.56 Da was obtained, and its N- and C-terminal sequences were determined. We also examined posttranslational modifications and identified the presence of 6 internal disulfide bonds. AvBD11 was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:20625158

  20. Digital gene-expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenna; Du, Hongqi; Zhou, Lu; Shi, Pengfei; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, so people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol [1]. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol [2]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol metabolism effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) in liver and ovary tissues using digital gene-expression (DGE) profiling analysis. The liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study to identify digital gene expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the PLOS ONE [3]. The data generated in our work provide meaningful information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE. PMID:26484156

  1. Acaricide residues in laying hens naturally infested by red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides--sometimes in high concentrations--to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS.Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. PMID:22363736

  2. Is there peripheral or ovarian insulin action alteration in broiler breeder hens fed ad libitum?

    PubMed

    Métayer, S; Tesseraud, S; Cassy, S; Taouis, M; Williams, J; Picard, M; Rideau, N

    2006-06-01

    We investigated whether a change in peripheral glucose homeostasis, a local change in the insulin-related ovarian regulatory system, or both occurred in ad libitum-fed broiler breeder hens compared with feed-restricted counterparts. Feed-restricted (R, from 5 to 16 wk of age) and ad libitum-fed (A) hens from a standard commercial line (S) and an experimental dwarf genotype (E) were studied. Basal and stimulated plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured during the prebreeding and laying periods. In the basal state (after 16 h fasting) plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower in SA chickens (-5% at 17 wk, -7.5% at 32 wk) compared with EA, SR, and ER chickens, with no difference in plasma insulin concentrations (n = 16). In 17-wk-old SA birds, 30 min after oral glucose loading, plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly compared with the basal state and were also significantly lower as compared with SR but did not differ significantly from EA and ER. Plasma insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between genotypes or regimens (n = 16). A potential modification of intracellular mediators involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival in small follicles that were overrecruited in SA compared with SR was also investigated in SA and SR hens at 32 wk. There was no effect of food restriction in phospho-Akt, Akt, phospho-ERK, and phospho-S6 in the small white ovarian follicles (n = 6) in the basal state and after 30 min of refeeding. In conclusion, the present study does not demonstrate any evidence of glucose intolerance during the prebreeding period, specific change in the ovarian small follicle insulin signalling pathway, or both, in laying broiler breeders fed ad libitum compared with feed-restricted hens. PMID:16776481

  3. Expression and effect of NAMPT (visfatin) on progesterone secretion in hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Diot, Mélodie; Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Baumard, Yannick; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an adipokine produced by adipose tissue that is found in intracellular and extracellular compartments. The intracellular form of NAMPT is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, whereas the extracellular form is considered an adipokine. In humans, NAMPT regulates energy metabolism and reproductive functions, such as ovarian steroidogenesis. To date, no study has investigated the role of NAMPT in hen ovaries. We investigated whether NAMPT is present in hen ovarian follicles and its role in granulosa cells. Using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry, we detected mRNA transcripts and proteins related to NAMPT in theca and granulosa cells from pre-ovulatory follicles. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that mRNA NAMPT levels were higher in granulosa cells than they were in theca cells and that during follicle development, theca cell levels decreased, whereas levels remained unchanged in granulosa cells. NAMPT protein quantities were significantly higher in theca cells than they were in granulosa cells, but they were unchanged during follicular development. Plasma NAMPT levels, as determined by ELISA and immunoblotting, were significantly lower in adult hens than they were in juveniles. In vitro, treatment with human recombinant NAMPT (100?ng/ml, 48?h) halved basal and IGF1-induced progesterone secretion, and this was associated with a reduction in STAR and HSD3B protein levels and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation levels in granulosa cells. These effects were abolished by the addition of FK866, a specific inhibitor of NAMPT enzymatic activity. Moreover, NAMPT had no effect on granulosa cell proliferation. In conclusion, NAMPT is present in hen ovarian cells and inhibits progesterone production in granulosa cells. PMID:25918435

  4. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  5. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  6. Restriction of cadmium transfer to eggs from laying hens exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shin; Okabe, Masashi; Emoto, Tadasu

    1997-09-01

    The transfer of Cd to eggs of white Leghorn laying hens has been shown to be restricted. After Cd was injected ip into laying hens, the Cd concentrations in the blood, livers, ovaries, and eggs were measured, Although the Cd concentrations in the maternal blood and livers increased remarkably at certain levels of administrations, the Cd concentration in the yolks of eggs was not significantly increased, and was less than 0.04 {mu}g/g wet weight. After egg production stopped in the highest injected group (7.5 mg Cd/kg), Cd in the yolks of eggs had an accumulated range of 0.02-0.03 {mu}g/g wet weight. This was despite the high Cd accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, the Cd concentration in the follicle walls of the ovary increased and was 13- to 52-fold higher than in the follicle yolks. An additional experiment was conducted in order to estimate whether hatching success is affected by the Cd in the laid eggs of Cd-injected laying hens, The ratio of hatching success in the 0.3 or 1.2 {mu}g Cd/egg-injected groups was similar to that in the saline- injected group, indicating that a small amount of Cd in the eggs might exert no marked influence on the hatching success. In conclusion, Cd transfer from laying hen to eggs was restricted after the maternal bird was exposed to Cd. Furthermore, Cd accumulates in the follicle walls of ovary. These results suggest that the follicle walls might play a role in protecting the follicle yolks against Cd toxicity. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Argon as a Tracer of Cross-Isopycnal Mixing in the Thermocline CARA C. HENNING

    E-print Network

    Argon as a Tracer of Cross-Isopycnal Mixing in the Thermocline CARA C. HENNING University Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. E-mail: d-archer@uchicago.edu 2090 J O U R N A L O F P H Y S I C A L O C E A N O G R A P H Y VOLUME 36 © 2006 American Meteorological Society #12;by several orders

  8. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. II. Hen eggs and meat

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    Transfer coefficients to eggs and meat were determined after acute oral doses of /sup 95m/Tc, /sup 99/Mo, /sup 123m/Te, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 131/I, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb to laying hens. The mean values (in units of d kg-1) to eggs and hen meat were, respectively, 3.0 and 0.03 for Tc, 0.87 and 0.18 for Mo, 5.1 and 0.60 for Te, 0.87 and 9.2 x 10(-3) for Ba, 3.2 and 0.01 for I, 2 x 10(-4) and 6 x 10(-5) for Zr, and 1 x 10(-3) and 3 x 10(-4) for Nb. For the same radionuclides administered in the same chemical form, transfer coefficients for eggs are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than for cow's milk, while the transfer coefficients for hen meat are several orders of magnitude higher than for beef.

  9. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110?g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p?Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  10. Membrane cholesterol and cell fusion of hen and guinea-pig erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hope, M J; Bruckdorfer, K R; Hart, C A; Lucy, J A

    1977-01-01

    1. The cholesterol content of hen erythrocytes was modified by treating the cells with phospholipid liposomes. 2. Depletion of cellular cholesterol, by using liposomes of dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine or phosphatidylcholine from hen erythrocytes, had no effect on the susceptibility of the cells to fusion induced by oleoylglycerol, but markedly decreased fusion induced by Sendai virus. 3. By contrast, enrichment of cellular cholesterol by using liposomes of dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine and cholesterol increased cell fusion induced by oleoylglycerol, poly(ethylene glycol) and Sendai virus. 4. Virus-induced cell fusion of guinea-pig erythrocytes, which were enriched in cholesterol by feeding a cholesterol-rich diet to the animals, was also enhanced. 5. Hen erythrocytes that were treated with liposomes prepared from egg phosphatidylcholine contained increased quantities of phospholipid phosphorus and fused readily on incubation with retinol, independently of their cholesterol content. 6. It is suggested that cholesterol may enhance cell fusion by acting to facilitate a phase separation of protein-free areas of lipid bilayer, which subsequently provide the sites for cell fusion. PMID:199160

  11. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  12. Effect of cholesterol oxidation products on cholesterol metabolism in the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Naber, E C; Allred, J B; Winget, C J; Stock, A E

    1985-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of purified cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol in the diet of the laying hen on egg production characteristics, in vitro - in ovo utilization of acetate for cholesterol biosynthesis, and the activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of cholesterol. Previous work has demonstrated inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by cholesterol oxides in tissue culture cells but not in hepatic tissues of animals through dietary administration. Feeding .5% of either purified or oxidized cholesterol had no effect on egg production, egg weight, body weight, or diet consumption. In both experiments egg yolk cholesterol was significantly increased by both cholesterol sources, but eggs from hens fed oxidized cholesterol had lower cholesterol contents than those from hens fed purified cholesterol. Relative utilization of acetate for cholesterol biosynthesis was significantly reduced by feeding both cholesterol sources. Hepatic enzyme activity measured by production of mevalonic acid was significantly inhibited by feeding purified cholesterol. A further significant reduction in enzyme activity was observed when oxidized cholesterol was fed, indicating that dietary cholesterol oxides are much more potent than purified cholesterol in limiting the activity of the enzyme. PMID:4001052

  13. Deposition of genetically engineered human antibodies into the egg yolk of hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S M; Morrison, S; Wims, L; Trinh, K R; Wildeman, A G; Bonselaar, J; Etches, R J

    1998-10-01

    To determine if human immunoglobulins (hIg) are capable of being transported into the hen's egg, 10 microg each of purified hIgG and hIgA were intravenously injected into SC Hyline(TM) hens and their presence in egg yolk and egg white was determined by ELISA. In both cases deposition into the egg yolk was observed and in the case of hIgA, deposition was also observed in the egg white. Two stably transfected DT40 cell lines secreting recombinant human IgG3 and IgA (rhIgG3 and rhIgA) were injected into laying hens. The DT40 cells colonized the host and rhIgG3 and rhIgA were deposited in egg yolk. Deposition of rhIgA was also observed in the egg white. These data demonstrate that human immunoglobulins and other foreign proteins may be targeted to the chicken's egg. In view of the high rate of reproduction, the short generation interval, the high rates of egg production and the extensive infrastructure to fractionate egg yolk proteins, it should be possible to produce large amounts of foreign protein in the eggs of transgenic chickens. PMID:9853953

  14. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  15. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  16. Purification of hen egg white ovomacroglobulin using one-step chromatography.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fang; Huang, Xi; Yan, Nannan; Jia, Lili; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Hen egg white (EW) are one of the most ideal sources of active proteins, and ovomacroglobulin, as a protease inhibitor, has been demonstrated to possess numerous biological properties including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties as well as activity for the treatment of keratitis. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method for the purification of ovomacroglobulin from hen EW on a laboratory scale. Hen EW was diluted with an equal volume of distilled water followed by a two-step PEG precipitation to remove ovomucin and to obtain ovomacroglobulin-rich precipitate. The precipitate was dissolved and further purified by gel filtration chromatography. Ovomacroglobulin was collected with a purity of 97.0 ± 0.3% by HPLC and a yield of 62.5%. The atomic force microscopy images showed that ovomacroglobulin molecules on a mica surface emerged as an "oval-shaped plate" with a molecular volume of 1536.9 ± 330.0 nm(3) , indicating that purified ovomacroglobulin has an integrated molecular structure. With the improvement of PEG precipitation and the simplification of the chromatography, the whole purification process could be finished well within one working day. This protocol has an advantage of rapidity, and would facilitate studies of ovomacroglobulin. PMID:24123886

  17. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial. PMID:25071225

  18. Stern, C.D. (1993) Relationships between mesoderm induction and formation of the embryonic axis in the chick embryo. In: Cell-cell signaling in vertebrate development. (ed. E.J.

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    1993-01-01

    in the chick embryo. In: Cell-cell signaling in vertebrate development. (ed. E.J. Robertson) Academic Press of the embryonic axis in the chick embryo. In: Cell-cell signaling in vertebrate development. (ed. E.J. Robertson and formation of the embryonic axis in the chick embryo. In: Cell-cell signaling in vertebrate development. (ed

  19. Stern, C.D. (1991) Mesoderm formation in the chick embryo, revisited. In: Gastrulation: movements, patterns and molecules (ed. R. Keller, W.H. Clark Jr and F. Griffin). New York

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    1991-01-01

    Stern, C.D. (1991) Mesoderm formation in the chick embryo, revisited. In: Gastrulation: movements;Stern, C.D. (1991) Mesoderm formation in the chick embryo, revisited. In: Gastrulation: movements;Stern, C.D. (1991) Mesoderm formation in the chick embryo, revisited. In: Gastrulation: movements

  20. Stern, C.D. (1987) Control of epithelial polarity and induction in the early chick embryo. In: Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in neural development (J.R. Wolff, J. Sievers and M.

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    1987-01-01

    Stern, C.D. (1987) Control of epithelial polarity and induction in the early chick embryo. In and induction in the early chick embryo. In: Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in neural development (J;Stern, C.D. (1987) Control of epithelial polarity and induction in the early chick embryo. In

  1. Elongation of fetal chick long bone in vitro is formed by a mitogenic activity preparation from porcine bone.

    PubMed

    Kukoschke, K G; Delling, G; Mayer, H

    1990-02-01

    Elongation of fetal chick long bone rudiments is formed by a mitogenic activity from porcine bone in vitro. Fractions of mitogenic activity from a heat- and acid-treated extract and from sequential chromatography on hydroxyapatite and from gel-filtration in 4 M guanidine-HCl increase diaphyseal elongation of metatarsals. The bone elongation-forming activity is associated with the mitogenic activity estimated by the incorporation of [3H]-methyl thymidine into the DNA of cells from embryonic chick periosteum. Histological examination of the mitogen-treated embryonic chick long bone shows that the partially purified fractions with a preferential effect on osteogenic cells increase diaphyseal elongation via cartilage cell proliferation. PMID:2105148

  2. Effect of four antibiotic additives on the Salmonella contamination of chicks protected by an adult caecal flora.

    PubMed

    Humbert, F; Lalande, F; L'hospitalier, R; Salvat, G; Bennejean, G

    1991-12-01

    Avoparcin (10 mg/kg feed), bacitracin (50 mg/kg), flavomycin (5 mg/kg) and virginiamycin (20 mg/kg) were tested for their synergy or antagonism on the protective effect of an adult caecal flora administered to 1-day-old chicks. The chicks were challenged experimentally per os with 10(4) to 10(5)Salmonella typhimurium (a rifampicin-resistant strain) when aged 2 days. Chicks receiving avoparcin continuously in the feed had significantly more Salmonella in their caeca than control birds given feed containing no antibiotics; those receiving flavomycin had similar numbers to the controls whereas the groups fed on a diet supplemented with bacitracin or virginiamycin exhibited the lowest level of Salmonella carriage. PMID:18680055

  3. Dye transfer between cells of the embryonic chick lens becomes less sensitive to CO2 treatment with development.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, S M; Goodenough, D A

    1982-03-01

    During the 3-h developmental stage 14 in the chick, intercellular transfer of iontophoresed fluorescent dyes becomes less sensitive to the lowering of intracellular pH by either CO2 or acetate ions. Up to developmental state 14, dye transfer between lens cells is reversibly blocked by exposure to 50% CO2. Beyond stage 14, dye transfer between these cells is no longer reversibly blocked by elevated pCO2. Electronic coupling is present throughout lens development and is not reversibly blocked by high pCO2 at any stage. The gap junctions joining the lens cells show morphological changes at developmental stage 14. Up to stage 14, all gap junctions observed between chick lens cells have connexon assemblies that appear condensed or crystalline following routine freeze-fracture microscopy. Beyond stage 14, chick lens cells express gap junctions with both the condensed assemblies and the dispersed assemblies characteristic of adult lens gap-junction structure. PMID:6806303

  4. An ionic model for rhythmic activity in small clusters of embryonic chick ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Schaffer, Peter; Skriver, Anne D; Taylor, Louise Kold; Pelzmann, Brigitte; Koidl, Bernd; Guevara, Michael R

    2005-07-01

    We recorded transmembrane potential in whole cell recording mode from small clusters (2-4 cells) of spontaneously beating 7-day embryonic chick ventricular cells after 1-3 days in culture and investigated effects of the blockers D-600, diltiazem, almokalant, and Ba2+. Electrical activity in small clusters is very different from that in reaggregates of several hundred embryonic chick ventricular cells, e.g., TTX-sensitive fast upstrokes in reaggregates vs. TTX-insensitive slow upstrokes in small clusters (maximum upstroke velocity approximately 100 V/s vs. approximately 10 V/s). On the basis of our voltage- and current-clamp results and data from the literature, we formulated a Hodgkin-Huxley-type ionic model for the electrical activity in these small clusters. The model contains a Ca2+ current (ICa), three K+ currents (IKs, IKr, and IK1), a background current, and a seal-leak current. ICa generates the slow upstroke, whereas IKs, IKr, and IK1 contribute to repolarization. All the currents contribute to spontaneous diastolic depolarization, e.g., removal of the seal-leak current increases the interbeat interval from 392 to 535 ms. The model replicates the spontaneous activity in the clusters as well as the experimental results of application of blockers. Bifurcation analysis and simulations with the model predict that annihilation and single-pulse triggering should occur with partial block of ICa. Embryonic chick ventricular cells have been used as an experimental model to investigate various aspects of spontaneous beating of cardiac cells, e.g., mutual synchronization, regularity of beating, and spontaneous initiation and termination of reentrant rhythms; our model allows investigation of these topics through numerical simulation. PMID:15708964

  5. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals.

    PubMed

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2 ), modest hypoxia (15% O2 ), or medium hypoxia (10% O2 ). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2 -sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2 -sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2 -sensing A1/C1 neurons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 64-74, 2016. PMID:25964066

  6. In vitro stimulation of phosphate uptake in isolated chick renal cells by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, C T; Barnes, J; Balakir, R; Cheng, L; Sacktor, B

    1982-01-01

    Renal cells isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks had an increased Na+-dependent phosphate uptake when preincubated with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3]. Phosphate uptake in the absence of Na+ and methyl alpha-glucoside uptake dependent on Na+ were not affected. Phosphate uptake was stimulated 15% by 0.010 pM 1,25-(OH)2D3. Maximal enhancement of 30% was obtained with 100 pM. The uptake when fully stimulated by preincubation in vitro approximated the uptake of cells isolated from chicks that were previously repleted with 1,25-(OH)2D3 in vivo. Cells from repleted chicks were not stimulated additionally when preincubated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 in vitro. The increase in phosphate uptake could be measured after a 1-hr preincubation period; full response required at least 2 hr. Phosphate uptake induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was blocked by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. Enhancement of phosphate uptake was relatively specific for the 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog of vitamin D3. The potency order was 1,25-(OH)2D3 greater than 25-(OH)D3 = 1-(OH)D3 greater than 24,25-(OH)2D3 greater than D3. Kinetically, 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the Vmax of the phosphate uptake system; the affinity for phosphate was unaffected. 3H-Labeled 1,25-(OH)2D3 was taken up by the isolated renal cells. It was estimated that the stimulation of phosphate uptake might be initiated by very few molecules of 1,25-(OH)2D3 per cell. It is proposed that 1,25-(OH)2D3 contributes importantly to the mechanisms by which phosphate transport is regulated in the kidney. PMID:6954500

  7. Developmental changes in mesenteric artery reactivity in embryonic and newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Moonen, Rob M; Villamor, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    At birth, the intestine becomes the sole site for nutrient absorption requiring a dramatic increase in blood flow. The vascular changes accompanying this transition have been partly characterized in mammals. We investigated, using wire myography, the developmental changes in chick mesenteric artery (MA) reactivity. Rings of the MA from 15-day (E15) and 19-day (E19) chicken embryos (total incubation 21 days) as well as non-fed 0-3-h-old (NH3h) and first-fed 1-day-old (NH1d) newly hatched chicks contracted in response to KCl, norepinephrine (NE), U46619, and endothelin (ET)-1 and relaxed in response to acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and forskolin indicating the presence of electro- and pharmaco-mechanical coupling as well as cGMP- and cAMP-mediated relaxation. In ovo development and transition to ex ovo life was accompanied by alterations in the response of the MAs, but a different developmental trajectory was observed for each reactivity pathway tested. Thus, the contractile efficacy of KCl underwent a linear increase (E15 < E19 < NH3h < NH1d). The efficacy of NE and U46619 increased in ovo, but not ex ovo (E15 < E19 = NH3h = NH1d) and the efficacy of ET-1 peaked at E19 (E15 < E19 > NH3h = NH1d). The relaxations elicited by ACh (endothelium-dependent), SNP, and forskolin did not undergo significant developmental changes. In conclusion, the ability of chick MAs to constrict in response to pharmacological stimuli increases during the embryonic period, but no dramatic changes are induced by hatching or the first feeding. Maturation of vasodilator mechanisms precedes that of vasoconstrictor mechanisms. Alterations of the delicate balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators may play an important role in perinatal intestinal diseases. PMID:21626136

  8. Neural correlates of memorized associations and cued movements in archistriatum of the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naoya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Yanagihara, Shin; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2003-05-01

    The archistriatum mediates a neural pathway from the medial part of intermediate hyperstriatum ventrale (in the dorsal pallium) to the lobus parolfactorius (in the medial striatum), thus is possibly involved in memory formation in the domestic chick. To elucidate the functional roles, we examined single neuron activities from archistriatum in unconstrained chicks during execution of a GO/NOGO task. In this task, a brief motor sound was given as initial cue, and immediately followed by presentation of a coloured bead. Chick was required to recall the memorized associations between the colour and reward, and pecked at the bead to gain food after a delay (GO trials) or stayed not pecking (NOGO trials). The ventral part of intermediate archistriatum proved to contain a group of neurons that selectively responded to the reward-associated colours before the reward was actually presented, possibly coding the memorized associations. Another group of neurons fired during the reward period, thus could code aspects of the food reward. Yet another group of neurons started to fire immediately on the cue sound and prior to the cued movements nonselectively in both GO and NOGO trials, thus could be involved in the sensori-motor link between the sound and the targeted body movements. It is concluded that even a subregion of archistriatum contains diverse neural codes for memorized associations and food rewards, and neural codes of movements cued by sounds, suggesting that archistriatum is a complex of different functional systems, possibly corresponding to striatum, limbic amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in mammals. PMID:12752793

  9. High-resolution MRI analysis of breast cancer xenograft on the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhi; Syrovets, Tatiana; Genze, Felicitas; Abaei, Alireza; Ma, Genshan; Simmet, Thomas; Rasche, Volker

    2015-04-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model has been successfully used to study angiogenesis, cancer progression and its pharmacological treatment, tumor pharmacokinetics, and properties of novel nanomaterials. MRI is an attractive technique for non-invasive and longitudinal monitoring of physiological processes and tumor growth. This study proposes an age-adapted cooling regime for immobilization of the chick embryo, enabling high-resolution MRI of the embryo and the CAM tumor xenograft. 64 chick embryos were enrolled in this study. The novel immobilization and imaging protocol was optimized in 29 embryos. From d7 to d18 immobilization of the embryo up to 90?min was achieved by cooling at 4?°C pre-imaging, with cooling times adapted to age. Its application to tumor growth monitoring was evaluated in 15 embryos after xenotransplantation of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on CAM. Tumor volumes were monitored from d4 to d9 after grafting (d11 to d16 after incubation) applying a T2 -weighted multislice RARE sequence. At d9 after grafting, the tumors were collected and compared with the MRI-derived data by histology and weight measurements. Additional imaging methods comprising DWI, T2 mapping, and the bio-distribution of contrast agents were tested at d9 after grafting in 20 further embryos. With the adaptive cooling regime, motion artifacts could be completely avoided for up to 90?min scan time, enabling high-resolution in ovo imaging. Excellent anatomical details could be obtained in the embryo and tumors. Tumor volumes could be quantified over time. The results prove the feasibility of high-resolution MRI for longitudinal tumor and organ growth monitoring. The suggested method is promising for future applications such as testing tailored and/or targeted treatment strategies, longitudinal monitoring of tumor development, analysis of therapeutic efficacies of drugs, or assessment of tumor pharmacokinetics. The method provides an alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25711154

  10. Distribution and accumulation of mercury in tissues of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Hines, R.K.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the distribution and accumulation of Hg in tissues of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks maintained for up to 15 weeks on either a control diet with no added methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) or one containing either 0.4 or 1.2 ??g Hg (as MeHgCl)/g wet-weight food. Total Hg and MeHg tissue concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 > 0.95) with the amount of Hg delivered to individual chicks throughout the course of the experiment. The pattern of differential Hg concentration in internal tissues was consistent within each treatment: Liver > kidney > muscle > carcass > brain. Feather Hg concentrations were consistently higher than those of internal tissues and represented an important route of Hg elimination. Feather mass accounted for 4.3% ?? 0.1% (average ?? standard error) of body mass, yet 27.3% ?? 2.6% of total Hg intake was excreted into feathers. Our calculations indicate that 26.7% ?? 4.9% of ingested Hg was not accounted for and, thus, either was never absorbed or was absorbed and subsequently eliminated in feces. With the additional excretion into feathers, 54% of ingested Hg was excreted. Demethylation was evident in the liver at all treatment levels and in the kidneys of chicks dosed at 1.2 ??g Hg/g. Mercury concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 ??? 0.95) among internal tissues and with blood Hg concentration. Mercury concentrations of secondary feathers were moderately correlated (r2 = 0.82-0.93) with internal tissues. We supply regression models that may be used to provide perspective and a useful means of interpreting the variety of measures of Hg exposure reported in the literature. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  11. Effect of storage condition on bone breaking strength and bone ash in laying hens at different stages in production cycles.

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Birkhold, S G; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2003-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of refrigeration and frozen storage on tibia breaking strength (kg/g) and tibia ash (%) in bones obtained from hens of different ages. A total of 75 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were divided into three equal groups according to age (72, 80, and 92 wk of age). Both tibias of each hen were harvested and immediately defleshed. The tibias from each hen were randomly assigned to either 1 d of refrigeration or 7 d of frozen storage. Tibia breaking strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with 50-kg-load cell at 50-kg-load range with a crosshead speed of 50 mm/min. Tibia ash weights were determined by ashing for 24 h at 615 degrees C. Bone breaking strength in 72 wk of age hens was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in refrigerated tibias (2.48 kg/g) than those in frozen storage (1.75 kg/g). However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) for bone ash (percentage of tibia ash) in all three groups between refrigerated storage (72 wk: 38.840%, 80 wk: 46.40%, 92 wk: 46.99%) and frozen storage (72 wk: 39.12%, 80 wk: 44.88%, 92 wk: 45.35%). This study indicated that frozen storage only influenced assessment of bone strength in 72-wk-old laying hens but could be used for sample storage of bones from older hens. PMID:14653462

  12. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  13. Analysis of growth rate variables and postfeeding regurgitation in hand-reared Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) chicks.

    PubMed

    Groffen, Heidi; Watson, Ryan; Hammer, Sven; Raidal, Shane R

    2008-09-01

    The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) successfully bred 10 Spix's macaws in the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons but intermittent episodes of postfeeding regurgitation in hand-raised chicks prompted the need to better understand and monitor the nutritional and physiologic requirements of growing nestlings. To ascertain and rank the possible causes of regurgitation in chicks, we undertook a critical analysis of the feeding, growth, and health data recorded for each individual hand-raised chick. Factors such as the total daily food intake (TDFI), growth curves, nursery room climate (temperature and humidity), and nutritional requirements were investigated as well as any health issues. Chicks attained a maximum body weight of 375 +/- 25 g at 45 days and then gradually lost weight until they reached a weaning weight of 300 +/- 30 g. The maximum daily volume of food that each chick received was 101 +/- 29 g at 42 days of age, which was also the age at which a peak in postfeeding regurgitation episodes occurred. The TDFI as a percentage of body weight peaked (83.1 +/- 12.3%) at day 3 of age and dropped to 30.1 +/- 2.3% by day 45 and then to 19.6 +/- 1.1% at day 92. Detailed analyses of the 2005 and 2006 records indicate that the regurgitation episodes may be primarily the result of overfeeding during the second trimester of hand-rearing. Our results indicate that smaller meals during the period when chicks are attaining their maximum body weights may contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of regurgitation episodes in hand-reared Spix's macaws. PMID:19014091

  14. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  15. Lateralized mechanisms for encoding of object. Behavioral evidence from an animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    In our previous research we reported a leftward-asymmetry in domestic chicks required to identify a target element, on the basis of its ordinal position, in a series of identical elements. Here we re-coded behavioral data collected in previous studies from chicks tested in a task involving a different kind of numerical ability, to study lateralization in dealing with an arithmetic task. Chicks were reared with a set of identical objects representing artificial social companions. On day 4, chicks underwent a free-choice test in which two sets, each composed of a different number of identical objects (5 vs.10 or 6 vs. 9, Experiment 1), were hidden behind two opaque screens placed in front of the chick, one on the left and one on the right side. Objects disappeared, one by one, behind either screen, so that, for example, one screen occluded 5 objects and the other 10 objects. The left-right position of the larger set was counterbalanced between trials. Results show that chicks, in the attempt to rejoin the set with the higher number of social companions, performed better when this was located to the right. However, when the number of elements in the two sets was identical (2 vs. 2, in Experiment 2) and they differed only in the coloration of the objects, this bias was not observed, suggesting a predisposition to map the numerical magnitude from left to right. Future studies should be devoted to the direct investigation of this phenomenon, possibly employing an identical number of mono-chromatic imprinting stimuli in both conditions involving a numerical discrimination and conditions not involving any numerosity difference. PMID:24605106

  16. Carry-over of melamine from feed to eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X F; Liu, S Y; Tong, J M; Zhang, Q

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the carry-over of melamine from feed into eggs and body tissues of laying hens. In the first experiment, laying hens were supplied with feed added at 0, 1, 2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 21 days followed by a depletion period to observe the residues of melamine in eggs. In a second experiment, laying hens were allocated 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) melamine to determine levels of melamine in body tissues. Melamine and cyanuric acid were simultaneously analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the diet as well as in eggs and body tissue. In the first experiment, melamine appeared in the egg within 24 h after first ingestion of the melamine at 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1). Melamine concentration in egg reached a maximum of 2.34 mg kg(-1) within 17 days after exposure of 100 mg kg(-1) melamine, and the carry-over rate for melamine from feed to the eggs was 1.21%. In the second experiment, melamine was detected in tissues within 3 days after exposure; the maximum concentration of melamine residues occurred in the 100 mg kg(-1) group and was as follows: egg (1.83) > kidney (1.21) > breast muscle (0.86) > liver (0.70) > serum (0.42). The melamine level in egg albumen was about twice that of egg yolk. Melamine levels in laying hens decreased rapidly with withdrawal from feed, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the egg at day 6 and in tissues at day 4 after last ingestion of 100 mg kg(-1). It can be concluded that a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to egg and body tissues and the carry-over rate of melamine is low, and that melamine is not metabolized into cyanuric acid in laying hens. A positive relationship exists between exposure levels and eggs or tissues, but no direct relationship between the exposure time and measured levels of melamine in eggs and tissues. The current Chinese limit for melamine in feed and feed material of 2.5 mg kg(-1) established on 8 June 2009 is sufficient to ensure that levels in eggs, breast muscle, liver as well as kidney will not exceed the limit of 2.5 mg kg(-1) in foods other than infant formula introduced by many countries including China. PMID:20730647

  17. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and a lower concentration (mEq/L) of urine K+ than unaffected birds. This pilot study helps to address some of the pitfalls previously associated with colostomy and to determine when collection can begin postoperatively so that we can better understand when and how to begin our sampling in future trials to address the etiology of this condition. PMID:26473672

  18. Precursor (amino acid): product (vitamin) interrelationship for growing chicks as illustrated by tryptophan-niacin and methionine-choline.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, G L; Halpin, K M; Baker, D H

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with crossbred chicks to examine the growth response to a vitamin when its precursor amino acid was in either deficient or adequate supply in the diet and vice versa. The tryptophan-niacin and methionine-choline interrelationships were thus examined. No growth responses to dietary niacin or choline were observed during severe tryptophan or methionine deficiency, respectively. However, when adequate levels of the precursor amino acids were present, marked gain and gain/feed responses to these vitamins occurred. In contrast, gain and feed efficiency responses to tryptophan or methionine occurred regardless of the chick's niacin or choline status, respectively. PMID:6835910

  19. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P?Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P?chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P?chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P?chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?chicks. PMID:24913764

  20. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor–1, insulin receptor, and insulin-like growth factor–1 receptor expression in the chick eye and their regulation with imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Alexandra Marcha; Schaeffel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Insulin stimulates eye growth in chicks and this effect is greatly enhanced if the retinal image is degraded by the defocus of either sign. However, it is unclear whether the insulin receptor (IR) is expressed at all in the chicken retina in animals 1–2 weeks post-hatching. We have investigated IR expression and whether IR transcript abundance varies in the fundal layers. To elucidate the possible role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling in eye growth regulation, mRNA (mRNA) levels were measured for insulin, IGF-1, IR, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) during imposed negative or positive defocus. Methods Chicks were treated binocularly with positive or negative spectacle lenses for 4 or 24 h, or they remained untreated (n=6, for each treatment group). Northern blot analyses were performed to screen for transcription variants in the different fundal layers of untreated animals. Real-time PCR was used to quantify IR, IGF-1R, IGF-1, and insulin mRNA levels in the different fundal layers of the chick eye in the three treatment groups. Results IR mRNA was found in all the studied tissues, although there is evidence of tissue-specific transcript variations. Three major transcripts were detected for IR. The brain, retina, and choroid showed the longest transcript (4.3 kb), which was not present in the liver. Nevertheless, the liver and brain showed a second transcript (2.6 kb) not present in the retina and choroid. A short transcript (1.3 kb) was the predominant form in the liver and choroid, and it seems to be present in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and sclera as well. In the retina, no significant gene expression changes were found when defocus was imposed. Interestingly, in the RPE, both IR and IGF-1R were already downregulated after short periods (4 h) of positive lens wear. In contrast, IR and IGF-1R were upregulated in the choroid and fibrous sclera during treatment with negative, but not positive, lenses. Conclusions Differences observed in the IR transcript length in different tissues suggest possibly different functions. The differential regulation of IR and IGF-1R in the RPE, choroid, and fibrous sclera is consistent with their involvement in a signaling cascade for emmetropization. PMID:21655358